WorldWideScience

Sample records for volley guide method

  1. Study on measurement method of the projectiles velocity and target coordinates of twin-tube volleyed weapons%双管齐射武器弹丸速度和着靶坐标测试方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹剑军; 王文博; 宋玉贵; 王国珲

    2011-01-01

    为了解决靶场测试中对于双管齐射武器飞行矢量和着靶坐标的测量问题,提高测试精度,介绍了一种基于多幕面装置的非接触测试方法.文中详细介绍了装置的构成,分析了测试方法的原理,并利用MatLab软件进行了仿真测试,根据其技术特点和仿真结果,对工程应用存在的实际问题进行了讨论.装置系统可以完成对双管齐射武器的测试,能够区分弹丸穿过幕面的正确时序并根据相应规则进行计算并得出结果.%A multi-screen structure of non-contacted method was presented to solve the measurement of the projectiles velocity and position of twin-tube volleyed weapons and to enhance the precision. The principle of the method and the device composition are explained in detail, and according to the MatLab to carry out simulation testing, discussing the practical problem based on engineering application. The device can differentiate the true moment of the twin-tube volleyed weapons when they are crossing the sky screen and the result will be obtained in terms of corresponding rules.

  2. Sport’s selection of volley-ball players: morphological and pedagogical criteria of definition of movement endowments: (information 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Serhiyenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define methodology of initial sports selection of young volley-ball players. Material & Methods: methods of theoretical analysis and generalization, bibliographic method of search and study of scientific information, a systematic analysis are turned to account in this work. Results: the article deals with the theoretical model of the mast important factors, which define sports endowments of volley-ball players. It is shown the point estimation of body structure and composition, motor and psychomotor abilities, dynamic possibilities, psychophisiological indices in the prognosis of volley-ball players gifted for high sports results. Conclusions: criteria of high movement endowments of volley-ball players are defined; norms of estimation of motor abilities of valley-ball players on the initial steps of sports selection are given.

  3. Android 网络通信框架 Volley 的解析和比较%Research on Android Network Communication Framework-Volley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟远

    2014-01-01

    In Android application development process, the module of network communication is very important. This paper analyzes this new Android platform network communication framework--volley from architecture and function. This paper introduces the methods of using this framework. And make comparison with other Android platform network communication framework in terms of functionality and performance.%在 Android 应用程序的开发过程中,网络通信是非常重要的模块。本文从架构和功能上分析了 Volley 这一新兴的 Android 平台网络通信框架,介绍了使用这一框架的方法。并和其他 Android 平台的网络通信框架进行了功能和性能上的比较。

  4. Jälkimarkkinointisuunnitelma : Case: Nordic Students` Beach Volley Championship

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Tatu; Karttunen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on Monineuvoiset urheilijat Ry:n toimeksiannosta tehty jälkimarkkinointisuunnitelma Nordic Students`Beach Volley Championship - turnaukselle. Työn tavoitteena on saada jatkumoa toimeksiantajan urheilutapahtuman ja yhteistyökumppaneiden väliselle yhteistyölle tulevaisuudessa huolellisesti tutkimuksemme pohjalta laaditun jälkimarkkinointisuunnitelman avulla. Jälkimarkkinointisuunnitelma on rajattu koskemaan vain yhteistyöyrityksiä, jotka sponsoroivat tapahtumaa. Aihe on tärkeä, kos...

  5. Volley-ball in the soviet megaculture of 30-50th of ХХ century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermakov S.S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The period of mass distribution of physical culture and forming man-sportsman is considered. A role and value of volley-ball is shown in life of millions people. Positions of volley-ball are presented in making healthy society and increase of his standard of culture. Mentioned facts mass infatuation for volley-ball. Positions of the state in regard to support of mass character of volley-ball are distinguished as a folk game. High authority of volley-ball and his value is marked in physical development of the young generations.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF BALL VELOCITY AND COURT ILLUMINATION ON REACTION TIME FOR TENNIS VOLLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-hung Tu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The he purpose of this study is to examine the effects of ball velocity, court illumination, and volley type on the reaction time (RT of a tennis athlete for a volley stroke. Eights cases with two different ball velocities (high and low, two volley types (forehand and backhand and two court illumination levels (dark and bright were studied. The 30 participating subjects consisted of 18 male and 12 female college tennis athletes (age: 24 ± 3.2 yr, with a United States Tennis Association (USTA ranking above 2.5. In order to ensure the validity of real-world correlations, the experiments were designed to simulate real competition situations. Reaction times were measured for volley strokes in response to different approaching ball velocities (high: 25.05 ± 0.37 m/s and low: 17.56 ± 0.92 m·s-1 for several volley types (forehand and backhand and court illumination levels (55649 ± 4292 lux and 363.24 ± 6.53 lux on the court. During the tests, the signals from an electromyogram sensor and a 3-axis accelerometer (± 50 g were recorded using an NI DAQ card (NI PXI-6251 and then analyzed to determine reaction time (RT, premotor reaction time (PRT, and motor reaction time (MRT through the LabVIEW system. Subsequent 3-way ANOVA analysis indicated no RT, PRT, or MRT interaction between ball velocity, volley type and illumination. The ball velocity and illumination parameters did affect RT and PRT values significantly with p < 0.05, no significant variation in MRT was observed across any implemented experimental conditions. All experimental results indicate that ball velocity and illumination levels strongly affect the value of PRT, but have no significant effect on the value of MRT, the changes in RT were dominated by PRT

  7. The Guided Autobiography Method: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the proposition that learning is an unexplored feature of the guided autobiography method and its developmental exchange. Learning, conceptualized and explored as the embedded and embodied processes, is essential in narrative activities of the guided autobiography method leading to psychosocial development and growth in…

  8. The guided autobiography method: a learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James E

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the proposition that learning is an unexplored feature of the guided autobiography method and its developmental exchange. Learning, conceptualized and explored as the embedded and embodied processes, is essential in narrative activities of the guided autobiography method leading to psychosocial development and growth in dynamic, temporary social groups. The article is organized in four sections and summary. The first section provides a brief overview of the guided autobiography method describing the interplay of learning and experiencing in temporary social groups. The second section offers a limited review on learning and experiencing as processes that are essential for development, growth, and change. The third section reviews the small group activities and the emergence of the "developmental exchange" in the guided autobiography method. Two theoretical constructs provide a conceptual foundation for the developmental exchange: a counterpart theory of aging as development and collaborative-situated group learning theory. The summary recaps the main ideas and issues that shape the guided autobiography method as learning and social experience using the theme, "Where to go from here."

  9. Psychological features of youths at a selection to beach volley-ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoday V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological features of young sportsmen are considered on the initial stage of sporting preparation. The dynamics of mental condition of youths is certain from beach volley-ball on the stage of sporting selection. 25 young sportsmen of groups of initial preparation took part in research. Middle age of young sportsmen made 12 years. On the indexes of self-appraisal of mental condition at swingeing majority of youths exposed a few the overextension of feel, activity and location of spirit. On the psychological indexes of concentration, the middle level of their development is set firmness and concentration of attention.

  10. A beginner's guide to scientific method

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    This concise yet comprehensive guide provides an introduction to the scientific method of inquiry. You will not only learn about the proper conduct of science but also how to recognize and question factors such as pseudoscience, untestable explanations and fallacies. Compact enough to be used as a supplementary book, yet comprehensive enough in its coverage to be used as a core book, this book assists users in using the scientific method to design and assess experiments.

  11. A student's guide to numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    This concise, plain-language guide for senior undergraduates and graduate students aims to develop intuition, practical skills and an understanding of the framework of numerical methods for the physical sciences and engineering. It provides accessible self-contained explanations of mathematical principles, avoiding intimidating formal proofs. Worked examples and targeted exercises enable the student to master the realities of using numerical techniques for common needs such as solution of ordinary and partial differential equations, fitting experimental data, and simulation using particle and Monte Carlo methods. Topics are carefully selected and structured to build understanding, and illustrate key principles such as: accuracy, stability, order of convergence, iterative refinement, and computational effort estimation. Enrichment sections and in-depth footnotes form a springboard to more advanced material and provide additional background. Whether used for self-study, or as the basis of an accelerated introdu...

  12. Modulation of long-latency afferent inhibition by the amplitude of sensory afferent volley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Claudia V; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Chen, Robert; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-07-01

    Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibers relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms before a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex. Experiment 1 assessed the magnitude of LAI following stimulation of the contralateral MN or DN using nerve stimulus intensities relative to the maximum SNAP (SNAPmax) of that nerve and two TMS intensities (0.5- and 1-mV MEP). Results indicate that MN LAI is maximal at ~50% SNAPmax, when presumably all sensory afferents are recruited for TMS of 0.5-mV MEP. For DN, LAI appears at ~50% SNAPmax and does not increase with further recruitment of sensory afferents. Experiment 2 investigated the magnitude of LAI following ipsilateral nerve stimulation at intensities relative to SNAPmax Results show minimal LAI evoked by ipsilateral MN and no LAI following ipsilateral DN stimulation. Implications for future studies investigating LAI include adjusting nerve stimulation to 50% SNAPmax to obtain maximal LAI. Additionally, MN LAI can be used as a marker for neurological disease or injury by using a nerve stimulation intensity that can evoke a depth of LAI capable of increasing or decreasing.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first investigation of the relationship between long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) and the sensory afferent volley. Differences exist between median and digital nerve LAI. For the median nerve, LAI increases until all sensory fibers are presumably recruited. In contrast, digital nerve LAI does not increase with the recruitment of additional sensory fibers but rather is

  13. Isoflurane depresses hippocampal CA1 glutamate nerve terminals without inhibiting fiber volleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacIver M Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthetic-induced CNS depression is thought to involve reduction of glutamate release from nerve terminals. Recent studies suggest that isoflurane reduces glutamate release by block of Na channels. To further investigate this question we examined the actions of isoflurane, TTX, extracellular Ca2+, CNQX and stimulus voltage (stim on glutamate-mediated transmission at hippocampal excitatory synapses. EPSPs were recorded from CA1 neurons in rat hippocampal brain slices in response to Schaffer-collateral fiber stimulation. Results Isoflurane (350 μM; 1 MAC reversibly depressed EPSP amplitudes by ~60% while facilitation increased ~20%. Consistent with previous studies, these results indicate a presynaptic site of action that involves reduced excitation-release coupling. EPSPs were depressed to comparable levels by TTX (60 nM or lowered stim, but facilitation was not changed, indicating a simple failure of axonal conduction. Similarly, partial antagonism of postsynaptic glutamate receptors with CNQX (10 μM depressed EPSP amplitudes with no change in facilitation. However, EPSP depression by low external Ca2+ (0.8 mM was accompanied by an increase in facilitation comparable to isoflurane. Isoflurane depression of EPSP amplitudes could also be partly reversed by high external Ca2+ (4 mM that also decreased facilitation. Isoflurane or low Ca2+ markedly reduced the slopes of fiber volley (FV-EPSP input-output curves, consistent with little or no effect on FVs. By contrast, TTX didn't alter the FV-EPSP curve slope, indicating that EPSP depression resulted from FV depression. FVs were remarkably resistant to isoflurane. Somatic spike currents were unaffected by 350 μM (1 MAC isoflurane as well. The EC50 for isoflurane depression of FVs was ~2.8 mM (12 vol. %; 8 MAC. Conclusion Isoflurane appears to depress CA1 synapses at presynaptic sites downstream from Na channels, as evident by the increased facilitation that accompanies EPSP

  14. Numerical methods and optimization a consumer guide

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Initial training in pure and applied sciences tends to present problem-solving as the process of elaborating explicit closed-form solutions from basic principles, and then using these solutions in numerical applications. This approach is only applicable to very limited classes of problems that are simple enough for such closed-form solutions to exist. Unfortunately, most real-life problems are too complex to be amenable to this type of treatment. Numerical Methods and Optimization – A Consumer Guide presents methods for dealing with them. Shifting the paradigm from formal calculus to numerical computation, the text makes it possible for the reader to ·         discover how to escape the dictatorship of those particular cases that are simple enough to receive a closed-form solution, and thus gain the ability to solve complex, real-life problems; ·         understand the principles behind recognized algorithms used in state-of-the-art numerical software; ·         learn the advantag...

  15. Comparison of descending volleys evoked by transcranial and epidural motor cortex stimulation in a conscious patient with bulbar pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Oliviero, A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Meglio, M; Cioni, B; Papacci, F; Tonali, P A; Rothwell, J C

    2004-04-01

    To compare the pattern of activation of motor cortex produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation and epidural electrical stimulation. The spinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation and epidural electrical stimulation over the cerebral motor cortex were recorded from an electrode inserted into the cervical epidural space of one conscious subject who also had a cortical epidural electrode over the motor area. The volleys were termed D- and I-waves according to their latency. Magnetic stimulation was performed with a figure-of-eight coil and the induced current flowed either in a postero-anterior (PA) or in latero-medial (LM) direction. At active motor threshold intensity LM magnetic stimulation evoked a D wave whereas PA stimulation evoked an I(1) wave with later I waves being recruited at increasing stimulus intensities. Electrical epidural stimulation evoked both a D wave and I waves. However, the D wave evoked by electrical epidural stimulation had a longer latency than the LM D wave, suggesting either a more proximal site of activation of the pyramidal axon or activation of slightly faster conducting set of corticospinal fibres by LM stimulation. The I3 wave evoked by electrical epidural stimulation also had a longer latency than the PA I3-wave Epidural stimulation of the motor cortex can produce repetitive excitation of corticospinal neurones. The order of recruitment of the volleys, and the latency of the D and I3 waves may be slightly different to that seen after transcranial magnetic stimulation. Our findings suggest that there may be subtle differences in the populations of neurones activated by the two forms of stimulation.

  16. Assessing the immediate and maintained effects of hypnosis on self-efficacy and soccer wall-volley performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jamie; Jones, Marc; Greenlees, Iain

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of hypnosis on self-efficacy and soccer performance. Fifty-nine collegiate soccer players were randomly allocated to either a hypnosis (n = 30) or video attention-control group (n = 29). A pretest-posttest design with an additional 4-week follow-up was used. Self-efficacy was measured via a task-specific questionnaire comprising 10 items relating to good performance on a soccer wall-volley task. The hypnotic intervention comprised three sessions using ego-strengthening suggestions. The control group watched edited videos of professional soccer games. Results indicated that, following the intervention, the hypnosis group were more efficacious and performed better than the control group. These differences were also seen at the 4-week follow-up stage. Although changes in self-efficacy were associated with changes in performance, the effect of hypnosis on performance was not mediated by changes in self-efficacy. The study demonstrates that hypnosis can be used to enhance and maintain self-efficacy and soccer wall-volley performance.

  17. Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Dewhurst, Richard; Jarodzka, Halszka; Van de Weijer, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (Eds.) (2011). Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  18. Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Dewhurst, Richard; Jarodzka, Halszka; Van de Weijer, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (Eds.) (2011). Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  19. Mathematical methods for physicists a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George B; Harris, Frank E

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 7th edition, Mathematical Methods for Physicists continues to provide all the mathematical methods that aspiring scientists and engineers are likely to encounter as students and beginning researchers. This bestselling text provides mathematical relations and their proofs essential to the study of physics and related fields. While retaining the key features of the 6th edition, the new edition provides a more careful balance of explanation, theory, and examples. Taking a problem-solving-skills approach to incorporating theorems with applications, the book's improved focus w

  20. Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

  1. Finite element methods a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whiteley, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical applications of the finite element method to general differential equations. The underlying strategy of deriving the finite element solution is introduced using linear ordinary differential equations, thus allowing the basic concepts of the finite element solution to be introduced without being obscured by the additional mathematical detail required when applying this technique to partial differential equations. The author generalizes the presented approach to partial differential equations which include nonlinearities. The book also includes variations of the finite element method such as different classes of meshes and basic functions. Practical application of the theory is emphasised, with development of all concepts leading ultimately to a description of their computational implementation illustrated using Matlab functions. The target audience primarily comprises applied researchers and practitioners in engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  2. Method of guiding functions in problems of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Obukhovskii, Valeri; Van Loi, Nguyen; Kornev, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a self-contained introduction to the theory of guiding functions methods, which can be used to study the existence of periodic solutions and their bifurcations in ordinary differential equations, differential inclusions and in control theory. It starts with the basic concepts of nonlinear and multivalued analysis, describes the classical aspects of the method of guiding functions, and then presents recent findings only available in the research literature. It describes essential applications in control theory, the theory of bifurcations, and physics, making it a valuable resource not only for “pure” mathematicians, but also for students and researchers working in applied mathematics, the engineering sciences and physics.

  3. Teacher's Guide to the Nature Method Latin Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This guide, designed to assist teachers in the classroom utilization of "Lingua Latina Secundum Naturae Rationem Explicata", the Nature Method Institute's Latin series, stresses discussion of presentation of early capitula in the course. Other commentary focuses on articulation, instructional approaches, timing and pacing, testing, and…

  4. Teacher's Guide to the Nature Method Latin Course. Tentative Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    The guide is designed to assist teachers at the secondary level in using "Lingua Latina Secundum Naturae Rationem Explicata," the Nature Method Institute's Latin series. Particular emphasis is placed on the early chapters of the course. Abundant materials in the form of pattern practices and mimicry drills are given as supplementary material for…

  5. A Sodium laser guide star coupling efficiency measurement method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Feng; Xue, Suijian; Li, Yang-Peng; Jin, Kai; Otarola, Angel; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Bian, Qi; Wei, Kai; Hu, Jing-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Large telescope's adaptive optics (AO) system requires one or several bright artificial laser guide stars to improve its sky coverage. The recent advent of high power sodium laser is perfect for such application. However, besides the output power, other parameters of the laser also have significant impact on the brightness of the generated sodium laser guide star mostly in non-linear relationships. When tuning and optimizing these parameters it is necessary to tune based on a laser guide star generation performance metric. Although return photon flux is widely used, variability of atmosphere and sodium layer make it difficult to compare from site to site even within short time period for the same site. A new metric, coupling efficiency is adopted in our field tests. In this paper, we will introduce our method for measuring the coupling efficiency of a 20W class pulse sodium laser for AO application during field tests that were conducted during 2013-2015.

  6. The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Körlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview Dag Körlin talks about the Guided Imagery and Music (GIM training programme in Greece and his contribution to its development. He explains some of the main aspects of GIM as a receptive music therapy method; he points out the role of music in the therapeutic process and he talks about the importance of listening. Finally, he refers to the European Network of GIM.

  7. A Method for Guiding a Salvo of guided Projectiles to a Target, a System and a Computer Program Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruizenaar, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of guiding a salvo of guided projectiles to a target. The method comprises the steps of generating a beam defining a common reference coordinate system, determining the position of each projectile relative to the beam, and providing to each projectile: position

  8. Time reversal method for guided wave inspection in pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei DENG; Bin WU; Cunfu HE

    2008-01-01

    The application of the time reversal method in pipe-like structures based on finite element method (FEM) is investigated. A steel pipe model measuring 70 mm × 3.5 mm is used to analyze the reflection coef-ficient of the L(0,2) mode with the time reversal process. Simulation results show that the time reversal array method is beneficial to the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of a guided wave inspection system. As the intercepting window is widened, more energy is included in re-emitted signals, which leads to a large reflection coefficient of the L(0,2) mode. In parallel, a circumferential locating method based on the time reversal method is described. The time reversal process used for guided wave inspection leads to the temporal and spatial focusing. When the time reversal signals are re-emitted, the angular profile obtained at the axial loca-tion of the defect can be used to determine the circumfer-ential location of the defect. Except for a pipe with one defect, the circumferential locating method has been veri-fied on another pipe model with two defects. Meanwhile, the elements number of the time reversal array has been discussed for enhancing the discrimination of the defect circumferential location.

  9. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  10. An ultrasonic guided wave method to estimate applied biaxial loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Lee, Sang Jun

    2012-05-01

    Guided waves propagating in a homogeneous plate are known to be sensitive to both temperature changes and applied stress variations. Here we consider the inverse problem of recovering homogeneous biaxial stresses from measured changes in phase velocity at multiple propagation directions using a single mode at a specific frequency. Although there is no closed form solution relating phase velocity changes to applied stresses, prior results indicate that phase velocity changes can be closely approximated by a sinusoidal function with respect to angle of propagation. Here it is shown that all sinusoidal coefficients can be estimated from a single uniaxial loading experiment. The general biaxial inverse problem can thus be solved by fitting an appropriate sinusoid to measured phase velocity changes versus propagation angle, and relating the coefficients to the unknown stresses. The phase velocity data are obtained from direct arrivals between guided wave transducers whose direct paths of propagation are oriented at different angles. This method is applied and verified using sparse array data recorded during a fatigue test. The additional complication of the resulting fatigue cracks interfering with some of the direct arrivals is addressed via proper selection of transducer pairs. Results show that applied stresses can be successfully recovered from the measured changes in guided wave signals.

  11. Comparison of Reg. Guide 1.99 fluence attenuation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    U.S. Regulatory Guide 1.99 Revision 2 (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1988, 'Radiation Embrittlement of Reactor Vessel Materials,' Regulatory Guide 1.99, Revision 2, Washington, D.C.) provides for the use of two substantially different methods for determining through-wall fluence in nuclear reactor pressure vessels. One method is a generic attenuation curve based on a simplistic exponential decay equation. Partly due to the simplicity of its application, the generic attenuation method is predominantly used for licensing calculations. However, it has a limitation in that at increasing distances away from the core belt-line, it becomes increasingly less accurate because it cannot account for neutron streaming effects in the cavity region surrounding the pressure vessel. The other attenuation method is based on a displacement per atom (dpa) calculation specific to the reactor vessel structure. The dpa method provides a more accurate representation of fluence attenuation through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall at all elevations of the pressure vessel because it does account for neutron streaming in the cavity region. A requirement for using the dpa method, however, is an accurate flux solution through the RPV wall. This requirement has limited the use of traditional transport methods, such as discrete ordinates, that are limited by their treatment of cavity regions (i.e., air) outside the pressure vessel wall. TransWare Enterprises, under the sponsorship of EPRI and BWRVIR has developed an advanced three-dimensional transport methodology capable of producing fully converged flux solutions throughout the entire reactor system, including in the cavity region and primary shield structures. This methodology provides an accurate and reliable determination of through-wall fluence in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessels, thus allowing the dpa method to be implemented with high reliability. Using this advanced 3

  12. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A guided tour of mathematical methods for the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Snieder, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical methods are essential tools for all physical scientists. This book provides a comprehensive tour of the mathematical knowledge and techniques that are needed by students across the physical sciences. In contrast to more traditional textbooks, all the material is presented in the form of exercises. Within these exercises, basic mathematical theory and its applications in the physical sciences are well integrated. In this way, the mathematical insights that readers acquire are driven by their physical-science insight. This third edition has been completely revised: new material has been added to most chapters, and two completely new chapters on probability and statistics and on inverse problems have been added. This guided tour of mathematical techniques is instructive, applied, and fun. This book is targeted for all students of the physical sciences. It can serve as a stand-alone text, or as a source of exercises and examples to complement other textbooks.

  14. Apparatus and method of dissociating ions in a multipole ion guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ian K.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    2014-07-08

    A method of dissociating ions in a multipole ion guide is disclosed. A stream of charged ions is supplied to the ion guide. A main RF field is applied to the ion guide to confine the ions through the ion guide. An excitation RF field is applied to one pair of rods of the ion guide. The ions undergo dissociation when the applied excitation RF field is resonant with a secular frequency of the ions. The multipole ion guide is, but not limited to, a quadrupole, a hexapole, and an octopole.

  15. An analytical filter design method for guided wave phased arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyu-Sang; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing a spatial filter that processes the data from an array of two-dimensional guided wave transducers. An inverse problem is defined where the spatial filter coefficients are determined in such a way that a prescribed beam shape, i.e., a desired array output is best approximated in the least-squares sense. Taking advantage of the 2π-periodicity of the generated wave field, Fourier-series representation is used to derive closed-form expressions for the constituting matrix elements. Special cases in which the desired array output is an ideal delta function and a gate function are considered in a more explicit way. Numerical simulations are performed to examine the performance of the filters designed by the proposed method. It is shown that the proposed filters can significantly improve the beam quality in general. Most notable is that the proposed method does not compromise between the main lobe width and the sidelobe levels; i.e. a narrow main lobe and low sidelobes are simultaneously achieved. It is also shown that the proposed filter can compensate the effects of nonuniform directivity and sensitivity of array elements by explicitly taking these into account in the formulation. From an example of detecting two separate targets, how much the angular resolution can be improved as compared to the conventional delay-and-sum filter is quantitatively illustrated. Lamb wave based imaging of localized defects in an elastic plate using a circular array is also presented as an example of practical applications.

  16. The eddy-eliminating method of guide cone in the closed sump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. J.; Cheng, L.; Xia, C. Z.; Zhou, J. R.; Yan, H. Q.; Jiang, H. Y.

    2016-05-01

    In order to explore the effect on eddy-eliminating method of guide cone in the closed sump, the simple factor analysis and CFD numerical simulation are applied to calculate the flow field of closed sump and select ω-shaped back wall. ω-shaped back wall is consistent with the stream line in the suction sump, on this basis, CFD numerical simulation is conducted with the eddy-eliminating of the triangle guide cone and traditional guide cone. The results show that, for eddy-eliminating measures, with the height of triangular guide cone from 0 to 0.407HZ/DL , the excessive triangle guide cone hinder water into the flared pipe. With the width of triangular guide cone from 0.5 to 1.0BZ/DL , increasing width of triangular guide cone may increase the pumping hydraulic performance and pumping efficiency. However with the width of triangular guide cone from 0.5 to 1.0 BZ/DL , too broad traditional guide cone hinder water into the flared pipe. In the design discharge, whether triangle guide cone or traditional guide cone have a little effect on the efficiency of the pumping station. But in terms of the eddy-eliminating on the bottom of suction sump, it is necessary to set up guide cone.

  17. Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research: Facilitator's Guide and Resources. REL 2017-214

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jill; Redford, Jeremy; Bhatt, Monica P.

    2017-01-01

    This Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research tool consists of a facilitator guide and workshop handouts. The toolkit is intended for use by state or district education leaders and others who want to conduct training on developing and administering surveys. The facilitator guide provides materials related to various phases of the survey…

  18. ALTERABLE INTERVAL OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC AUTOCOLLIMATION METHOD FOR STRAIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT OF PRECISION GUIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Zi; Tan Jiubin; Zhao Weiqian; Zhang Heng

    2005-01-01

    Optical-electronic autocollimation method is commonly used to measure straightness of precision guides in engineering application. However, the traditional fixed interval optical-electronic autocollimation method is not suitable for measuring straightness of an air-bearing guide with a long air-bearing bush or a precision straight guide with a long slide-carriage, because the air-bearing bush and the slide-carriage are actually taken as a big bridgeboard bigger than the length of the bridgeboard with the reflector, which is about 1/4~1/2 of total length of the measured guide. If straightness is measured according to the traditional method, only a few points are sampled so that the guide straightness can not be evaluated fully or accurately. In order to solve the problem, an alterable measuring interval method is proposed for straightness measurement based on analyzing the mutual relations and effects among the tilting angle of the reflector, the length of the bridgeboard, the measuring interval and the straightness of the guide. A straightness calculation model is also developed using the method, and the errors stemming from the method proposed are introduced in brief. A precision air-bearing guide with a long air-bearing bush is measured and evaluated using the method proposed, and the actual measurement and evaluation results prove that the method is correct in theory and practical in operation. The method proposed gives an effective and flexible solution to the straightness measurement of the precision guide with long slide-carriage or air-bearing bush in application. It is an extension of the traditional optical-electronic autocollimation method for straightness measurement.

  19. Comparison tomography relocation hypocenter grid search and guided grid search method in Java island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdian, S. W.; Adu, N.; Palupi, I. R.; Raharjo, W.

    2016-11-01

    The main data in this research is earthquake data recorded from 1952 to 2012 with 9162 P wave and 2426 events are recorded by 30 stations located around Java island. Relocation hypocenter processed using grid search and guidded grid search method. Then the result of relocation hypocenter become input for tomography pseudo bending inversion process. It can be used to identification the velocity distribution in subsurface. The result of relocation hypocenter by grid search and guided grid search method after tomography process shown in locally and globally. In locally area grid search method result is better than guided grid search according to geological reseach area. But in globally area the result of guided grid search method is better for a broad area because the velocity variation is more diverse than the other one and in accordance with local geological research conditions.

  20. A method of initial welding position guiding for arc welding robot based on visual servo control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振民; 陈善本; 邱涛; 吴林

    2003-01-01

    In order to solve the visual guiding task of initial welding position for arc welding robot, this paper presents a practice-prone image-based visual servo control strategy without calibration, and we perform validating experiments on a nine-DOF arc welding robot system. Experimental results illustrate presented method has the function to fulfill the task of welding robot initial positioning with certain anti-jamming ability. This method provides a basis for guiding welding gun to initial welding pose with real typical seam's image properties to replace flag block properties, and is a significant exploit to realize visual guiding of initial welding position and seam tracing in robot welding system.

  1. A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material, Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    ER D C TR -1 7- 3 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material...Jennifer M. Seiter, Mark A . Chappell, and Brandon Lafferty June 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army...June 2017 A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material, Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies Heidi M. Wadman Coastal and

  2. Standard guide for establishing calibration for a measurement method used to analyze nuclear fuel cycle materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides the basis for establishing calibration for a measurement method typically used in an analytical chemistry laboratory analyzing nuclear materials. Guidance is included for such activities as preparing a calibration procedure, selecting a calibration standard, controlling calibrated equipment, and documenting calibration. The guide is generic and any required technical information specific for a given method must be obtained from other sources.

  3. Autonomous guided vehicles methods and models for optimal path planning

    CERN Document Server

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

      This book provides readers with extensive information on path planning optimization for both single and multiple Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGVs), and discusses practical issues involved in advanced industrial applications of AGVs. After discussing previously published research in the field and highlighting the current gaps, it introduces new models developed by the authors with the goal of reducing costs and increasing productivity and effectiveness in the manufacturing industry. The new models address the increasing complexity of manufacturing networks, due for example to the adoption of flexible manufacturing systems that involve automated material handling systems, robots, numerically controlled machine tools, and automated inspection stations, while also considering the uncertainty and stochastic nature of automated equipment such as AGVs. The book discusses and provides solutions to important issues concerning the use of AGVs in the manufacturing industry, including material flow optimization with A...

  4. Ion implantation, a method for fabricating light guides in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, J. R.; Franke, H.; Singh, Amarjit; Lessard, Roger A.; Knystautas, Emile J.

    1988-04-01

    Li+ and N+ ions were implanted into aliphatic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polyvinylalcohol (PVA), and aromatic polyimide (PI) polycarbonate (PC) polymers in the energy range of 100-130 keV. Planar optical waveguides guiding between one and three modes were formed. For low implantation doses (≤ 1014 ions/cm2), total waveguide loss values at λ=633 nm were found to be less than 2 dB/cm. The changes in the refractive index were found to be very large (Δn≥0.05) in the case of PMMA and PVA. We interpret this change in refractive index as being due to the formation of aromatic compounds in the regions of electronic scattering.

  5. The dream interview method in addiction recovery. A treatment guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, L K; Zweben, J E

    1996-01-01

    The Dream Interview Method is a recently developed tool for dream interpretation that can facilitate work on addiction issues at all stages of recovery. This paper describes the method in detail and discusses examples of its application in a group composed of individuals in varying stages of the recovery process. It permits the therapist to accelerate the development of insight, and once the method is learned, it can be applied in self-help formats.

  6. System and method for controlling a vision guided robot assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yhu-Tin; Daro, Timothy; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Turner, III, Raymond D.; Casoli, Daniel J.

    2017-03-07

    A method includes the following steps: actuating a robotic arm to perform an action at a start position; moving the robotic arm from the start position toward a first position; determining from a vision process method if a first part from the first position will be ready to be subjected to a first action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the first position; commencing the execution of the visual processing method for determining the position deviation of the second part from the second position and the readiness of the second part to be subjected to a second action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the second position; and performing a first action on the first part using the robotic arm with the position deviation of the first part from the first position predetermined by the vision process method.

  7. Methods and Biostatistics: a concise guide for peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgidis, A; Triaridis, S

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the Materials and Methods section of a scientific manuscript is to provide information in sufficient detail, so that another scientist working in the same field of endeavor is able to repeat the experiments and reproduce the results. Authors are entitled to a justified decision on the publication or not of their work. Thus, reviewers need to assure the authors that they have studied, correctly interpreted and fairly judged their work. This can be done by writing a short introductory paragraph in their critique, mentioning the type of study, the subjects recruited, the time and places the study was conducted, the interventions, the outcome measures and the statistical tests. All these information should be found in the methods section. If the reviewer cannot find these information, he needs not to read the whole article. Reading through the abstract and the methods section, he can reject the article on good grounds. If the methods section is appropriate, then the whole article need to be further reviewed. In this manuscript we shall discuss several critical aspects of the methods and statistics from the reviewer's perspective to provide reviewers the knowledge basis to write the aforementioned introductory paragraph of their critique.

  8. The Delft innovation method: A design thinker's guide to innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will introduce a new book on innovating, the process that leads to innovation(s). It is based on the experiences in the innovation and creativity field from the Delft University of Technology as well as from independent consultancy. These experiences are condensed in an overall method for

  9. Adjoint Methods for Guiding Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Tsunami Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. N.; LeVeque, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    One difficulty in developing numerical methods for tsunami modeling is the fact that solutions contain time-varying regions where much higher resolution is required than elsewhere in the domain, particularly when tracking a tsunami propagating across the ocean. The open source GeoClaw software deals with this issue by using block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to selectively refine around propagating waves. For problems where only a target area of the total solution is of interest (e.g., one coastal community), a method that allows identifying and refining the grid only in regions that influence this target area would significantly reduce the computational cost of finding a solution. In this work, we show that solving the time-dependent adjoint equation and using a suitable inner product with the forward solution allows more precise refinement of the relevant waves. We present the adjoint methodology first in one space dimension for illustration and in a broad context since it could also be used in other adaptive software, and potentially for other tsunami applications beyond adaptive refinement. We then show how this adjoint method has been integrated into the adaptive mesh refinement strategy of the open source GeoClaw software and present tsunami modeling results showing that the accuracy of the solution is maintained and the computational time required is significantly reduced through the integration of the adjoint method into adaptive mesh refinement.

  10. Guided Autotransplantation of Teeth: A Novel Method Using Virtually Planned 3-dimensional Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Georg D; Schnappauf, Albrecht; Giannis, Katharina; Bertl, Michael H; Moritz, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce an innovative method for autotransplantation of teeth using 3-dimensional (3D) surgical templates for guided osteotomy preparation and donor tooth placement. This report describes autotransplantation of immature premolars as treatment of an 11-year-old boy having suffered severe trauma with avulsion of permanent maxillary incisors. This approach uses modified methods from guided implant surgery by superimposition of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and 3D data sets of the jaws in order to predesign 3D printed templates with the aid of a fully digital workflow. The intervention in this complex case could successfully be accomplished by performing preplanned virtual transplantations with guided osteotomies to prevent bone loss and ensure accurate donor teeth placement in new recipient sites. Functional and esthetic restoration could be achieved by modifying methods used in guided implant surgery and prosthodontic rehabilitation. The 1-year follow-up showed vital natural teeth with physiological clinical and radiologic parameters. This innovative approach uses the latest diagnostic methods and techniques of guided implant surgery, enabling the planning and production of 3D printed surgical templates. These accurate virtually predesigned surgical templates could facilitate autotransplantation in the future by full implementation of recommended guidelines, ensuring an atraumatic surgical protocol. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Initialization Method for Grammar-Guided Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arnau, M.; Manrique, D.; Ríos, J.; Rodríguez-Patón, A.

    This paper proposes a new tree-generation algorithm for grammarguided genetic programming that includes a parameter to control the maximum size of the trees to be generated. An important feature of this algorithm is that the initial populations generated are adequately distributed in terms of tree size and distribution within the search space. Consequently, genetic programming systems starting from the initial populations generated by the proposed method have a higher convergence speed. Two different problems have been chosen to carry out the experiments: a laboratory test involving searching for arithmetical equalities and the real-world task of breast cancer prognosis. In both problems, comparisons have been made to another five important initialization methods.

  12. A hitchhiker’s guide to the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; D'Agata, G.; Guardo, G. L.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2016-04-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. A step-by-step approach will be adopted in order to describe the features usually unknown to non-experts.

  13. A Guided Tour of Mathematical Methods - 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel

    2004-09-01

    Mathematical methods are essential tools for all physical scientists. This second edition provides a comprehensive tour of the mathematical knowledge and techniques that are needed by students in this area. In contrast to more traditional textbooks, all the material is presented in the form of problems. Within these problems the basic mathematical theory and its physical applications are well integrated. The mathematical insights that the student acquires are therefore driven by their physical insight. Topics that are covered include vector calculus, linear algebra, Fourier analysis, scale analysis, complex integration, Green's functions, normal modes, tensor calculus, and perturbation theory. The second edition contains new chapters on dimensional analysis, variational calculus, and the asymptotic evaluation of integrals. This book can be used by undergraduates, and lower-level graduate students in the physical sciences. It can serve as a stand-alone text, or as a source of problems and examples to complement other textbooks. All the material is presented in the form of problems Mathematical insights are gained by getting the reader to develop answers themselves Many applications of the mathematics are given

  14. Audio Recorded Guided Imagery Method to Reduce Stress Hospitalisazation in School Age Children in Palu Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Masulili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization is a condition of a person because of illness and hospital admission. Research objectives determine the influence of audio recorded guided imagery method to stress of hospitalization in school-age children in hospital in Palu. Quasi-experimental research design with pre and post test design with control group. The sample of children aged 7-12 years were 26 respondents intervention group and 26 control group respondents. Intervention is the method of audio recorded guided imagery, three times a day for two days (one session equal to15 minutes. The results showed the significant difference mean stress score of hospitalization after the intervention (Pv = 0.004. No contribution of confounding variables. Based on these results, audio recorded guided imagery intervention can be applied to care the sick pediatric in hospital.

  15. Phylogenomic Methods to Guide Paleontological Searches for the Early Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Phylogenomic methods can help paleontologists target their searches for early microbial microfossils and potentially help them better interpret the early fossil record. In this study, the deep-branching relationships in the cyanobacteria were resolved using whole genome sequences, multiple genes for taxa lacking genomes, and intein presence/absence in the DnaE protein. Once a framework tree was produced, characters were mapped onto the tree. Characters included morphology (unicellular vs. filamentous), habitat (marine vs. freshwater), metabolism (use of sulfide as electron donor, nitrogen fixation), presence/absence of complex morphological traits (akinetes, heterocysts, hormogonia), salt tolerance, and thermal tolerance. It was found that the earliest cyanobacteria were unicellular coccoids, with cell diameters cyanobacteria to freshwater deposits (lakes, streams) and to small diameter coccoids (not mats, not filaments). The earliest "cyanobacterial" microfossils (Eosynechococcus and Eoentophysalis) are large-diameter coccoids found in shallow marine platform carbonates. Because these cells have large diameters, if they were cyanobacteria one would also expect to see their sister taxa in the fossil record (i.e., large-diameter filamentous forms with sheaths, also akinetes). Because these are not found until 2.0 Ga (and akinetes until 1.5 Ga), this suggests that these earliest microfossils are not cyanobacteria. There are several instances in the cyanobacterial tree where ancestors with low salt tolerance gave rise to lineages that grow in brackish, marine, and/or hypersaline environments. This suggests that either the cyanobacteria first originated on continents and later colonized more saline environments, or that the cyanobacteria first originated in shallow "seas" that were not very saline but gradually became more saline by about 2.0 Ga. Because the continents were likely harsh environments (due to lack of an ozone layer and increased chemical and physical

  16. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    OpenAIRE

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluo...

  17. Periodic Solutions of Evolution Variational Inequalities-a Method of Guiding Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir ADLY; Daniel GOELEVEN; Michel TH(E)RA

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on a part of the presentation given by the third author at the Shanghai Forum on Industrial and Applied Mathematics (Shanghai 2006). It is related to the existence of a periodic solution of evolution variational inequalities. The approach is based on the method of guiding functions.

  18. Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Asghar, S; Andersen, H L;

    2011-01-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) is the gold standard for perioperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, a more distal technique would be desirable to avoid the side effects and potential serious complications of IBPB. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a...... and describe a new method to perform an ultrasound-guided specific axillary nerve block....

  19. A Position Estimation Method of the Control Rod Guide Tube with Matched Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae C.; Seop, Jun H.; Choi, Yu R.; Kim, Jae H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The risk that PWR guide tube support pins will crack has increased the necessity for the development of inspection methods and equipment. A special remote controlled manipulator has been widely used to inspect the guide tube support pins. In real situations, the manipulator is lowered into the internals pool and all the movements are monitored and controlled from a desk at the side of the pool. Because the diameter of the split pins is as small as 25mm, locating the ultrasonic transducer to the pins by a manual operation is a somewhat tedious task. To overcome this problem, a rail was placed on the bottom of the pool before the internals of the reactor vessel were lifted and lowered on to their stand. In this paper, we presented one method to eliminate this troublesome job by using a vision sensor already being used to monitor the manipulator's movements. There were some successful researches in designing controls for many dynamic systems in the case of their current position and where the desired trajectories are well defined. But a current position estimation of a robot and/or environmental objects is another problem that must be solved. A Matched filter algorithm is employed as a method for an automatic detection of the guide tube's and support pin's relative position to that of the robot. First, we construct two raw images corresponding to the guide tube and the support pin respectively. These are simply binary-valued image files that contain the shapes of each object. Next, we performed a 2-D FFT(fast fourier transform) on them. The transformed data files are the matched-filters to detect the presence of a guide tube and/or support pins and to estimate the positions of them. The cross correlation between the matched-filter and real input image can be calculated by the method of multiplying them followed by an inverse FFT. If the resulting value is greater than the pre-determined threshold value, we can conclude that there is at least one object

  20. Limited-view ultrasonic guided wave tomography using an adaptive regularization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves are useful to assess the integrity of a structure from a remote location. Recently, tomography techniques have been developed to quantitatively estimate the thickness map of plate-like structures based on the dispersion characteristics of guided waves. In many applications only limited locations are available to place transducers. The missing viewing angles lead to artifacts which can degrade the image quality. To address this problem, this paper applies the regularization method to synthesize the missing components. The regularization technique is performed by an adaptive threshold approach to the limited view reconstruction. The effectiveness of this method combined with the full waveform inversion method is demonstrated by using numerical simulations as well as experiments on an irregularly shaped defect and two flat-bottom defects. The results indicate that the additional components obtained from the regularization method can significantly reduce the artifacts, leading to better reconstruction accuracy.

  1. Ultrasonic guided wave based damage imaging by time-reversal method in frequency-wavenumber domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C. G.; Xu, B. Q.; Luo, Y.; Xu, G. D.; Lu, L. Z.

    2017-05-01

    More attention has been drawn to ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) based damage detection method for its advantages of wide range inspection of large scale structures. However, complex propagation characteristics of guided waves as well as traditional contact ultrasonic transducers limit its application for the practical damage detection. By combining Scanning Laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) technology, Time-Reversal method in frequency-wavenumber domain (f-k RTM) can compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves, localize multiple damage sites and identify their sizes without time consuming numerical calculation. In this work, we adopt f-k RTM for damage detection in plate-like structure. Instead of SLDV in experiment, 3D finite element numerical method is adopted to obtain scattered ultrasonic guided wavefield data with high spatial resolution. The direct path waves were extracted to obtain the incident wavefield while the scattered signals were used to calculate the scattering wave field. Damage imaging can also be achieved by introducing crosscorrelation imaging condition. Imaging results show that the method is very effective for crack localization and boundary shape-recognition. Numerical simulation results and imaging algorithm laid the foundation for the method applied in experiment and practice.

  2. Early-photon guided reconstruction method for time-domain fluorescence lifetime tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhang; Chuangjian Cai; Yanlu Lv; Jianwen Luo

    2016-01-01

    A reconstruction method guided by early-photon fluorescence yield tomography is proposed for time-domain fluorescence lifetime tomography (FLT) in this study.The method employs the early-arriving photons to reconstruct a fluorescence yield map,which is utilized as a priori information to reconstruct the FLT via all the photons along the temporal-point spread functions.Phantom experiments demonstrate that,compared with the method using all the photons for reconstruction of fluorescence yield and lifetime maps,the proposed method can achieve higher spatial resolution and reduced crosstalk between different targets without sacrificing the quantification accuracy of lifetime and contrast between heterogeneous targets.

  3. A guided surgical approach and novel fixation method for arthroscopic Latarjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Pascal; Gendre, Patrick; Baba, Mohammed; Thélu, Charles-Édouard; Baring, Toby; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Trojani, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Most of the complications of the Latarjet procedure are related to the bone block positioning and use of screws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an arthroscopic Latarjet guiding system improves accuracy of bone block positioning and if suture button fixation could be an alternative to screw fixation in allowing bone block healing and avoiding complications. Seventy-six patients (mean age, 27 years) underwent an arthroscopic Latarjet procedure with a guided surgical approach and suture button fixation. Bone graft union and positioning accuracy were assessed by postoperative computed tomography imaging. Clinical examinations were performed at each visit. At a mean of 14 months (range, 6-24 months) postoperatively, 75 of 76 patients had a stable shoulder. No neurologic complications were observed; no patients have required further surgery. The coracoid graft was positioned strictly tangential to the glenoid surface in 96% of the cases and below the equator in 93%. The coracoid graft healed in 69 patients (91%). A guided surgical approach optimizes graft positioning accuracy. Suture button fixation can be an alternative to screw fixation, obtaining an excellent rate of bone union. Neurologic and hardware complications, classically reported with screw fixation, have not been observed with this guided technique and novel fixation method. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mode perturbation method for optimal guided wave mode and frequency selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philtron, J H; Rose, J L

    2014-09-01

    With a thorough understanding of guided wave mechanics, researchers can predict which guided wave modes will have a high probability of success in a particular nondestructive evaluation application. However, work continues to find optimal mode and frequency selection for a given application. This "optimal" mode could give the highest sensitivity to defects or the greatest penetration power, increasing inspection efficiency. Since material properties used for modeling work may be estimates, in many cases guided wave mode and frequency selection can be adjusted for increased inspection efficiency in the field. In this paper, a novel mode and frequency perturbation method is described and used to identify optimal mode points based on quantifiable wave characteristics. The technique uses an ultrasonic phased array comb transducer to sweep in phase velocity and frequency space. It is demonstrated using guided interface waves for bond evaluation. After searching nearby mode points, an optimal mode and frequency can be selected which has the highest sensitivity to a defect, or gives the greatest penetration power. The optimal mode choice for a given application depends on the requirements of the inspection.

  5. The Flute and I: The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM with a Young Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Trondalen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music, henceforth referred to as GIM. GIM is a method of listening, which places the music experience front and centre (Bonny, 1978.

  6. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method For Crack Detection In Buried Plastic Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hamat Wan Sofian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic pipe are widely used in many fields for the fluid or gaseous product conveyance but basic components of a plastic material made it very sensitive to damage, which requires techniques for detecting damage reliable and efficient. Ultrasonic guided wave is a sensitive method based on propagation of low-frequency excitation in solid structures for damage detection. Ultrasonic guided wave method are performed to investigate the effect of crack to the frequency signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis. This paper researched to determine performance of ultrasonic guided wave method in order to detect crack in buried pipeline. It was found that for an uncrack pipe, FFT analysis shows one peak which is the operating frequency by the piezoelectric actuator itself while the FFT analysis for single cracked pipe shows two peak which is the operating frequency by the piezoelectric actuator itself and the resultant frequency from the crack. For multi cracked pipe, the frequency signal shows more than two peak depend the number of crack. The results presented here may facilitate improvements in the accuracy and precision of pipeline crack detection.

  7. An object tracking method based on guided filter for night fusion image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuedong; Han, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Online object tracking is a challenging problem as it entails learning an effective model to account for appearance change caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we propose a novel online object tracking with guided image filter for accurate and robust night fusion image tracking. Firstly, frame difference is applied to produce the coarse target, which helps to generate observation models. Under the restriction of these models and local source image, guided filter generates sufficient and accurate foreground target. Then accurate boundaries of the target can be extracted from detection results. Finally timely updating for observation models help to avoid tracking shift. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging image sequences demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-art methods.

  8. Efficient methods to model the scattering of ultrasonic guided waves in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, L.; Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-03-01

    The propagation of ultrasonic guided waves and their interaction with a defect is of interest to the nondestructive testing community. There is no general solution to the scattering problem and it is still an ongoing research topic. Due to the complexity of guided wave scattering problems, most existing models are related to the 2D case. However, thanks to the increase in computer calculation power, specific 3D problems can also be studied, with the help of numerical or semi-analytical methods. This paper describes two efficient methods aimed at modeling 3D scattering problems. The first method is the use of the Huygens' principle to reduce the size of finite element models. This principle allows the area of interest to be restricted to the very near field of the defect, for both the generation of the incident field and the modal decomposition of the scattered field. The second method consists of separating the 3D problem into two 2D problems for which the solutions are calculated and used to approximate the 3D solution. This can be used at low frequency-thickness products, where Lamb waves have a similar behavior to bulk waves. These two methods are presented briefly and compared on simple scattering cases.

  9. Methods to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide to decision analytic cost-effectiveness modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn; Hulme, Claire; Edlin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Although guidance on good research practice in health economic modeling is widely available, there is still a need for a simpler instructive resource which could guide a beginner modeler alongside modeling for the first time. Aim To develop a beginner’s guide to be used as a handheld guide contemporaneous to the model development process. Methods A systematic review of best practice guidelines was used to construct a framework of steps undertaken during the model development process. Focused methods review supplemented this framework. Consensus was obtained among a group of model developers to review and finalize the content of the preliminary beginner’s guide. The final beginner’s guide was used to develop cost-effectiveness models. Results Thirty-two best practice guidelines were data extracted, synthesized, and critically evaluated to identify steps for model development, which formed a framework for the beginner’s guide. Within five phases of model development, eight broad submethods were identified and 19 methodological reviews were conducted to develop the content of the draft beginner’s guide. Two rounds of consensus agreement were undertaken to reach agreement on the final beginner’s guide. To assess fitness for purpose (ease of use and completeness), models were developed independently and by the researcher using the beginner’s guide. Conclusion A combination of systematic review, methods reviews, consensus agreement, and validation was used to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide for developing decision analytical cost-effectiveness models. The final beginner’s guide is a step-by-step resource to accompany the model development process from understanding the problem to be modeled, model conceptualization, model implementation, and model checking through to reporting of the model results. PMID:27785080

  10. Object Segmentation Methods for Online Model Acquisition to Guide Robotic Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignakov, Dmitri

    A vision system is an integral component of many autonomous robots. It enables the robot to perform essential tasks such as mapping, localization, or path planning. A vision system also assists with guiding the robot's grasping and manipulation tasks. As an increased demand is placed on service robots to operate in uncontrolled environments, advanced vision systems must be created that can function effectively in visually complex and cluttered settings. This thesis presents the development of segmentation algorithms to assist in online model acquisition for guiding robotic manipulation tasks. Specifically, the focus is placed on localizing door handles to assist in robotic door opening, and on acquiring partial object models to guide robotic grasping. First, a method for localizing a door handle of unknown geometry based on a proposed 3D segmentation method is presented. Following segmentation, localization is performed by fitting a simple box model to the segmented handle. The proposed method functions without requiring assumptions about the appearance of the handle or the door, and without a geometric model of the handle. Next, an object segmentation algorithm is developed, which combines multiple appearance (intensity and texture) and geometric (depth and curvature) cues. The algorithm is able to segment objects without utilizing any a priori appearance or geometric information in visually complex and cluttered environments. The segmentation method is based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) framework, and the graph cuts energy minimization technique. A simple and efficient method for initializing the proposed algorithm which overcomes graph cuts' reliance on user interaction is also developed. Finally, an improved segmentation algorithm is developed which incorporates a distance metric learning (DML) step as a means of weighing various appearance and geometric segmentation cues, allowing the method to better adapt to the available data. The improved method

  11. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  13. Guided imagery and music: using the Bonny method to evoke emotion and access the unconscious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Wyatt, Tami H

    2009-01-01

    The healing power of music has been recognized since ancient times. The use of music has been documented in diverse cultures worldwide, for ailments ranging from pain and cancer to depression and posttraumati stress disorder. The various models of music therapy are based on different theoretical traditions, including behaviorist, humanist, and psychodynamic approache This article describes the music therapy approach known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) therapy, reviews its research base, and presents a first-person account of the experience of GIM treatment.

  14. Laser-guided direct writing: a novel method to deposit biomolecules for biosensors arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juntao; Grant, Sheila A; Pastel, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a potential biomolecular patterning method, laser-guided direct writing guidance (LGDW), which may be utilized to deposit organic and bioactive particles for biosensor arrays. The instrumentation and operation of the LGDW system is introduced and the system settings used to achieve deposition are reported. The biomolecule, avidin, was deposited onto a substrate using LGDW to evaluate the possible damage from the laser on the biomolecules. The functionality of avidin after laser-based guidance was examined by exposing the deposited avidin molecules to its ligand, biotin. The results show some avidin retained its affinity to biotin after LGDW demonstrating little damage to the biomolecules.

  15. Standard Guide for Selection of Test Methods for Interlayer Materials for Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the standard test methods available for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of interlayer materials used in multi-ply aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 Interlayer materials are used to laminate glass-to-glass, glass-to-plastic, and plastic-to-plastic. Interlayer materials are basically transparent adhesives with high-quality optical properties. They can also serve as an energy absorbing medium, a fail-safe membrane to contain cockpit pressure and to prevent entry of impact debris; a strain insulator to accommodate different thermal expansion rates of members being laminated and as an adherent to prevent spalling of inner surface ply material fragments. The relative importance of an interlayer characteristic will be a function of the prime use it serves in its particular application. 1.3 This guide, as a summary of various methods in Section 2, is intended to facilitate the selection of tests that can be applied to interlayer materials. 1.4 The test methods list...

  16. Marrying content and process in clinical method teaching: enhancing the Calgary-Cambridge guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Suzanne; Silverman, Jonathan; Benson, John; Draper, Juliet

    2003-08-01

    Communication skills training is now internationally accepted as an essential component of medical education. However, learners and teachers in communication skills programs continue to experience problems integrating communication with other clinical skills, ensuring that clinical faculty support and teach communication beyond the formal communication course, extending communication training coherently into clerkship and residency, and applying communication skills in medical practice at a professional level of competence. One factor contributing to these problems is that learners confront two apparently conflicting models of the medical interview: a communication model describing the process of the interview and the "traditional medical history" describing the content of the interview. The resulting confusion exacerbates the above dilemmas and interferes with learners using communication skills training to advantage in real-life practice. The authors propose a comprehensive clinical method that explicitly integrates traditional clinical method with effective communication skills. To implement this more comprehensive approach, they have modified their own Calgary-Cambridge guides to the medical interview by developing three diagrams that visually and conceptually improve the way communication skills teaching is introduced and that place communication process skills within a comprehensive clinical method; devising a content guide for medical interviewing that is more closely aligned with the structure and process skills used in communication skills training; and incorporating patient-centered medicine into both process and content aspects of the medical interview. These enhancements help resolve ongoing difficulties associated with both teaching communication skills and applying them effectively in medical practice.

  17. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  18. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  19. A People-Localization Method for Multi-Robot Systems First Approach for Guiding-Tours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Martinez-Garcia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article we present a methodology to localize multiple people in a group by a multi-robot system (MRS. The aim of the MRS is to conduct people through hallways in indoors as a guided-tour service task. However, further than guidance process, we detail a method for humans' localization by sharing distributed sensor data arising from the team of robots instrumented with stereo vision. The robustness of the method is presented, and by matching the real environment against the computed results, error in human localization is showed as well. As a first approach of the entire MRS goal, this paper explains from a task approach the way for environment ranging, spatial noise filtering, distributed sensor data fusion and clustering based segmentation. Likewise, through the paper experimental results are shown to verify the feasibility of the method.

  20. Standard test method for guided bend test for ductility of welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a guided bend test for the determination of soundness and ductility of welds in ferrous and nonferrous products. Defects, not shown by X rays, may appear in the surface of a specimen when it is subjected to progressive localized overstressing. This guided bend test has been developed primarily for plates and is not intended to be substituted for other methods of bend testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Note 1—For additional information see Terminology E 6, and American Welding Society Standard D 1.1. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Single Hand Forehand Volley Skills at Net Position---Analysis Based on Elite Tennis Players%单手持拍网球网前正手截击技术--基于高水平网球运动员个案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任涛; 蒋宏伟

    2016-01-01

    Net volley isan aggressive style in tennis which is an frequently used way of scoring for both domestic and foreign elite players.Therefore,how to play tennis volley is particularly important.Through the use of three -dimensional analytic systems Ariel to analyze the net volley skills of two former Chinese national team athletes , this paper obtains kinematic parameters and analyzes these parameters.From the biomechanical point of view,the paper describes the volley process quantitatively and reasonably.In accordance with the relevant principles of mechanics on the volley ,this paper also offers some suggestions for improvement,aims to provide reference for athlete training.%网前截击是网球打法中的一种攻击性打法,国内外优秀网球运动员经常运用网前截击球直接得分,因此如何打好网球截击球,就显得尤为重要。本文通过运用 Ariel 三维解析系统对两名中国男子网球国家队运动员的网前截击技术进行解析获得运动学参数,通过对所获得的运动学参数进行分析比对,从生物力学角度来对截击的过程进行定量的、合理的描述。并根据相关力学原理对两名运动员的网前截击技术提出了一些改进建议,为运动员训练提供参考。

  2. Sparse SVD Method for High-Resolution Extraction of the Dispersion Curves of Ultrasonic Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Ta, Dean; Hu, Bo; Wang, Weiqi; Laugier, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    The 2-D Fourier transform analysis of multichannel signals is a straightforward method to extract the dispersion curves of guided modes. Basically, the time signals recorded at several positions along the waveguide are converted to the wavenumber-frequency space, so that the dispersion curves (i.e., the frequency-dependent wavenumbers) of the guided modes can be extracted by detecting peaks of energy trajectories. In order to improve the dispersion curve extraction of low-amplitude modes propagating in a cortical bone, a multiemitter and multireceiver transducer array has been developed together with an effective singular vector decomposition (SVD)-based signal processing method. However, in practice, the limited number of positions where these signals are recorded results in a much lower resolution in the wavenumber axis than in the frequency axis. This prevents a clear identification of overlapping dispersion curves. In this paper, a sparse SVD (S-SVD) method, which combines the signal-to-noise ratio improvement of the SVD-based approach with the high wavenumber resolution advantage of the sparse optimization, is presented to overcome the above-mentioned limitation. Different penalty constraints, i.e., l1 -norm, Frobenius norm, and revised Cauchy norm, are compared with the sparse characteristics. The regularization parameters are investigated with respect to the convergence property and wavenumber resolution. The proposed S-SVD method is investigated using synthetic wideband signals and experimental data obtained from a bone-mimicking phantom and from an ex-vivo human radius. The analysis of the results suggests that the S-SVD method has the potential to significantly enhance the wavenumber resolution and to improve the extraction of the dispersion curves.

  3. Feasibility of Computed Tomography-Guided Methods for Spatial Normalization of Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography Image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Kim

    Full Text Available Spatial normalization is a prerequisite step for analyzing positron emission tomography (PET images both by using volume-of-interest (VOI template and voxel-based analysis. Magnetic resonance (MR or ligand-specific PET templates are currently used for spatial normalization of PET images. We used computed tomography (CT images acquired with PET/CT scanner for the spatial normalization for [18F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-betacarboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl nortropane (FP-CIT PET images and compared target-to-cerebellar standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR values with those obtained from MR- or PET-guided spatial normalization method in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD.We included 71 healthy controls and 56 patients with PD who underwent [18F]-FP-CIT PET scans with a PET/CT scanner and T1-weighted MR scans. Spatial normalization of MR images was done with a conventional spatial normalization tool (cvMR and with DARTEL toolbox (dtMR in statistical parametric mapping software. The CT images were modified in two ways, skull-stripping (ssCT and intensity transformation (itCT. We normalized PET images with cvMR-, dtMR-, ssCT-, itCT-, and PET-guided methods by using specific templates for each modality and measured striatal SUVR with a VOI template. The SUVR values measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOIs (FSVOI overlaid on original PET images were also used as a gold standard for comparison.The SUVR values derived from all four structure-guided spatial normalization methods were highly correlated with those measured with FSVOI (P < 0.0001. Putaminal SUVR values were highly effective for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, the PET-guided method excessively overestimated striatal SUVR values in the PD patients by more than 30% in caudate and putamen, and thereby spoiled the linearity between the striatal SUVR values in all subjects and showed lower disease discrimination ability. Two CT-guided methods showed

  4. Standard guide for choosing a method for determining the index of refraction and dispersion of glass

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies and describes seven test methods for measuring the index of refraction of glass, with comments relevant to their uses such that an appropriate choice of method can be made. Four additional methods are mentioned by name, and brief descriptive information is given in Annex A1. The choice of a test method will depend upon the accuracy required, the nature of the test specimen that can be provided, the instrumentation available, and (perhaps) the time required for, or the cost of, the analysis. Refractive index is a function of the wavelength of light; therefore, its measurement is made with narrow-bandwidth light. Dispersion is the physical phenomenon of the variation of refractive index with wavelength. The nature of the test-specimen refers to its size, form, and quality of finish, as described in each of the methods herein. The test methods described are mostly for the visible range of wavelengths (approximately 400 to 780m); however, some methods can be extended to the ultraviolet a...

  5. A 3-D visualization method for image-guided brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, N G; Awad, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with a 3D methodology for brain tumor image-guided surgery. The methodology is based on development of a visualization process that mimics the human surgeon behavior and decision-making. In particular, it originally constructs a 3D representation of a tumor by using the segmented version of the 2D MRI images. Then it develops an optimal path for the tumor extraction based on minimizing the surgical effort and penetration area. A cost function, incorporated in this process, minimizes the damage surrounding healthy tissues taking into consideration the constraints of a new snake-like surgical tool proposed here. The tumor extraction method presented in this paper is compared with the ordinary method used on brain surgery, which is based on a straight-line based surgical tool. Illustrative examples based on real simulations present the advantages of the 3D methodology proposed here.

  6. Guiding the welding robot to the initial welding position with visual method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhenyou; Lin Tao; Chen Shanben

    2008-01-01

    Using step pattern match technology with variational resolution can recognize the position and orientation of the weld seam in the image. According to using the image segmentation method based on pattern match, not only advanced the speed and anti-jamming capability, but also captured the edge information of the weld seam and the edge of the workpiece, and the image coordinate of the initial welding position can be obtained. The matrix for hand-eye relationship of the robot can be calculated by adopting the rapid calculation method. According to the depth calculating principle with the special point matching using binocular stereovision, the initial welding position can be confirmed by calculating the middle point of the perpendicular line of two radials in the space, and the function to guide the welding robot to the initial welding position can be realized.

  7. VERSE-Guided Numerical RF Pulse Design: A Fast Method for Peak RF Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeho; Grissom, William A.; Lustig, Michael; Kerr, Adam B.; Stang, Pascal P.; Pauly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel excitation, the computational speed of numerical radiofrequency (RF) pulse design methods is critical when subject dependencies and system nonidealities need to be incorporated on-the-fly. One important concern with optimization-based methods is high peak RF power exceeding hardware or safety limits. Hence, online controllability of the peak RF power is essential. Variable-rate selective excitation pulse reshaping is ideally suited to this problem due to its simplicity and low computational cost. In this work, we first improve the fidelity of variable-rate selective excitation implementation for discrete-time waveforms through waveform oversampling such that variable-rate selective excitation can be robustly applied to numerically designed RF pulses. Then, a variable-rate selective excitation-guided numerical RF pulse design is suggested as an online RF pulse design framework, aiming to simultaneously control peak RF power and compensate for off-resonance. PMID:22135085

  8. Selection of Filtration Methods in the Analysis of Motion of Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzańska Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the issues related to mapping the route and error correction in automated guided vehicle (AGV movement have been discussed. The nature and size of disruption have been determined using the registered runs in experimental studies. On the basis of the analysis a number of numerical runs have been generated, which mapped possible to obtain runs in a real movement of the vehicle. The obtained data set has been used for further research. The aim of this paper was to test the selected methods of digital filtering on the same data set and determine their effectiveness. The results of simulation studies have been presented in the article. The effectiveness of various methods has been determined and on this basis the conclusions have been drawn.

  9. Comparison between Two Endotracheal Tube Cuff Inflation Methods; Just-Seal Vs. Stethoscope-Guided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Minal; Bhadade, Rakesh; Dave, Sona; Aswar, Swapnil Ganeshrao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Endotracheal Tube (ETT) cuff performs a critical function of sealing the airway during positive pressure ventilation. There is a narrow range of cuff pressure required to maintain a functionally safe seal without exceeding capillary blood pressure. Aim We aimed to compare Just-Seal (JS) and Stethoscope-Guided (SG) method of ETT cuff inflation with respect to the volume of air required to inflate the cuff, the manometric cuff pressure achieved and also to assess for the occurrence of postoperative sore throat after extubation in both the groups. Materials and Methods It was a prospective observational study done in a Tertiary Teaching Public Hospital over a period of 1½ years on 100 patients with 50 each in two groups; JS or SG method of cuff inflation. SPSS Version 17 was used for data analysis. Results Statistically significant difference (p-value of less than 0.05) was noted between the two methods based on the volume of air injected into the cuff {the mean volume injected in JS was 6.79 ml and in the SG was 4.95 ml with p=5.71E-16 (pressure achieved {mean cuff pressure achieved was 38.80 cm H2O in the JS and 29.64 cm H2O in SG with p=2.29E-14 (sore throat was 54% (27 in 50) in the JS group and only 12% (6 in 50) in the SG; p= 0.00000797. Conclusion ETT cuff inflation guided by a stethoscope is an effective technique for ensuring appropriate cuff pressures thus accomplishing the objective of providing safe and superior quality care of the patient both during and after anaesthesia and reducing the likelihood of even minimal risk complications that may still have legal implications. PMID:28764268

  10. AMEE Medical Education Guide No. 24: Portfolios as a method of student assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman Ben David, M.; Davis, M. H.; Harden, R. M.; Howie, P. W.; Ker, J.; Pippard, M. J.

    2001-10-01

    This guide is intended to inform medical teachers about the use of portfolios for student assessment. It provides a background to the topic, reviews the range of assessment purposes for which portfolios have been used, identifies possible portfolio contents and outlines the advantages of portfolio assessment with particular focus on assessing professionalism. The experience of one medical school, the University of Dundee, is presented as a case study. The current state of understanding of the technical, psychometric issues relating to portfolio assessment is clarified. The final part of the paper provides a practical guide for those wishing to design and implement portfolio assessment in their own institutions. Five steps in the portfolio assessment process are identified: documentation, reflection, evaluation, defence and decision. It is concluded that portfolio assessment is an important addition to the assessor's toolkit. Reasons for using portfolios for assessment purposes include the impact that they have in driving student learning and their ability to measure outcomes such as professionalism that are difficult to assess using traditional methods.

  11. Methods to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide to decision analytic cost-effectiveness modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rautenberg T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tamlyn Rautenberg,1 Claire Hulme,2 Richard Edlin,3 1Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD, University of Kwazulu Natal, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa; 2Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS, Academic Unit of Health Economics (AUHE, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom; 3Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Background: Although guidance on good research practice in health economic modeling is widely available, there is still a need for a simpler instructive resource which could guide a beginner modeler alongside modeling for the first time. Aim: To develop a beginner’s guide to be used as a handheld guide contemporaneous to the model development process. Methods: A systematic review of best practice guidelines was used to construct a framework of steps undertaken during the model development process. Focused methods review supplemented this framework. Consensus was obtained among a group of model developers to review and finalize the content of the preliminary beginner’s guide. The final beginner’s guide was used to develop cost-effectiveness models. Results: Thirty-two best practice guidelines were data extracted, synthesized, and critically evaluated to identify steps for model development, which formed a framework for the beginner’s guide. Within five phases of model development, eight broad submethods were identified and 19 methodological reviews were conducted to develop the content of the draft beginner’s guide. Two rounds of consensus agreement were undertaken to reach agreement on the final beginner’s guide. To assess fitness for purpose (ease of use and completeness, models were developed independently and by the researcher using the beginner’s guide. Conclusion: A combination of systematic review, methods reviews, consensus agreement, and validation was used to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide for developing decision analytical

  12. A novel prosthetic device and method for guided tissue preservation of immediate postextraction socket implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Stephen J; Hochman, Mark N; Tan-Chu, Jocelyn Hui-Ping; Mieleszko, Adam J; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the surrounding hard and soft tissues associated with an immediate postextraction socket implant to replace a nonrestorable tooth in the esthetic zone is one of the greatest challenges facing the dental team. Several studies have documented the biologic and esthetic benefits of bone graft containment with either a custom healing abutment or provisional restoration. Use of a prefabricated shell that replicates the extracted tooth at the cervical region can help achieve guided tissue preservation and sustainable esthetic outcomes in an easy, simple, consistent, and less time consuming way. The following case report of a hopeless maxillary right central incisor in a female patient possessing adjacent teeth with a thin periodontal phenotype illustrates this new treatment device, method, and concept.

  13. Data analysis in high energy physics a practical guide to statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Olaf; Kröninger, Kevin; Schott, Grégory; Schörner-Sadenius, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This practical guide covers the most essential statistics-related tasks and problems encountered in high-energy physics data analyses. It addresses both advanced students entering the field of particle physics as well as researchers looking for a reliable source on optimal separation of signal and background, determining signals or estimating upper limits, correcting the data for detector effects and evaluating systematic uncertainties. Each chapter is dedicated to a single topic and supplemented by a substantial number of both paper and computer exercises related to real experiments, with the solutions provided at the end of the book along with references. A special feature of the book are the analysis walk-throughs used to illustrate the application of the methods discussed beforehand. The authors give examples of data analysis, referring to real problems in HEP, and display the different stages of data analysis in a descriptive manner. The accompanying website provides more algorithms as well as up-to-date...

  14. DEVELOPING LIFE SKILLS IN HAEMODIALYSIS USING THE GUIDED SELF-DETERMINATION METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finderup, Jeanette; Bjerre, Tina; Soendergaard, Aase

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in patients with diabetes have shown that the guided self determination (GSD) method effectively improves patients' glycaemia control and life skills. As a pilot study in 2011 showed promising results of using parts of GSD adjusted to patients on haemodialysis (HD), we decided...... analysis. FINDINGS: A process of developing life skills was clearly identified in the changes accomplished by all 13 participants going through the GSD-HD intervention. Six themes showed that the changes involved the patients personally, their relationships with healthcare professionals and relatives...... and their self-management of ESRD: Deeper and more meaningful relationships, self-exploration of self-selected challenges, self-understanding as a condition for meaningful knowledge, ability to act in a self-determined way, feedback from action that accords with daily life skills and decision-making from...

  15. In-Flight Self-Alignment Method Aided by Geomagnetism for Moving Basement of Guided Munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-biao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to power-after-launch mode of guided munitions of high rolling speed, initial attitude of munitions cannot be determined accurately, and this makes it difficult for navigation and control system to work effectively and validly. An in-flight self-alignment method aided by geomagnetism that includes a fast in-flight coarse alignment method and an in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory is proposed in this paper. Firstly a fast in-flight coarse alignment method is developed by using gyros, magnetic sensors, and trajectory angles. Then, an in-flight alignment model is derived by investigation of the measurement errors and attitude errors, which regards attitude errors as state variables and geomagnetic components in navigation frame as observed variables. Finally, fight data of a spinning projectile is used to verify the performance of the in-flight self-alignment method. The satisfying results show that (1 the precision of coarse alignment can attain below 5°; (2 the attitude errors by in-flight alignment model converge to 24′ at early of the latter half of the flight; (3 the in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory has better adaptability, and show satisfying performance.

  16. Crack Imaging and Quantification in Aluminum Plates with Guided Wave Wavenumber Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Guided wavefield analysis methods for detection and quantification of crack damage in an aluminum plate are presented in this paper. New wavenumber components created by abrupt wave changes at the structural discontinuity are identified in the frequency-wavenumber spectra. It is shown that the new wavenumbers can be used to detect and characterize the crack dimensions. Two imaging based approaches, filter reconstructed imaging and spatial wavenumber imaging, are used to demonstrate how the cracks can be evaluated with wavenumber analysis. The filter reconstructed imaging is shown to be a rapid method to map the plate and any existing damage, but with less precision in estimating crack dimensions; while the spatial wavenumber imaging provides an intensity image of spatial wavenumber values with enhanced resolution of crack dimensions. These techniques are applied to simulated wavefield data, and the simulation based studies show that spatial wavenumber imaging method is able to distinguish cracks of different severities. Laboratory experimental validation is performed for a single crack case to confirm the methods' capabilities for imaging cracks in plates.

  17. [Practical method for six-dimensional online correction system with image guided radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Maruyama, Masato

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed a correction method for coordinate transformation errors that are produced in combination with the ExacTrac X-ray system (BrainLAB) and HexaPOD (Elekta) in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The positional accuracy of the correction method was compared between the ExacTrac Robotics (BrainLAB) and no correction. We tried to correct iBeam evo couch top (Elekta) by operating two steps drive like ExacTrac Robotics. No correction for HexaPOD showed a maximal error of 4.52 mm, and the couch did not move to the correct position. However, our correction method for HexaPOD showed the positional accuracy within 1 mm. Our method has no significant difference with ExacTrac Robotics (paired t-test, P>0.1). But, when the correction values for the rotatory directions were large, the positional accuracy tended to be poor. The smallest setup errors for the rotatory directions are important for IGRT.

  18. Evaluation of image guided motion management methods in lung cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Yan, Di; Liang, Jian; Ionascu, Dan; Mangona, Victor; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jun, E-mail: jun.zhou@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of three target localization methods for image guided motion management in lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Three online image localization methods, including (1) 2D method based on 2D cone beam (CB) projection images, (2) 3D method using 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging, and (3) 4D method using 4D CBCT imaging, have been evaluated using a moving phantom controlled by (a) 1D theoretical breathing motion curves and (b) 3D target motion patterns obtained from daily treatment of 3 lung cancer patients. While all methods are able to provide target mean position (MP), the 2D and 4D methods can also provide target motion standard deviation (SD) and excursion (EX). For each method, the detected MP/SD/EX values are compared to the analytically calculated actual values to calculate the errors. The MP errors are compared among three methods and the SD/EX errors are compared between the 2D and 4D methods. In the theoretical motion study (a), the dependency of MP/SD/EX error on EX is investigated with EX varying from 2.0 cm to 3.0 cm with an increment step of 0.2 cm. In the patient motion study (b), the dependency of MP error on target sizes (2.0 cm and 3.0 cm), motion patterns (four motions per patient) and EX variations is investigated using multivariant linear regression analysis. Results: In the theoretical motion study (a), the MP detection errors are −0.2 ± 0.2, −1.5 ± 1.1, and −0.2 ± 0.2 mm for 2D, 3D, and 4D methods, respectively. Both the 2D and 4D methods could accurately detect motion pattern EX (error < 1.2 mm) and SD (error < 1.0 mm). In the patient motion study (b), MP detection error vector (mm) with the 2D method (0.7 ± 0.4) is found to be significantly less than with the 3D method (1.7 ± 0.8,p < 0.001) and the 4D method (1.4 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) using paired t-test. However, no significant difference is found between the 4D method and the 3D method. Based on multivariant linear regression analysis, the

  19. A simple method for EEG guided transcranial electrical stimulation without models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelli, Andrea; Cottone, Carlo; Tecchio, Franca; Truong, Dennis Q.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Bikson, Marom

    2016-06-01

    Objective. There is longstanding interest in using EEG measurements to inform transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) but adoption is lacking because users need a simple and adaptable recipe. The conventional approach is to use anatomical head-models for both source localization (the EEG inverse problem) and current flow modeling (the tES forward model), but this approach is computationally demanding, requires an anatomical MRI, and strict assumptions about the target brain regions. We evaluate techniques whereby tES dose is derived from EEG without the need for an anatomical head model, target assumptions, difficult case-by-case conjecture, or many stimulation electrodes. Approach. We developed a simple two-step approach to EEG-guided tES that based on the topography of the EEG: (1) selects locations to be used for stimulation; (2) determines current applied to each electrode. Each step is performed based solely on the EEG with no need for head models or source localization. Cortical dipoles represent idealized brain targets. EEG-guided tES strategies are verified using a finite element method simulation of the EEG generated by a dipole, oriented either tangential or radial to the scalp surface, and then simulating the tES-generated electric field produced by each model-free technique. These model-free approaches are compared to a ‘gold standard’ numerically optimized dose of tES that assumes perfect understanding of the dipole location and head anatomy. We vary the number of electrodes from a few to over three hundred, with focality or intensity as optimization criterion. Main results. Model-free approaches evaluated include (1) voltage-to-voltage, (2) voltage-to-current; (3) Laplacian; and two Ad-Hoc techniques (4) dipole sink-to-sink; and (5) sink to concentric. Our results demonstrate that simple ad hoc approaches can achieve reasonable targeting for the case of a cortical dipole, remarkably with only 2-8 electrodes and no need for a model of the head

  20. A MR-TRUS registration method for ultrasound-guided prostate interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Mao, Hui; Jani, Ashesh B.; Ogunleye, Tomi; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we reported a MR-TRUS prostate registration method that uses a subject-specific prostate strain model to improve MR-targeted, US-guided prostate interventions (e.g., biopsy and radiotherapy). The proposed algorithm combines a subject-specific prostate strain model with a Bspline transformation to register the prostate gland of the MRI to the TRUS images. The prostate strain model was obtained through US elastography and a 3D strain map of the prostate was generated. The B-spline transformation was calculated by minimizing Euclidean distance between MR and TRUS prostate surfaces. This prostate stain map was used to constrain the B-spline-based transformation to predict and compensate for the internal prostate-gland deformation. This method was validated with a prostate-phantom experiment and a pilot study of 5 prostate-cancer patients. For the phantom study, the mean target registration error (TRE) was 1.3 mm. MR-TRUS registration was also successfully performed for 5 patients with a mean TRE less than 2 mm. The proposed registration method may provide an accurate and robust means of estimating internal prostate-gland deformation, and could be valuable for prostate-cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klei, Herbert E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Moriarty, Nigel W., E-mail: nwmoriarty@lbl.gov; Echols, Nathaniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 (United States); Baldwin, Eric T. [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Natural Discovery LLC, Princeton, NJ 08542-0096 (United States); Pokross, Matt; Posy, Shana [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1762 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR

  2. Advanced signal processing methods applied to guided waves for wire rope defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Peter W.; Rostami, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Steel wire ropes, which are usually composed of a polymer core and enclosed by twisted wires, are used to hoist heavy loads. These loads are different structures that can be clamshells, draglines, elevators, etc. Since the loading of these structures is dynamic, the ropes are working under fluctuating forces in a corrosive environment. This consequently leads to progressive loss of the metallic cross-section due to abrasion and corrosion. These defects can be seen in the forms of roughened and pitted surface of the ropes, reduction in diameter, and broken wires. Therefore, their deterioration must be monitored so that any unexpected damage or corrosion can be detected before it causes fatal accident. This is of vital importance in the case of passenger transportation, particularly in elevators in which any failure may cause a catastrophic disaster. At present, the widely used methods for thorough inspection of wire ropes include visual inspection and magnetic flux leakage (MFL). Reliability of the first method is questionable since it only depends on the operators' eyes that fails to determine the integrity of internal wires. The later method has the drawback of being a point by point and time-consuming inspection method. Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) based inspection, which has proved its capability in inspecting plate like structures such as tubes and pipes, can monitor the cross-section of wire ropes in their entire length from a single point. However, UGW have drawn less attention for defect detection in wire ropes. This paper reports the condition monitoring of a steel wire rope from a hoisting elevator with broken wires as a result of corrosive environment and fatigue. Experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of using magnetostrictive based UGW for rope defect detection. The obtained signals were analyzed by two time-frequency representation (TFR) methods, namely the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and the Wavelet analysis. The location of

  3. Dynamic Model for Hydro-Turbine Generator Units Based on a Database Method for Guide Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A suitable dynamic model of rotor system is of great significance not only for supplying knowledge of the fault mechanism, but also for assisting in machine health monitoring research. Many techniques have been developed for properly modeling the radial vibration of large hydro-turbine generator units. However, an applicable dynamic model has not yet been reported in literature due to the complexity of the boundary conditions and exciting forces. In this paper, a finite element (FE rotor dynamic model of radial vibration taking account of operating conditions is proposed. A brief and practical database method is employed to model the guide bearing. Taking advantage of the method, rotating speed and bearing clearance can be considered in the model. A novel algorithm, which can take account of both transient and steady-state analysis, is proposed to solve the model. Dynamic response for rotor model of 125 MW hydro-turbine generator units in Gezhouba Power Station is simulated. Field data from Optimal Maintenance Information System for Hydro power plants (HOMIS are analyzed compared with the simulation. Results illustrate the application value of the model in providing knowledge of the fault mechanism and in failure diagnosis.

  4. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  5. Parameter-free methods distinguish Wnt pathway models and guide design of experiments

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.

    2015-02-17

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by β-catenin, is crucially involved in development, adult stem cell tissue maintenance, and a host of diseases including cancer. We analyze existing mathematical models of Wnt and compare them to a new Wnt signaling model that targets spatial localization; our aim is to distinguish between the models and distill biological insight from them. Using Bayesian methods we infer parameters for each model from mammalian Wnt signaling data and find that all models can fit this time course. We appeal to algebraic methods (concepts from chemical reaction network theory and matroid theory) to analyze the models without recourse to specific parameter values. These approaches provide insight into aspects of Wnt regulation: the new model, via control of shuttling and degradation parameters, permits multiple stable steady states corresponding to stem-like vs. committed cell states in the differentiation hierarchy. Our analysis also identifies groups of variables that should be measured to fully characterize and discriminate between competing models, and thus serves as a guide for performing minimal experiments for model comparison.

  6. Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Plates with One or More Guided Edges via Bicubic B-Spline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Si

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate method is proposed for the vibration analysis of rectangular plates with one or more guided edges, in which bicubic B-spline interpolation in combination with a new type of basis cubic B-spline functions is used to approximate the plate deflection. This type of basis cubic B-spline functions can satisfy simply supported, clamped, free, and guided edge conditions with easy numerical manipulation. The frequency characteristic equation is formulated based on classical thin plate theory by performing Hamilton's principle. The present solutions are verified with the analytical ones. Fast convergence, high accuracy and computational efficiency have been demonstrated from the comparisons. Frequency parameters for 13 cases of rectangular plates with at least one guided edge, which are possible by approximate or numerical methods only, are presented. These results are new in literature.

  7. The Development of a Self-Guided, Library-Based Materials and Methods Manual for Social Work Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelker, Richard E., Jr.; Toifel, Peggy

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines process of developing self-guided, library-based materials and methods manual to complement social work research course taught at graduate and undergraduate levels. Selection of topic for research, identification of library reference resources, and development of reference material bibliography are covered. Formative evaluation…

  8. NUMERICAL RESEARCH ON WATER GUIDE BEARING OF HYDRO-GENERATOR UNIT USING FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the consideration of the geometry of tilting pad journal bearing, a new form of the Reynolds equation was derived in this article. The film thickness, the squeeze motion of the journal and the rotation motion of the pad were explicitly contained in the equation. Based on this equation, together with the equilibrium equation of pad pivot, the water guide bearing used in the Gezhouba 10 F hydro-generator unit was numerically researched. The new Reynolds equation for the lubricating film was solved using Finite Volume (FV) discretization, Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) iteration method and C++ code are included. According to the numerical solution, and the stability of the film and the influences of the film thickness, the journal squeeze effect and the pad rotation effect on film force were discussed. The results indicate that the squeeze effect can not be neglected, although the rotation effect is negligible for both low-speed and high-speed bearings, so the computing time could be greatly reduced.

  9. Deep learning methods to guide CT image reconstruction and reduce metal artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesteby, Lars; Yang, Qingsong; Xi, Yan; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Ge

    2017-03-01

    The rapidly-rising field of machine learning, including deep learning, has inspired applications across many disciplines. In medical imaging, deep learning has been primarily used for image processing and analysis. In this paper, we integrate a convolutional neural network (CNN) into the computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction process. Our first task is to monitor the quality of CT images during iterative reconstruction and decide when to stop the process according to an intelligent numerical observer instead of using a traditional stopping rule, such as a fixed error threshold or a maximum number of iterations. After training on ground truth images, the CNN was successful in guiding an iterative reconstruction process to yield high-quality images. Our second task is to improve a sinogram to correct for artifacts caused by metal objects. A large number of interpolation and normalization-based schemes were introduced for metal artifact reduction (MAR) over the past four decades. The NMAR algorithm is considered a state-of-the-art method, although residual errors often remain in the reconstructed images, especially in cases of multiple metal objects. Here we merge NMAR with deep learning in the projection domain to achieve additional correction in critical image regions. Our results indicate that deep learning can be a viable tool to address CT reconstruction challenges.

  10. Guided labworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang

    For the last 40 years physics education research has shown poor learning outcomes of guided labs. Still this is found to be a very used teaching method in the upper secodary schools. This study explains the teacher's choice of guided labs throught the concept of redesign as obstacle dislodgement...

  11. Micro-light guides: a new method for measuring tissue fluorescence and reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S; Chance, B; Nishiki, K; Smith, T; Rich, T

    1979-03-01

    Three-way light guides containing one or more strands of 25-micron or 80-micron diameter optical fibers in each channel have been constructed and used to measure the NADH fluorescence and UV reflectance from mitochondrial suspensions, the perfused, hemoglobin-free rat liver, and the perfused beating interventricular septum of the rabbit. The optical changes measured with these so-called micro-light guides, which have channels containing one or several strands of optical fibers less than 100 micron, are comparable in magnitude with those measured using much larger conventional light guides. The effect of light scattering on the fluorescence channel has been determined and an empirical equation for correcting the fluorescence channel for light scattering has been obtained for mitochondrial suspensions. A mathematical equation characterizing the optical behavior of a two-way micro-light guide has been derived and has been shown to account satisfactorily for reflectance and fluorescence measurements of a mat surface in air.

  12. An adaptive MR-CT registration method for MRI-guided prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Wen, Ning; Gordon, James J.; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance images (MRI) have superior soft tissue contrast compared with CT images. Therefore, MRI might be a better imaging modality to differentiate the prostate from surrounding normal organs. Methods to accurately register MRI to simulation CT images are essential, as we transition the use of MRI into the routine clinic setting. In this study, we present a finite element method (FEM) to improve the performance of a commercially available, B-spline-based registration algorithm in the prostate region. Specifically, prostate contours were delineated independently on ten MRI and CT images using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Each pair of MRI and CT images was registered with the B-spline-based algorithm implemented in the VelocityAI system. A bounding box that contains the prostate volume in the CT image was selected and partitioned into a tetrahedral mesh. An adaptive finite element method was then developed to adjust the displacement vector fields (DVFs) of the B-spline-based registrations within the box. The B-spline and FEM-based registrations were evaluated based on the variations of prostate volume and tumor centroid, the unbalanced energy of the generated DVFs, and the clarity of the reconstructed anatomical structures. The results showed that the volumes of the prostate contours warped with the B-spline-based DVFs changed 10.2% on average, relative to the volumes of the prostate contours on the original MR images. This discrepancy was reduced to 1.5% for the FEM-based DVFs. The average unbalanced energy was 2.65 and 0.38 mJ cm-3, and the prostate centroid deviation was 0.37 and 0.28 cm, for the B-spline and FEM-based registrations, respectively. Different from the B-spline-warped MR images, the FEM-warped MR images have clear boundaries between prostates and bladders, and their internal prostatic structures are consistent with those of the original MR images. In summary, the developed adaptive FEM method preserves the prostate volume

  13. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous "push-introducer" gastrostomy is a valuable method for accessing the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Klek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is the mosteffective and least invasive method for enteral nutrition (EN. The most common system for PEG is the 'pull' technique, which. It is not available in case endoscopy cannot be performed. The 'push' technique may be an option if effective identification of the abdominal structures can be achieved. X-ray or ultrasonography can be used for that purpose. The aim was to assess the clinical value of ultrasound-guided 'push' gastrostomy. A retrospective analysis of eleven patients (6 F, 5 M, mean age 65.1 including the procedure itself, complication rate, and cost was conducted. In all eleven patients the surgery was successful, and EN was introduced 4-6 hours afterwards. Complications included pain requiring removal of a supporting stitch (n = 1 and balloon deflation (n = 1. All patients were successfully fed enterally. Ultrasound-guided 'push' technique gastrostomy should become a method of choice if the 'pull' method is unavailable.

  14. Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC): User Guide. Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Bednarcyk, B. A.; Wilt, T. E.; Trowbridge, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC/ GMC is a versatile form of research software that "drives" the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC/GMC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein 1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, 2) different integration algorithms may be selected, 3) a variety of material constitutive models (both deformation and life) may be utilized and/or implemented, and 4) a variety of fiber architectures (both unidirectional, laminate and woven) may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements contained within the supplied library of RVEs or input directly by the user, and 5) graphical post processing of the macro and/or micro field quantities is made available.

  15. Guided Waves in Structures for SHM The Time - domain Spectral Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Krawczuk, Marek; Zak, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Presents the state of the art in the modelling, analysis and experimental investigation of elastic wave propagation using a technique of rapidly increasing interest and development Addressing an important issue in the field of guided-wave-based damage identification and structural health monitoring,Guided Waves in Structures for SHM presents the modelling, analysis and experimental investigation of elastic wave propagation in engineering structures made of isotropic or composite materials. The authors begin by summarising present-day knowledge on elastic wave propagation in solids, focusing on

  16. Correlative multiple porosimetries for reservoir sandstones with adoption of a new reference-sample-guided computed-tomographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Junho; Lee, Jeong-Yil; Oh, Young Min

    2016-07-01

    One of the main interests in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering is to quantify the porosity of reservoir beds as accurately as possible. A variety of direct measurements, including methods of mercury intrusion, helium injection and petrographic image analysis, have been developed; however, their application frequently yields equivocal results because these methods are different in theoretical bases, means of measurement, and causes of measurement errors. Here, we present a set of porosities measured in Berea Sandstone samples by the multiple methods, in particular with adoption of a new method using computed tomography and reference samples. The multiple porosimetric data show a marked correlativeness among different methods, suggesting that these methods are compatible with each other. The new method of reference-sample-guided computed tomography is more effective than the previous methods when the accompanied merits such as experimental conveniences are taken into account.

  17. Correlative multiple porosimetries for reservoir sandstones with adoption of a new reference-sample-guided computed-tomographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Junho; Lee, Jeong-Yil; Oh, Young Min

    2016-07-22

    One of the main interests in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering is to quantify the porosity of reservoir beds as accurately as possible. A variety of direct measurements, including methods of mercury intrusion, helium injection and petrographic image analysis, have been developed; however, their application frequently yields equivocal results because these methods are different in theoretical bases, means of measurement, and causes of measurement errors. Here, we present a set of porosities measured in Berea Sandstone samples by the multiple methods, in particular with adoption of a new method using computed tomography and reference samples. The multiple porosimetric data show a marked correlativeness among different methods, suggesting that these methods are compatible with each other. The new method of reference-sample-guided computed tomography is more effective than the previous methods when the accompanied merits such as experimental conveniences are taken into account.

  18. Computer-designed surgical guide template compared with free-hand operation for mesiodens extraction in premaxilla using "trapdoor" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying Kai; Xie, Qian Yang; Yang, Chi; Xu, Guang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method of mesiodens extraction using a vascularized pedicled bone flap by piezosurgery and to compare the differences between a computer-aided design surgical guide template and free-hand operation.A total of 8 patients with mesiodens, 4 with a surgical guide (group I), and 4 without it (group II) were included in the study. The surgical design was to construct a trapdoor pedicle on the superior mucoperiosteal attachment with application of piezosurgery. The bone lid was repositioned after mesiodens extraction. Group I patients underwent surgeries based on the preoperative planning with surgical guide templates, while group II patients underwent free-hand operation. The outcome variables were success rate, intraoperative time, anterior nasal spine (ANS) position, changes of nasolabial angle (NLA), and major complications. Data from the 2 groups were compared by SPSS 17.0, using Wilcoxon test.The operative time was significantly shorter in group I patients. All the mesiodentes were extracted successfully and no obvious differences of preoperative and postoperative ANS position and NLA value were found in both groups. The patients were all recovered uneventfully.Surgical guide templates can enhance clinical accuracy and reduce operative time by facilitating accurate osteotomies.

  19. A fully automatic image-to-world registration method for image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Senhu; Sarment, David

    2016-03-01

    Image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates has made a big impact on minimally invasive surgery. Compact and mobile CT imaging device combining with current commercial available image guided navigation system is a legitimate and cost-efficient solution for a typical operating room setup. However, the process of manual fiducial-based registration between image and physical spaces (image-to-world) is troublesome for surgeons during the procedure, which results in much procedure interruptions and is the main source of registration errors. In this study, we developed a novel method to eliminate the manual registration process. Instead of using probe to manually localize the fiducials during the surgery, a tracking plate with known fiducial positions relative to the reference coordinates is designed and fabricated through 3D printing technique. The workflow and feasibility of this method has been studied through a phantom experiment.

  20. The Heuristic Method, Precursor of Guided Inquiry: Henry Armstrong and British Girls' Schools, 1890-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff; Rayner-Canham, Marelene

    2015-01-01

    Though guided-inquiry learning, discovery learning, student-centered learning, and problem-based learning are commonly believed to be recent new approaches to the teaching of chemistry, in fact, the concept dates back to the late 19th century. Here, we will show that it was the British chemist, Henry Armstrong, who pioneered this technique,…

  1. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  2. A safe method of ciliary sulcus fixation of foldable intraocular lens using a ciliary sulcus guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertuğrul; Gül, Adem; Birinci, Hakkı

    2016-08-01

    To describe a novel technique for implantation of intraocular lens in the absence of capsular support using a ciliary sulcus guide. Based on the anatomic knowledge of the ciliary sulcus and the sclera, a new instrument was developed to pierce the needle safely through the ciliary sulcus and sclera. While the foldable lens is stored inside the cartridge, the leading haptic is sutured with a cow-hitch knot. The needle is then inserted into the ciliary sulcus guide. The tip of the guide is inserted from the corneal incision and proceeded under the iris to touch and fit the ciliary sulcus. The needle is pushed from back side. The needle comes out at precise point at the sclera. Implantation of the lens was performed through a 2.8 mm clear cornea incision using the injector. The trailing haptic is tied after implantation, and then the same procedure is performed at the opposite side. We performed this technique to 15 aphakic eyes without sufficient capsular support. There was no bleeding or other intraoperative complication. All the points coming out the sclera were between 2 and 2.5 mm from the limbus. The ab interno technique for scleral fixation of IOL is quicker, easier and less traumatic then ab externo techniques. A new ciliary sulcus guide which is usable with both straight and curved needles eliminates the blind maneuvers of ab interno technique and makes this technique more safe and precise.

  3. Building houses with earth blocks: A guide for upgrading traditional building methods using handmade earth blocks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolton, M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a guide to building strong earth houses that will last a long time but without having to spend a lot of extra money or hire outside experts to do the building. It supports the process of improving the quality of earth housing...

  4. A new method to catheterize a femoral artery in mice using a nylon suture as a 'guide wire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, S; Nawshiro, H; Wada, K; Shima, K; Hallenbeck, J M

    2001-09-01

    Mice are commonly used in laboratory experiments. Their femoral arteries are so tiny that catheterization is quite difficult. We describe a new method to catheterize the femoral artery in mice. The key feature of this new method is the use of a nylon suture as a 'guide wire'. The full catheterization system consists of two sizes of polyethylene tubes (PE-10, PE-50) and a 4-0 nylon suture. We have been able to repeatedly catheterize mouse femoral arteries (n = 57) successfully and easily with this new system. We believe that this new method can facilitate vascular catheterization in small animals such as mice.

  5. A novel method for interactive multi-objective dose-guided patient positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehnle, Jonas; Süss, Philipp; Landry, Guillaume; Teichert, Katrin; Hille, Lucas; Hofmaier, Jan; Nowak, Dimitri; Kamp, Florian; Reiner, Michael; Thieke, Christian; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia; Küfer, Karl-Heinz; Kurz, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 3D in-room imaging data is typically utilized for accurate patient alignment on the basis of anatomical landmarks. In the presence of non-rigid anatomical changes, it is often not obvious which patient position is most suitable. Thus, dose-guided patient alignment is an interesting approach to use available in-room imaging data for up-to-date dose calculation, aimed at finding the position that yields the optimal dose distribution. This contribution presents the first implementation of dose-guided patient alignment as multi-criteria optimization problem. User-defined clinical objectives are employed for setting up a multi-objective problem. Using pre-calculated dose distributions at a limited number of patient shifts and dose interpolation, a continuous space of Pareto-efficient patient shifts becomes accessible. Pareto sliders facilitate interactive browsing of the possible shifts with real-time dose display to the user. Dose interpolation accuracy is validated and the potential of multi-objective dose-guided positioning demonstrated for three head and neck (H&N) and three prostate cancer patients. Dose-guided positioning is compared to replanning for all cases. A delineated replanning CT served as surrogate for in-room imaging data. Dose interpolation accuracy was high. Using a 2 % dose difference criterion, a median pass-rate of 95.7% for H&N and 99.6% for prostate cases was determined in a comparison to exact dose calculations. For all patients, dose-guided positioning allowed to find a clinically preferable dose distribution compared to bony anatomy based alignment. For all H&N cases, mean dose to the spared parotid glands was below 26~\\text{Gy} (up to 27.5~\\text{Gy} with bony alignment) and clinical target volume (CTV) {{V}95 % } above 99.1% (compared to 95.1%). For all prostate patients, CTV {{V}95 % } was above 98.9% (compared to 88.5%) and {{V}50~\\text{Gy}} to the rectum below 50 % (compared to 56

  6. Usefulness of transrectal ultrasound-guided 12 core biopsy method in patients with clinically suspected prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Lim, Joo Won; Park, Seong Jin; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Yoon Wha [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-15

    To evaluate the improvement of prostate cancer detection provided by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 12 core biopsy method compared with sextant biopsy method. Between June 1997 and February 1999, 29 patients with pathologically proven prostate cancer in 124 patients who underwent TRUS-guided 12 core biopsy method were evaluated. They had abnormal findings in prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination (DRE) or TRUS findings. The prostate was diffusely enlarged in all patients on DRE findings and in 15 cases (15/29, 52%), hard nodule was palpated. The average of PSA and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) is 229.33 ng/ml (1-2280) and 9.14 ng/ml/cm{sup 3} (0.048-142.5), respectively, 12 transrectal biopsy, including 2 transition zones, was performed in both lobe, 6 biopsies were located in both base, middle and apex. Then 2 biopsies were inserted between 3 biopsies in both peripheral zone and 2 biopsies were performed in both transition zone. Each specimen was pathologically examined. The results of pathology were compared with method 1 and 2, respectively. We defined the method 1 and 2 as different sextant biopsy method. The method 1 is that cores are taken from both base, middle and apex and method 2 is that cores are taken from both base, apex and transition zone. TRUS findings were analyzed by two radiologists. Of the 29 patients with prostate cancer, 3 (10%) had carcinomas only in the additional regions as compared with method. When compared with method 2,2 (7.0%) had carcinomas only in the additional regions. 2 patients were same in both cases. TRUS findings were abnormal in 21 cases in all patients whose 12 biopsy method was not helpful. 12 biopsy method was helpful in 2/8 (25%) whose TRUS findings were non-specific and 1/21 (4.8%) whose TRUS findings were abnormal. Small low echoic lesion was seen in one patients whose 12 biopsy method was helpful, but cancer was found in other area. TRUS-guided 12 core biopsy method may be superior

  7. A Method to Estimate Uncertainty in Radiometric Measurement Using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Method; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Radiometric data with known and traceable uncertainty is essential for climate change studies to better understand cloud radiation interactions and the earth radiation budget. Further, adopting a known and traceable method of estimating uncertainty with respect to SI ensures that the uncertainty quoted for radiometric measurements can be compared based on documented methods of derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  8. DIAGNOSIS-GUIDED METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING MULTI-MODALITY NEUROIMAGING BIOMARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH GENETIC RISK FACTORS IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoke; Yan, Jingwen; Yao, Xiaohui; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Many recent imaging genetic studies focus on detecting the associations between genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits (QTs). Although there exist a large number of generalized multivariate regression analysis methods, few of them have used diagnosis information in subjects to enhance the analysis performance. In addition, few of models have investigated the identification of multi-modality phenotypic patterns associated with interesting genotype groups in traditional methods. To reveal disease-relevant imaging genetic associations, we propose a novel diagnosis-guided multi-modality (DGMM) framework to discover multi-modality imaging QTs that are associated with both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its top genetic risk factor (i.e., APOE SNP rs429358). The strength of our proposed method is that it explicitly models the priori diagnosis information among subjects in the objective function for selecting the disease-relevant and robust multi-modality QTs associated with the SNP. We evaluate our method on two modalities of imaging phenotypes, i.e., those extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method not only achieves better performances under the metrics of root mean squared error and correlation coefficient but also can identify common informative regions of interests (ROIs) across multiple modalities to guide the disease-induced biological interpretation, compared with other reference methods.

  9. Improved method for determination of the suppression of isobars in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, P; Hanstorp, D; Lindahl, A O [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Havener, C C; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yun, E-mail: pontus.andersson@physics.gu.s [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 208, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    An improved measurement of the limit of isobar suppression by photodetachment has been made. A gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide was used to slow down negative ions for the purpose of acquiring long interaction times with the applied laser light. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1064nm) was used to selectively deplete a beam of Co{sup -} ions inside the rf ion guide and the remaining ions was probed using photodetachment by another Nd:YAG laser and a neutral detector. The neutral detection system allowed for a detection limit more than one order of magnitude better than the previous measurements. With this improved detection method, we show that the suppression of Co{sup -} ions was at least four orders of magnitude.

  10. Integrated resource planning and the environment: A guide to the use of multi-criteria decision methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Meier, P. [IDEA, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This report is intended as a guide to the use of multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM) for incorporating environmental factors in electric utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Application of MCDM is emerging as an alternative and complementary method to explicit economic valuation for weighting environmental effects. We provide a step-by-step guide to the elements that are common to all MCDM applications. The report discusses how environmental attributes should be selected and defined; how options should be selected (and how risk and uncertainty should be accounted for); how environmental impacts should be quantified (with particular attention to the problems of location); how screening should be conducted; the construction and analysis of trade-off curves; dominance analysis, which seeks to identify clearly superior options, and reject clearly inferior options; scaling of impacts, in which we translate social, economic and environmental impacts into value functions; the determination of weights, with particular emphasis on ensuring that the weights reflect the trade-offs that decision-makers are actually willing to make; the amalgamation of attributes into overall plan rankings; and the resolution of differences among methods, and between individuals. There are many MCDM methods available for accomplishing these steps. They can differ in their appropriateness, ease of use, validity, and results. This report also includes an extensive review of past applications, in which we use the step-by-step guide to examine how these applications satisfied the criteria of appropriateness, ease of use, and validity. Case material is drawn from a wide field of utility applications, ranging from project-level environmental impact statements to capacity bidding programs, and from the results of two case studies conducted as part of this research.

  11. Understanding your users a practical guide to user requirements methods, tools, and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Today many companies are employing a user-centered design (UCD) process, but for most companies, usability begins and ends with the usability test. Although usability testing is a critical part of an effective user-centered life cycle, it is only one component of the UCD process. This book is focused on the requirements gathering stage, which often receives less attention than usability testing, but is equally as important. Understanding user requirements is critical to the development of a successful product. Understanding Your Users is an easy to read, easy to implement, how-to guide on

  12. Toward a quality guide to facilitate the transference of analytical methods from research to testing laboratories: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetty, Krisnha; Gumede, Njabulo Joyfull; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Sagrado, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is no single viewpoint that defines QA strategies in analytical chemistry. On the other hand, there are no unique protocols defining a set of analytical tasks and decision criteria to be performed during the method development phase (e.g., by a single research laboratory) in order to facilitate the transference to the testing laboratories intending to adapt, validate, and routinely use this method. This study proposes general criteria, a priori valid for any developed method, recommended as a provisional quality guide containing the minimum internal tasks necessary to publish new analytical method results. As an application, the selection of some basic internal quality tasks and the corresponding accepted criteria are adapted to a concrete case study: indirect differential pulse polarographic determination of nitrate in water samples according to European Commission requisites. Extra tasks to be performed by testing laboratories are also outlined.

  13. Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacl, G.M. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Bicik, I.; Schulthess, G.K. von [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Schoenenberger, A.W.; Steiner, P.; Romanowski, B.; Debatin, J.F. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain`s thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.) With 8 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  14. [Selective Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation as a minimaly invasive method of treatment of hemorrhoidal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałega, Piotr; Scheyer, Mathias; Arnold, Steffan; Kenig, Jakub; Nowakowski, Michał; Sobocki, Jacek; Herman, Roman M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the experience of two centres concerning minimal invasive technique for treating hemorrhoids--Doppler Guided Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation (DGHAL). From our own experience and based on the literature--we can say that DGHAL is a minimally invasive, safe and effective method in grade II and III hemorrhoids. It can also be recommended in selected grade IV cases combined with anodermal folds resection. A properly carried out operation should involve no intra- and postoperative complications. However, this procedure requires more controlled trials on a larger group of patients and long term follow-up (longer than 3 years postoperatively).

  15. Combination of contrast with stress echocardiography: A practical guide to methods and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwick Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contrast echocardiography has an established role for enhancement of the right heart Doppler signals, the detection of intra-cardiac shunts, and most recently for left ventricular cavity opacification (LVO. The use of intravenously administered micro-bubbles to traverse the myocardial microcirculation in order to outline myocardial viability and perfusion has been the source of research studies for a number of years. Despite the enthusiasm of investigators, myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE has not attained routine clinical use and LV opacification during stress has been less widely adopted than the data would support. The purpose of this review is to facilitate an understanding of the involved imaging technologies that have made this technique more feasible for clinical practice, and to guide its introduction into the practice of the non-expert user.

  16. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy: an effective method of detecting axillary nodal metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary nodal status is an important prognostic predictor in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided core biopsy (Ax US-CB) at detecting axillary nodal metastases in patients with primary breast cancer, thereby determining how often sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided in node positive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Records of patients presenting to a breast unit between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who underwent axillary ultrasonography with or without preoperative core biopsy were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy were evaluated. RESULTS: Records of 718 patients were reviewed, with 445 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Forty-seven percent (n = 210\\/445) had nodal metastases, with 110 detected by Ax US-CB (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 70.1%). Axillary ultrasonography without biopsy had sensitivity and specificity of 54.3% and 97%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (sensitivity 60.8%, specificity 80%). Ultrasound-guided core biopsy detected more than half of all nodal metastases, sparing more than one-quarter of all breast cancer patients an unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography, when combined with core biopsy, is a valuable component of the management of patients with primary breast cancer. Its ability to definitively identify nodal metastases before surgical intervention can greatly facilitate a patient\\'s preoperative integrated treatment plan. In this regard, we believe our study adds considerably to the increasing data, which indicate the benefit of Ax US-CB in the preoperative detection of nodal metastases.

  17. Reconstruction of bone fenestration on mandiblar by the guided bone regeneration methods with beta-TCP/PLGC membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Masanori; Edamura, Kazuya; Nagaoka, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Tanaka, Junzo; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2007-03-01

    Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is a method for bone tissue regeneration. In this method, membranes are used to cover bone defects and to block the invasion of the surrounding soft tissues. It would provide sufficient time for the osteogenic cells from bone marrow to proliferate and form new bony tissues. In spite of the potential usefulness of this method, no appropriate materials for the GBR membrane have been developed. Here we design the ideal mechanical properties of the GBR membranes and created novel materials, which is the composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and block copolymer of L-lactide, glycolide, and epsilon-caplolactone (PLGC). In the animal experiments with the use of the GBR membranes for large bone defects, we observed significant enhancement in the bone regeneration after 12 weeks implantation and proved the effectiveness of the materials.

  18. Use of the cumulative sum method (CUSUM) to assess the learning curves of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann-Camaiora, A; Brogly, N; Alsina, E; Gilsanz, F

    2017-10-01

    Although ultrasound is a basic competence for anaesthesia residents (AR) there is few data available on the learning process. This prospective observational study aims to assess the learning process of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and to determine the number of procedures that a resident would need to perform in order to reach proficiency using the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. We recruited 19 AR without previous experience. Learning curves were constructed using the CUSUM method for ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block considering 2 success criteria: a decrease of pain score>2 in a [0-10] scale after 15minutes, and time required to perform it. We analyse data from 17 AR for a total of 237 ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve blocks. 8/17 AR became proficient for pain relief, however all the AR who did more than 12 blocks (8/8) became proficient. As for time of performance 5/17 of AR achieved the objective of 12minutes, however all the AR who did more than 20 blocks (4/4) achieved it. The number of procedures needed to achieve proficiency seems to be 12, however it takes more procedures to reduce performance time. The CUSUM methodology could be useful in training programs to allow early interventions in case of repeated failures, and develop competence-based curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of acoustic guided wave propagation in cortical bone using a semi-analytical finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Daniel; Haiat, Guillaume; Fernandes, Julio; Belanger, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Axial transmission techniques have been extensively studied for cortical bone quality assessment. However, the modeling of ultrasonic guided waves propagation in such a complex medium remains challenging. The aim of this paper is to develop a semi-analytical finite element method to simulate the propagation of guided waves in an irregular, multi-layer, and heterogeneous bone cross-section modeled with anisotropic and viscoelastic material properties. The accuracy of the simulations was verified against conventional time-domain three-dimensional finite element. The method was applied in the context of axial transmission in bone to investigate the feasibility of first arrival signal (FAS) to monitor degradation of intracortical properties at low frequency. Different physiopathological conditions for the intracortical region, varying from healthy to osteoporotic, were monitored through FAS velocity using a 10-cycle tone burst excitation centered at 32.5 kHz. The results show that the variation in FAS velocity is mainly associated with four of the eight modes supported by the waveguide, varying with velocity values between 550 and 700 m/s along the different scenarios. Furthermore, the FAS velocity is shown to be associated with the group velocity of the mode with the highest relative amplitude contribution at each studied scenario. However, because of the evolution of the mode with the highest contribution, the FAS velocity is shown to be limited to discriminate intracortical bone properties at low frequency.

  20. Acoustic guided waves in cylindrical solid-fluid structures: Modeling with a sweeping frequency finite element method and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; D'Angelo, Ralph M.; Sinha, Bikash K.; Zeroug, Smaine

    2017-02-01

    Modeling and understanding the complex elastic-wave physics prevalent in solid-fluid cylindrically-layered structures is of importance in many NDE fields, and most pertinently in the domain of well integrity evaluation of cased holes in the oil and gas industry. Current sonic measurements provide viable techniques for well integrity evaluation yet their practical effectiveness is hampered by the current lack of knowledge of acoustic wave fields particularly in complicated cased-hole geometry where for instance two or more nested steel strings are present in the borehole. In this article, we propose and implement a Sweeping Frequency Finite Element Method (SFFEM) for acoustic guided waves simulation in complex geometries that include double steel strings cemented to each other and to the formation and where the strings may be non-concentric. Transient dynamic finite element models are constructed with sweeping frequency signals being applied as the excitation sources. The sources and receivers disposition simulate current sonic measurement tools deployed in the oilfield. Synthetic wavetrains are recorded and processed with modified matrix pencil method to isolate both the dispersive and non-dispersive propagating guided wave modes. Scaled experiments of fluid-filled double strings with dimensions mimicking the real ones encountered in the field have also been carried out to generate reference data. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results indicates that the SFFEM is capable of accurately reproducing the rich and intricate higher-order multiple wave fields observed experimentally in the fluid-filled double string geometries.

  1. Sedation as an alternative method to lessen patient discomfort due to transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, A.T. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ministry of Health, TR-06590 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Ergun, E. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ministry of Health, TR-06590 Ankara (Turkey); Kosar, U. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ministry of Health, TR-06590 Ankara (Turkey); Kosar, P. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ministry of Health, TR-06590 Ankara (Turkey); Ozcan, A. [Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ministry of Health, TR-06590 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    Background: Despite being highly efficient for the relief of patient discomfort due to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy, periprostatic anesthesia is occasionally reported to be of limited use. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of conscious sedation, an accepted method for lessening patient discomfort due to interventional radiological procedures and compare it with periprostatic anesthesia. Methods: 93 candidates for biopsy were randomised to three groups: group 1 (n = 31) received intravenous midazolam, group 2 (n = 31) received periprostatic lidocaine injection, whereas group 3 (n = 31) received no anesthetic before the procedure. After the biopsy patients were asked to express discomfort by visual anologue scale (VAS). Results: The mean scores for groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than that of group 3 (1.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.0 {+-} 1.5 versus 4.7 {+-} 1.6, respectively; p < 0.05 for both). For patients with VAS scores exceeding 4 (moderate to severe discomfort), a significant difference was calculated between groups 1 and 2 (3% versus 29%, p < 0.05) and between each and group 3 (3% and 29% versus 80%, respectively; p < 0.05 for each). Conclusions: Sedation is an alternative for increasing patient comfort during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, especially in clinical situations like patient anxiety, young age, repeat biopsies or inflammatory anal diseases.

  2. A combination of thermal methods to assess coronary pressure and flow dynamics with a pressure-sensing guide wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Arjen; Van't Veer, Marcel; van der Sligte, Robin A M; Rutten, Marcel C M; Pijls, Nico H J; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2013-03-01

    Measurement of coronary pressure and absolute flow dynamics have shown great potential in discerning different types of coronary circulatory disease. In the present study, the feasibility of assessing pressure and flow dynamics with a combination of two thermal methods, developed in combination with a pressure-sensor-tipped guide wire, was evaluated in an in vitro coronary model. A continuous infusion thermodilution method was employed to determine the average flow, whereas a thermal anemometric method was utilized to assess the pressure and flow dynamics, simultaneously. In the latter method, the electrical power supplied to an element, kept at constant temperature above ambient temperature, was used as a measure for the shear rate. It was found that, using a single calibration function, the method was able to assess coronary pressure and flow dynamics for different flow amplitudes, heart rates, and different pressure wires. However, due to the fact that the thermal anemometric method cannot detect local shear rate reversal, the method was unable to reliably measure flow dynamics close to zero. Nevertheless, the combined methodology was able to reliably assess diastolic hemodynamics. The diastolic peak flow and average diastolic resistance could be determined with a small relative error of (8 ± 7)% and (7 ± 5)%, respectively.

  3. Project-Based Learning in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory: Using EPA Methods to Guide Student Method Development for Pesticide Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric J.; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Presented is a project-based learning (PBL) laboratory approach for an upper-division environmental chemistry or quantitative analysis course. In this work, a combined laboratory class of 11 environmental chemistry students developed a method based on published EPA methods for the extraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its…

  4. A Hitch-hiker's Guide to Stochastic Differential Equations - Solution Methods for Energetic Particle Transport in Space Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R. Du Toit; Effenberger, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    In this review, an overview of the recent history of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in application to particle transport problems in space physics and astrophysics is given. The aim is to present a helpful working guide to the literature and at the same time introduce key principles of the SDE approach via "toy models". Using these examples, we hope to provide an easy way for newcomers to the field to use such methods in their own research. Aspects covered are the solar modulation of cosmic rays, diffusive shock acceleration, galactic cosmic ray propagation and solar energetic particle transport. We believe that the SDE method, due to its simplicity and computational efficiency on modern computer architectures, will be of significant relevance in energetic particle studies in the years to come.

  5. A Bayesian nonrigid registration method to enhance intraoperative target definition in image-guided prostate procedures through uncertainty characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursley, Jennifer; Risholm, Petter; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Wells, William M.; Tempany, Clare M.; Cormack, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces a probabilistic nonrigid registration method for use in image-guided prostate brachytherapy. Intraoperative imaging for prostate procedures, usually transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), is typically inferior to diagnostic-quality imaging of the pelvis such as endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR images contain superior detail of the prostate boundaries and provide substructure features not otherwise visible. Previous efforts to register diagnostic prostate images with the intraoperative coordinate system have been deterministic and did not offer a measure of the registration uncertainty. The authors developed a Bayesian registration method to estimate the posterior distribution on deformations and provide a case-specific measure of the associated registration uncertainty. Methods: The authors adapted a biomechanical-based probabilistic nonrigid method to register diagnostic to intraoperative images by aligning a physician's segmentations of the prostate in the two images. The posterior distribution was characterized with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method; the maximum a posteriori deformation and the associated uncertainty were estimated from the collection of deformation samples drawn from the posterior distribution. The authors validated the registration method using a dataset created from ten patients with MRI-guided prostate biopsies who had both diagnostic and intraprocedural 3 Tesla MRI scans. The accuracy and precision of the estimated posterior distribution on deformations were evaluated from two predictive distance distributions: between the deformed central zone-peripheral zone (CZ-PZ) interface and the physician-labeled interface, and based on physician-defined landmarks. Geometric margins on the registration of the prostate's peripheral zone were determined from the posterior predictive distance to the CZ-PZ interface separately for the base, mid-gland, and apical regions of the prostate. Results: The authors observed

  6. MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound as a New Method of Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thanou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery under the guidance of an imaging modality can improve drug disposition and achieve site-specific drug delivery. The term focal drug delivery has been introduced to describe the focal targeting of drugs in tissues with the help of imaging and focused ultrasound. Focal drug delivery aims to improve the therapeutic profile of drugs by improving their specificity and their permeation in defined areas. Focused-ultrasound- (FUS- mediated drug delivery has been applied with various molecules to improve their local distribution in tissues. FUS is applied with the aid of microbubbles to enhance the permeability of bioactive molecules across BBB and improve drug distribution in the brain. Recently, FUS has been utilised in combination with MRI-labelled liposomes that respond to temperature increase. This strategy aims to “activate” nanoparticles to release their cargo locally when triggered by hyperthermia induced by FUS. MRI-guided FUS drug delivery provides the opportunity to improve drug bioavailability locally and therefore improve the therapeutic profiles of drugs. This drug delivery strategy can be directly translated to clinic as MRg FUS is a promising clinically therapeutic approach. However, more basic research is required to understand the physiological mechanism of FUS-enhanced drug delivery.

  7. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  8. Expert Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    This guide summarizes the work of Subtask B of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 “Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings” and is based on the contributions from the participating countries. The publication is an official Annex report. With a focus on innovative building concepts...... that dynamically respond to changes in climate and user demands, the report describes building concepts, design methods and tools that have been tested in theory and practice in buildings around the world. This guide is aimed at designers and consultants and describes the principles of responsive building concepts...

  9. Adhesives: Test Method, Group Assignment, and Categorization Guide for High-Loading-Rate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    D5229M-12 (Standard Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials),10 ASTM D1151...Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials." ASTM International, West

  10. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.

    2008-12-17

    This document proposes to provide a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in Appendix 1. Available validation documents and guides are listed in the appendix; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of validation at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all documents were published in English.

  11. 3D Segmentation with an application of level set-method using MRI volumes for image guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, A; Montilla, G; Villegas, R; Jara, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovation in the application for image guided surgery using a comparative study of three different method of segmentation. This segmentation method is faster than the manual segmentation of images, with the advantage that it allows to use the same patient as anatomical reference, which has more precision than a generic atlas. This new methodology for 3D information extraction is based on a processing chain structured of the following modules: 1) 3D Filtering: the purpose is to preserve the contours of the structures and to smooth the homogeneous areas; several filters were tested and finally an anisotropic diffusion filter was used. 2) 3D Segmentation. This module compares three different methods: Region growing Algorithm, Cubic spline hand assisted, and Level Set Method. It then proposes a Level Set-based on the front propagation method that allows the making of the reconstruction of the internal walls of the anatomical structures of the brain. 3) 3D visualization. The new contribution of this work consists on the visualization of the segmented model and its use in the pre-surgery planning.

  12. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  13. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is a sensitive method to evaluate patients who should not undergo pulmonary metastasectomy†

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Jens; Licht, Peter Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary metastasectomy is considered an effective treatment in selected patients with extrapulmonary cancer and oligometastatic disease. We know that the presence of mediastinal lymph node metastases reduces survival significantly, but the mediastinum is rarely evaluated before...... metastasectomy in these patients. We prospectively evaluated how endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) could identify metastases to the mediastinal lymph nodes in patients referred for pulmonary metastasectomy. METHODS: All patients with extrapulmonary cancer...... and oligometastatic disease confined to the lungs on positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and who were considered eligible for pulmonary metastasectomy, routinely underwent EBUS-TBNA of the mediastinal lymph nodes. If EBUS-TBNA did not reveal malignant spread, the patient subsequently underwent pulmonary...

  14. Macro Photography for Reflectance Transformation Imaging: A Practical Guide to the Highlights Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI is increasingly being used for art documentation and analysis and it can be successful also for the examination of features on the order of hundreds of microns. This paper evaluates some macro scale photography methods specifically for RTI employing the Highlights method for documenting sub-millimeter details. This RTI technique consists in including one reflective sphere in the scene photographed so that the processing software can calculate for each photo the direction of the light source from its reflection on the sphere. RTI documentation can be performed also with an RTI dome, but the Highlights method is preferred because is more mobile and more affordable. This technique is demonstrated in the documentation of some prints ranging from the XV to the XX century from to the Ingels collection in Sweden. The images are here examined and discussed, showing the application of macro RTI for identifying features of prints.

  15. Health Outcomes of a Series of Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music Sessions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cathy H; Honig, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) is a music-centered approach to exploring consciousness for personal growth and transformation. Applications have been reported in a variety of clinical and nonclinical contexts. The purpose of this study was to review evidence that a series of Bonny Method of GIM sessions may promote positive health outcomes in adults. This systematic review examined randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and repeated measures designs that reported psychological or physiological outcomes following a series of at least six individual Bonny Method of GIM sessions. Researchers assessed each study for risk of bias and computed effect sizes for outcome variables. Of 270 non-duplicate titles retrieved, nine met criteria for inclusion, and eight had moderate or low risk of bias. These included 275 participants 18-78 years of age representing a variety of populations. Multiple studies measured anxiety, depression, mood disturbance, interpersonal problems, quality of life, sense of coherence, and/or psychiatric symptoms and found medium to large effect sizes. Four included physiological measures (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, beta-endorphin, cortisol, and pain) and reported medium to large effect sizes, none of which were replicated across studies in this review. Evidence is promising that a series of Bonny Method of GIM sessions may be effective for improving both psychological and physiological health and may be therapeutically indicated for adults seeking treatment with medical, mental health, and nonclinical needs. Further research is needed to replicate findings within outcomes and populations.

  16. A Saliency Guided Semi-Supervised Building Change Detection Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of up to date information of the Earth’s surface are an important application providing insights to urban planning, resources monitoring and environmental studies. A large number of change detection (CD methods have been developed to solve them by utilizing remote sensing (RS images. The advent of high resolution (HR remote sensing images further provides challenges to traditional CD methods and opportunities to object-based CD methods. While several kinds of geospatial objects are recognized, this manuscript mainly focuses on buildings. Specifically, we propose a novel automatic approach combining pixel-based strategies with object-based ones for detecting building changes with HR remote sensing images. A multiresolution contextual morphological transformation called extended morphological attribute profiles (EMAPs allows the extraction of geometrical features related to the structures within the scene at different scales. Pixel-based post-classification is executed on EMAPs using hierarchical fuzzy clustering. Subsequently, the hierarchical fuzzy frequency vector histograms are formed based on the image-objects acquired by simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC segmentation. Then, saliency and morphological building index (MBI extracted on difference images are used to generate a pseudo training set. Ultimately, object-based semi-supervised classification is implemented on this training set by applying random forest (RF. Most of the important changes are detected by the proposed method in our experiments. This study was checked for effectiveness using visual evaluation and numerical evaluation.

  17. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  18. Research methods for graduate students: a practical framework to guide teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Patricia F; Christian, Becky J; Smith, Sandra L; Vance, David E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the Arrow Framework for Research Design, an organizing framework that facilitates teaching and learning of research methods, providing logical organization of interrelationships between concepts, content, and context of research methods, and practice application. The Arrow Framework was designed for teaching and learning research methods to facilitate progression of knowledge acquisition through synthesis. The framework was developed over several years and used successfully to teach masters, DNP, and PhD nursing students across five universities. The framework is presented with incremental graphics and narrative for teaching. The Arrow Framework provides user-friendly information, in an organized and systematic approach demonstrated as successful for teaching and learning the foundational language of research, facilitating synthesis and application in scholarly endeavors. The Arrow Framework will be useful for educators and students in teaching and learning research language, relationships, and application of methods. The materials are easily adaptable to slide or paper presentation, and meet learner needs for narrative and visual presentation. Teaching research design to graduate students is critical to meet the expectation that students are to understand the scientific underpinnings of nursing science and appropriate use of evidence that are essential for well-educated practitioners. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Econometric Methods for Causal Evaluation of Education Policies and Practices: A Non-Technical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotter, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido; Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    Education policy-makers and practitioners want to know which policies and practices can best achieve their goals. But research that can inform evidence-based policy often requires complex methods to distinguish causation from accidental association. Avoiding econometric jargon and technical detail, this paper explains the main idea and intuition…

  20. A Saliency Guided Semi-Supervised Building Change Detection Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bin; Wang, Yunhong; Liu, Qingjie

    2016-08-27

    Characterizations of up to date information of the Earth's surface are an important application providing insights to urban planning, resources monitoring and environmental studies. A large number of change detection (CD) methods have been developed to solve them by utilizing remote sensing (RS) images. The advent of high resolution (HR) remote sensing images further provides challenges to traditional CD methods and opportunities to object-based CD methods. While several kinds of geospatial objects are recognized, this manuscript mainly focuses on buildings. Specifically, we propose a novel automatic approach combining pixel-based strategies with object-based ones for detecting building changes with HR remote sensing images. A multiresolution contextual morphological transformation called extended morphological attribute profiles (EMAPs) allows the extraction of geometrical features related to the structures within the scene at different scales. Pixel-based post-classification is executed on EMAPs using hierarchical fuzzy clustering. Subsequently, the hierarchical fuzzy frequency vector histograms are formed based on the image-objects acquired by simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) segmentation. Then, saliency and morphological building index (MBI) extracted on difference images are used to generate a pseudo training set. Ultimately, object-based semi-supervised classification is implemented on this training set by applying random forest (RF). Most of the important changes are detected by the proposed method in our experiments. This study was checked for effectiveness using visual evaluation and numerical evaluation.

  1. A C-arm calibration method with application to fluoroscopic image-guided procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Lav; Gibbs, Jason D.; Wibowo, Henky

    2012-02-01

    C-arm fluoroscopy units provide continuously updating X-ray video images during surgical procedure. The modality is widely adopted for its low cost, real-time imaging capabilities, and its ability to display radio-opaque tools in the anatomy. It is, however, important to correct for fluoroscopic image distortion and estimate camera parameters, such as focal length and camera center, for registration with 3D CT scans in fluoroscopic imageguided procedures. This paper describes a method for C-arm calibration and evaluates its accuracy in multiple C-arm units and in different viewing orientations. The proposed calibration method employs a commerciallyavailable unit to track the C-arm and a calibration plate. The method estimates both the internal calibration parameters and the transformation between the coordinate systems of tracker and C-arm. The method was successfully tested on two C-arm units (GE OEC 9800 and GE OEC 9800 Plus) of different image intensifier sizes and verified with a rigid airway phantom model. The mean distortion-model error was found to be 0.14 mm and 0.17 mm for the respective C-arms. The mean overall system reprojection error (which measures the accuracy of predicting an image using tracker coordinates) was found to be 0.63 mm for the GE OEC 9800.

  2. A practical guide to boundary element methods with the software library BEMLIB

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2002-01-01

    LAPLACE'S EQUATION IN ONE DIMENSIONGreen's First and Second Identities and the Reciprocal Relation Green's FunctionsBoundary-Value Representation Boundary-Value EquationLAPLACE'S EQUATION IN TWO DIMENSIONS Green's First and Second Identities and the Reciprocal RelationGreen's Functions Integral Representation Integral Equations Hypersingular Integrals Irrotational FlowGeneralized Single- and Double-Layer Representations BOUNDARY-ELEMENT METHODS FOR LAPLACE'S EQUATION IN TWO DIMENSIONSBoundary Element Discretization .Discretization of

  3. SCI Identification (SCIDNT) program user's guide. [maximum likelihood method for linear rotorcraft models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The computer program Linear SCIDNT which evaluates rotorcraft stability and control coefficients from flight or wind tunnel test data is described. It implements the maximum likelihood method to maximize the likelihood function of the parameters based on measured input/output time histories. Linear SCIDNT may be applied to systems modeled by linear constant-coefficient differential equations. This restriction in scope allows the application of several analytical results which simplify the computation and improve its efficiency over the general nonlinear case.

  4. Guided-wave photodiode using through-absorber quantum-well-intermixing and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention includes a high-speed, high-saturation power detector (e.g., a photodiode) compatible with a relatively simple monolithic integration process. In particular embodiments, the photodiode includes an intrinsic bulk absorption region, which is grown above a main waveguide core including a number of quantum wells (QWs) that are used as the active region of a phase modulator. The invention also includes methods of fabricating integrated photodiode and waveguide assemblies using a monolithic, simplified process.

  5. An Overview of Research in the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Elizabeth Grocke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article follows the development of research studies in the Bonny Method of GIM from the 1970s to the present day. Some studies, particularly those focussing on medical conditions, utilize a quantitative framework in which measurement of variables is the cornerstone.  Other studies have focussed on a qualitative paradigm where the focus is on the experience of participants receiving the Bonny Method of GIM.  Further, many studies now use adaptations of the original form, either because the client group requires shorter programs, or different music, or because the therapist modifies GIM to provide a different experience to that of the individual 1.5+ hour session.  These adaptations are also addressed in this article.  Finally, researchers have explored the music used in the Bonny Method of GIM from different perspectives, either by analyzing the structure of the music, or measuring how the music effects imagery creation, or physiological measures of the body. What is evident from this overview of research is that many studies are done at Master’s and PhD level, or conducted by a team of researchers. There is great diversity in what has been researched to date, indicating that research will continue to be an important aspect of GIM practice.

  6. Disorder Prediction Methods, Their Applicability to Different Protein Targets and Their Usefulness for Guiding Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Atkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role and function of a given protein is dependent on its structure. In recent years, however, numerous studies have highlighted the importance of unstructured, or disordered regions in governing a protein’s function. Disordered proteins have been found to play important roles in pivotal cellular functions, such as DNA binding and signalling cascades. Studying proteins with extended disordered regions is often problematic as they can be challenging to express, purify and crystallise. This means that interpretable experimental data on protein disorder is hard to generate. As a result, predictive computational tools have been developed with the aim of predicting the level and location of disorder within a protein. Currently, over 60 prediction servers exist, utilizing different methods for classifying disorder and different training sets. Here we review several good performing, publicly available prediction methods, comparing their application and discussing how disorder prediction servers can be used to aid the experimental solution of protein structure. The use of disorder prediction methods allows us to adopt a more targeted approach to experimental studies by accurately identifying the boundaries of ordered protein domains so that they may be investigated separately, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successful experimental solution.

  7. Scented guide ropes as a method to enhance brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) trap capture success on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, L.C.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for controlling the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam include a modified minnow trap with a live mouse lure. We investigated the effects on capture success of augmenting these traps with scented guide ropes leading to trap entrances. Initial screening of scent preferences was based on time spent in scented and unscented arms of a Y-maze. Preferences of large and small snakes were scored for six different prey scents (live and carrion gecko, skink, and mouse). Large snakes spent more time in the maze arm scented with live gecko and carrion gecko, whereas small snakes spent more time in the arm scented with carrion mouse and carrion gecko. After the laboratory study, a pilot trapping session was conducted in the field using three treatments (live mouse-scented ropes, carrion gecko-scented ropes, and carrion mouse-scented ropes) and two controls (traps with unscented guide ropes and those with no ropes attached). Contrary to laboratory results, live mouse-scented ropes were most effective. We conducted a second trapping session using live mouse-scented ropes as well as the two controls used in the pilot study. For snakes of below-average to average condition, the number of captures for traps with live mouse-scented ropes was higher than for traps with no ropes. However, for snakes of above-average condition, there were no differences in capture rates between trap treatments. Overall, treatment effects were weaker than latent individual heterogeneity and the influence of snake body size, with large snakes trapped more readily. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  8. Predicting the local impacts of energy development: a critical guide to forecasting methods and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D.; O' Hare, M.

    1977-05-01

    Models forecasting second-order impacts from energy development vary in their methodology, output, assumptions, and quality. As a rough dichotomy, they either simulate community development over time or combine various submodels providing community snapshots at selected points in time. Using one or more methods - input/output models, gravity models, econometric models, cohort-survival models, or coefficient models - they estimate energy-development-stimulated employment, population, public and private service needs, and government revenues and expenditures at some future time (ranging from annual to average year predictions) and for different governmental jurisdictions (municipal, county, state, etc.). Underlying assumptions often conflict, reflecting their different sources - historical data, comparative data, surveys, and judgments about future conditions. Model quality, measured by special features, tests, exportability and usefulness to policy-makers, reveals careful and thorough work in some cases and hurried operations with insufficient in-depth analysis in others.

  9. An optical method for reducing green fluorescence from urine during fluorescence-guided cystoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René; Hermann, Gregers G

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of bladder tumour tissue significantly improves endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer in rigid cystoscopes in the operating theatre and thus reduces tumour recurrence. PDD comprises the use of blue light, which unfortunately excites green fluorescence...... from urine. As this green fluorescence confounds the desired red fluorescence of the PDD, methods for avoiding this situation particularly in cystoscopy using flexible cystoscopes are desirable. In this paper we demonstrate how a tailor made high power LED light source at 525 nm can be used...... for fluorescence assisted tumour detection using both a flexible and rigid cystoscope used in the outpatient department (OPD) and operating room (OR) respectively. It is demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo how this light source can significantly reduce the green fluorescence problem with urine. At the same time...

  10. What are the theories and methods guiding research on the teaching of mathematics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Duval

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics presents some difficulties of comprehension which are not found in other subjects. The choice of theories and methods to collect and analyze students’ work depends on the perspective taken to study them. This paper examines and compares the mathematical, cognitive and pedagogical perspectives to analyze the process of comprehension and acquisition of mathematical knowledge. With this aim, four issues are approached: a are the comprehension criteria the same under the three perspectives?; b does mathematical success with a problem mean comprehension of a cognitive viewpoint?; c how can types of error be distinguished in order to analyze the causes of lack of comprehension?; d do progressions built on “pre-requisite” analyses favor or ignore the specifi c cognitive development which leads to the comprehension of mathematics? The paper shows that the particular importance of the cognitive perspective stems from the fact that the mathematical activity has always two sides.

  11. The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (BMGIM) with Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    the quality of life of the participants? 3) Can music and imagery help the participants in their rehabilitation process? 4) What is the experience of the participants of BMGIM and its effects on mood and quality of life in the rehabilitation process? 5) What is the specific nature of the imagery or image...... configuration of cancer survivors in GIM? 6) How does the imagery develop and/or is re-configured during GIM therapy? 7) What elements are there that describe the relationship between the music and the imagery transformations? Subquestions 1-3 are addressed in a quantitative investigation with 10 hypotheses....... Subquestions 4-8 are addressed in a qualitative investigation in three parts: 1. with focus on the participants’ experience of the BMGIM therapy, 2. with focus on the imagery, 3. with focus on the interrelationship between music and imagery. METHOD The quantitative investigation: Clinical trial...

  12. The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (BMGIM) with Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    . Subquestions 4-8 are addressed in a qualitative investigation in three parts: 1. with focus on the participants’ experience of the BMGIM therapy, 2. with focus on the imagery, 3. with focus on the interrelationship between music and imagery. METHOD The quantitative investigation: Clinical trial......SHORT SUMMARY MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the influence of ten individual BMGIM sessions on mood and quality of life in cancer survivors? - The investigation addresses the following sub-questions: 1) Can ten BMGIM sessions improve the mood of the participants? 2) Can ten BMGIM sessions improve...... configuration of cancer survivors in GIM? 6) How does the imagery develop and/or is re-configured during GIM therapy? 7) What elements are there that describe the relationship between the music and the imagery transformations? Subquestions 1-3 are addressed in a quantitative investigation with 10 hypotheses...

  13. Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerdalize

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mpumalanga Province, South Africa is a low malaria transmission area that is subject to malaria epidemics. SaTScan methodology was used by the malaria control programme to detect local malaria clusters to assist disease control planning. The third season for case cluster identification overlapped with the first season of implementing an outbreak identification and response system in the area. Methods SaTScan™ software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using definitively confirmed individual cases in seven towns over three malaria seasons. Following passive case reporting at health facilities during the 2002 to 2005 seasons, active case detection was carried out in the communities, this assisted with determining the probable source of infection. The distribution and statistical significance of the clusters were explored by means of Monte Carlo replication of data sets under the null hypothesis with replications greater than 999 to ensure adequate power for defining clusters. Results and discussion SaTScan detected five space-clusters and two space-time clusters during the study period. There was strong concordance between recognized local clustering of cases and outbreak declaration in specific towns. Both Albertsnek and Thambokulu reported malaria outbreaks in the same season as space-time clusters. This synergy may allow mutual validation of the two systems in confirming outbreaks demanding additional resources and cluster identification at local level to better target resources. Conclusion Exploring the clustering of cases assisted with the planning of public health activities, including mobilizing health workers and resources. Where appropriate additional indoor residual spraying, focal larviciding and health promotion activities, were all also carried out.

  14. A practical cone-beam CT scatter correction method with optimized Monte Carlo simulations for image-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Bai, Ti; Yan, Hao; Ouyang, Luo; Pompos, Arnold; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-05-07

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) has become the standard image guidance tool for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy. However, due to its large illumination field, scattered photons severely degrade its image quality. While kernel-based scatter correction methods have been used routinely in the clinic, it is still desirable to develop Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based methods due to their accuracy. However, the high computational burden of the MC method has prevented routine clinical application. This paper reports our recent development of a practical method of MC-based scatter estimation and removal for CBCT. In contrast with conventional MC approaches that estimate scatter signals using a scatter-contaminated CBCT image, our method used a planning CT image for MC simulation, which has the advantages of accurate image intensity and absence of image truncation. In our method, the planning CT was first rigidly registered with the CBCT. Scatter signals were then estimated via MC simulation. After scatter signals were removed from the raw CBCT projections, a corrected CBCT image was reconstructed. The entire workflow was implemented on a GPU platform for high computational efficiency. Strategies such as projection denoising, CT image downsampling, and interpolation along the angular direction were employed to further enhance the calculation speed. We studied the impact of key parameters in the workflow on the resulting accuracy and efficiency, based on which the optimal parameter values were determined. Our method was evaluated in numerical simulation, phantom, and real patient cases. In the simulation cases, our method reduced mean HU errors from 44 to 3 HU and from 78 to 9 HU in the full-fan and the half-fan cases, respectively. In both the phantom and the patient cases, image artifacts caused by scatter, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area, were reduced. With all the techniques employed, we achieved computation time of less than 30 s including the

  15. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  16. Segmentation Method for Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vargas-Olivares

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is a minimally invasive therapy modality in which ultrasound beams are concentrated at a focal region, producing a rise of temperature and selective ablation within the focal volume and leaving surrounding tissues intact. HIFU has been proposed for the safe ablation of both malignant and benign tissues and as an agent for drug delivery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been proposed as guidance and monitoring method for the therapy. The identification of regions of interest is a crucial procedure in HIFU therapy planning. This procedure is performed in the MR images. The purpose of the present research work is to implement a time-efficient and functional segmentation scheme, based on the watershed segmentation algorithm, for the MR images used for the HIFU therapy planning. The achievement of a segmentation process with functional results is feasible, but preliminary image processing steps are required in order to define the markers for the segmentation algorithm. Moreover, the segmentation scheme is applied in parallel to an MR image data set through the use of a thread pool, achieving a near real-time execution and making a contribution to solve the time-consuming problem of the HIFU therapy planning.

  17. Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Rajiv [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Burtnyk, Mathieu [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A [University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Bronskill, Michael J [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2005-11-07

    A method for conformal prostate thermal therapy using transurethral ultrasound heating applicators incorporating planar transducers is described. The capability to shape heating patterns to the geometry of the prostate gland from a single element in a multi-element heating applicator was evaluated using Bioheat transfer modelling. Eleven prostate geometries were obtained from patients who underwent MR imaging of the prostate gland prior to radical prostatectomy. Results indicate that ultrasound heating applicators incorporating multi-frequency planar transducers (4 x 20 mm, f 4.7 MHz, 9.7 MHz) are capable of shaping thermal damage patterns to the geometry of individual prostates. A temperature feedback control algorithm has been developed to control the frequency, rotation rate and applied power level from transurethral heating applicators based on measurements of the boundary temperature during heating. The discrepancy between the thermal damage boundary and the target boundary was less than 5 mm, and the transition distance between coagulation and normal tissue was less than 1 cm. Treatment times for large prostate volumes were less than 50 min, and perfusion did not have significant impact on the control algorithm. Rectal cooling will play an important role in reducing undesired heating near the rectal wall. Experimental validation of the simulations in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and generated patterns of thermal damage.

  18. Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rajiv; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Haider, Masoom A; Bronskill, Michael J

    2005-11-07

    A method for conformal prostate thermal therapy using transurethral ultrasound heating applicators incorporating planar transducers is described. The capability to shape heating patterns to the geometry of the prostate gland from a single element in a multi-element heating applicator was evaluated using Bioheat transfer modelling. Eleven prostate geometries were obtained from patients who underwent MR imaging of the prostate gland prior to radical prostatectomy. Results indicate that ultrasound heating applicators incorporating multi-frequency planar transducers (4 x 20 mm, f = 4.7 MHz, 9.7 MHz) are capable of shaping thermal damage patterns to the geometry of individual prostates. A temperature feedback control algorithm has been developed to control the frequency, rotation rate and applied power level from transurethral heating applicators based on measurements of the boundary temperature during heating. The discrepancy between the thermal damage boundary and the target boundary was less than 5 mm, and the transition distance between coagulation and normal tissue was less than 1 cm. Treatment times for large prostate volumes were less than 50 min, and perfusion did not have significant impact on the control algorithm. Rectal cooling will play an important role in reducing undesired heating near the rectal wall. Experimental validation of the simulations in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and generated patterns of thermal damage.

  19. Dying Well: The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music at End of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Louise Cadrin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This case study demonstrates the role of The Bonny Method in addressing psychosocial, spiritual, and existential issues particular to end of life, and in the subsequent peaceful death experience of a 47 year old palliative cancer patient. In reviewing her final 8 months of life, the case study demonstrates the patient’s willingness to explore her emotions of shame related to having cancer, fears of the cancer metastasizing, and the grief and sadness common to anticipatory grief and to a traumatic incident that she experienced as a youth. It demonstrates how she was able to reconcile relationships with family members prior to death, as well as acknowledge her part in this conflict. It shows how she drew insight from the sessions to direct her own course of treatment, resulting in an increased sense of control. Lastly, this case study demonstrates both archetypal imagery and imagery that reflects the dying process, augmented by poetry written by the patient as a further means of expressing and understanding her experience.

  20. [Assessment of overall spatial accuracy in image guided stereotactic body radiotherapy using a spine registration method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Uchiyama, Yukio; Komori, Masataka; Hayashi, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung and liver tumors is always performed under image guidance, a technique used to confirm the accuracy of setup positioning by fusing planning digitally reconstructed radiographs with X-ray, fluoroscopic, or computed tomography (CT) images, using bony structures, tumor shadows, or metallic markers as landmarks. The Japanese SBRT guidelines state that bony spinal structures should be used as the main landmarks for patient setup. In this study, we used the Novalis system as a linear accelerator for SBRT of lung and liver tumors. The current study compared the differences between spine registration and target registration and calculated total spatial accuracy including setup uncertainty derived from our image registration results and the geometric uncertainty of the Novalis system. We were able to evaluate clearly whether overall spatial accuracy is achieved within a setup margin (SM) for planning target volume (PTV) in treatment planning. After being granted approval by the Hospital and University Ethics Committee, we retrospectively analyzed eleven patients with lung tumor and seven patients with liver tumor. The results showed the total spatial accuracy to be within a tolerable range for SM of treatment planning. We therefore regard our method to be suitable for image fusion involving 2-dimensional X-ray images during the treatment planning stage of SBRT for lung and liver tumors.

  1. Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: Guided hybrid input-output method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, C. W.; Lee, T. K.

    2007-08-01

    We have developed an algorithm that combines the concept of optimization with the conventional hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm for phase retrieval of oversampled diffraction intensities. In particular, the optimization algorithm of guiding searching direction to locate the global minimum has been implemented. Compared with HIO, this guided HIO algorithm retrieves the lost phase information from diffraction intensities with much better accuracy.

  2. MR-guided dynamic PET reconstruction with the kernel method and spectral temporal basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosad, Philip; Reader, Andrew J

    2016-06-21

    Recent advances in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve markedly improved end-point kinetic parameter maps by incorporating a temporal model of the radiotracer directly into the reconstruction algorithm. In this work we have developed a highly constrained, fully dynamic PET reconstruction algorithm incorporating both spectral analysis temporal basis functions and spatial basis functions derived from the kernel method applied to a co-registered T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image. The dynamic PET image is modelled as a linear combination of spatial and temporal basis functions, and a maximum likelihood estimate for the coefficients can be found using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Following reconstruction, kinetic fitting using any temporal model of interest can be applied. Based on a BrainWeb T1-weighted MR phantom, we performed a realistic dynamic [(18)F]FDG simulation study with two noise levels, and investigated the quantitative performance of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, comparing it with reconstructions incorporating either spectral analysis temporal basis functions alone or kernel spatial basis functions alone, as well as with conventional frame-independent reconstruction. Compared to the other reconstruction algorithms, the proposed algorithm achieved superior performance, offering a decrease in spatially averaged pixel-level root-mean-square-error on post-reconstruction kinetic parametric maps in the grey/white matter, as well as in the tumours when they were present on the co-registered MR image. When the tumours were not visible in the MR image, reconstruction with the proposed algorithm performed similarly to reconstruction with spectral temporal basis functions and was superior to both conventional frame-independent reconstruction and frame-independent reconstruction with kernel spatial basis functions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a joint spectral

  3. MR-guided dynamic PET reconstruction with the kernel method and spectral temporal basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosad, Philip; Reader, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve markedly improved end-point kinetic parameter maps by incorporating a temporal model of the radiotracer directly into the reconstruction algorithm. In this work we have developed a highly constrained, fully dynamic PET reconstruction algorithm incorporating both spectral analysis temporal basis functions and spatial basis functions derived from the kernel method applied to a co-registered T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image. The dynamic PET image is modelled as a linear combination of spatial and temporal basis functions, and a maximum likelihood estimate for the coefficients can be found using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Following reconstruction, kinetic fitting using any temporal model of interest can be applied. Based on a BrainWeb T1-weighted MR phantom, we performed a realistic dynamic [18F]FDG simulation study with two noise levels, and investigated the quantitative performance of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, comparing it with reconstructions incorporating either spectral analysis temporal basis functions alone or kernel spatial basis functions alone, as well as with conventional frame-independent reconstruction. Compared to the other reconstruction algorithms, the proposed algorithm achieved superior performance, offering a decrease in spatially averaged pixel-level root-mean-square-error on post-reconstruction kinetic parametric maps in the grey/white matter, as well as in the tumours when they were present on the co-registered MR image. When the tumours were not visible in the MR image, reconstruction with the proposed algorithm performed similarly to reconstruction with spectral temporal basis functions and was superior to both conventional frame-independent reconstruction and frame-independent reconstruction with kernel spatial basis functions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a joint spectral

  4. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum: An effective method to trace the origin of unclear ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que Yanhong [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: quebaobao@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xuemei [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: wxmlmt@yahoo.com.cn; Liu Yanjun [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: lyj7512@sina.com; Li Ping [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: liping7213@sina.com; Ou Guocheng [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: yang9951@126.com; Zhao Wenjing [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: awk999@163.com

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: Thickened greater omentum is encountered with high frequency in patients with ascites. The purpose of our study was to assess the utility of greater omentum biopsy under the guidance of ultrasound (US) in tracing the origin of unclear ascites and differentiating benign and malignant ascites. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database for all records of greater omentum biopsy cases. One hundred and ninety-four patients with unclear ascites and thickened greater omentum were included in the study. The sonograms of greater omentum were evaluated before undergoing the ultrasound-guided biopsy and a biopsy was considered successful if a specific benign or malignant diagnosis was rendered by the pathologist. Results: Successful biopsy was rendered for 182 biopsy procedures (93.8%, 182/194) including tuberculosis (n = 114), chronic inflammation (n = 3), metastases (n = 58), malignant mesothelioma (n = 6) and pseudomyxoma peritonei (n = 1). Twelve biopsies were non-diagnostic. According to the results of biopsy and follow-up, the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascities were respectively 95.6% (65/68) and 92.9% (117/126). The greater omentum of 84 cases of tuberculous peritonitis showed 'cerebral fissure' sign and was well seen as an omental cake infiltrated with irregular nodules when involved by carcinomatosis. No 'cerebral fissure' sign was observed in peritoneal carcinomatosis. The sensitivity and specificity of this sign in indicating the existence of tuberculous peritonitis were 73.5% (89/121) and 100% (73/73). Moreover, if the specific 'cerebral fissure' sign was combined with the biopsy results, the specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascits increased to 96.8% (122/126). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum is an important and effective method to diagnose the unclear ascites for

  5. Dynamic and stability analysis of the linear guide with time-varying, piecewise-nonlinear stiffness by multi-term incremental harmonic balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxi; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Wen, Bangchun

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic behaviors and stability of the linear guide considering contact actions are studied by multi-term incremental harmonic balance method (IHBM). Based on fully considering the parameters of the linear guide, a static model is developed and the contact stiffness is calculated according to Hertz contact theory. A generalized time-varying and piecewise-nonlinear dynamic model of the linear guide is formulated to perform an accurate investigation on its dynamic behaviors and stability. The numerical simulation is used to confirm the feasibility of the approach. The effects of excitation force and mean load on the system are analyzed in low-order nonlinearity. Multi-term IHBM and numerical simulation are employed to the effect of high-order nonlinearity and show the transition to chaos. Additionally, the effects of preload, initial contact angle, the number and diameter of balls are discussed.

  6. Comparison the Effect of Teaching by Group Guided Discovery Learning, Questions & Answers and Lecturing Methods on the Level of Learning and Information Durability of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardanparvar H.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The requirements for revising the traditional education methods and utilization of new and active student-oriented learning methods have come into the scope of the educational systems long ago. Therefore, the new methods are being popular in different sciences including medical sciences. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching through three methods (group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture methods on the learning level and information durability in the nursing students. Instrument & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 62 forth-semester nursing students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, who were passing the infectious course for the first time at the first semester of the academic year 2015-16, were studied. The subjects were selected via census method and randomly divided into three groups including group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture groups. The test was conducted before, immediately after, and one month after the conduction of the training program using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, ANOVA with repeated observations, and LSD post-hoc test. Findings: The mean score of the test conducted immediately after the training program in the lecture group was significantly lesser than guided discovery and question and answer groups (p<0.001. In addition, the mean score of the test conducted one month after the training program in guided discovery group was significantly higher than both question and answer (p=0.004 and lecture (p=0.001 groups. Conclusion: Active educational methods lead to a higher level of the students’ participation in the educational issues and provided a background to enhance learning and for better information durability. 

  7. Practicing the practice: Learning to guide elementary science discussions in a practice-oriented science methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashima Mathur

    University methods courses are often criticized for telling pre-service teachers, or interns, about the theories behind teaching instead of preparing them to actually enact teaching. Shifting teacher education to be more "practice-oriented," or to focus more explicitly on the work of teaching, is a current trend for re-designing the way we prepare teachers. This dissertation addresses the current need for research that unpacks the shift to more practice-oriented approaches by studying the content and pedagogical approaches in a practice-oriented, masters-level elementary science methods course (n=42 interns). The course focused on preparing interns to guide science classroom discussions. Qualitative data, such as video records of course activities and interns' written reflections, were collected across eight course sessions. Codes were applied at the sentence and paragraph level and then grouped into themes. Five content themes were identified: foregrounding student ideas and questions, steering discussion toward intended learning goals, supporting students to do the cognitive work, enacting teacher role of facilitator, and creating a classroom culture for science discussions. Three pedagogical approach themes were identified. First, the teacher educators created images of science discussions by modeling and showing videos of this practice. They also provided focused teaching experiences by helping interns practice the interactive aspects of teaching both in the methods classroom and with smaller groups of elementary students in schools. Finally, they structured the planning and debriefing phases of teaching so interns could learn from their teaching experiences and prepare well for future experiences. The findings were analyzed through the lens of Grossman and colleagues' framework for teaching practice (2009) to reveal how the pedagogical approaches decomposed, represented, and approximated practice throughout course activities. Also, the teacher educators

  8. The benefits of paired-agent imaging in molecular-guided surgery: an update on methods and applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2016-03-01

    One of the major complications with conventional imaging-agent-based molecular imaging, particularly for cancer imaging, is variability in agent delivery and nonspecific retention in biological tissue. Such factors can account to "swamp" the signal arising from specifically bound imaging agent, which is presumably indicative of the concentration of targeted biomolecule. In the 1950s, Pressman et al. proposed a method of accounting for these delivery and retention effects by normalizing targeted antibody retention to the retention of a co-administered "untargeted"/control imaging agent [1]. Our group resurrected the approach within the last 5 years, finding ways to utilize this so-called "paired-agent" imaging approach to directly quantify biomolecule concentration in tissue (in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo) [2]. These novel paired-agent imaging approaches capable of quantifying biomolecule concentration provide enormous potential for being adapted to and optimizing molecular-guided surgery, which has a principle goal of identifying distinct biological tissues (tumor, nerves, etc…) based on their distinct molecular environment. This presentation will cover the principles and nuances of paired-agent imaging, as well as the current status of the field and future applications. [1] D. Pressman, E. D. Day, and M. Blau, "The use of paired labeling in the determination of tumor-localizing antibodies," Cancer Res, 17(9), 845-50 (1957). [2] K. M. Tichauer, Y. Wang, B. W. Pogue et al., "Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging," Phys Med Biol, 60(14), R239-69 (2015).

  9. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for thyroid nodules: effective technique and a peculiar smear method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyeong Rok; Rho, Myung Ho [Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyungkwan University School of Medicine, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook; Koo, Yong Woon; Lee, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Tae Woo [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    We wanted to evaluate the effective methods that are appropriate for an endemic area of thyroid disease and to compare the differences of cytologic diagnostic rates with and without using a peculiar smear technique. We analyzed the incidence rate of insufficient results, complications and the total procedure times of 1,126 thyroid nodules in 776 patients who underwent US-FNAB (ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy) from January to December 2005. We compared the diagnostic rate between the two groups; the groups' tests were performed with a peculiar smear technique (Group A, n 313) or with a ventional smear technique (Group B, n = 250). According to the size of the thyroid nodule, the incidence rate of an insufficient result on US-FNAB and the mean total procedure time for 1126 thyroid nodules in 776 patients were measured as 16.9% (52/308) and 208 seconds for nodules under 0.5 cm, 9.8% (30/306) and 160 seconds for nodules between 0.5 cm-10 cm, and 6.0% (30/504) and 134 seconds for nodules over 1.0 cm. These 776 patients showed no significant complication, except for mild pain. In Group A, the incidence rate of an insufficient result was calculated as 15.1% (14/93) for the group with nodules under 0.5 cm, 5.3% (5/95) for the group with nodules between 0.5 cm-1.0 cm, 4.8% (6/125) for the group with nodules over 1.0 cm, and 8.0% (25/313) for the total A Group. In Group B, the incidence rate of an insufficient result was measured as 33.3% (15/45) for the group with nodules under 0.5 cm, 28.1% (25/89) for the group with nodules between 0.5 cm-1.0 cm, 21.4% (24/112) for the group with nodules over 1.0 cm, and 25.7% (63/245) for the total B group. There was a statistically significant correlation between the rate of an insufficient result and the peculiar smear technique or the size of the thyroid nodule. We consider that US-FNAB is very simple, safe and accurate diagnostic method for thyroid nodules, and US-FNAB with a peculiar smear technique is able

  10. Delphi Method Validation of a Procedural Performance Checklist for Insertion of an Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Central Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nicholas; Wittler, Mary; Askew, Kim; Manthey, David

    2016-01-01

    Placement of ultrasound-guided central lines is a critical skill for physicians in several specialties. Improving the quality of care delivered surrounding this procedure demands rigorous measurement of competency, and validated tools to assess performance are essential. Using the iterative, modified Delphi technique and experts in multiple disciplines across the United States, the study team created a 30-item checklist designed to assess competency in the placement of ultrasound-guided internal jugular central lines. Cronbach α was .94, indicating an excellent degree of internal consistency. Further validation of this checklist will require its implementation in simulated and clinical environments.

  11. Fluoroscopy-guided gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (G-POEM): a more reliable and efficient method for treatment of refractory gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, H B; Fan, H Z; Meng, X M; Cristofaro, S; Mekaroonkamol, P; Dacha, S; Li, L Y; Fu, X L; Zhan, S H; Cai, Q

    2017-04-13

    Prior studies show promising results of the gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (G-POEM) procedure for treatment of refractory gastroparesis. One major technical challenge involved in this procedure is identifying the pyloric muscular ring (PMR). The aim of this study is to establish a reliable method for identification of the PMR during G-POEM. Fluoroscopy-guided G-POEM was performed by placing an endoclip at the 9 to 11'o clock position at the pylorus for identification of PMR. Conventional G-POEM was performed by observation of blue colored mucosa at the pylorus area as an indirect marker for PMR. The degree of the PMR identification was graded into well identified, identified, and not identified based on the appearance of the PMR. Procedure times were accurately documented. Gastroparesis cardinal symptoms index and gastric emptying scintigraphy were evaluated before and after the procedure. Fourteen patients were studied, seven underwent fluoroscopy-guided G-POEM, and seven patients underwent conventional G-POEM. All procedures achieved technical success and no adverse events occurred. In the seven patients who underwent fluoroscopy-guided G-POEM, the PMR was well identified in four patients and identified in three patients. In the seven patients who underwent conventional G-POEM, the PMR was identified in four patients and not identified in three patients. The average time to complete the fluoroscopy-guided G-POEM was significantly shorter than that of the conventional G-POEM. Fluoroscopy-guided G-POEM by placement of an endoclip at the pylorus was a reliable and safe method to direct the orientation of the submucosal tunnel, to facilitate the location of the PMR, and to shorten the procedure time.

  12. Computer-designed surgical guide template compared with free-hand operation for mesiodens extraction in premaxilla using “trapdoor” method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying Kai; Xie, Qian Yang; Yang, Chi; Xu, Guang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method of mesiodens extraction using a vascularized pedicled bone flap by piezosurgery and to compare the differences between a computer-aided design surgical guide template and free-hand operation. A total of 8 patients with mesiodens, 4 with a surgical guide (group I), and 4 without it (group II) were included in the study. The surgical design was to construct a trapdoor pedicle on the superior mucoperiosteal attachment with application of piezosurgery. The bone lid was repositioned after mesiodens extraction. Group I patients underwent surgeries based on the preoperative planning with surgical guide templates, while group II patients underwent free-hand operation. The outcome variables were success rate, intraoperative time, anterior nasal spine (ANS) position, changes of nasolabial angle (NLA), and major complications. Data from the 2 groups were compared by SPSS 17.0, using Wilcoxon test. The operative time was significantly shorter in group I patients. All the mesiodentes were extracted successfully and no obvious differences of preoperative and postoperative ANS position and NLA value were found in both groups. The patients were all recovered uneventfully. Surgical guide templates can enhance clinical accuracy and reduce operative time by facilitating accurate osteotomies. PMID:28658139

  13. Stiffness evaluation of the welded connection between guide thimbles and the spacer grids 16 X 16 fuel assemblies types, using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos; Sakamiti, Guilherme Pennachin; Gaspar Junior, Joao Carlos Aguiar, E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br, E-mail: guilhermesakamiti@inb.gov.br, E-mail: joaojunior@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Producao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate, structurally, the increase in the number of spot welds to properly join the guide thimbles and the spacer grids in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. This new and improved process can provide more stiffness to the whole structure, since the number of spots raised from four to eight. A 3-D geometric model of a guide thimble section was generated in the program SOLIDWORKS. After that, the geometric model was imported to ANSYS program, where the finite element model was built, considering the guide thimble geometry assembled with the spacer grid and the welded connections. Boundaries conditions were implemented in the model in order to simulate the correct physical behavior due to the operation of the fuel assembly inside the reactor. The analysis covered specific loads and displacements acting on the entire structure. The method used to develop this finite element analysis was a linear static simulation that performing a single connection between a spacer grid cell and a guide thimble section. Hence four models was evaluated, differing on the spot weld number in the spacer grid and guide thimble connection. The rotational stiffness results of each model were compared. The results acquired from four and eight spot weld were validated with physical test results.The behavior of the structure under the acting force/displacement and the related results of the analysis, mainly the stiffness, were satisfied. The results of this analysis were used to prove that the increasing of the spot welds number is an improvement in the dimensional stability when submitted to loads and displacements required on the fuel assembly design. This analysis aid to get more information of extreme importance such as, the pursuance to develop better manufacturing process and to improve the fuel assembly performance due to the increasing of the burn-up. (author)

  14. A Guided Self-Consistent-Field Method for Excited-State Wave Function Optimization: Applications to Ligand-Field Transitions in Transition-Metal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Van Kuiken, Benjamin E; Ding, Feizhi; Li, Xiaosong

    2013-09-10

    A guided self-consistent field (SCF) method is presented in this paper. This method uses the eigenspace update-and-following idea to improve the SCF method for optimizing wave functions that are higher-energy solutions to the Roothaan-Hall equation. In this method, the eigenvectors of the previous SCF step are used to prediagonalize the current Fock/Kohn-Sham matrix, preserving the ordering of orbital occupations. When the subject of interest is an excited state of the same spin symmetry as the ground state, the initial guess of excited wave function is improved with a preconditioning step. The preconditioning step is an SCF iteration applied to the β spin manifold if the initial guess is generated by orbital permutation in the α spin manifold. This simple preconditioning step gives rise to more-stable SCF convergence using the algorithm presented herein. The guided SCF method is used to optimize ligand-field excited states in tetrahedral transition-metal complexes, and calculate ΔSCF excitation energies. The calculated ligand-field transition energies are compared with those obtained from orbital energy differences, linear response time-dependent density functional theory, and experiments. The excitation energies obtained using the method presented in this work show a significant improvement over orbital energy differences and linear response method.

  15. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  16. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D' Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  17. AEROX: Computer program for transonic aircraft aerodynamics to high angles of attack. Volume 1: Aerodynamic methods and program users' guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The AEROX program estimates lift, induced-drag and pitching moments to high angles (typ. 60 deg) for wings and for wingbody combinations with or without an aft horizontal tail. Minimum drag coefficients are not estimated, but may be input for inclusion in the total aerodynamic parameters which are output in listed and plotted formats. The theory, users' guide, test cases, and program listing are presented.

  18. A method for the measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: experimental validation and application to a femoral neck mimicking phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Chekroun, Mathieu; Cassereau, Didier; Laugier, Pascal; Prada, Claire; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-07-07

    Our long-term goal is to develop an ultrasonic method to characterize the thickness, stiffness and porosity of the cortical shell of the femoral neck, which could enhance hip fracture risk prediction. To this purpose, we proposed to adapt a technique based on the measurement of guided waves. We previously evidenced the feasibility of measuring circumferential guided waves in a bone-mimicking phantom of a circular cross-section of even thickness. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the complex geometry of the femoral neck on the measurement of guided waves. Two phantoms of an elliptical cross-section and one phantom of a realistic cross-section were investigated. A 128-element array was used to record the inter-element response matrix of these waveguides. This experiment was simulated using a custom-made hybrid code. The response matrices were analyzed using a technique based on the physics of wave propagation. This method yields portions of dispersion curves of the waveguides which were compared to reference dispersion curves. For the elliptical phantoms, three portions of dispersion curves were determined with a good agreement between experiment, simulation and theory. The method was thus validated. The characteristic dimensions of the shell were found to influence the identification of the circumferential wave signals. The method was then applied to the signals backscattered by the superior half of constant thickness of the realistic phantom. A cut-off frequency and some portions of modes were measured, with a good agreement with the theoretical curves of a plate waveguide. We also observed that the method cannot be applied directly to the signals backscattered by the lower half of varying thicknesses of the phantom. The proposed approach could then be considered to evaluate the properties of the superior part of the femoral neck, which is known to be a clinically relevant site.

  19. The PrePex device is unlikely to achieve cost-savings compared to the forceps-guided method in male circumcision programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Obiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition in men by approximately 60%. MC programs for HIV prevention are currently being scaled-up in fourteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The current standard surgical technique for MC in many sub-Saharan African countries is the forceps-guided male circumcision (FGMC method. The PrePex male circumcision (PMC method could replace FGMC and potentially reduce MC programming costs. We compared the potential costs of introducing the PrePex device into MC programming to the cost of the forceps-guided method. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (NRHS, an MC service delivery organization in Kenya, and from the Kenya Ministry of Health. Analyses are based on 48,265 MC procedures performed in four Districts in western Kenya from 2009 through 2011. Data were entered into the WHO/UNAIDS Decision Makers Program Planning Tool. The tool assesses direct and indirect costs of MC programming. Various sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were discounted at an annual rate of 6% and are presented in United States Dollars. RESULTS: Not including the costs of the PrePex device or referral costs for men with phimosis/tight foreskin, the costs of one MC surgery were $44.54-$49.02 and $54.52-$55.29 for PMC and FGMC, respectively. CONCLUSION: The PrePex device is unlikely to result in significant cost-savings in comparison to the forceps-guided method. MC programmers should target other aspects of the male circumcision minimum package for improved cost efficiency.

  20. Guide to Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-11

    This guide examines new methods of enclosure designs that provide high thermal performance and long-term durability but also take opportunities to reduce material use, simplify or integrate systems and details, and potentially reduce overall initial costs of construction.

  1. Estimation of permeability tensor and dielectric permittivity of ferrites using a wave guide method under a dc magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiachristos I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a vector network analyzer equipped with a calibrated rectangular wave guide the electric permittivity and the element of the magnetic permeability tensor for Y3Fe5O12, ZnFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 are measured. The electric permittivity can be estimated from the body resonances (d = nλ/2 if a sufficient long sample is used. The estimation of the magnetic permeability tensors’ parameters can be estimated comparing the experimental results with computer simulations using the magnetic properties of the materials as derived from the magnetic measurements.

  2. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid: methods to decrease the rate of unsatisfactory biopsies in the absence of an on-site pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naïm, Cyrille; Karam, Ramy; Eddé, Donald

    2013-08-01

    The rate of unsatisfactory samples from ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirations of thyroid nodules varies widely in the literature. We aimed to evaluate our thyroid ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique in the absence of on-site microscopic examination by a pathologist; determine factors that affect the adequacy rate, such as the number of needle passes and needle size; compare our results with the literature; and establish an optimal technique. We performed a retrospective review of cytopathology reports from 252 consecutive thyroid ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies performed by a radiologist between 2005 and 2010 in our hospital's radiology department. Sample adequacy, the number of needle passes, and needle size were determined. There was an on-site cytologist who prepared slides immediately after fine-needle aspiration but no on-site microscopic assessment of sample adequacy to guide the number of needle passes that should be performed. Cytopathology biopsy reports were classified as either unsatisfactory or satisfactory samples for diagnosis; the latter consisted of benign, malignant, and undetermined diagnoses. Seventy-seven biopsies were performed with 1 needle pass, 124 with 2 needle passes, and 51 with 3 needle passes. The rates of unsatisfactory biopsies were 33.8%, 23.4% (odds ratio [OR] 0.599 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.319-1.123]; P = .110), and 13.7% (OR 0.312 [95% CI, 0.124-0.788]; P = .014), respectively. In a hospital in which there is no on-site pathologist, a 3-pass method increases the specimen satisfactory rate by 20% compared with 1 pass, achieves similar rates to the literature, and provides a basis for further improvement of our practice. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling of guided circumferential SH and Lamb-type waves in open waveguides with semi-analytical finite element and Perfectly Matched Layer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Paweł J.

    2017-01-01

    The circumferential guided waves (CGW) are of increasing interest for non-destructive inspecting pipes or other cylindrical structures. If such structures are buried underground, these modes can also deliver some valuable information about the surrounding medium or the quality of the contact between the pipe and the embedding medium. Toward this goal, the detailed knowledge of the dispersive characteristics of CGW is required; henceforth, the robust numerical method has to be established, which allows for the extensive study of the propagation of these modes under different loading conditions. Mathematically, this is the problem of the propagation of guided waves in an open waveguide. This problem differs significantly from the corresponding problem of a closed waveguide both in physical and numerical aspect. The paper presents a combination of semi-analytical finite element method with Perfectly Matched Layer technique for a class of coupled acoustics/elasticity problems with application to modeling of CGW. We discuss different aspects of our algorithm and validate the proposed approach against other established methods available in the literature. The presented numerical examples positively verify the robustness of the proposed method.

  4. How to use multi-criteria decision analysis methods for reimbursement decision-making in healthcare: a step-by-step guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Goeree, Ron

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the quest for more comprehensiveness, structure and transparency in reimbursement decision-making in healthcare has prompted the research into alternative decision-making frameworks. In this environment, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is arising as a valuable tool to support healthcare decision-making. In this paper, we present the main MCDA decision support methods (elementary methods, value-based measurement models, goal programming models and outranking models) using a case study approach. For each family of methods, an example of how an MCDA model would operate in a real decision-making context is presented from a critical perspective, highlighting the parameters setting, the selection of the appropriate evaluation model as well as the role of sensitivity and robustness analyses. This study aims to provide a step-by-step guide on how to use MCDA methods for reimbursement decision-making in healthcare.

  5. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Control Method of Guided Bombs in Roll Channel%制导炸弹滚转通道控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许友竹; 凡永华

    2012-01-01

    During the flight of guided bomb, projectile dynamic parameters changed greatly, while projectile suffured various interference factors. In order to ensure the guidance precision, the controller requires good robustness and instruction trace capabilities. Base on parameter space methods and variable structure control theory, two kind controller design of guided bombs are offered for roll channel. First, theoretically analyzed the robustness of the two controllers. Then, designed two ways to one guided bombs roll channel controller. After the simulation analysis, both controllers have good robustness. In the instruction trace capabilities, variable structure control method is superior to the controller parameter space.%制导炸弹飞行过程中,弹体动力学参数发生较大变化,同时弹体受到各种干扰因素的影响.为了保证制导精度,要求控制器具有良好的鲁棒性和指令跟踪能力.基于参数空间方法和变结构控制理论,提出了两种制导炸弹滚动通道控制器设计方法.首先,从理论上对两种控制器的鲁棒性进行了分析;然后,分别使用两种方法对某制导炸弹滚转通道控制器进行了设计.最后经仿真分析,两种控制器均具有良好的鲁棒性;在指令跟踪能力上,变结构控制器要优于参数空间方法控制器.

  7. Statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation for two dimensional amplitude and time-of-flight mapping of guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenn Chong, See; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yik Park, Chan

    2013-03-01

    Conventional threshold crossing technique generally encounters the difficulty in setting a common threshold level in the extraction of the respective time-of-flights (ToFs) and amplitudes from the guided waves obtained at many different points by spatial scanning. Therefore, we propose a statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation to automatically process numerous guided waves having different propagation distances. First, a two-dimensional (2-D) noise map is generated using one-dimensional (1-D) WT magnitudes at time zero of the acquired waves. Then, the probability density functions (PDFs) of Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution and exponential distribution are used to model the measured 2-D noise map. Graphical goodness-of-fit measurements are used to find the best fit among the three theoretical distributions. Then, the threshold level is automatically determined by selecting the desired confidence level of the noise rejection in the cumulative distribution function of the best fit PDF. Based on this threshold level, the amplitudes and ToFs are extracted and mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. The threshold level determined by the noise statistics may cross the noise signal after time zero. These crossings are represented as salt-and-pepper noise in the ToF and amplitude maps but finally removed by the 1-D median filter. This proposed method was verified in a thick stainless steel hollow cylinder where guided waves were acquired in an area of 180 mm×126 mm of the cylinder by using a laser ultrasonic scanning system and an ultrasonic sensor. The Gamma distribution was estimated as the best fit to the verification experimental data by the proposed algorithm. The statistical parameters of the Gamma distribution were used to determine the threshold level appropriate for most of the guided waves. The ToFs and amplitudes of the first arrival mode were mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. Each map included 447 noisy points out of 90

  8. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  9. The Guideline Implementability Decision Excellence Model (GUIDE-M): a mixed methods approach to create an international resource to advance the practice guideline field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Melissa C; Makarski, Julie; Kastner, Monika; Hayden, Leigh; Bhattacharyya, Onil

    2015-03-15

    Practice guideline (PG) implementability refers to PG features that promote their use. While there are tools and resources to promote PG implementability, none are based on an evidence-informed and multidisciplinary perspective. Our objectives were to (i) create a comprehensive and evidence-informed model of PG implementability, (ii) seek support for the model from the international PG community, (iii) map existing implementability tools on to the model, (iv) prioritize areas for further investigation, and (v) describe how the model can be used by PG developers, users, and researchers. A mixed methods approach was used. Using our completed realist review of the literature of seven different disciplines as the foundation, an iterative consensus process was used to create the beta version of the model. This was followed by (i) a survey of international stakeholders (guideline developers and users) to gather feedback and to refine the model, (ii) a content analysis comparing the model to existing PG tools, and (iii) a strategy to prioritize areas of the model for further research by members of the research team. The Guideline Implementability for Decision Excellence Model (GUIDE-M) is comprised of 3 core tactics, 7 domains, 9 subdomains, 44 attributes, and 40 subattributes and elements. Feedback on the beta version was received from 248 stakeholders from 34 countries. The model was rated as logical, relevant, and appropriate. Seven PG tools were selected and compared to the GUIDE-M: very few tools targeted the Contextualization and Deliberations domain. Also, fewer of the tools addressed PG appraisal than PG development and reporting functions. These findings informed the research priorities identified by the team. The GUIDE-M provides an evidence-informed international and multidisciplinary conceptualization of PG implementability. The model can be used by PG developers to help them create more implementable recommendations, by clinicians and other users to help them

  10. Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) with adults on sick leave suffering from work-related stress – a mixed methods experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Bolette Daniels

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods study in Guided Music and Imagery as a treatment method for adults on long-term stress-related sick leave has combined a randomized clinical trial and a hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of themes and therapy cases. Stress has been studied within a biopsychosocial model......%). The treatment condition included six sessions of GIM plus standard care versus standard care alone. Significant effects of GIM compared to standard care were found after nine weeks in the psychological variables Mood, Sleep Quality, Anxiety, Well-being and Physical Symptoms with effect sizes ranging from 0......, increased energy and well-being, enhanced coping with inner and outer conflicts, helped to overcome traumatic work experiences, provided new relational competencies, improved mood and gave access to hope for the future work life. The results of this study seen in relation to previous research indicate...

  11. Distance-Guided Forward and Backward Chain-Growth Monte Carlo Method for Conformational Sampling and Structural Prediction of Antibody CDR-H3 Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke; Zhang, Jinfeng; Liang, Jie

    2017-01-10

    Antibodies recognize antigens through the complementary determining regions (CDR) formed by six-loop hypervariable regions crucial for the diversity of antigen specificities. Among the six CDR loops, the H3 loop is the most challenging to predict because of its much higher variation in sequence length and identity, resulting in much larger and complex structural space, compared to the other five loops. We developed a novel method based on a chain-growth sequential Monte Carlo method, called distance-guided sequential chain-growth Monte Carlo for H3 loops (DiSGro-H3). The new method samples protein chains in both forward and backward directions. It can efficiently generate low energy, near-native H3 loop structures using the conformation types predicted from the sequences of H3 loops. DiSGro-H3 performs significantly better than another ab initio method, RosettaAntibody, in both sampling and prediction, while taking less computational time. It performs comparably to template-based methods. As an ab initio method, DiSGro-H3 offers satisfactory accuracy while being able to predict any H3 loops without templates.

  12. Evaluation of a Method Using Three Genomic Guided Escherichia coli Markers for Phylogenetic Typing of E. coli Isolates of Various Genetic Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Hirai, Itaru

    2015-06-01

    Genotyping and characterization of bacterial isolates are essential steps in the identification and control of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Recently, one novel genotyping method using three genomic guided Escherichia coli markers (GIG-EM), dinG, tonB, and dipeptide permease (DPP), was reported. Because GIG-EM has not been fully evaluated using clinical isolates, we assessed this typing method with 72 E. coli collection of reference (ECOR) environmental E. coli reference strains and 63 E. coli isolates of various genetic backgrounds. In this study, we designated 768 bp of dinG, 745 bp of tonB, and 655 bp of DPP target sequences for use in the typing method. Concatenations of the processed marker sequences were used to draw GIG-EM phylogenetic trees. E. coli isolates with identical sequence types as identified by the conventional multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method were localized to the same branch of the GIG-EM phylogenetic tree. Sixteen clinical E. coli isolates were utilized as test isolates without prior characterization by conventional MLST and phylogenetic grouping before GIG-EM typing. Of these, 14 clinical isolates were assigned to a branch including only isolates of a pandemic clone, E. coli B2-ST131-O25b, and these results were confirmed by conventional typing methods. Our results suggested that the GIG-EM typing method and its application to phylogenetic trees might be useful tools for the molecular characterization and determination of the genetic relationships among E. coli isolates.

  13. HBR guides

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Nancy; Dillon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Master your most pressing professional challenges with this seven-volume set that collects the smartest best practices from leading experts all in one place. "HBR Guide to Better Business Writing" and "HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations" help you perfect your communication skills; "HBR Guide to Managing Up and Across" and "HBR Guide to Office Politics" show you how to build the best professional relationships; "HBR Guide to Finance Basics for Managers" is the one book you'll ever need to teach you about the numbers; "HBR Guide to Project Management" addresses tough questions such as how to manage stakeholder expectations and how to manage uncertainty in a complex project; and "HBR Guide to Getting the Right Work Done" goes beyond basic productivity tips to teach you how to prioritize and focus on your work. This specially priced set of the most popular books in the series makes a perfect gift for aspiring leaders looking for trusted advice. Arm yourself with the advice you need to succeed on the job, from ...

  14. Research on the Indoor and Outdoor Location Method for Intelligent Guide%面向智能导游的室内外定位方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翎; 龙毅; 余明朗; 葛军莲

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tourist guide is an integrated service of tourist location-based path guide and tour guide, which is closely based on GIS, mobile positioning technology, and LBS. At present, the outdoor location technologies are well developed. However, they are not available indoors. So, the integration of indoor and outdoor positioning technology and its application in the field of intelligent guide urgently are needed to be improved. This paper aims to incorporate outdoor and indoor positioning technologies into scenic tour service. Based on the investigation of various indoor and outdoor positioning technologies, the paper studies the indoor and outdoor integrated positioning method based on GPS and UWB, and proposes an indoor and outdoor combination mode based on visitor behavior and spacial status. Finally, an integrated GPS and UWB outdoor and indoor positioning platform is built by constructing positioning switching algorithm using motion detection.%智能导游是基于游客位置的路径引导、游览讲解的综合性服务,与地理信息系统(GIS)、移动定位技术、基于位置的服务(LBS)等之间有着密切的联系。目前,室外定位技术已趋于成熟,但是无法满足室内定位的要求,因而室内外一体化定位在智能导游领域的应用亟待研究。本文将室内外定位引入到景区智能导游服务中,在调研室内外定位技术的基础之上,根据景区智能导游系统中室内外定位的具体需求,研究基于全球定位系统(GPS)和超宽带技术(UWB)的室内外组合定位方法,提出基于游客行为与空间状态的室内外组合定位模式,通过探测游客的运动状态实现定位切换算法,构建基于GPS与UWB的室内外组合定位平台。

  15. Test of Shi et al. Method to Infer the Magnetic Reconnection Geometry from Spacecraft Data: MHD Simulation with Guide Field and Antiparallel Kinetic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, R.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Swisdak, M.; Birn, J.; Drake, J. F.; Heese, M.

    2012-01-01

    When analyzing data from an array of spacecraft (such as Cluster or MMS) crossing a site of magnetic reconnection, it is desirable to be able to accurately determine the orientation of the reconnection site. If the reconnection is quasi-two dimensional, there are three key directions, the direction of maximum inhomogeneity (the direction across the reconnection site), the direction of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field, and the direction of rough invariance (the "out of plane" direction). Using simulated spacecraft observations of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, we extend our previous tests of the direction-finding method developed by Shi et al. (2005) and the method to determine the structure velocity relative to the spacecraft Vstr. These methods require data from four proximate spacecraft. We add artificial noise and calibration errors to the simulation fields, and then use the perturbed gradient of the magnetic field B and perturbed time derivative dB/dt, as described by Denton et al. (2010). Three new simulations are examined: a weakly three-dimensional, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional, MHD simulation without a guide field, a quasi-two-dimensional MHD simulation with a guide field, and a two-dimensional full dynamics kinetic simulation with inherent noise so that the apparent minimum gradient was not exactly zero, even without added artificial errors. We also examined variations of the spacecraft trajectory for the kinetic simulation. The accuracy of the directions found varied depending on the simulation and spacecraft trajectory, but all the directions could be found within about 10 for all cases. Various aspects of the method were examined, including how to choose averaging intervals and the best intervals for determining the directions and velocity. For the kinetic simulation, we also investigated in detail how the errors in the inferred gradient directions from the unmodified Shi et al. method (using the unperturbed gradient

  16. Method for Optimal Sensor Deployment on 3D Terrains Utilizing a Steady State Genetic Algorithm with a Guided Walk Mutation Operator Based on the Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unaldi, Numan; Temel, Samil; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most critical issues of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is the deployment of a limited number of sensors in order to achieve maximum coverage on a terrain. The optimal sensor deployment which enables one to minimize the consumed energy, communication time and manpower for the maintenance of the network has attracted interest with the increased number of studies conducted on the subject in the last decade. Most of the studies in the literature today are proposed for two dimensional (2D) surfaces; however, real world sensor deployments often arise on three dimensional (3D) environments. In this paper, a guided wavelet transform (WT) based deployment strategy (WTDS) for 3D terrains, in which the sensor movements are carried out within the mutation phase of the genetic algorithms (GAs) is proposed. The proposed algorithm aims to maximize the Quality of Coverage (QoC) of a WSN via deploying a limited number of sensors on a 3D surface by utilizing a probabilistic sensing model and the Bresenham's line of sight (LOS) algorithm. In addition, the method followed in this paper is novel to the literature and the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the Delaunay Triangulation (DT) method as well as a standard genetic algorithm based method and the results reveal that the proposed method is a more powerful and more successful method for sensor deployment on 3D terrains. PMID:22666078

  17. Iterative guided image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-scale image fusion scheme based on guided filtering. Guided filtering can effectively reduce noise while preserving detail boundaries. When applied in an iterative mode, guided filtering selectively eliminates small scale details while restoring larger scale edges. The proposed multi-scale image fusion scheme achieves spatial consistency by using guided filtering both at the decomposition and at the recombination stage of the multi-scale fusion process. First, size-selective iterative guided filtering is applied to decompose the source images into approximation and residual layers at multiple spatial scales. Then, frequency-tuned filtering is used to compute saliency maps at successive spatial scales. Next, at each spatial scale binary weighting maps are obtained as the pixelwise maximum of corresponding source saliency maps. Guided filtering of the binary weighting maps with their corresponding source images as guidance images serves to reduce noise and to restore spatial consistency. The final fused image is obtained as the weighted recombination of the individual residual layers and the mean of the approximation layers at the coarsest spatial scale. Application to multiband visual (intensified and thermal infrared imagery demonstrates that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance for the fusion of multispectral nightvision images. The method has a simple implementation and is computationally efficient.

  18. Colostomy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Ostomies Colostomy Guide Colostomy surgery is done for many different diseases and problems. Some colostomies are done because of cancer; others are not. ...

  19. A user's guide for V174, a program using a finite difference method to analyze transonic flow over oscillating wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. D.; Weatherill, W. H.; Sebastian, J. D.; Ehlers, F. E.

    1977-01-01

    The design and usage of a pilot program using a finite difference method for calculating the pressure distributions over harmonically oscillating wings in transonic flow are discussed. The procedure used is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential which must be obtained from some other program, is required for input. The unsteady differential equation is linear, complex in form with spatially varying coefficients. Because sinusoidal motion is assumed, time is not a variable. The numerical solution is obtained through a finite difference formulation and a line relaxation solution method.

  20. Experimental Null Method to Guide the Development of Technical Procedures and to Control False-Positive Discovery in Quantitative Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaomeng; Hu, Qiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jianmin; Qu, Jun

    2015-10-02

    Comprehensive and accurate evaluation of data quality and false-positive biomarker discovery is critical to direct the method development/optimization for quantitative proteomics, which nonetheless remains challenging largely due to the high complexity and unique features of proteomic data. Here we describe an experimental null (EN) method to address this need. Because the method experimentally measures the null distribution (either technical or biological replicates) using the same proteomic samples, the same procedures and the same batch as the case-vs-contol experiment, it correctly reflects the collective effects of technical variability (e.g., variation/bias in sample preparation, LC-MS analysis, and data processing) and project-specific features (e.g., characteristics of the proteome and biological variation) on the performances of quantitative analysis. To show a proof of concept, we employed the EN method to assess the quantitative accuracy and precision and the ability to quantify subtle ratio changes between groups using different experimental and data-processing approaches and in various cellular and tissue proteomes. It was found that choices of quantitative features, sample size, experimental design, data-processing strategies, and quality of chromatographic separation can profoundly affect quantitative precision and accuracy of label-free quantification. The EN method was also demonstrated as a practical tool to determine the optimal experimental parameters and rational ratio cutoff for reliable protein quantification in specific proteomic experiments, for example, to identify the necessary number of technical/biological replicates per group that affords sufficient power for discovery. Furthermore, we assessed the ability of EN method to estimate levels of false-positives in the discovery of altered proteins, using two concocted sample sets mimicking proteomic profiling using technical and biological replicates, respectively, where the true

  1. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  2. Effective methods of teaching and learning in anatomy as a basic science: A BEME systematic review: BEME guide no. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losco, C Dominique; Grant, William D; Armson, Anthony; Meyer, Amanda J; Walker, Bruce F

    2017-03-01

    Anatomy is a subject essential to medical practice, yet time committed to teaching is on the decline, and resources required to teach anatomy is costly, particularly dissection. Advances in technology are a potential solution to the problem, while maintaining the quality of teaching required for eventual clinical application. To identify methods used to teach anatomy, including those demonstrated to enhance knowledge acquisition and retention. PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Academic OneFile, ProQuest, SAGE journals and Scopus were search from the earliest entry of each database to 31 August 2015. All included articles were assessed for methodological quality and low quality articles were excluded from the study. Studies were evaluated by assessment scores, qualitative outcomes where included as well as a modified Kirkpatrick model. A total of 17,820 articles were initially identified, with 29 included in the review. The review found a wide variety of teaching interventions represented in the range of studies, with CAI/CAL studies predominating in terms of teaching interventions, followed by simulation. In addition to this, CAI/CAL and simulation studies demonstrated better results overall compared to traditional teaching methods and there is evidence to support CAI/CAL as a partial replacement for dissection or a valuable tool in conjunction with dissection. This review provides evidence in support of the use of alternatives to traditional teaching methods in anatomy, in particular, the use of CAI/CAL with a number of high quality, low risk of bias studies supporting this.

  3. A users guide for A344: A program using a finite difference method to analyze transonic flow over oscillating airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherill, W. H.; Ehlers, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    The design and usage of a pilot program for calculating the pressure distributions over harmonically oscillating airfoils in transonic flow are described. The procedure used is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equations for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential which must be obtained from some other program, was required for input. The unsteady equation, as solved, is linear with spatially varying coefficients. Since sinusoidal motion was assumed, time was not a variable. The numerical solution was obtained through a finite difference formulation and either a line relaxation or an out of core direct solution method.

  4. Adhesives: Test Method, Group Assignment, and Categorization Guide for High-Loading Rate Applications - History and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-20

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WMM-C Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069...8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-SR-0371 ARL-ADHES-QA-001.02 Rev 1.0 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...provides the development history and rationale for the standard process description ARL-ADHES-QA-001.00 Rev 1.0, Adhesives: Test Method, Group

  5. TLC-Direct Bioautography as a Bioassay Guided Method for Investigation of Antibacterial Compounds in Hypericum perforatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Alberti, Ágnes; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Fast high-throughput TLC-direct bioautography (DB) is an effect-directed analysis method that enables searching for biologically active (e.g., antimicrobial) substances in complex mixtures like plant extracts. The principle of the method is that separation and detection of biological properties of given mixture components is performed directly on a TLC plate. In searching for antibacterial activity, the developed plate is immersed in a bacterial broth, and bacteria grow directly on its layer during a proper incubation time. Inhibition zones are formed in places where antimicrobial components are located. The active compounds can be further identified using spectroscopic techniques. The aim of our study was investigation of plant components of Hypericum perforatum L. tincture by TLC-DB using nine bacterial strains: Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, and Aliivibrio fischeri. Compounds showing the widest range of antimicrobial activity were isolated using semipreparative TLC and identified as apigenin, 3,8'-biapigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, and linolenic acid by TLC, HPLC-diode array detection, and HPLC/MS/MS techniques.

  6. Use of the Monte Carlo Method for OECD Principles-Guided QSAR Modeling of SIRT1 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chauhan, Shilpi

    2017-01-01

    SIRT1 inhibitors offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of a number of diseases including cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection. A diverse series of 45 compounds with reported SIRT1 inhibitory activity has been employed for the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using the Monte Carlo optimization method. This method makes use of simplified molecular input line entry system notation of the molecular structure. The QSAR models were built up according to OECD principles. Three subsets of three splits were examined and validated by respective external sets. All the three described models have good statistical quality. The best model has the following statistical characteristics: R(2)  = 0.8350, Q(2)test  = 0.7491 for the test set and R(2)  = 0.9655, Q(2)ext  = 0.9261 for the validation set. In the mechanistic interpretation, structural attributes responsible for the endpoint increase and decrease are defined. Further, the design of some prospective SIRT1 inhibitors is also presented on the basis of these structural attributes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Complications of image-guided radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma: causes, imaging features and prevention methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, The Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is an alternative treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients unable to undergo surgery. Although RF ablation has a low complication rate because of its minimally invasive nature, unintended heat may be conducted by several critical organs during ablation procedures, leading to a variety of complications. Major complications that usually require treatment include bowel injury, ureteral injury, massive bleeding and residual or recurrent tumour. Minor complications that may require only observation include pain, haematoma, haematuria, neuromuscular injury, pneumothorax, infarction and inflammatory tract mass. The most common cause of complications is the tumour's proximity to neighbouring organs. In addition, careless electrode manipulation and the patient's comorbidities may also lead to complications. To avoid many of these complications, the distance between the tumour and neighbouring organs should be widened using methods such as changing the patient's position, using the RF electrode as a lever and hydrodissection. Furthermore, carefully manipulating the RF electrode and assessing the patient's general condition help to prevent complications. In this review, we discuss the complications resulting from RF ablation of RCC with an emphasis on causes, imaging features and prevention methods. (orig.)

  8. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xyang43@emory.edu; Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Marcus, David M.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Mao, Hui [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approach that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors’ approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 1–3 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUS–CT image fusion. After TRUS–CT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 ± 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 ± 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors’ approach and the MRI-based volume was 7.28% ± 0

  9. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Marcus, David M.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Mao, Hui; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approach that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors’ approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 1–3 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUS–CT image fusion. After TRUS–CT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 ± 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 ± 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors’ approach and the MRI-based volume was 7.28% ± 0

  10. Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Virginia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored. Methods This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease. Results To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen, lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation, or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration. Conclusions Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to

  11. Theoretically guided analytical method development and validation for the estimation of rifampicin in a mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide by UV spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad F.; Rita, Shamima A.; Kayser, Md. Shahidulla; Islam, Md. Shariful; Asad, Sharmeen; Bin Rashid, Ridwan; Bari, Md. Abdul; Rahman, Muhammed M.; Al Aman, D. A. Anwar; Setu, Nurul I.; Banoo, Rebecca; Rashid, Mohammad A.

    2017-04-01

    A simple, rapid, economic, accurate and precise method for the estimation of rifampicin in a mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide by UV spectrophotometeric technique (guided by the theoretical investigation of physicochemical properties) was developed and validated. Theoretical investigations revealed that isoniazid and pyrazinamide both were freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethyl acetate whereas rifampicin was practically insoluble in water but freely soluble in ethyl acetate. This indicates that ethyl acetate is an effective solvent for the extraction of rifampicin from a water mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Computational study indicated that pH range of 6.0-8.0 would favor the extraction of rifampicin. Rifampicin is separated from isoniazid and pyrazinamide at pH 7.4 ± 0.1 by extracting with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate was then analyzed at λmax of 344.0 nm. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision according to ICH guidelines. The proposed method exhibited good linearity over the concentration range of 2.5 - 35.0 µg/mL. The intraday and inter-day precision in terms of % RSD ranged from 1.09 - 1.70% and 1.63 - 2.99%, respectively. The accuracy (in terms of recovery) of the method varied from of 96.7 ± 0.9 to 101.1 ± 0.4%. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.83 and 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the developed method was successfully applied to assay rifampicin combination (isoniazid and pyrazinamide) brands available in Bangladesh.

  12. Accuracy of navigation-guided socket drilling before implant installation compared to the conventional free-hand method in a synthetic edentulous lower jaw model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Westendorff, Carsten; Gomez-Roman, German; Reinert, Siegmar

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy of navigation-guided (NG) socket drilling before implant installation was compared to the conventional free-hand (CF) method in a synthetic edentulous lower jaw model. The drillings were performed by two surgeons with different years of working experience. The inter-individual outcome was assessed. NG drillings were performed using an optical computerized tomography (CT)-based navigation system. CF drillings were performed using a surgical template. The coordinates of the drilled sockets were determined on the basis of CT scans. A total of n=224 drillings was evaluated. Inter-individual differences in terms of the surgeons' years of work experience were without statistical significance. The mean deviation of the CF drilled sockets (n=112) on the vestibulo-oral and mesio-distal direction was 11.2+/-5.6 degrees (range: 4.1-25.3 degrees ). With respect to the NG drilled sockets (n=112), the mean deviation was 4.2+/-1.8 degrees (range: 2.3-11.5). The mean distance to the mandibular canal was 1.1+/-0.6 mm (range: 0.1-2.3 mm) for CF-drilled sockets and 0.7+/-0.5 mm (range: 0.1-1.8 mm) for NG drilled sockets. The differences between the two methods were highly significant (P<0.01). A potential benefit from image-data-based navigation in implant surgery is discussed against the background of cost-effectiveness.

  13. Homebuyer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Roger P.; Harris, Jack

    Designed to assist prospective buyers in making such important decisions as whether to buy a new or older home and within what price range, the guide provides information on the purchase process. Discussion of the purchase process covers the life-cycle costs (recurring homeownership costs that must be met every month); selection of a home;…

  14. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  15. Einstein a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This guide contains the essential facts and concepts of the life and work of Albert Einstein. It examines his background and the scientific method of the day, and explains his theories in simple terms. Central themes are presented in jargon-free language and key terms are highlighted and explained.

  16. Pocket companion to PMI's PMBOK guide

    CERN Document Server

    Snijders, Paul; Zandhuis, Anton

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide is based on the PMBOK Guide® Fourth Edition.This pocket guide supplies a summary of the PMBOK Guide® , to provide a quick introduction as well as a structured overview of this method for project management.This pocket guide deals with the key issues and themes within project management and PMBOK:A short overview of the activities of PMI Inc., The organization and its standards: PMBOK Guide®, Standard for Project Portfolio Management, Standard for Program Management, OPM3.The essentials of the Project Lifecycle and Organization.What are the key project management knowledge ar

  17. A simple method to use the preformed nasotracheal tube during the lightwand-guided awake nasal intubation in the patients with difficult airways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Fu-shan; YANG Quan-yong; XU Ya-chao; LIAO Xu

    2009-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: Management of a difficult airway remains one of the major challenges to the anesthetists in clinical practice.1 Lightwand-guided nasal intubation has been shown to be a useful technique in the patients with known difficult airways.2-4 Also the preformed nasotracheal tubes (PNTs) are commonly selected for nasal intubation in the patients undergoing head and neck surgery because they are easy to secure,provide convenient surgical access and help to reduce nasal damage.5 However, the anesthetists must be faced with a problem that the PNT is significantly longer than the wand of the Trachlight TM (Laerdal Medical Corporation, New York, USA). For example, the lengths of the sizes 6.0-7.5 Portex Polar cuffed nasal tubes (Portex Lmited Hythe, England) range from 43 to 46 cm,whereas the wand of the Trachlight TM is only 33 cm long.After the wand of the TrachlightTM is inserted into the PNT, therefore, its distal light bulb is not able to protrude beyond the distal end of the PNT. We have adapted a simple method to solve this problem.

  18. Numerical optimization of a three-channel radiofrequency coil for open, vertical-field, MR-guided, focused ultrasound surgery using the hybrid method of moment/finite difference time domain method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xuegang; Wang, Di; Han, Jijun; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2012-07-01

    The numerical optimization of a three-channel radiofrequency (RF) coil with a physical aperture for the open, vertical-field, MR-guided, focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) system using the hybrid method of moment (MoM)/finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is reported. The numerical simulation of the current density distribution on an RF coil with a complicated irregular structure was performed using MoM. The electromagnetic field simulation containing the full coil-tissue interactions within the region of interest was accomplished using the FDTD method. Huygens' equivalent box with six surfaces smoothly connected the MoM and FDTD method. An electromagnetic model of the human pelvic region was reconstructed and loaded in the FDTD zone to optimize the three-channel RF coil and compensate for the lower sensitivity at the vertical field. In addition, the numerical MoM was used to model the resonance, decoupling and impedance matching of the RF coil in compliance with engineering practices. A prototype RF coil was constructed to verify the simulation results. The results demonstrate that the signal-to-noise ratio and the homogeneity of the B(1) field were both greatly improved compared with previously published results.

  19. SU-E-J-96: Multi-Axis Dose Accumulation of Noninvasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Through Biomechanical Modeling of Tissue Deformation Using the Finite Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Ghadyani, HR [SUNY Farmingdale State College, Farmingdale, NY (United States); Bastien, AD; Lutz, NN [Univeristy Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Hepel, JT [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Noninvasive image-guided breast brachytherapy delivers conformal HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy treatments with the breast compressed, and treated in the cranial-caudal and medial-lateral directions. This technique subjects breast tissue to extreme deformations not observed for other disease sites. Given that, commercially-available software for deformable image registration cannot accurately co-register image sets obtained in these two states, a finite element analysis based on a biomechanical model was developed to deform dose distributions for each compression circumstance for dose summation. Methods: The model assumed the breast was under planar stress with values of 30 kPa for Young’s modulus and 0.3 for Poisson’s ratio. Dose distributions from round and skin-dose optimized applicators in cranial-caudal and medial-lateral compressions were deformed using 0.1 cm planar resolution. Dose distributions, skin doses, and dose-volume histograms were generated. Results were examined as a function of breast thickness, applicator size, target size, and offset distance from the center. Results: Over the range of examined thicknesses, target size increased several millimeters as compression thickness decreased. This trend increased with increasing offset distances. Applicator size minimally affected target coverage, until applicator size was less than the compressed target size. In all cases, with an applicator larger or equal to the compressed target size, > 90% of the target covered by > 90% of the prescription dose. In all cases, dose coverage became less uniform as offset distance increased and average dose increased. This effect was more pronounced for smaller target-applicator combinations. Conclusions: The model exhibited skin dose trends that matched MC-generated benchmarking results and clinical measurements within 2% over a similar range of breast thicknesses and target sizes. The model provided quantitative insight on dosimetric treatment variables over

  20. CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods. State of the art and first results; CT-gesteuerte Neurolysen. Stand der Technik und aktuelle Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, B. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, G.M. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Roeren, T. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, G.W. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    We used 21G or 22G fine needles. All CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods require a proper blood coagulation. Most common CT scanners are suitable for neurolysis if there is enough room for maintaining sterile conditions. All neurolysis methods involve sterile puncture of the ganglia under local anesthesia, a test block with anesthetic and contrast agent to assess the clinical effect and the definitive block with a mixture of 96% ethanol and local anesthetic. This allows us to correct the position of the needle if we see improper distribution of the test block or unwanted side effects. Though inflammatory complications of the peritoneum due to puncture are rarely seen, we prefer the dorsal approach whenever possible. Results: Seven of 20 legs showed at least transient clinical improvement after CT-guided lumbar sympathectomies; 13 legs had to be amputated. Results of the methods in the literature differ. For lumbar sympathectomy, improved perfusion is reported in 39-89%, depending on the pre-selection of the patient group. Discussion: It was recently proved that sympathectomy not only improves perfusion of the skin but also of the muscle. The hypothesis of a steal effect after sympathectomy towards skin perfusion was disproved. Modern aggressive surgical and interventional treatment often leaves patients to sympathectomy whose reservers of collateralization are nearly exhausted. We presume this is the reason for the different results we found in our patient group. For thoracic sympathectomy the clinical treatment depends very much on the indications. Whereas palmar hyperhidrosis offers nearly 100% success, only 60-70% of patients with disturbance of perfusion have benefited. Results in celiac ganglia block also differ. Patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and other organs of the upper abdomen benefit in 80-100% of all cases, patients with chronic pancreatitis in 60-80%. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Thorakale und lumbale Sympathikolyse sowie die Zoeliakusblockade

  1. Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

    2007-01-01

    A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

  2. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monson, Kyle E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Allwardt, Craig H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kang, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sharma, Poorva [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  3. Prince2 2009 edition a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hedeman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    This Pocket Guide supplies a summary of the PRINCE2 method, to provide a quick introduction as well as a structured overview of the method;Main target Group for this pocket guide is anyone who wants to get to know the method PRINCE2 or a methodical approach for project management. The book is also very useful for members of a project management team on a project using the PRINCE2 method. Furthermore this pocket guide can be used as literature for the preparation of the PRINCE2 2009 Edition Foundation exam;This pocket guide is based on PRINCE2 2009 Edition;This pocket book deals with processes,

  4. 医疗环境标识导向系统的设计方法初探%On the Designing Methods of Medical Environment Sign Guiding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 王淮梁

    2014-01-01

    随着全球化知识经济的飞速发展,中国的医疗改革也随之不断深入发展,人们对于医疗环境的要求有了更多的期盼。标识导向系统是人类生存环境空间信息的媒介,当今,人们通过空间管理和环境信息来引导社会环境中的标识导向系统设计,制定了颇具审美和实用价值的研究方向。需要借助于医院标识导向系统这一空间载体,遵循其相应的设计方法要点,才能将医院多元化的文化内涵充分展现出来。%With the rapid development of the globalization of knowledge economy, China’ s healthcare reform is undergoing an in-depth development and people will have more expectations of the medical environment. Signage system is a media of space infor-mation of human survival environment. Nowadays, people make use of the space management and environmental information to guide their design of signage system in the social environment and fix their research direction which is of aesthetic and practical value. It is proposed that only when taking the advantages of the space vector of hospital sign guidance system and following the design principle and key points of method can people fully display a hospital's diversified cultural connotation.

  5. MO-DE-210-03: Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K. [Johns Hopkins University: Development of Intra-Fraction Soft Tissue Monitoring with Ultrasound Imaging (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities. It is inexpensive, portable and provides good soft tissue contrast. For challenging soft tissue targets such as pancreatic cancer, ultrasound imaging can be used in combination with pre-treatment MRI and/or CT to transfer important anatomical features for target localization at time of treatment. The non-invasive and non-ionizing nature of ultrasound imaging is particularly powerful for intra-fraction localization and monitoring. Recognizing these advantages, efforts are being made to incorporate novel robotic approaches to position and manipulate the ultrasound probe during irradiation. These recent enabling developments hold potential to bring ultrasound imaging to a new level of IGRT applications. However, many challenges, not limited to image registration, robotic deployment, probe interference and image acquisition rate, need to be addressed to realize the full potential of IGRT with ultrasound imaging. Learning Objectives: Understand the benefits and limitations in using ultrasound to augment MRI and/or CT for motion monitoring during radiation therapy delivery. Understanding passive and active robotic approaches to implement ultrasound imaging for intra-fraction monitoring. Understand issues of probe interference with radiotherapy treatment. Understand the critical clinical workflow for effective and reproducible IGRT using ultrasound guidance. The work of X.L. is supported in part by Elekta; J.W. and K.D. is supported in part by a NIH grant R01 CA161613 and by Elekta; D.H. is support in part by a NIH grant R41 CA174089.

  6. Fluorescence cytology with 5-aminolevulinic acid in EUS-guided FNA as a method for differentiating between malignant and benign lesions (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kato, Kota; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kaibori, Masaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) has been increasingly performed to obtain specimens for the pathological evaluation of patients with GI and pancreaticobiliary masses as well as lymphadenopathies of unknown origin. Photodynamic diagnosis by using 5-aminolebulinic acid (ALA) has been reported to be useful for enabling the visual differentiation between malignant and normal tissue in various cancers. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA. A prospective study. A single center. A total of 28 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the pathological diagnosis of a pancreaticobiliary mass lesion or intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Patients were orally administered ALA 3 to 6 hours before EUS-FNA. The sample was obtained via EUS-FNA for fluorescence cytology and conventional cytology. A single gastroenterologist performed the fluorescence cytology by using fluorescence microscopy after the procedure, independently of the conventional cytology by pathologists. The accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions by comparing the results of fluorescence cytology with the final diagnosis. Of the 28 patients included in the study, 22 were considered as having malignant lesions and 6 patients as having benign lesions. Fluorescence cytology could correctly discriminate between benign and malignant lesions in all patients. Therefore, both the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence cytology were 100% in our study. Fluorescence cytology was performed by only 1 gastroenterologist with a small number of patients. Fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA may be an effective and simple method for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A3-D Numerical Optimization Design Method and Its Application in Axial Fans with Outlet Guide Vanes%轴流风机后导叶三维数值优化设计方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽; 林丽华; 吴海英; 陈永宁; 何海江; 陶中兰; 李嵩

    2014-01-01

    基于轴流风机安装后导叶能明显改善性能,但用目前使用的二维理想的工程方法无法设计良好导叶,必须通过大量后导叶安装角试验,才能改进使用。本文提出轴流风机后导叶三维数值优化设计方法,并用于一个商用风机,设计工况全压和全压效率均提高13%,有很好的变工况性能;本文还对比了用传统工程方法设计的后导叶的性能。%The performance of an axial flow fan can be obviously improved after installing outlet guide vanes. But the commonly used 2-D ideal engineering method can’t be applied to design the good outlet guide vanes. After that a lot of experiments about the installing angle of outlet guide vane must be carried out in order to improve the designed vanes. In this paper, a 3-D numerical optimization design method of axial flow fans with outlet guide vanes is presented and used to a commercial fan. The total pressure and its efficiency are improved about 13% at the design operation and the performances of the off-design operation are also obviously improved. Moreover, the performance of the outlet guide vanes designed by the traditional engineering method is also compared with the presented one in the paper.

  8. Establishing an accurate diagnosis of a parotid lump: evaluation of the current biopsy methods - fine needle aspiration cytology, ultrasound-guided core biopsy, and intraoperative frozen section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, D C; Skelton, E; Moody, A B

    2015-09-01

    The optimum technique for histological confirmation of the nature of a parotid mass remains controversial. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which has traditionally been used, is associated with high non-diagnostic and false negative rates, and ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy and frozen section have been explored as alternatives. US-guided core biopsy is more invasive than FNAC, but is safe, well-tolerated, and associated with improved diagnostic performance. Although frozen section offers better specificity than FNAC, it has a number of important drawbacks and cannot be considered as a primary diagnostic tool. US-guided core biopsy should be considered as the initial diagnostic technique of choice, and in units where the accuracy of FNAC is good it can be used when FNAC is equivocal or non-diagnostic. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoparticle-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and nano-sized particles for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of a target tissue. More specifically, the invention relates to nano-sized particles comprising X-ray-imaging contrast agents in solid form with the ability to block x-rays, allowing for simult...... for simultaneous or integrated external beam radiotherapy and imaging, e.g., using computed tomography (CT)....

  10. Uncertainty analysis guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, T.H

    2002-05-01

    This guide applies to the estimation of uncertainty in quantities calculated by scientific, analysis and design computer programs that fall within the scope of AECL's software quality assurance (SQA) manual. The guide weaves together rational approaches from the SQA manual and three other diverse sources: (a) the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty) evaluation methodology; (b) the ISO Guide,for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; and (c) the SVA (Systems Variability Analysis) method of risk analysis. This report describes the manner by which random and systematic uncertainties in calculated quantities can be estimated and expressed. Random uncertainty in model output can be attributed to uncertainties of inputs. The propagation of these uncertainties through a computer model can be represented in a variety of ways, including exact calculations, series approximations and Monte Carlo methods. Systematic uncertainties emerge from the development of the computer model itself, through simplifications and conservatisms, for example. These must be estimated and combined with random uncertainties to determine the combined uncertainty in a model output. This report also addresses the method by which uncertainties should be employed in code validation, in order to determine whether experiments and simulations agree, and whether or not a code satisfies the required tolerance for its application. (author)

  11. Corrosion Induced Loss of Capacity and Development of a Guided Wave Condition Assessment Method for Multistrand Anchor Systems Used in Corps Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    2 33 monitoring, x- ray diffraction, infrared thermography, and impulse radar . This report also mentioned guided waves as a promising technology...End View Imager Code ( MATLAB IMAGE PROCESSING #2 code).................. 59 Appendix B: Axial Scanner Theory and Operation...12 Figure 8. Tracing deformation with string measurement to locate the failure point in unbroken wires

  12. A Mapping Method Applied to the IT Solutions Procurement Guide of IN/SLTI/ MPOG 04/2014 Normative Instruction and Models Constellation CMMI-ACQ, CMMI-DEV and CMMI-SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLÁCIDO DA SILVA, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several initiatives have emerged in the search for improvement of software processes in recent years. These initiatives are usually guided by Standards, Models and Quality Standards, aiming to establish best practices to guide the definition of processes and support the assessment of the maturity and capacity of organizations in the development of software products and provision of IT services. Despite the emergence of several initiatives, when the topic refers to the processes of contracting information technology (IT solutions by the Brazilian Federal Public Administration (APF, its application in the context of organizations has obstacles, such as the complexity of the processes and oversight of federal government agencies. In order to overcome these obstacles, the Court of Audit of the Union (TCU recommended the preparation of the SLTI/MPOG 04/2014 Normative Instruction, containing guidelines for the process of contracting IT Solutions. This work defines a Mapping Method between IN/SLTI/MPOG 04/2014 and APF's IT Solutions Procurement Guide (GCSTI, with the objective of identifying the maturity and adherence of GCSTI to CMMI-ACQ, CMMI -DEV and CMMI-SVC. This work defines a Mapping Method between IN / SLTI / MPOG 04/2014 and its processes defined in the APF IT Solutions Procurement Guide (GCSTI, with the objective of identifying the maturity and adherence of the GCSTI to the Models CMMI-ACQ, CMMI-DEV and CMMI-SVC and bringing as benefits a systematized and structured methodology to apply and map models, norms and standards of any nature. As a result of this research, the mapping method created allowed the mapping between the CMMI and GSTI models of IN / SLTI / PMO 04/2014, and the method could be applied in any other mapping, from which the processes were oriented to the same Structure and had similar objectives.

  13. 滚转隔离结构制导火箭弹蒙特卡洛法仿真研究%Application of Monte Calo Method to Trajectory Simulation Research for Guided Rocket Projectile of Rotated Isolation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic modeling and Monte Carlo shooting imulation for guided rocket projectile of rotated isolation structure were investigated. Based on the relative motion relation between the two parts of remodelled guided rocket projectile, the center of mass dynamics equations of the guided rocket projectile of rotated isolation structure was established. This article established simulation model of the rocket projectile with Monte Carlo shooting method utilizing Simulink. Three hundred times of simulated shooting for guided rocket projectile were executed in terms of a certain model of rocket projectile by variety of initial disturbances and interference of the gust. It also calculated the sample data variance of the point of fall and the CEP. The simulation results illustrate that the dynamic model is valid and is of the character of high precision attack of remodelled guided rocket projectile.%研究一种滚转隔离结构制导火箭弹动力学建模与蒙特卡洛打靶仿真.根据改造后的制导火箭弹前后两部分的相对运动关系,建立了滚转隔离结构制导火箭弹的质心动力学方程组,并基于Simulink平台建立了蒙特卡洛打靶动态仿真模型.在各种初始干扰和阵风干扰的情况下,进行了300次仿真试验,计算了落点样本数据的均方差和圆概率误差.仿真结果验证了所建模型的正确性,同时也证明了改造后制导火箭弹具有高精度的打击特点.

  14. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  15. Research on the content construction of karst cave guide words based on the AHP method%基于 AHP 法的喀斯特洞穴导游解说词内容构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向旭; 杨晓霞; 石定芳

    2015-01-01

    喀斯特洞穴景观与环境蕴含的科学性与专业性,导游解说词在洞穴旅游中具有极其重要的作用。文章在构建喀斯特洞穴导游解说词内容指标体系的基础上,通过对游客和洞穴专家进行问卷调查,并运用 AHP法计算出导游解说词各指标的权重。结果表明:(1)喀斯特洞穴导游解说词的撰写应全面、系统,包含“欢迎词”、“游览须知”、“洞穴概况”、“洞穴景点讲解”、“欢送词”5部分;(2)喀斯特洞穴导游解说词的内容应加大对“游览须知”的阐述,注重对游客的引导和教育;(3)喀斯特洞穴导游解说词的“洞穴概况”和“景点讲解”都应以洞穴科学知识为主线,适当穿插相关神话故事,兼具科学性与趣味性。%The guide words play an extremely important role in the cave tourism for the karst cave’s scienti-ficity and specialty.Based on the construction of content index system of karst cave guide words,this paper used the AHP method to calculate the weight of each guide words’index through the questionnaire to tour-ists and cave experts.As the following conclusions have been drawn from this research:(1)Karst cave guide words should be comprehensive,and consist of five parts:Welcome Speech,Practical Tips,Cave Overview, Scenic Spot Explanation and Sendoff Words;(2)Karst cave guide words should pay more attention to the Practical Tips,and enhance the guidance and education to tourists;(3)Karst cave guide words should take the cave science as the main line and intersperse with related myth,which make the guide words more scien-tific and interesting.

  16. Ultrasonography-guided punctures-with and without puncture guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mahesh

    2009-10-01

    The key requisite of any percutaneous nephrolithotomy technique is access to the collecting system. The kidney has a high degree of vascular network and is liable for vascular injury. Therefore, for an ideal puncture, a percutaneous tract would be developed that leads straight from the skin through a papilla and the target calix into the renal pelvis. Percutaneous renal access can be achieved under fluoroscopic control or using an ultrasonography (US)-guided puncture. The shortcomings and side effects of extensive radiation during therapeutic procedures are well known. The choice of method for the type of access depends on training and personal preference. The advantages of US-guided puncture are avoidance of radiation, avoiding adjacent and visceral injury and, most importantly, intrarenal vascular injury. US offers the shortest and straight access to the collecting system with minimal morbidity. US-guided access is of particular importance in the pediatric population and in special situations in which the procedure is performed with the patient in the supine position. I believe US-guided puncture has a significant reduction in complications. The available ultrasound probes come with a puncture attachment and, on US scanning, the puncture pathway is represented by an electronic dotted line on the scanner screen, which facilitates exact placement of the needle. US-guided access is optimal with a needle guide, because the electronic dotted line helps in assessing the depth and plane of the puncture needle. This helps in reaching the desired calix in the most accurate way. US access without a needle guide is useful in bedside procedures, in grossly hydronephrotic systems, and nonavailability of an electronic guide. We think the punctures with this technique are suboptimal. Both methods need a certain degree of training and orientation. The training in US should be structured.

  17. Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography for Bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, A.W.F.; Zon, A.T. van

    2012-01-01

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method

  18. Guided wave travel time tomography for bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, A.W.F.; Bloom, J.G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method

  19. Application of"Guide-learning"Teaching Method in Badminton Teaching%将“学导式”教法注入羽毛球教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏瑞; 刘益群

    2013-01-01

    In the study process of university, contemporary college students take more emphasis on their IQ development rather than EQ and AQ development. After long-term development, it has formed the current situation that IQ is high, but EQ and AQ are low for the contemporary college students. Zhong Nanshan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, broke the national record of 400m hurdles with 54'4 seconds, at the first National Athletic Meet. Why we can not cultivate outstanding students like Zhong Nanshan? Tsinghua University has put forward a slogan-exercise an hour every day, do work 50 years for our motherland, and have happy life forever. By studying the teaching effect of "learning guide" in the badminton teaching, the paper sums up experience, tries to find out the problems, and puts forward more the teaching method in physical education. It turns teachers to students as the leading role, and arouses the enthusiasm of students, enriches the physical education, and injects new vitality for fashion sports. We should change the way for the purpose of exam-oriented education, pay attention to cultivating and improving the students' emotional intelligence and quotient ability, so as to let students practice voluntarily, bring more new thinking to the reform of physical education.%当代大学生在大学学习过程中,更偏重自身智商IQ发展,而不注重情商EQ和逆商AQ的培养,长期发展形成了当代大学生三大商数呈现一高两低的现状。中国工程院院士钟南山在首届全运会上,以54'4秒的成绩打破了400米栏的全国记录,为什么现在的大学培养不出来“钟南山”?清华大学曾经提出一个口号“每天锻炼一小时,为祖国健康工作五十年,幸福生活一辈子”。通过研究“学导式”教法在羽毛球教学中的应用效果,总结经验,发现问题进行分析,对体育教学中教法采用更多的新的教法,将传统教学过程中,教师的主导地位转变为

  20. 水电机组导叶非线性自适应校正控制方法%Research and Implementation of Nonlinear Adaptive Correction Control Method of the Hydropower Unit Guide Vane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐立军; 刘友宽; 杜景琦; 罗恩博

    2014-01-01

    水轮发电机组是一个典型的非线性系统,不同的导叶开度下其简化线性模型不同。本文分析了水电机组功率波动的原因,提出一种针对不同导叶开度下简化线性模型的自适应校正PID比例增益的控制方法,给出了导叶开度非线性自适应校正控制方法的参数整定方法,并在石门坎水电厂#2机组进行了现场实施,现场实施和试验表明:该方法实施后机组静态调节误差、功率波动周期、功率波动幅度、调节稳定时间明显改善,有效的提高了机组的调节性能。%Hydro generating plant is a typical nonlinear system,the simplified linear model is different under different guide glade o-pening� This paper analyzes the cause of power oscillation of hydropower plant and proposes an adaptive control method of PID pro-portional gain correction for simplified linear model under different guide glade opening� A parameter setting method of the nonlinear adaptive control method for the guide glade opening is then present and has conducted in field implementation in#2 unit of Shimen-kan hydropower plant� The results of the field implementation indicate that this method has effectively enhanced the regulating per-formance of units and the static regulation error,power oscillation cycle,power fluctuations,adjusting and stabilizing time of units has significantly improved.

  1. Which method is more effective in treatment of calcific tendinitis in the shoulder? Prospective randomized comparison between ultrasound-guided needling and extracorporeal shock wave therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Yoon-vin; Kong, Chae-Gwan

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided needling with subacromial corticosteroid injection is more effective than extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for function restoration and pain relief in patients with calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with unilateral painful calcific tendinitis were randomly allocated to a US needling or ESWT group. The US needling group underwent US-guided needling and received a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The ESWT group received ESWT 3 times a week. All patients were prospectively evaluated; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale for pain scores were recorded before the procedure and at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and the last follow-up. The size and morphology of the deposits were evaluated by radiography. The average follow-up period was 23.0 months. At last follow-up, the mean size of the deposits was significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .001); it decreased to 0.5 mm from 14.8 mm in the US needling group and to 5.6 mm from 11.0 mm in the ESWT group. There were also significant improvements in clinical outcomes in both groups after treatment (P .05). Both treatment modalities for calcific tendinitis improved clinical outcomes and eliminated calcium deposits. US-guided needling treatment, however, was more effective in function restoration and pain relief in the short term. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  3. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  4. Analysis of biomarker data a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Looney, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    A "how to" guide for applying statistical methods to biomarker data analysis Presenting a solid foundation for the statistical methods that are used to analyze biomarker data, Analysis of Biomarker Data: A Practical Guide features preferred techniques for biomarker validation. The authors provide descriptions of select elementary statistical methods that are traditionally used to analyze biomarker data with a focus on the proper application of each method, including necessary assumptions, software recommendations, and proper interpretation of computer output. In addition, the book discusses

  5. Investigator's guide to steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The Investigator's Guide to Steganography provides a comprehensive look at this unique form of hidden communication from its earliest beginnings to its most modern uses. The book begins by exploring the past, providing valuable insight into how this method of communication began and evolved from ancient times to the present day. It continues with an in-depth look at the workings of digital steganography and watermarking methods, available tools on the Internet, and a review of companies who are providing cutting edge steganography and watermarking services. The third section builds on the first two by outlining and discussing real world uses of steganography from the business and entertainment to national security and terrorism. The book concludes by reviewing steganography detection methods and what can be expected in the future

  6. TE(01) High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2005-01-01

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching* is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads, filters and attenuators. The load consists of a disk loaded coaxial guide, operating in the T01

  7. The method of the gas-dynamic centrifugal compressor stage characteristics recalculation for variable rotor rotational speeds and the rotation angle of inlet guide vanes blades if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyashov, A. D.; Karabanova, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical description of the method for obtaining gas-dynamic characteristics of a centrifugal compressor stage is proposed, taking into account the control action by varying the rotor speed and the angle of rotation of the guide vanes relative to the "basic" characteristic, if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met. The formulas of the correction terms for the non-dimensional coefficients of specific work, consumption and efficiency are obtained. A comparative analysis of the calculated gas-dynamic characteristics of a high-pressure centrifugal stage with experimental data is performed.

  8. Percutaneous Placement of Central Venous Catheters: Comparing the Anatomical Landmark Method with the Radiologically Guided Technique for Central Venous Catheterization Through the Internal Jugular Vein in Emergent Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroglu, M.; Demir, M.; Koroglu, B.K.; Sezer, M.T.; Akhan, O.; Yildiz, H.; Yavuz, L.; Baykal, B.; Oyar, O. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Internal Medicine and Anesthesiology

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the success and immediate complication rates of the anatomical landmark method (group 1) and the radiologically (combined real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopy) guided technique (group 2) in the placement of central venous catheters in emergent hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: The study was performed prospectively in a randomized manner. The success and immediate complication rates of radiologically guided placement of central venous access catheters through the internal jugular vein (n = 40) were compared with those of the anatomical landmark method (n 40). The success of placement, the complications, the number of passes required, and whether a single or double-wall puncture occurred were also noted and compared. Results: The groups were comparable in age and sex. The indication for catheter placement was hemodialysis access in all patients. Catheter placement was successful in all patients in group 2 and unsuccessful in 1 (2.5%) patient in group 1. All catheters functioned adequately and immediately after the placement (0% initial failure rate) in group 2, but 3 catheters (7.5% initial failure rate) were non-functional just after placement in group 1. The total number of needle passes, double venous wall puncture, and complication rate were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion: Percutaneous central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein can be performed by interventional radiologists with better technical success rates and lower immediate complications. In conclusion, central venous catheterization for emergent dialysis should be performed under both real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance.

  9. Store-Carry and Forward-Type M2M Communication Protocol Enabling Guide Robots to Work together and the Method of Identifying Malfunctioning Robots Using the Byzantine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Suga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a service in which multiple guide robots in an area display arrows to guide individual users to their destinations. It proposes a method of identifying malfunctioning robots and robots that give wrong directions to users. In this method, users’ mobile terminals and robots form a store-carry and forward-type M2M communication network, and a distributed cooperative protocol is used to enable robots to share information and identify malfunctioning robots using the Byzantine algorithm. The robots do not directly communicate with each other, but through users’ mobile terminals. We have introduced the concept of the quasi-synchronous number, so whether a certain robot is malfunctioning can be determined even when items of information held by all of the robots are not synchronized. Using simulation, we have evaluated the proposed method in terms of the rate of identifying malfunctioning robots, the rate of reaching the destination and the average length of time to reach the destination.

  10. Using the biological literature a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionSearching the Biological LiteratureGeneral SourcesAssociationsBibliographiesClassification, Nomenclature, and SystematicsDictionaries and EncyclopediasDirectoriesField GuidesSeriesFull-Text SourcesGeneral WorksGuides for young ScientistsGuides to the LiteratureHandbooksHistoriesMathematics and StatisticsMethods and TechniquesTextbooks and TreatisesWriting GuidesPeriodicalsReviews of the LiteratureAbstracts and IndexesBiochemistry and BiophysicsMolecular and Cellular BiologyGenetics, Biotechnology, and Developmental BiologyMicrobiology and ImmunologyEcology, Evolution, and Animal BehaviorPlant BiologyAnatomy and PhysiologyEntomologyZoologyIndex.

  11. The Nursery Worker. Teacher Guide. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, A. W.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in a vocational horticulture course designed to prepare students for jobs as nursery workers. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the nursery industry; soils; plant growth; plant nutrition; plant propagation methods; nursery field practices; pest control; techniques for…

  12. Efficient thinking for architects & building engineers - a guide of the ETAB method with different processes and new approaches based on the automotive industry, marine industry and aerospace engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ellen, L.; Huitema, A.; Verlaan, B.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability We have come with a new thinking and design method (the ETAB method) which is based on design methods used by the car industry, marine industry and aerospace engineering. With this method, easy and innovati

  13. Efficient thinking for architects & building engineers - a guide of the ETAB method with different processes and new approaches based on the automotive industry, marine industry and aerospace engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ellen, L.; Huitema, A.; Verlaan, B.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability We have come with a new thinking and design method (the ETAB method) which is based on design methods used by the car industry, marine industry and aerospace engineering. With this method, easy and innovati

  14. A beginner's Guide to R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, A.F.; Ieno, E.N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Based on their extensive experience with teaching R and statistics to applied scientists, the authors provide a beginner's guide to R. To avoid the difficulty of teaching R and statistics at the same time, statistical methods are kept to a minimum. The text covers how to download and install R, impo

  15. Field guide to adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This SPIE Field Guide provides a summary of the methods for determining the requirements of an adaptive optics system, the performance of the system, and the requirements for the components of the system. This second edition has a greatly expanded presentation of adaptive optics control system design and operation. Discussions of control models are accompanied by various recommendations for implementing the algorithms in hardware.

  16. COLLABORATIVE GUIDE: A REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Referred to as A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching, the guide will provide coral reef managers with the latest scientific information on the causes of coral bleaching and new management strategies for responding to this significant threat to coral reef ecosystems. Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Dr. Jordan West, of the National Center for Environmental Assessment, was a major contributor to the guide. Referred to as

  17. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Operating Room? A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth > For Kids > A Kid's Guide to Fever ... some lighter-weight pajamas. previous continue Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  18. Field guide to adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert K

    2004-01-01

    ""...These field guides will be immensely useful to all scientists and engineers who wish to brush up on authentic definitions, equations, and tables of data in optics. And the format is really user friendly! I...wonder now how I ever got along in optics without this ready reference....a real winner!"" --Dr. Leno S. Pedrotti, Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD) Third in the Field Guide Series, this is a summary of the methods for determining the requirements of an adaptive optics system, the performance of the system, and the requirements for the components of th

  19. Radon Guide for Tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is for people who rent their apartments or houses. The guide explains what radon is, and how to find out if there is a radon problem in your home. The guide also talks about what you can do if there are high radon levels in your home.

  20. Standard guide for computed radiography

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides general tutorial information regarding the fundamental and physical principles of computed radiography (CR), definitions and terminology required to understand the basic CR process. An introduction to some of the limitations that are typically encountered during the establishment of techniques and basic image processing methods are also provided. This guide does not provide specific techniques or acceptance criteria for specific end-user inspection applications. Information presented within this guide may be useful in conjunction with those standards of 1.2. 1.2 CR techniques for general inspection applications may be found in Practice E2033. Technical qualification attributes for CR systems may be found in Practice E2445. Criteria for classification of CR system technical performance levels may be found in Practice E2446. Reference Images Standards E2422, E2660, and E2669 contain digital reference acceptance illustrations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the st...

  1. Guided self-organization inception

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible to guide the process of self-organisation towards specific patterns and outcomes?  Wouldn’t this be self-contradictory?   After all, a self-organising process assumes a transition into a more organised form, or towards a more structured functionality, in the absence of centralised control.  Then how can we place the guiding elements so that they do not override rich choices potentially discoverable by an uncontrolled process?  This book presents different approaches to resolving this paradox.  In doing so, the presented studies address a broad range of phenomena, ranging from autopoietic systems to morphological computation, and from small-world networks to information cascades in swarms.  A large variety of methods is employed, from spontaneous symmetry breaking to information dynamics to evolutionary algorithms, creating a rich spectrum reflecting this emerging field. Demonstrating several foundational theories and frameworks, as well as innovative practical implementations, Guided S...

  2. Application of an automated protocol for the analysis of the temporal parameters of the response of reaction tennis players during the execution of split-step and volley Aplicación de un protocolo automatizado para el análisis de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de split-step y volea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Luis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is aimed to show the design and application process of an automated system to recording in real time the temporary parameters of tennis players reaction response during the execution of the technical-tactical movement called “split-step and second volley”. The knowledge about temporary characteristics of the action will be make used of identify the variables to cause in that and also to design an investigation to permit an improvement of the tennis players efficiency in this sequence of the play. In this way, the use of the technological system will allow a precise analysis of player’s motor response and the eminent information about the defined action
    KEY WORDS: Tennis, split-step and volley, automated system of measure, reaction response

    El propósito de este trabajo consiste en mostrar el proceso de diseño y la aplicación de un sistema automatizado de medida para el registro en tiempo real de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de una acción técnico-táctica denominada “split-step y segunda volea”. El conocimiento generado en cuanto a las características temporales de la acción se empleará para identificar las variables que determinan la eficacia en la misma y diseñar una investigación que permita optimizar el rendimiento de los tenistas en esta secuencia del juego. Así, el empleo de este sistema tecnológico permitirá un análisis preciso de la respuesta motriz de los jugadores y la extracción de información relevante acerca de la acción definida.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Tenis, split-step y volea, sistema automatizado de medida, respuesta de reacción.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses sound waves ... Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the ...

  5. Image-guided localization accuracy of stereoscopic planar and volumetric imaging methods for stereotactic radiation surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkoo; Jin, Jian-Yue; Walls, Nicole; Nurushev, Teamour; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J; Ryu, Samuel

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the positioning accuracies of two image-guided localization systems, ExacTrac and On-Board Imager (OBI), in a stereotactic treatment unit. An anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with eight internal metal markers (BBs) was used. The center of one BB was set as plan isocenter. The phantom was set up on a treatment table with various initial setup errors. Then, the errors were corrected using each of the investigated systems. The residual errors were measured with respect to the radiation isocenter using orthogonal portal images with field size 3 × 3 cm(2). The angular localization discrepancies of the two systems and the correction accuracy of the robotic couch were also studied. A pair of pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images was acquired for each angular correction. Then, the correction errors were estimated by using the internal BBs through fiducial marker-based registrations. The isocenter localization errors (μ ±σ) in the left/right, posterior/anterior, and superior/inferior directions were, respectively, -0.2 ± 0.2 mm, -0.8 ± 0.2 mm, and -0.8 ± 0.4 mm for ExacTrac, and 0.5 ± 0.7 mm, 0.6 ± 0.5 mm, and 0.0 ± 0.5 mm for OBI CBCT. The registration angular discrepancy was 0.1 ± 0.2° between the two systems, and the maximum angle correction error of the robotic couch was 0.2° about all axes. Both the ExacTrac and the OBI CBCT systems showed approximately 1 mm isocenter localization accuracies. The angular discrepancy of two systems was minimal, and the robotic couch angle correction was accurate. These positioning uncertainties should be taken as a lower bound because the results were based on a rigid dosimetry phantom. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The World of Business. Teacher's Activity and Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus Public Schools, OH.

    This activity and resource guide is intended to assist teachers in developing course content and effective teaching methods in business education. (General Business for Economic Understanding," 11th edition, is the adopted textbook for this guide.) The guide is organized into twelve major units and is designed so that each unit builds upon the…

  7. Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics: Standards Correlation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This guide outlines teacher preparation, professional association, and Common Core State Standards aligned to an "interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics" approach using Junior Achievement educational programs within a Math Methods course to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math.

  8. A Citizen's Guide to Solidification and Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how solidification and stabilization refer to a group of cleanup methods that prevent or slow the release of harmful chemicals from wastes, such as contaminated soil, sediment, and sludge.

  9. Variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizard, Alain J.; Tronci, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    The variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory based on Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincaré variational principles are presented. Each variational principle yields a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.

  10. Guided Imagery and Music - And Beyond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music.......4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music....

  11. Guided Imagery and Music - And Beyond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music.......4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music....

  12. "Suture fixation of the fingers": an effective method for positioning burned and contracted fingers using a pulley system as a guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Bakhshaeekia, Alireza

    2011-03-01

    Preserving function of the hand is the aim of treatment in burned hands; appropriate splinting is one of the important measures during acute and chronic treatment. We introduce an effective safe method for positioning of fingers without violating the joints; In this method before performing skin graft for palmar finger burn or contracture release we suture tip of finger with silk 2-0 and fix it to dorsum of hand while extending the finger and for preventing slipping we insert some pulley like circles tied with silk 2-0 fixing over dorsum of mid phalanx. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  14. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B. [PPPL; Gobbin, M. [Euratom-ENEA Association

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  15. Joomla! 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An easy to use, step-by-step guide to creating professional, mobile-friendly websites with the free Joomla CMS. The Joomla! 3 Beginner's Guide Second Edition is the ultimate guide for web developers who wish to build upon their skills and knowledge on creating websites. Even if you're new to this subject, you won't have any difficulty understanding the clear and friendly instructions and explanations. No prior knowledge of HTML and CSS is required.

  16. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  17. CISSP study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Eric; Feldman, Joshua; Riggins, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    "The Eleventh Hour CISSP Study Guide" is keyed to the latest CISSP exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered concisely with key concepts highlighted. This is the only guide you need for last-minute studying. This title answers the toughest questions and highlights core topics. This title can be paired with any other study guide so you are completely prepared.

  18. XML Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    TELEMETRY GROUP DOCUMENT 125-15 XML STYLE GUIDE DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUL 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE XML Style Guide 5a. CONTRACT...standard was prepared by the Data Multiplex Committee of the Telemetry Group, Range Commanders Council. The XML Style Guide defines rules and guidelines

  19. Phytoremediation Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide provides abstracts of over 100 phytoremediation overviews, field studies and demonstrations, research articles, and Internet resources. It also provides a brief summary of phytoremediation.

  20. Image guided percutaneous splenic interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mandeep [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)], E-mail: mandykang2005@yahoo.com; Kalra, Naveen; Gulati, Madhu; Lal, Anupam; Kochhar, Rohit [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Rajwanshi, Arvind [Department of Cytology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2007-10-15

    Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions as diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective review of our interventional records from July 2001 to June 2006. Ninety-five image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions were performed after informed consent in 89 patients: 64 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 5 months to 71 years (mean, 38.4 years) under ultrasound (n = 93) or CT (n = 2) guidance. The procedures performed were fine needle aspiration biopsy of focal splenic lesions (n = 78) and aspiration (n = 10) or percutaneous catheter drainage of a splenic abscess (n = 7). Results: Splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy was successful in 62 (83.78%) of 74 patients with benign lesions diagnosed in 43 (58.1%) and malignancy in 19 (25.67%) patients. The most common pathologies included tuberculosis (26 patients, 35.13%) and lymphoma (14 patients, 18.91%). Therapeutic aspiration or pigtail catheter drainage was successful in all (100%) patients. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Image-guided splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy is a safe and accurate technique that can provide a definitive diagnosis in most patients with focal lesions in the spleen. This study also suggests that image-guided percutaneous aspiration or catheter drainage of splenic abscesses is a safe and effective alternative to surgery.

  1. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François;

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  2. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  3. Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data From 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New Coresta Recommended Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkis Steve

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, the CORESTA Special Analytes Sub Group (SPA SG has been working on the development of CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs for the analysis of cigarette smoke components. All CRMs have been posted on the CORESTA website and several associated papers published. In this study, 21 laboratories shared data and in-house methodologies for 28 additional smoke components of regulatory interest to prioritise the development of further CRMs. Laboratories provided data, where available, from CORESTA monitor test pieces (CM6 and CM7 and Kentucky Reference Cigarettes (1R5F / 3R4F covering the period 2010-2012 obtained under both the ISO 3308 and Health Canada Intense regimes. Scant data were available on the CORESTA monitor test pieces and the Kentucky 1R5F reference. The greatest amount of data was obtained on the Kentucky 3R4F and this was used in the analyses described in this paper. SPA SG discussions provided invaluable insight into identifying causes and ways of reducing inter-laboratory variability which will be investigated in joint experiments before embarking on final collaborative studies using draft CRMs to obtain mean yields, repeatability and reproducibility values. Phenolic compounds (phenol, 3 cresol isomers, hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol gave consistent results by liquid chromatography (LC separation and fluorescence detection after extracting collected “tar” on a Cambridge filter pad (CFP. Yields were similar to those obtained by a derivatisation method followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Similar ratios of phenols were also obtained from each method. Of the 28 studied analytes, the between-laboratory variability was lowest for the phenols. Hydrogen cyanide was derivatised using various reagents and the colour development measured after continuous flow analysis (CFA by ultra-violet absorbance. Although, methodologies gave reasonably consistent results, investigations on the trapping system

  4. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  5. 一种用于自律搬运车导航的混合式视觉方法%A Hybrid Vision Method for Autonomous Guided Vehicle Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕健; 池田博康; 滨岛京子

    2006-01-01

    For the autonomous guided vehicle (AGV) used mainly in unfixed work fields, a machine vision method was proposed for the navigation system, in which a series of navigation-signs are placed along the travel route. The navigation system detects and recognizes these signs, and accordingly informs the travel control system. In order for the navigation to have balanced ability of 1) covering a large area and 2) recognizing details of the sign, the proposed vision method was designed to be a hybrid one, using both the stereo vision and the traditional 2D template matching. The former implemented a coarse recognition function for above 1), and the later implemented a fine recognition function for above 2). The results from the coarse recognition were used in the fine recognition for the gaze control to input suitable 2D image of the signs. Experiments on a prototype system show the feasibility of the proposed hybrid method in achieving the objective specifications for a typical AGV.

  6. Cavitation guide for control valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, J.P. [Tullis Engineering Consultants, Logan, UT (United States)

    1993-04-01

    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

  7. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, B.

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  8. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Bruce [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  9. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  10. 以体验式旅游为导向的景区规划方法探究%The scenic area planning method guided by experiential tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author from two aspects: scenic area planning method in China and the development trend of China's tourism industry, analyzes the traditional sightseeing tourism type oriented way of traditional scenic area planning, at the same time introduced the experiential tourism oriented to the scenic area planning theory, finally, based on this, explores the experiential tourism oriented method of scenic area planning and how to effectively carry out the planning.%本文中,笔者首先从我国景区规划方法综述和我国旅游业发展趋势两方面,对传统的以观光式旅游为导向的传统景区规划方式进行了探析,同时详细介绍了以体验式旅游为导向进行景区规划的理论依据,最后在此基础上探究了当下以体验式旅游为导向的景区规划方法如何有效地开展。

  11. Synthetic phase tuning of guided waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooh, S C; Shi, Y

    2001-01-01

    A novel method has been developed to generate and manipulate multi-mode guided waves. This technique uses a linear phased array whose elements are activated according to a prescribed time delay profile obtained from the dispersion curves. It is shown that a desired guided wave mode can be tuned by synthetically constructing a virtual wave from individually acquired waveform data. In addition to the development of such a synthetic phase tuning (SPT) technique, a pseudo pulse-echo (PPE) operation scheme is also developed for nondestructive testing. Experimental results are compared with those obtained by more traditional techniques using variable angle wedges and array transducers. It was shown that the new technique is convenient, robust, and flexible in utilizing multi-mode guided waves for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). It is a dynamic method that can produce desired guided wave modes propagating in the desired direction without any mechanical alignment. The advantages and limitations of the technique are addressed.

  12. Guided Learning at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Guided learning (questioning, diagrams/analogies, modeling, coaching) was studied through critical incident interviews in five workplaces. Participation in everyday work activities was the most effective contributor to workplace learning. Organizational readiness and the efficacy of guided learning in resolving novel tasks were also important. (SK)

  13. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  14. Educator's Guide to Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This teaching guide was designed to implement eight teaching units based on specific events or periods in history. The learning packet was developed to give educators and students a view of the parallel growth of our country and its business and industry. The guide presents: (1) an overview of each of the teaching units; (2) guidelines for using…

  15. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  16. Radiologic Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a radiologic technology program. The guide contains four major sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining purpose and objectives; a program description,…

  17. JBoss ESB Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    DiMaggio, Len; Magesh, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter contains practical examples with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots to guide you through the implementation of JBoss ESB. This book is intended for Java programmers although you don't need previous experience with middleware such as application servers or ESBs.

  18. The Higgs hunter's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  19. Public Relations Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This guide was especially designed for home economists and includes 50 pages of practical ideas and examples on how to set public relations objectives, determine target audiences, work with the media, write releases' and prepare for broadcast interviews. The guide includes definitions of basic terms used in public relations, establishes guidelines…

  20. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

  1. Measurement Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This discussion guide is part of a larger practice guide designed to help state education agencies (SEAs) define measurement goals, select college and career readiness measures and indicators designed to support those goals, and use the data gathered with those measures and indicators to make informed decisions about college and career readiness…

  2. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  3. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  4. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  5. concrete5 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laubacher, Remo

    2011-01-01

    This book is part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series. You will be guided through the set up of a Concrete5 site with step-by-step practical examples. This book is ideal for developers who would like to build their first site with Concrete5. Some k

  6. Medical Assisting Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a medical assisting program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the medical assisting field, such as medical law and ethics, typing,…

  7. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  8. EFFECT OF GUIDED RELAXATION METHOD WITH MUSIC ON PAIN SENSITIVITY IN AC-UPUNCTURE%音乐导引放松法对针刺疼痛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欣; 周子超; 姚睿

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨音乐导引放松法对针刺实验受试者的疼痛敏感度及血压、心率的影响。方法将70名健康在校大学生随机分为实验组与对照组各35名。对照组受试者给予常规针刺操作,实验组针刺过程采用音乐导引放松法进行干预。观察两组受试者实验中疼痛敏感度及实验前后的心率、血压变化。结果组间比较,针刺前两组心率、舒张压与收缩压水平间差异均无统计学意义(p>0.05);针刺后疼痛数字评分量表(NRS)评分两组间有极显著差异(p<0.001),收缩压水平与针刺前相比两组差异有统计学意义(p<0.05),而心率、舒张压与针刺前相比两组差异无统计学意义(p>0.05)。结论音乐导引放松法可以减轻针刺时受试者的疼痛敏感度,使针刺更易于进行。%Objective To detect the effect of Guided Relaxation Method with Music on pain sensitivity and hemodynamics in acupuncture.Methods 70 volunteers aged 18 to 22, all in good condition, were randomized to study group or control group (each 35).In the control group, volunteers were only treated with acupuncture in a routine way while volunteers in the study group were treated with acupuncture using Guided Relaxation Method with Music .Comparing the change of heart rate and blood pressure before and after the experiment, and the pain sensitivity between these two groups.Results By comparing the two groups, it showed that there were no significant differences in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure level(p>0.05).Numerical rat-ing scale scores in study group was much lower (p0.05).Conclusion Guided Relaxation Method with Music could help to alleviate the feeling of pain, and make acupuncture therapy more acceptable.

  9. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  10. Improving glycaemic control and life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A randomised, controlled intervention study using the Guided Self-Determination-Young method in triads of adolescents, parents and health care providers integrated into routine paediatric outpatient clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbensen Bente

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with type 1 diabetes face demanding challenges due to conflicting priorities between psychosocial needs and diabetes management. This conflict often results in poor glycaemic control and discord between adolescents and parents. Adolescent-parent conflicts are thus a barrier for health care providers (HCPs to overcome in their attempts to involve both adolescents and parents in improvement of glycaemic control. Evidence-based interventions that involve all three parties (i.e., adolescents, parents and HCPs and are integrated into routine outpatient clinic visits are lacking. The Guided Self-Determination method is proven effective in adult care and has been adapted to adolescents and parents (Guided Self-Determination-Young (GSD-Y for use in paediatric diabetes outpatient clinics. Our objective is to test whether GSD-Y used in routine paediatric outpatient clinic visits will reduce haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c concentrations and improve adolescents' life skills compared with a control group. Methods/Design Using a mixed methods design comprising a randomised controlled trial and a nested qualitative evaluation, we will recruit 68 adolescents age 13 - 18 years with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c > 8.0% and their parents from 2 Danish hospitals and randomise into GSD-Y or control groups. During an 8-12 month period, the GSD-Y group will complete 8 outpatient GSD-Y visits, and the control group will completes an equal number of standard visits. The primary outcome is HbA1c. Secondary outcomes include the following: number of self-monitored blood glucose values and levels of autonomous motivation, involvement and autonomy support from parents, autonomy support from HCPs, perceived competence in managing diabetes, well-being, and diabetes-related problems. Primary and secondary outcomes will be evaluated within and between groups by comparing data from baseline, after completion of the visits, and again after a 6-month follow-up. To

  11. 拉玛泽呼吸减痛法在导乐分娩中的应用%Vladimir Radmanovic ze respiration minus pain method in the guide music delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许孟希; 翟卫兵

    2012-01-01

      Objective To study application of radmanovic ze breathing in guide le delivery on guide music delivery. Methods The observation group selected 50 cases of pregnancy seven months in outpatient service mission in formal radmanovic ze breathing reduction of pain, by the same maternal training master radmanovic ze breathing minus the midwife of pain with delivery. The control group selected 50 cases not in outpatient service learning radmanovic ze breathing reduction method of expectant mothers, pain by general midwife with delivery. For delivery of respectively, vaginal pain tolerance childbirth, the satisfaction of labor time. Results The suffertibility for pain in observation group, per vaginam parturition rate and maternal satisfaction increased.Conclusion Radmanovic ze breathing reduce pain law is a kind of easy, easy to accept, practical and simple and effective and no negative effect. The delivery method can effectively reduce the cesarean section rate.%  目的探讨拉玛泽呼吸减痛法在导乐分娩中的应用。方法观察组选择50例孕28周左右经正规拉玛泽呼吸减痛法培训的产妇,由同样掌握拉玛泽呼吸减痛法的助产士陪伴分娩;同时选择50例在门诊未学习拉玛泽呼吸减痛法的产妇作为对照组,由一般助产士陪伴分娩。分别对2组分娩疼痛的忍耐程度、阴道分娩率、产程时间进行比较。结果观察组孕妇对分娩疼痛的忍受能力增加,经阴道分娩率增高,产程明显缩短。结论拉玛泽呼吸减痛法是一种易学、易接受、可行且简单有效、无副作用的分娩减痛方法,可有效降低剖宫产率。

  12. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs A Partner's Guide ... May 2016 PDF Format A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Pregnancy Why is it important to be supportive ...

  13. A near-rectangle guided segmentation method for remote sensing images of corn field areas%一种类矩形引导的玉米田遥感图像分割算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁若飞; 杨风暴; 王毅敏; 孟颖晨; 卫红

    2016-01-01

    在覆盖玉米田的遥感图像中,玉米地块边缘区域存在大量的同物异谱现象,利用传统分割方法进行玉米地块分割时,会造成边缘出现许多非玉米小块区域,因而导致玉米种植面积统计错误。根据大面积玉米种植区域的形状分布特点,提出一种类矩形引导的玉米田种植区分割方法。首先采用最小核值相似区( smallest univale segment assimilating nucleus,SUSAN)边缘检测算子对融合后的高分一号(GF-1)卫星遥感图像进行边缘提取,然后根据闭合区域与外接类矩形的关系构建类矩形引导的相关函数,最后将类矩形阈值函数引入基于图的分割算法中实现特定形状的地块分割。将分割结果分别与基于图的分割方法、分水岭分割方法和人工解译样本进行实验比较,结果表明:本文方法能有效地分割出玉米田目标,减少了同物异谱带来的影响,分割结果更加符合玉米田实际分布特征和实际统计面积。%Corn field remote sensing images have a mass of end member spectral variability among marginal land area.When traditional method is used for corn block segmentation , it will produce a number of small corn plot areas at the edge and result in statistical errors of the planting area .According to the distribution characteristics of large corn planting area , an near -rectangle guided segmentation method for remote sensing images in corn field areas is proposed.First, the SUSAN ( smallest univale segment assimilating nucleus ) operator is used for edge detection from GF-1 fusion images.Then, according to the relationship between closed area and external near rectangular, the near rectangle-guided correlation function is built .At last, the near-rectangle guided threshold function is introduced into the graph -based segmentation algorithm to implement the field parcel segmentation of a specific shape .The results were compared with the graph

  14. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  15. The Combined Application of Double-guiding Method and Seldinger Puncture on PCN%双导引与Seldinger技术在PCN中的联合应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹君

    2013-01-01

    目的:回顾性研究超声联合DSA双导引与Seldinger 穿刺法在经皮肾造瘘术(PCN)中的应用,分析其技术成功率与并发症的发生率。方法247例接受 PCN的泌尿系梗阻患者,其中急性梗阻48例,慢性梗阻199例,两组均先在超声导引下采取Seldinger技术穿刺积水肾盂,成功后移至 DSA下操作。结果两组均无严重并发症发生,无操作相关死亡病例;普通并发症两组间仅出血发生率有显著性差异(P=0.019)。结论超声联合DSA双导引与Seldinger 穿刺法应用于PCN中,操作简单,成功率高,并发症少且无严重并发症,值得在临床工作中推广应用。%ObjectiveTo study the combined application of the Seldinger puncture under the ultrasound and DSA on percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) technique, and to analysis the success rate and the incidence of complications. Materials and Methods Of 247 patients with urinary tract obstruction, 48 cases of acute and 199 chronic obstruction were al underwent PCN by Seldinger puncture under ultrasound and DSA. Results In both groups no serious complications occurred, and no dead cases did;in common complications , only incidence of hematuria between the two groups have significant dif erence (P=0.019). Conclusion PCN by Seldinger puncture under ultrasound and DSA, has the features of the simple operation,high success rate,less complications and no serious complications, worthy of popularization in clinical practice.

  16. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  17. 2014 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2014 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the latest findings from space probes. Published annually since 1991, the Sky Guide continues to be a favourite with photographers,

  18. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  19. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  20. Interchangeable spline reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The WX-Division Integrated Software Tools (WIST) Team evolved from two previous committees, First was the W78 Solid Modeling Pilot Project`s Spline Subcommittee, which later evolved into the Vv`X-Division Spline Committee. The mission of the WIST team is to investigate current CAE engineering processes relating to complex geometry and to develop methods for improving those processes. Specifically, the WIST team is developing technology that allows the Division to use multiple spline representations. We are also updating the contour system (CONSYS) data base to take full advantage of the Division`s expanding electronic engineering process. Both of these efforts involve developing interfaces to commercial CAE systems and writing new software. The WIST team is comprised of members from V;X-11, -12 and 13. This {open_quotes}cross-functional{close_quotes} approach to software development is somewhat new in the Division so an effort is being made to formalize our processes and assure quality at each phase of development. Chapter one represents a theory manual and is one phase of the formal process. The theory manual is followed by a software requirements document, specification document, software verification and validation documents. The purpose of this guide is to present the theory underlying the interchangeable spline technology and application. Verification and validation test results are also presented for proof of principal.

  1. Medical education scholarship: an introductory guide: AMEE Guide No. 89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, Gerald E; Gaines, Julie K; Cottrell, Scott; Kalishman, Summers; Gusic, Maryellen; Mavis, Brian; Durning, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Abstract This AMEE Guide provides an overview of medical education scholarship for early career scholars, based upon a summary of the existing literature and pragmatic advice derived from the experience of its authors. After providing an introduction to the principles of scholarship and describing questions that the Guide addresses, the authors offer a conceptual description of the complementary traditions of teaching and educational discovery, and advocate for the development of educational scholars with both traditions. They then describe the attributes of effective mentor-mentee relationships and how early career scholars can identify potential mentors who can fulfill this role. In the subsequent sections, they describe the appropriate development of scholarly questions and other components of a complete scholarly plan, including how to use conceptual frameworks in guiding such plans. From here, they describe methods that align with both the teaching and discovery traditions and provide concrete examples of each. They then provide guidelines for assessing the impact of scholarship, identify the various opportunities for sharing it, and how to effectively interpret and describe it. Additionally, they provide practical advice on how appropriately to demonstrate the scholarship in a promotional packet, including the principle of reflectivity in scholarship. Finally, they address the principles of applied research ethics for educational scholarship and when to consider soliciting approval for scholarly activities by a human research board.

  2. NordVal guide in validation of alternative proprietary chemical methods%北欧国家方法验证委员会替代专有化学方法验证指南

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳振峰(译)

    2014-01-01

    This paper is fully translated from Guide in Validation of Alternative Proprietary Chemical Methods (NordVal Protocol No.2, approved 26 May 2010). NordVal was created in 1999 by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Food Issues under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The Committee adopted the following objective for NordVal:NordVal evaluates the performance and field of application of alternative microbiological and chemical methods. This includes analyses of food, water, feed, animal faeces and food environmental samples in the Nordic countries. The objective of this paper is to provide a reference for chinese food analyst to develop and validate chemical methods or comunicate with Nordic inspection organization.%本文全文译自北欧国家方法验证委员会(NordVal)2010年5月26日批准的“替代专有化学方法验证指南”(NordVal第2号规程)。NordVal由北欧部长理事会下属的北欧食品议题高级官员委员会创建,并将评估替代微生物方法和替代化学方法的性能和适用范围作为其工作目标,涵盖北欧国家范围内的食品、水、饲料、动物粪便和食品环境样本的分析。本文可作为我国食品分析专业人员研发和验证化学检测方法或与北欧检测机构交流的参考。

  3. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.

  4. Guide to Understanding Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Understanding Lymphedema Get Support Guide to Understanding Lymphedema 2015, 5th Edition By: Robin Warshaw, Contributing Writer ... YES NO ADDITIONAL FEEDBACK Home page More In Lymphedema Breast Cancer News August 14, 2013 Extra Weight — ...

  5. NASA Guided Dropsonde Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exquadrum, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to providing NASA with a Guided Dropsonde (NGD). NASA's desire to use existing...

  6. Cirrhosis: A Patient's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient's Guide Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  7. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  8. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  9. Kenai Wilderness Management Guide

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kenai Wilderness Management Guide is a description, interpretation, and synthesis of Congressional legislation, Department of the Interior regulation, and Fish...

  10. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  11. MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration therapy. A cost comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H.; Froeling, V.; Roettgen, R.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Bretschneider, T. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Hartwig, T.; Disch, A.C. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the costs of MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration for the minimally invasive treatment of radicular neck pain. Materials and Methods: Between September 2009 and April 2012, 22 patients (9 men, 13 women; mean age: 48.2 years) underwent MRI-guided (1.0 Tesla, Panorama HFO, Philips) single-site periradicular cervical nerve root infiltration with 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide. A further 64 patients (34 men, 30 women; mean age: 50.3 years) were treated under CT fluoroscopic guidance (Somatom Definition 64, Siemens). The mean overall costs were calculated as the sum of the prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, maintenance, and energy costs), personnel costs and expenditure for disposables that were identified for MRI- and CT-guided procedures. Additionally, the cost of ultrasound guidance was calculated. Results: The mean intervention time was 24.9 min. (range: 12-36 min.) for MRI-guided infiltration and 19.7 min. (range: 5-54 min.) for CT-guided infiltration. The average total costs per patient were EUR 240 for MRI-guided interventions and EUR 124 for CT-guided interventions. These were (MRI/CT guidance) EUR 150/60 for equipment use, EUR 46/40 for personnel, and EUR 44/25 for disposables. The mean overall cost of ultrasound guidance was EUR 76. Conclusion: Cervical nerve root infiltration using MRI guidance is still about twice as expensive as infiltration using CT guidance. However, since it does not involve radiation exposure for patients and personnel, MRI-guided nerve root infiltration may become a promising alternative to the CT-guided procedure, especially since a further price decrease is expected for MRI devices and MR-compatible disposables. In contrast, ultrasound remains the less expensive method for nerve root infiltration guidance. (orig.)

  12. Del.icio.us Subject Guides: Maintaining Subject Guides Using a Social Bookmarking Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available By using Web 2.0 social bookmarking sites, libraries can more easily manage subject guides and other lists of Web resources. Social bookmarking services such as Delicious provide a one-click method to bookmark a Web site, allowing librarians to describe and categorize Web sites. Using a small amount of JavaScript, these bookmarked resources can be dynamically included into subject guides and other Web-based library resources. This paper describes and analyses the use of social bookmarking at a medium-sized comprehensive college library for the creation and maintenance of modern languages subject guides. A brief technical description outlining necessary JavaScript code provides a way for librarians to try this idea elsewhere. This paper examines the initiative at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ Library to utilize the social bookmarking Web site del.icio.us to easily update and maintain modern language subject-specific guides on the library Web site. Previously, the subject guides have proven difficult to maintain and a solution that allowed subject librarians to quickly and easily update subject guides from anywhere was desired. By using del.icio.us, librarians at TCNJ have been able to stream line subject guide maintenance. This paper describes the process used to include resources bookmarked on del.icio.us by librarians from both the subject librarians' and systems librarian's perspectives. Included is a brief technical description that outlines the JavaScript code that needs to be included in the subject guides that other libraries can use as an example if they choose to embark on a similar project. The response from librarians and teaching faculty has been positive. Librarians appreciate the ease of use while teaching faculty appreciate the constantly evolving nature of the subject guides. Recommendations on ways to expand this project, including methods to allowing students and faculty to identify content to be included in subject guides

  13. Guide for a typewriter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, R. D.; Pinson, G. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to accessories for typewriters, and more particularly to an improved guide for use in aligning a sheet of paper preparatory to an application of typed indicia to selected spaces. The device includes an aligning plate pivotally mounted on a line guide having formed therein a plurality of aligned apertures. The plate is so positioned that an aperture is positioned immediately above a target area for a type slug so that a slug will imprint a character in selected spaces.

  14. Hand deburring guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1979-07-01

    Appropriate hand deburring techniques have always been difficult to define because of the infinite variety of part shapes, sizes, materials, and burr conditions. This guide, however, has been prepared to assist those responsible for hand deburring. The purpose of the guide is to define Bendix Kansas City burr specifications and inspection practices; to define the results of practical tests on hand deburring; to define some typical in-house practices; and to define the in-house tools available for this work.

  15. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  16. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  17. Liferay Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Robert; Bhatt, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter follows the creation of a fictional neighbourhood site to demonstrate an aspect of Liferay portal with practical examples, screenshots, and step-by-step instructions. All you need in order to benefit from the Liferay Beginner's Guide is programming experience. No prior knowledge of Liferay is required, although experienced Liferay portal programmers who need to get up to speed with its latest features will also find this book useful.

  18. Wind Energy Teachers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-01-01

    This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.

  19. Railo 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Drew, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book uses practical examples and screenshots to steadily guide the reader through setting up and using Railo. If you want to develop your own dynamic web applications using CFML, then this book is for you. No prior experience with Railo or CFML is required, although you will be expected to have some web application development experience and knowledge of HTML.

  20. 灰熵并行分析引导 PSO 求解多目标优化问题%Solving multi-objective optimization problem with particle swarm algorithm guided by grey entropy parallel analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光宇; 冯子超; 杨志锋

    2014-01-01

    A particle swarm algorithm is proposed based on the gray entropy parallel analysis method to solve the multi-objective optimization problems.The gray entropy parallel analysis method combines the charac-teristics of the grey correlation analysis method and information entropy.The grey correlation coefficient of the data sequence is calculated,meanwhile,the information entropy and the entropy weight are also calculated, then the grey entropy parallel correlation degree is got by combining the grey relational coefficient with the en-tropy weight.The objective value sequence of the multi-objective optimization problem is established by the par-ticle swarm algorithm and the number of the objective value sequence equals to the number of particles in the al-gorithm.The value of grey entropy parallel correlation degree of each sequence is calculated and used as the dis-tribution strategy of the fitness value to guide the particle evolution.Ten typical job shop scheduling problems are tested by the proposed method,and the results are compared with results gained by the differential evolution algorithm and the genetic algorithm.The experimental results show that the grey entropy parallel analysis method can guide the algorithm evolution effectively with good convergence and distribution performance,and the optimization results of particle swarm algorithm are better than those of the other two algorithms.%提出采用灰熵并行分析法引导粒子群算法求解多目标优化问题。灰熵并行分析法综合灰色关联分析法与信息熵的特点,对数据序列计算灰关联系数,同时并行地对数据序列计算信息熵及熵值权重,将灰关联系数与熵值权重结合求得灰熵并行关联度。通过粒子群算法对优化问题的多个目标构建与粒子数相同数量的目标值序列,计算每个序列的灰熵并行关联度值,利用该值作为算法适应度值的分配策略引导粒子进化。以10个典型作业车间调

  1. 基于能力本位理念下的行为矫正课程引导式教学方法实践探析%On Guided Teaching Methods of Behavior Modification Programs Based on CBT Idea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁海

    2015-01-01

    在能力本位的课程改革理念指导下,以学生为中心,应用行为引导式教学方法,把握获取任务信息、制订矫正计划、小组实施、矫正效果评价四个实施环节,从课程性质与特点出发、课程资源、课堂程序规范和督导制度四个方面进行创新,有效控制教学方法改革中的相关因素,融“教学做”一体,将有助于提高行为矫正课堂教学效率。%Under the guidance of the ability-oriented curriculum reform concept, the paper takes the students as the center and applies behavior-guided teaching method to grasp the task information, formulate the correction plan and the team implementation, evaluate the modification effect. And it innovates from the curriculum nature and characteristics, curriculum resources, classroom specification and supervision system. The integration of teaching, learning and practice will help improve the efficiency of classroom teaching.

  2. Scaled signal intensity of uterine fibroids based on T2-weighted MR images: a potential objective method to determine the suitability for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun [CHA University, Comprehensive Gynecologic Cancer Center, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Gyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang-Wook [CHA University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Sungnam-si, Gyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Sokolov, Amit [InSightec Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive method to treat uterine fibroids. To help determine the patient suitability for MRgFUS, we propose a new objective measure: the scaled signal intensity (SSI) of uterine fibroids in T2 weighted MR images (T2WI). Forty three uterine fibroids in 40 premenopausal women were included in this retrospective study. SSI of each fibroid was measured from the screening T2WI by standardizing its mean signal intensity to a 0-100 scale, using reference intensities of rectus abdominis muscle (0) and subcutaneous fat (100). Correlation between the SSI and the non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio (a measure for treatment success) was calculated. Pre-treatment SSI showed a significant inverse-correlation with post treatment NPV ratio (p < 0.05). When dichotomizing NPV ratio at 45 %, the optimal cut off value of the SSI was found to be 16.0. A fibroid with SSI value 16.0 or less can be expected to have optimal responses. The SSI of uterine fibroids in T2WI can be suggested as an objective parameter to help in patient selection for MRgFUS. (orig.)

  3. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gnatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.

  4. 移动导向架高精度沉桩技术在外海桥梁工程中的应用%Application of moving guide frame method for high precision pile- sinking in offshore bridge engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连江; 孙建波; 徐波

    2015-01-01

    The method of using moving guide frame to sinking piles is achieved by developing piling guide frame and fixing it up on one side of the barge, which acts as the locating boat with specific positioning systems to pile. With the help of crane barge to hoist the steel pipe piles, in the shape of hydraulic vibratory hammer first striking and the impact hammer re-driving to construct the large diameter ultra-long steel pipe piles. Using the high precision real-time measurement system to make sure the precision of pile-sinking in plane position will be no more than 10 cm and the squareness error will be lower than 1/250. The process has the advantage that when the piling deviation is exceed standard , the steel pipe pile can be pulling and re-sinking, the positive rate can achieve 100%compared with the traditional piling ship sinking process.%移动导向架高精度沉桩技术是通过在大型定位驳船的一侧布置特制的导向架,利用大型起重船吊桩入导向架定位,再起吊液压振动锤初打与冲击锤复打的外海大直径超长钢管桩施工技术。依靠研发的高精度实时测量定位系统,确保沉桩精度满足平面位置偏差不大于10 cm,垂直度偏差不大于1/250的高精度要求。该工艺具有沉桩偏位超标时能将钢管桩拔出重新振沉的优点,较传统的打桩船沉桩工艺可做到100%的正位率。

  5. Efects of the physical training, based in ergospyrometric evaluation, in the aerobic capacity of volley players – physical training in volley players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prescription of the exercise training intensity based on ventilatory thresholds, determined by ergoespirometric evaluations, has been very useful for athletes. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of a short period of exercise training, based on the ventilatory thresholds on physical capacity of volleyball players. Six male volleyball players (25±4 years were studied during the competitive phase of the State Championship. The players were submitted to two maximal ergoespirometric evaluations on the treadmill with a three-month interval. In this period, the aerobic training was performed with an intensity between the anaerobic threshold and the respiratory compensation point, and the anaerobic training on an intensity above the respiratory compensation point. Exercise training caused a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake (48.6±3.0 vs. 51.0±3.0 ml.kg-1.min-1, p < 0.05, but without significant alteration in maximal power, maximal heart rate and maximal ventilation. The values of oxygen uptake and heart rate, in which the ventilatory thresholds were achieved, tended to be higher after exercise training. In conclusion, a short period of three months of exercise training based on the ventilatory thresholds is effective in increasing the maximal oxygen uptake in volleyball players and tends to increase the ventilatory thresholds.

  6. A Practical Guide to Immunoassay Method Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreasson, U.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Waalwijk van Doorn, L.L.C. van; Blennow, K.; Chiasserini, D.; Engelborghs, S.; Fladby, T.; Genc, S.; Kruse, N.; Kuiperij, H.B.; Kulic, L.; Lewczuk, P.; Mollenhauer, B.; Mroczko, B.; Parnetti, L.; Vanmechelen, E.; Verbeek, M.M.; Winblad, B.; Zetterberg, H.; Koel-Simmelink, M.; Teunissen, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical markers have a central position in the diagnosis and management of patients in clinical medicine, and also in clinical research and drug development, also for brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is frequently used for measurement of

  7. Guiding E.coli to nanosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Won; So, Hye-Mi; Kim, Beom Soo; Kong, Ki-Jeong; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2009-03-01

    Electronic nanosensors based on nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires are expected to have ultimate sensitivity. However, as an inherent problem of nanosensors, they have extremely small sensor surface for reaction. Therefore, simple diffusion of target biomolecules is not enough for such nanosensors, and the problem is even more serious in the case of motile bacteria. Previously, we have shown that we could estimate the titer of E.coli with arrays of single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWNT-FET) combined with statistical method. Still, sensitivity of our method is inferior compared with incubation method, due to the limited sensor surface area. In this work, we actively guide E.coli to the sensor surface using micro-fabricated channels. Arrow-shaped and funnel shaped microstructures were fabricated in the channel to guide E. coli to the sensor surface, and we used green fluorescent protein expressed E.coli to monitor the guiding of E.coli.

  8. Redes centinela sanitarias en España: Consenso para una guía de principios y métodos Health sentinel networks in Spain: Consensus for a guide of principles and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Tomás Vega Alonso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las redes centinela sanitarias han estado activas en nuestro país desde la década de los años ochenta, con variados objetivos, metodología y diferente grado de desarrollo en las comunidades autónomas donde se han implantado. La necesidad de normalizar el funcionamiento y de armonizar los indicadores ha propiciado un proyecto de investigación de redes centinela sanitarias españolas, uno de cuyos objetivos es establecer una guía de principios y métodos de trabajo. Se ha procedido a realizar un estudio con el método Delphi, en el que un panel de 23 expertos ha consensuado, en 3 fases consecutivas, la definición de red centinela, los objetivos, los principios que deben regirlas y otros aspectos relacionados con la organización y funcionamiento. En conjunto se plantearon 41 cuestiones sobre la base de un primer borrador, las cuales necesitaban un 80% de consenso en una primera fase y un 70% en la segunda. Todos los expertos participaron en la primera fase, 22 en la segunda y 20 en la tercera. Se alcanzó un consenso en 36 cuestiones en la primera fase y en 4 de las 5 restantes en la segunda. En la tercera fase se dio forma definitiva al documento de la guía. El método de consenso Delphi ha resultado extremadamente útil en la resolución de discrepancias y divergencias, obteniéndose una guía válida para redes centinela. Los expertos ajenos a los sistemas centinela del panel seleccionado aportaron una visión más extensa sobre los objetivos y la aplicabilidad de las redes centinela sanitarias en España.Since the eighties, health sentinel networks have been active in our country, but with a variety of objectives, methods and different development levels in the autonomous communities. The necessity of standardising the management and harmonising the indicators has concluded in a research project on the Spanish health sentinel networks, one of whose objectives is to establish a guide for work principles and methods. A panel of 23

  9. Analysing the experience of being guided by a mobile guide app

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Candello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a study to deliver design guidelines for developing outdoor mobile multimedia guides and refine methods to collect and analyse data from field work with visitors of cultural heritage settings. It concentrates on how tourists behave and the kinds of information they require in location-based contexts with mobile guides. Twelve participants took a tour, making use of a mobile guide app describing monuments in Brighton, England. Overall, 57 recommendations for improvement were gathered and covered issues of multimedia use, context and content.  Additionally, the study gave insights into cultural background differences; collaboration; influence of technology and language; and environmental factors.

  10. Microwave bessel beams generation using guided modes

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    A novel method is devised for Bessel beams generation in the microwave regime. The beam is decomposed in terms of a number of guided transverse electric modes of a metallic waveguide. Modal expansion coefficients are computed from the modal power orthogonality relation. Excitation is achieved by means of a number of inserted coaxial loop antennas, whose currents are calculated from the excitation coefficients of the guided modes. The efficiency of the method is evaluated and its feasibility is discussed. Obtained results can be utilized to practically realize microwave Bessel beam launchers. © 2006 IEEE.

  11. Students' guide to program design

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Lesley Anne

    1992-01-01

    Students' Guide to Program Design is a textbook on program design. This textbook approaches program design by using structures programming techniques and pseudocode to develop a solution algorithm. Divided into 10 chapters, the book begins with a basic explanation of structured programming techniques, top-down development, and modular design. This discussion is followed by detailed concepts of the syntax of pseudocode; methods of defining the problem; the application of basic control structures in the development of the solution algorithm; desk checking techniques; hierarchy charts; and module

  12. 超声介入治疗细菌性肝脓肿的两种方法疗效比较%Comparing of the two methods of ultrasound guided different interventional therapy in treatment of bacterial liver abscess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜朝晖; 张卫兵; 刘华; 陈建

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the different therapeutic effect of ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration and percutaneous catheter drainage on bacterial liver abscess. Methods 98 patients with bacterial liver abscess were recruited. Of 46 patients with abscess above five centimeters in diameter, 21 were treated by needle aspiration and 25 by percutaneous catheter drainage. Of 52 patients with abscess under five centimeters in diameter, 30 were treated by needle aspiration and 22 by percutaneous catheter drainage. The time of vomica extinction, the hospital day and the time of hemogram and body temperature being normal of the two methods after operation were compared. Results Percutaneous catheter drainage was superior to needle aspiration in the hospital day and the time of vomica elimination patients with abscess above five centimeters in diameter( P 0. 05 ) . The differences of the two methods were not statistically significant in the recovery time of hemogram and body temperature for all cases, and in hospital day and the time of vomica elimination for patients with abscess under five centimeters in diameter ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusions Ultrasound guided percutaneous catheter drainage is the first choice treatment for bacterial liver abscess above five centimeters in diameter, and needle aspiration is the first choice treatment for that under five centimeters in diameter.%目的 对比研究超声引导下经皮肝穿刺细针抽吸术与置管引流术治疗细菌性肝脓肿的疗效.方法 细菌性肝脓肿98例,其中直径≥5 cm 46例,直径<5 cm 52例.对以上两种大小的脓肿,分别采取超声引导下经皮肝穿刺细针抽吸术和置管引流术两种方法治疗,比较两种方法治疗后脓肿消失时间、患者住院时间、血象、体温恢复正常时间等.结果 直径≥5 cm肝脓肿,置管引流术组在住院天数、脓腔消失时间等方面优于细针抽吸术组(P<0.05),在术后血象、体温恢复正常时间方面

  13. Ultra-wide-band NRD-guide Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-hui; JIANG Yang-sheng; WANG Wen-bing

    2005-01-01

    A new ultra-wide-band(UWB) horn antenna based on the nonradiative dielectric waveguide (NRD-guide) was proposed to solve the problem of UWB antennas, TEM horns for example, generally suffer from large side leakage. The rule of the theoretical selection of its parameters, if NRD-guide is used as the UWB antennas, is studied firstly, then the radiation characteristics for an open-ended NRD-guide are calculated by FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) method.

  14. Promotion Guide – A guide for career reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 8 February, the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) approved the Promotion Guide, subtitled “A guide for career reviews”. The English version is already published on the HR website. This Promotion Guide is not very different from the Career Path Guide which it replaces following the implementation of the new career structure with benchmark jobs and grades. Structure The guide is composed of three parts: Section I – Introduction revisits the reference documents: the Staff Rules and Regulations (S&R) and the Administrative Circular No. 26 (AC 26). In the Staff Rules and Regulations, the term promotion is defined as a change of grade1 and in Administrative Circular No. 26, the Promotion Guide is referenced under paragraph 452. The objective of the Promotion Guide is laid out in Section I: “The Promotion Guide defines the criteria to be used as a reference for career reviews with a view to a potential promotion”. However, this guide do...

  15. 基于图像引导的交通事故现场实时测绘方法%Real Time Mapping Method for Traffic Accident Scene Based on Image Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗新强; 金先龙; 韩学源; 侯心一

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of mapping the accident scene diagram on the scene for traffic police, a real time mapping method for traffic accident scene investigation based on image guide was proposed. The proposed procedure consists of a transformation which transforms a single photo of the accident scene from perspective image to orthographic image using direct linear transformation method, followed by mapping accident scene information such as vehicles, bodies, fall out objects, braking traces and so on directly over the orthographic image, and finally printing out the accident scene diagram, which needs to be signed by interested parties. A typical traffic accident case was used to validate the proposed method. Compared with the traditional hands-on measurement, the proposed method can not only improve the accuracy of site investigation, but also can considerably reduce the time of on-scene data processing and drawing, which contributes to satisfying the requirement of printing out the accident scene diagram in real time.%为了满足交警现场绘制事故现场图的实际需要,提出了基于图像引导的交通事故现场实时测绘方法.首先根据直接线性变换法将事故现场照片由透视图转换为正投影图像;然后直接在正投影图像上进行车辆、人体、散落物和刹车痕迹等事故现场信息的绘制和相关尺寸的标注;最后实现现场图的打印输出并由当事人签字确认.通过典型交通事故案例验证了该方法的有效性.和传统手工测绘相比,该方法在提高事故现场勘测精度的同时,还能大大缩短数据处理和现场绘图时间,满足实时打印输出现场图的要求.

  16. High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  17. Joomla! 25 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Written with a fast-paced but friendly and engaging approach, this Packt Beginner's guide is designed to be placed alongside the computer as your guide and mentor. Step-by-step tutorials are bolstered by explanations of the reasoning behind what you are doing. You will quickly pick up the necessary skills, tips, and tricks for building a successful Joomla! website. This book is written for beginners to website design. By the end of the book you will have built a complete custom content managed website, and be ready to build any kind of website.

  18. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  19. 2013 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world. The Sky guide has been published annually by the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, since 1991. It is recommended for photogr

  20. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  1. Simple guide to Skype

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Simple Guides give you Just the Facts Get up to speed with Skypefast! Simple Guides: get you started quickly. No extra clutter, no extra reading. Learn how to set up Skype, as well as how to add and set up all your friends, family, and other contacts. Find out about all the features of Skype, how to change views, set your status and conduct video and audio only calls. Learn about all the different things you can do to contact your friends and family on Skype for free, and start having fun!

  2. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  3. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  4. Pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide is a guide for the design of pneumatic conveying systems and includes detailed data and information on the conveying characteristics of a number of materials with a wide range of properties. This book includes logic diagrams for design procedures and scaling parameters for the conveying line configuration. It also explains how to improve the performance of pneumatic conveyors by optimizing, uprating, and extending the system or adapting it for a change of material. This book consists of 15 chapters divided into three sections and opens with an overview of the s

  5. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  6. The OSIRIS user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Telling, M T F

    2003-01-01

    This user guide contains all the information necessary to perform a successful neutron scattering experiment on the OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS, RAL, UK. Since OSIRIS is a continually evolving and improving instrument some information contained within this manual may become redundant. However, the basic instrument operating procedures should remain essentially unchanged. While updated manuals will be produced when appropriate, the most comprehensive source of information concerning OSIRIS is the Instrument Scientist/Local Contact. It would be appreciated, however, if this user guide were the first point of call should problems arise

  7. CFEngine 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rajneesh

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book guides you through setting up Cfengine to maximizing its potential. This book focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also learn how to avoid some common pitfalls. If you are a System Administrator or Configuration manager with a growing infrastructure and if you are looking for a dependable tool to manage your infrastructure, then this book is for you. If your infrastructure is already big with hundreds and thousands of nodes and you are looking for a secure, versatile and stable configu

  8. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  9. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  10. Google Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calishain, Tara; Adams, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Beneath its deceptively simple search form, Google is a remarkably powerful and flexible search engine that indexes billions of web pages, handling more than 150 million searches a day. You know that what you're looking for must be in there somewhere, but how do you make Google work for you? Crafted from our best-selling Google Hacks title, the Google Pocket Guide provides exactly the information you need to make your searches faster and more effective, right from the start. The Google Pocket Guide unleashes the power behind that blinking cursor by delivering: A thorough but concise tour o

  11. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  12. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  13. Internal jugular vein cannulation: an ultrasound-guided technique versus a landmark-guided technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan Turker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the landmark-guided technique versus the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in spontaneously breathing patients. METHODS: A total of 380 patients who required internal jugular vein cannulation were randomly assigned to receive internal jugular vein cannulation using either the landmark- or ultrasound-guided technique in Bursa, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, between April and November, 2008. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, risk of failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization and the demographics of each patient were recorded. RESULTS: The overall complication rate was higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.01. Carotid puncture rate and hematoma were more frequent in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.05. The number of attempts for successful placement was significantly higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group, which was accompanied by a significantly increased access time observed in the landmark group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. Although there were a higher number of attempts, longer access time, and a more frequent complication rate in the landmark group, the success rate was found to be comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of immediate complications.

  14. Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: An Ultrasound-Guided Technique Versus a Landmark-Guided Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Gurkan; Kaya, Fatma Nur; Gurbet, Alp; Aksu, Hale; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Atlas, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the landmark-guided technique versus the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in spontaneously breathing patients. METHODS A total of 380 patients who required internal jugular vein cannulation were randomly assigned to receive internal jugular vein cannulation using either the landmark- or ultrasound-guided technique in Bursa, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, between April and November, 2008. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, risk of failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization and the demographics of each patient were recorded. RESULTS The overall complication rate was higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.01). Carotid puncture rate and hematoma were more frequent in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.05). The number of attempts for successful placement was significantly higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group, which was accompanied by a significantly increased access time observed in the landmark group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Although there were a higher number of attempts, longer access time, and a more frequent complication rate in the landmark group, the success rate was found to be comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of immediate complications. PMID:19841706

  15. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonino, Pim A L; De Bruyne, Bernard; Pijls, Nico H J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary angiography is the standard method for guiding the placement of the stent. It is unclear whether routine measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR; the ratio......-eluting stents guided by angiography alone or guided by FFR measurements in addition to angiography. Before randomization, lesions requiring PCI were identified on the basis of their angiographic appearance. Patients assigned to angiography-guided PCI underwent stenting of all indicated lesions, whereas those...

  16. Objective-guided image annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Gao, Shenghua

    2013-04-01

    Automatic image annotation, which is usually formulated as a multi-label classification problem, is one of the major tools used to enhance the semantic understanding of web images. Many multimedia applications (e.g., tag-based image retrieval) can greatly benefit from image annotation. However, the insufficient performance of image annotation methods prevents these applications from being practical. On the other hand, specific measures are usually designed to evaluate how well one annotation method performs for a specific objective or application, but most image annotation methods do not consider optimization of these measures, so that they are inevitably trapped into suboptimal performance of these objective-specific measures. To address this issue, we first summarize a variety of objective-guided performance measures under a unified representation. Our analysis reveals that macro-averaging measures are very sensitive to infrequent keywords, and hamming measure is easily affected by skewed distributions. We then propose a unified multi-label learning framework, which directly optimizes a variety of objective-specific measures of multi-label learning tasks. Specifically, we first present a multilayer hierarchical structure of learning hypotheses for multi-label problems based on which a variety of loss functions with respect to objective-guided measures are defined. And then, we formulate these loss functions as relaxed surrogate functions and optimize them by structural SVMs. According to the analysis of various measures and the high time complexity of optimizing micro-averaging measures, in this paper, we focus on example-based measures that are tailor-made for image annotation tasks but are seldom explored in the literature. Experiments show consistency with the formal analysis on two widely used multi-label datasets, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method over state-of-the-art baseline methods in terms of example-based measures on four

  17. V-TECS Guide for Bookkeeping/Accounting/Payroll Clerk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide, an extension of the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) catalog, includes such considerations as background information, decision-making skills, attitudes, and learning methods surrounding the occupations of bookkeeper/accountant/payroll clerk. The guide provides job-relevant task, performance objectives,…

  18. Recent developments in guided wave travel time tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, A.T. van; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography had been developed to create a map of the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves

  19. Hello Children! A Teacher's Guide. Excerpts (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonashvili, Shalva Aleksandrovich

    1988-01-01

    Offers excerpts from Shalva Amonashvili's 1983 teaching guide, "Hello Children." Includes chapters on Amonashvili's analysis of Day No. 122 in the school year and reflections on the last day. The guide is based on Amonashvili's experiences teaching six-year olds that incorporated his love for children and humanistic teaching methods. (CH)

  20. Family Learning Outdoors: Guided Participation on a Nature Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; McClain, Lucy R.

    2016-01-01

    This informal learning research project examined how guided participation processes support the use of cultural tools (such as scientific equipment) during a nature walk at one nature center. This paper analyzed family interactions outdoors using microethnographic methods. An informal learning framework based on guided participation and cultural…

  1. Hello Children! A Teacher's Guide. Excerpts (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonashvili, Shalva Aleksandrovich

    1988-01-01

    Offers excerpts from Shalva Amonashvili's 1983 teaching guide, "Hello Children." Includes chapters on Amonashvili's analysis of Day No. 122 in the school year and reflections on the last day. The guide is based on Amonashvili's experiences teaching six-year olds that incorporated his love for children and humanistic teaching methods. (CH)

  2. Treatment of osteoid osteoma using CT-guided radiofrequency ablation versus MR-guided laser ablation: A cost comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H., E-mail: martin.maurer@charite.de [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Gebauer, B., E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.de [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Wieners, G., E-mail: gero.wieners@charite.de [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); De Bucourt, M., E-mail: maximilian.de-bucourt@charite.de [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Renz, D.M., E-mail: diane.renz@charite.de [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B., E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Streitparth, F., E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To compare the costs of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and MR-guided laser ablation (LA) for minimally invasive percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteoma. Materials and methods: Between November 2005 and October 2011, 20 patients (14 males, 6 females, mean age 20.3 {+-} 9.1 years) underwent CT-guided RFA and 24 patients (18 males, 6 females; mean age, 23.8 {+-} 13.8 years) MR-guided LA (open 1.0 Tesla, Panorama HFO, Philips, Best, Netherlands) for osteoid osteoma diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and imaging findings. Prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, and maintenance), staff costs, and expenditure for disposables were identified for CT-guided RFA and MR-guided LA procedures. Results: The average total costs per patient were EUR 1762 for CT-guided RFA and EUR 1417 for MR-guided LA. These were (RFA/LA) EUR 92/260 for equipment use, EUR 149/208 for staff, and EUR 870/300 for disposables. Conclusion: MR-guided LA is less expensive than CT-guided RFA for minimally invasive percutaneous ablation of osteoid osteoma. The higher costs of RFA are primarily due to the higher price of the disposable RFA probes.

  3. Acronyms & Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide includes the following: higher education and related associations; advocacy organizations and coalitions of interest to research universities; explanations of acronyms and terms commonly used in the university community; web links to government resources and agencies; Executive and Legislative Branch offices; and key federal…

  4. CERN honours its guides

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of January, CERN's guides were rewarded for their devotion to the Laboratory. They have a passion for their work, know CERN inside-out and for 40 years have shown people of all ages and nationalities, from all walks of life, around the Laboratory. Who are they? Why, the CERN guides, of course. On 27 January, ten of CERN's 180 guides received special honours for their impressive number of guided tours in 2003. Presenting the awards in the Microcosm hall, CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulated the winners on the key role they play with respect to the general public. "CERN would be nothing without you who show them its activities," he stressed. CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulates Alberto Ribon for his tally of over 40 visits in the course of 2003.One of the prizes was the book «The Particle Odyssey». Here the book's co-author Christine Sutton dedicates it for Sijin Qian. Tzanko Spassoff (PH) and retired staff members Klaus Batzner and Antonio Francano wo...

  5. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  6. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  7. Field Guide to Radiometry

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Written from a systems engineering perspective, this SPIE Field Guide covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment.

  8. Follow the guide!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For once it was the turn of the CERN guides to be shown around. A special tour had been organised for their annual outing on 24 June 2003, the aim of which was to go behind the scenes at research centres similar to CERN and discover the secrets of their public communications activities. The first stop was the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, where the twenty or so CERN guides were welcomed by Dominique Cornujeols, head of communication at ESRF, who explained the Facility's history and purpose and how it operates before they were taken on a tour of the actual installations. CERN guides are welcomed to the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility).The second visit of this trip to the Grenoble region was to the centre for science, technology and industry (CCSTI). "The people in charge at CCSTI showed us their day-to-day work in science and technology workshops", explains Stephan Petit, one of the guides. These workshops allow the public to discuss fundamental issues relating to a ...

  9. Guide for Occupational Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Intended for use with or without counseling help, this occupational exploration guide is organized around 12 interest areas, 66 work groups, and 348 subgroups of occupational titles. The interest areas (an expansion of John Holland's six occupational categories) represent the broad interest requirements of occupations as well as the vocational…

  10. Ozone Layer Educator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide has been developed through a collaborative effort involving the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is part of an ongoing commitment to ensure that the results of scientific research on ozone depletion are…

  11. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  12. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  13. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  14. Welding. Student Learning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains 30 modules for completing a course in welding. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets, student self-check…

  15. Destination: Paraguay. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Roxanne

    This guide offers a closer look at Paraguay as a landlocked republic in the heart of South America. The activities emphasize the interaction between the people and their land and pertain to three academic levels. Activities for grades 3-5 include: (1) "Packing for Paraguay"; (2) "Where in the World Are We Going and How in the World Will We Get…

  16. Drush User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Requena, Juan Pablo Novillo

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide full of examples and step-by-step instructions to start using Drush right from chapter 1. Drupal developers or themers who understand Drupal administration's basic concepts. Drush can make building any kind of website quicker and easier, no matter if it is a development environment, beta, a simple blog or a complex system.

  17. Cosmetology. Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local secondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  18. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  19. Fashion Merchandising Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education Services.

    Developed to address the needs of the apparel industry, this fashion merchandising curriculum guide is designed to assist marketing educators in effective instructional delivery. Introductory materials include the following: a course blueprint that illustrates units of instruction, core competencies in each unit, and specific objectives for each…

  20. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  1. Environmental Horticulture Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard environmental horticulture curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the environmental horticulture field. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  2. Electrical Distribution Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard electrical distribution curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the electrical distribution field, and in job skills such as construction, maintenance, and repair of overhead and underground electrical…

  3. Introductory guide to noise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, T.M

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between sound and noise varies from one human being to another. Noise, then, is simply unwanted sound and to understand how it can be combatted we must know more about its nature. A guide of acceptable levels of noise are investigated....

  4. Rust scoring guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1986-01-01

    This brief guide for identifying rust diseases of smaill grain cereals contains color photos depicting the growth stages of small grain cereal crops and provides instructions for recording rust severity and field response for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), stem rust (P. graminis), and leaf rust

  5. The Turing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, Jack; Sprevak, Mark; Wilson, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This carefully edited resource brings together contributions from some of the world's leading experts on Alan Turing to create a comprehensive guide that will serve as a useful resource for researchers in the area as well as the increasingly interested general reader.

  6. Architectural Guide of Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilberth, Thomas Roger

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and cultural guidebook for Jordan that also includes a view on the Syrian refugee situation, especially in the large UNHCR camp of Zaatari. The guide book is a preparatory study for a field trip our master studio undertook to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Fall 2016....

  7. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  8. 指导大专护生书写反思日记的方法与效果%Methods and effects of guiding nuring students to write reflective diary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶新莉; 王丽君; 李杨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the methods and effects to guide college nureing students to write reflective diary. Methods Forty students practicing from May 2009 to April 2010 were chosen as the control group, another 40 students from May 2010 to April 2011 as the observation group. The control group received the routine teaching model. In addition to the routing teaching mode,the students in the observation group wrote the reflective diary under the guidance of clinical teachers,and teachers timely gave feedback and adjusted teaching work according to the problems reflected in the diary. Results The comprehensive clinical ability and patient satisfaction in the observation group were statistically higher than the control group ( P <0.01 or P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Reflective diary can promote the quality of clinical practice of nursing students and the ability of teaching.%目的 探讨指导大专护生书写反思日记的方法与效果.方法 选取2009年5月至2010年4月的40名护生为对照组,2010年5月至2011年4月的大专护生40名为观察组.对照组采用传统带教方法;观察组在此基础上由带教老师指导护生书写反思日记并进行定期批改,对日记中反映出的问题及时给予解决.结果 书写反思日记提高了护生临床综合能力及患者满意度,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 指导护生书写反思日记,能够促进护生临床实习质量的提高和教学相长.

  9. WE-G-207-03: Mask Guided Image Reconstruction (MGIR): A Novel Method for Ultra-Low-Dose 3D and Enhanced 4D Cone-Beam Computer-Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C; Zhang, H; Chen, Y; Fan, Q; Kahler, D; Li, J; Liu, C; Lu, B [Univ Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, compressed sensing (CS) based iterative reconstruction (IR) method is receiving attentions to reconstruct high quality cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images using sparsely sampled or noisy projections. The aim of this study is to develop a novel baseline algorithm called Mask Guided Image Reconstruction (MGIR), which can provide superior image quality for both low-dose 3DCBCT and 4DCBCT under single mathematical framework. Methods: In MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume was mathematically modeled as a combination of two regions where anatomical structures are 1) within the priori-defined mask and 2) outside the mask. Then we update each part of images alternatively thorough solving minimization problems based on CS type IR. For low-dose 3DCBCT, the former region is defined as the anatomically complex region where it is focused to preserve edge information while latter region is defined as contrast uniform, and hence aggressively updated to remove noise/artifact. In 4DCBCT, the regions are separated as the common static part and moving part. Then, static volume and moving volumes were updated with global and phase sorted projection respectively, to optimize the image quality of both moving and static part simultaneously. Results: Examination of MGIR algorithm showed that high quality of both low-dose 3DCBCT and 4DCBCT images can be reconstructed without compromising the image resolution and imaging dose or scanning time respectively. For low-dose 3DCBCT, a clinical viable and high resolution head-and-neck image can be obtained while cutting the dose by 83%. In 4DCBCT, excellent quality 4DCBCT images could be reconstructed while requiring no more projection data and imaging dose than a typical clinical 3DCBCT scan. Conclusion: The results shown that the image quality of MGIR was superior compared to other published CS based IR algorithms for both 4DCBCT and low-dose 3DCBCT. This makes our MGIR algorithm potentially useful in various on

  10. SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

  11. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincock, Layne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  12. Identifying Gifted Students: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, S., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This user-friendly guide offers advice and insight on developing defensible identification procedures and services for gifted and talented students. Special attention is given to the use of multiple methods including qualitative and quantitative assessments such as standardized measures (e.g. intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests),…

  13. Documenting Maritime Folklife: An Introductory Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David A.

    This booklet has two main purposes: (1) to promote understanding of maritime cultural heritage; and (2) to provide an introduction to the methods for identifying and documenting common maritime traditions. The guide is intended for non-professional researchers and community groups who wish to explore their own maritime cultural heritage. It also…

  14. Prescriptions Guiding Prospective Teachers in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Ismail Özgür; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the nature of different mathematics teaching modes (prescriptions) that guide prospective teachers during their instruction. The participants were 24 junior prospective middle school mathematics teachers (19 females and 5 males) who were attending a mathematics methods course at a private university in central…

  15. Lehrbuch Guided Imagery in Music (GIM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Carola; Geiger, Edith Maria

    Guided Imagery in Music (GIM) ist eine musikpsychotherapeutische Methode, bei welcher der Patient eine Auswahl meist klassischer Musik in einem entspannten Zustand hört und sein Erleben (= Imaginationen) der Therapeutin mitteilt. Theoretische Hintergründe, klinische Anwendung, sowie...

  16. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  17. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  18. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  19. Creating A Guided- discovery Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田枫

    2005-01-01

    In a guided - discovery lesson, students sequentially uncover layers of mathematical information one step at a time and learn new mathematics. We have identified eight critical steps necessary in developing a successful guided- discovery lesson.

  20. Guide for intervention levels in radiological accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tai; Khang, Byung Oui; Lee, Goan Yup; Han, Gee Yang [Korea Atomic Energy Resesrch Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Based on IAEA SS109 and ICRP63, intervention levels and action levels are derived using cost-benefit approach method. Intervention levels are optimized so that the net benefit from protective measures will be maximized. Evacuation, sheltering, relocation, permanent resettlement, administration of stable iodine and food restriction are included in protective measures. Intervention levels are calculated using site specific parameters in Korea. As a results of calculation, general intervention levels are similar to IAEA recommendation and action levels for food restriction are a little higher than IAEA recommendation and Japan guide. Guide on intervention levels in Korea is also suggested based on the calculated results.

  1. A magnetic guide for cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, J A; Cantwell, B P; Opat, G I

    1998-01-01

    We propose a novel method for guiding cold, neutral atoms using static magnetic fields. A theoretical study of the magnetic field produced by a tube consisting of two identical, interwound solenoids carrying equal but opposite currents is presented. This field is almost zero throughout the centre of the tube, but it increases with exponential rapidity as one approaches the walls formed by the current carrying wires. Hence, cold atoms passing through the tube may be reflected by magnetic mirror effects near the walls. Applying this technique to a free-falling cloud of magneto-optically cooled caesium atoms we hope to construct atomic guides to facilitate the manipulation of cold atomic beams.

  2. Guide for surface coal mine reclamation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of the guide is to provide a framework for Nova Scotia's coal mining community to consult during reclamation planning and environmental assessment. The guide describe the best management practices for application to surface mine reclamation. Principles of reclamation, standard submission requirements for a reclamation plan, planning for reclamation, landscape design, and revegetation, and methods for site preparation, monitoring, and maintenance are discussed. Backfilling, flooded excavation management, and other options are outlined. The reclamation plan must consider decommissioning of equipment and infrastructure, water retention and treatment ponds, acid rock drainage control and monitoring, site monitoring, watercourse management, and public safety. A glossary is included.

  3. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  4. Mind over Matter. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This teacher's guide aims to develop an understanding among students in grades 5-9 about the biological effects of drug use. The guide provides background information on the anatomy of the brain, nerve cells and neurotransmission, and the effects of drugs on the brain. Drugs described in this guide include marijuana, opiates, inhalants,…

  5. A New Dutch Spelling Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, J. G.; van Sterkenburg, P. G. J.

    This paper describes the development of two new corpus-based Dutch spelling guides using language data gathered by the Institute for Dutch Lexicology, a research institute subsidized by the Dutch and Belgian governments. The guides were produced in 1990 and 1995. The guides are based on two earlier ones, published in 1866 and 1954, but attempt to…

  6. English Learners Program Guide. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.

  7. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  8. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  9. A Teacher's Guide for "Middlemarch."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Alice

    This teacher's guide for public television's 6-part adaptation of George Eliot's "Middlemarch" provides information that will enrich students' viewing of the series. The guide includes a wide range of activities to help students further explore the novel's universal themes. The guide suggests that students read the informational materials first…

  10. Guided Structure-Aware Review Summarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jin; Min-Lie Huang; Xiao-Yan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Although the goal of traditional text summarization is to generate summaries with diverse information,most of those applications have no explicit definition of the information structure.Thus,it is difficult to generate truly structureaware summaries because the information structure to guide summarization is unclear.In this paper,we present a novel framework to generate guided summaries for product reviews.The guided summary has an explicitly defined structure which comes from the important aspects of products.The proposed framework attempts to maximize expected aspect satisfaction during summary generation.The importance of an aspect to a generated summary is modeled using Labeled Latent Dirichlet Allocation.Empirical experimental results on consumer reviews of cars show the effectiveness of our method.

  11. Computer Guided Implantology Accuracy and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer-based method allows the computerized planning of a surgical implantology procedure, using computed tomography (CT of the maxillary bones and prosthesis. This procedure, however, is not error-free, unless the operator has been well trained and strictly follows the protocol. A 70-year-old woman whom was edentulous asked for a lower jaw implant-supported prosthesis. A computer-guided surgery was planned with an immediate loading according to the NobelGuide technique. However, prior to surgery, new dentures were constructed to adjust the vertical dimension. An interim screwed metal-resin prosthesis was delivered just after the surgery; however, after only two weeks, it was removed because of a complication. Finally, a screwed implant bridge was delivered. The computer guided surgery is a useful procedure when based on an accurate 3D CT-based image data and an implant planning software which minimizes errors.

  12. Sensors Based on Spectroscopy of Guided Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, Jiří

    The last two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in the develpment of affinity biosensors and their applications in areas such as environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security. An affinity biosensor consists of a transducer and a biological recognition element which is able to interact with a selected analyte. Various optical methods have been exploited in biosensors including fluorescence spectroscopy, interferometry (reflectometric white light interferometry, modal interferometry in optical waveguide structures), and spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides. Optical biosensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides - grating coupler, resonant mirror, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) - rely on the measurement of binding-induced refractive index changes and thus are label-free technologies. This paper reviews fundamentals of optical sensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides and their applications.

  13. Dehydrohalogenation and Dehydration Reactions of i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH by Sodium Ions Studied by Guided Ion Beam Techniques and Quantum Chemical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E; Lucas, J M; de Andrés, J; Albertí, M; Bofill, J M; Aguilar, A

    2016-07-14

    Dehydrohalogenation and dehydration reactions of gas-phase i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH molecules induced by collision with Na(+), all participants being in their electronic ground state, were studied experimentally in our laboratory using a radiofrequency-guided ion beam apparatus and covering the 0.10-10.00 eV center of mass (CM) energy range. In Na(+) + i-C3H7Br collisions the formation of [C3H6-Na](+) and [HBr-Na](+) by dehydrohalogenation was observed and quantified, as well as that of the ion-molecule adduct [Na-i-C3H7Br](+) together with its decomposition products C3H7(+) and NaBr. In Na(+) + i-C3H7OH collisions the dehydration product [H2O-Na](+) was also found, while [C3H6-Na](+) was hardly detected. Moreover, the [Na-i-C3H7OH](+) adduct formation as well as its decomposition into C3H7(+) and NaOH were also quantified. For all these processes, absolute reaction cross sections were measured as a function of the CM collision energy. From measured excitation functions, rate constants for the formation of [C3H6-Na](+), [HBr-Na](+), and [H2O-Na](+) at 303 K were obtained. Complementing the experiments, exhaustive ab initio structure calculations at the MP2 level of theory were performed, giving information on the most relevant features of the potential energy surfaces (PESs) where the dehydrohalogenation, dehydration, and decomposition reactions take place adiabatically for both collision systems. On these PESs different stationary points associated with potential energy minima and transition state barriers were characterized, and their connectivity was ensured using the intrinsic-reaction-coordinate method. The main topology features of the ab initio calculated PESs allowed a qualitative interpretation of the experimental data also exposing the role of the sodium ion as a catalyst in elimination reactions.

  14. Experimental Study on Electrostatic Guiding of Supersonic D2O Molecular Beam with Two Charged Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ya-Ling; XIA Yong; Chen Hai-Bo; YIN Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the guiding of a supersonic heavy-water(D2O)molecular beam using a hollow electrostatic field generated by the combination of two parallel charged-wires and two grounded metal-plates,and report some new and preliminary experimental results.In the experiment,we detect the guiding signals by using the method of time-of-flight mass spectrum and study the dependence of the relative transmission of the beam guide on the guiding voltage.Our study shows that the relative transmission of the beam guide is increased linearly with increasing guiding voltage Vguid,and the number of the guided D2O molecules is at least increased by 89.4%when the guiding voltage is +20.0kV.Finally,some potential applications of our guiding scheme in the molecule optics are briefly discussed.

  15. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsy uses imaging ... Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsies are performed ...

  16. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  17. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  18. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  19. SQL Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gennick, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    If you're a programmer or database administrator who uses SQL in your day-to-day work, this popular pocket guide is the ideal on-the-job reference. You'll find many examples that address the language's complexity, along with key aspects of SQL used in IBM DB2 Release 9.7, MySQL 5.1, Oracle Database 11g Release 2, PostgreSQL 9.0, and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Release 2. SQL Pocket Guide describes how these database systems implement SQL syntax for querying, managing transactions, and making changes to data. It also shows how the systems use SQL functions, regular expression syntax, and type c

  20. Publications desktop survival guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Purpose of this guide is to document and simplify the writing, reviewing, and production process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) staff and to provide specific answers concerning the content, style, and format of UMTRA Project documents. Goal of the UMTRA Project document preparation process is to deliver to the US DOE high-quality documents that meet requirements (meets expressed client needs; accurate and consistent technical content; clear writing; well organized document; consistent style). A document review process has been established to ensure that TAC documents are accurate, consistent, and well organized. The editing process applies standard rules for style and format, spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure to make the document consistent and easier to read. This guide sets forth the rules to be applied to UMTRA Project documents.

  1. [Central venous catheterization complication by a guide wire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Isao; Hirano, Masato; Matsuoka, Nobuhiro; Kazama, Tomiei

    2009-03-01

    Central venous catheterization using the Seldinger technique is a well known and often used method. On the other hand, there are also well known complications by needle puncture or by indwelling catheter, there are few reports about a guide wire which got hung up around the tricuspid valve. We report a case in which a guide wire got hung up to the chordae tendineae of the tricuspid valve. To insert the AVA 3Xi (Edwards life science Co. Iervine) from the right internal jugular vein, we inserted a guide wire without ease. Resistance appeared when we tried to remove the wire for 20 cm from the inserted state. The X-ray and the transesophageal echocardiography, showed the guide wire in the right ventricle. As actions to be taken, we advanced the central vein catheter of the EXCV catheter kit (Nippon Sherwood Medical Industries Co., Ltd.) to the tip, and a the guide wire was easily removed. There are many reports of the complication by the central venepuncture, but there are few reports about the guide wire which was entrapped in the vicinity of a tricuspid valve. The tip of the guide wire in this case was bent excessively, but the cause of the damage did not become clear by investigation. When a guide wire became hard to withdraw, we should never withdraw a guide wire blindly, but should search a cause and we should use the material which was matched with the cause.

  2. Introductory guide to thatching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, K

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available information. In South Africa there is evidence that many home owners and potential home owners would welcome such information. This guide has been compiled partly from other published information but mainly from dixussions with craftsmen in South Africa...) - Albertinia and Rivendal districts of the Cape Hyparrhenia dregeana - Natal midlands and Berg area Hyparrheniofilipendula - Zululand coastal regions Thamnochortus erectus and 72amnochorrus speci~erus (Dekriet) - Cape coastal regions Chondropetolum...

  3. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  4. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  5. MP users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brent, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    MP is a package of ANSI Standard Fortran (ANS X3.9-1966) subroutines for performing multiple-precision floating-point arithmetic and evaluating elementary and special functions. The subroutines are machine independent and the precision is arbitrary, subject to storage limitations. The User's Guide describes the routines and their calling sequences, example and test programs, use of the Augment precompiler, and gives installation instructions for the package.

  6. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  7. Special Observance Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    guide are not inclusive in nature and can be modified as necessary to support the needs of project officers and established committees. It is suggested... inclusive . Based on specific needs and desires, organizations may recognize other observances and are not required to limit their special...states, mayors of cities, and heads of other instrumentalities of government, as well as leaders of industry, educational and religious groups, labor

  8. Guiding Economic Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three top Chinese officials responsible for guiding China’s macroeconomic policies expound on the state of the economy In Premier Wen Jiabao’s recent govern- ment work report,he said that the major task this year would be to prevent over- all prices from rising rapidly.Along with this,he accentuated a prudent fiscal policy and a tight monetary policy. Following the premier’s work report,

  9. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  10. 2012 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world.

  11. Developing Digital Interventions: A Methodological Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bradbury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital interventions are becoming an increasingly popular method of delivering healthcare as they enable and promote patient self-management. This paper provides a methodological guide to the processes involved in developing effective digital interventions, detailing how to plan and develop such interventions to avoid common pitfalls. It demonstrates the need for mixed qualitative and quantitative methods in order to develop digital interventions which are effective, feasible, and acceptable to users and stakeholders.

  12. Follow the guide

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The general public’s interest in CERN is growing all the time. You too could help to satisfy its curiosity by becoming a guide. Would you like to share your passion for your job and for science with others, meet visitors and contribute to the Laboratory’s communication drive? Well you can, by becoming an official CERN guide. Every year CERN organises over 900 visits, welcoming some 26,000 visitors in the Laboratory’s four most commonly used languages: English, French, German and Italian. For the last two years, in response to demand, visits have also been given in other languages, such as Finnish, Greek, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. Becoming a guide can be an exciting experience, offering the opportunity to get out and meet visitors of all ages and nationalities. "As well as coming into contact with all kinds of people, you get to know the Laboratory extremely well", says Dominique Bertola, who is in charge of the Visits Ser...

  13. The automatic neutron guide optimizer guide_bot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Mads

    2017-09-01

    The guide optimization software guide_bot is introduced, the main purpose of which is to reduce the time spent programming when performing numerical optimization of neutron guides. A limited amount of information on the overall guide geometry and a figure of merit describing the desired beam is used to generate the code necessary to solve the problem. A generated McStas instrument file performs the Monte Carlo ray-tracing, which is controlled by iFit optimization scripts. The resulting optimal guide is thoroughly characterized, both in terms of brilliance transfer from an idealized source and on a more realistic source such as the ESS Butterfly moderator. Basic MATLAB knowledge is required from the user, but no experience with McStas or iFit is necessary. This paper briefly describes how guide_bot is used and some important aspects of the code. A short validation against earlier work is performed which shows the expected agreement. In addition a scan over the vertical divergence requirement, where individual guide optimizations are performed for each corresponding figure of merit, provides valuable data on the consequences of this parameter. The guide_bot software package is best suited for the start of an instrument design project as it excels at comparing a large amount of different guide alternatives for a specific set of instrument requirements, but is still applicable in later stages as constraints can be used to optimize more specific guides.

  14. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  15. Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository Teaching ... of problem-solving, guideddiscovery, and expository methods of instruction on students performance in redox reaction, considering their mathematics ability. It was a ...

  16. Workflow patterns the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Nick; ter Hofstede, Arthur H M

    2016-01-01

    The study of business processes has emerged as a highly effective approach to coordinating an organization's complex service- and knowledge-based activities. The growing field of business process management (BPM) focuses on methods and tools for designing, enacting, and analyzing business processes. This volume offers a definitive guide to the use of patterns, which synthesize the wide range of approaches to modeling business processes. It provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the well-known workflow patterns collection -- recurrent, generic constructs describing common business process modeling and execution scenarios, presented in the form of problem-solution dialectics. The underlying principles of the patterns approach ensure that they are independent of any specific enabling technology, representational formalism, or modeling approach, and thus broadly applicable across the business process modeling and business process technology domains. The authors, drawing on extensive research done by...

  17. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction......Optical scanning is rapidly becoming ubiquitous. From industrial laser scanners to medical CT, MR and 3D ultrasound scanners, numerous organizations now have easy access to optical acquisition devices that provide huge volumes of image data. However, the raw geometry data acquired must first......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  18. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  19. Optimization of ultrasonic transducers for selective guided wave actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczynski, Mateusz; Packo, Pawel; Zbyrad, Paulina; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz; Lis, Jerzy; Wiatr, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The application of guided waves using surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers for nondestructive testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have shown great potential. However, due to difficulty in identification of individual wave modes resulting from their dispersive and multi-modal nature, selective mode excitement methods are highly desired. The presented work focuses on an optimization-based approach to design of a piezoelectric transducer for selective guided waves generation. The concept of the presented framework involves a Finite Element Method (FEM) model in the optimization process. The material of the transducer is optimized in topological sense with the aim of tuning piezoelectric properties for actuation of specific guided wave modes.

  20. Variational principles for the guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brizard, A J

    2016-01-01

    The Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincar\\'{e} variational principles for the guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell equations are presented. Each variational principle presents a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.

  1. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE MUSCULAR CONDITION BY ALTERNATIVE CONTRACTION REGYMES AT JUNIOR VOLLEY BALL PLAYERS I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladu Larisa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The muscular training is one of the most important factors and in some cases the most important sportive training ingredient in reaching performance, influencing the way the preparation unfolds all throughout the component stages of the macro-cycle. This must be done in an equilibrated and unitary manner for each of the motrical abilities demanded by the performance volleyball. In order to form the female players, it is necessary to homogenously develop the muscle groups, avoiding any disequilibrium that might alter the ulterior training and sportive performance. The attention must be focused especially on developing the great muscle groups, while the force training must be introduced gradually, at first using the exercises requiring the weight of one’s own body, then easy exercises with medicinal balls, weight exercises, and finally exercises specific to the practiced sport, which are to ensure the high level preparation with a view to competitions.The purpose of the paper is that of improving the muscular exercise inside the training of the female junior players I, adapted to the game tasks, by elaborating and valuing the alternate programs of the contraction régimes, with the possibility of accomplishing an optimal, rationalized training, with a view to reaching theproposed performance objectives.

  2. Effects of betahistine on the spatiotemporal response properties of vestibulospinal neurons to labyrinthine volleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Massimo; Bruschini, Luca; Li Volsi, Guido; Manzoni, Diego

    2005-05-16

    Betahistine, a drug used in the treatment of vestibular disorders, speeds-up the recovery from hemilabyrinthectomy in experimental animals, likely through the activation of histamine receptors. In order to better understand the mechanism of action of this drug we investigated, in adult, urethane anesthetized rats, whether betahistine modifies the spatial (directional) and temporal response properties of vestibular nuclear neurons to the labyrinthine input, as well as the convergence of different labyrinthine signals on single units. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from the caudal, spinal-projecting region of the vestibular nuclei during tilt of the animal, before and after i.p. injection of betahistine. The two orthogonal directions of maximal and minimal response to tilt, as well as the corresponding gains were determined for each neuron. Betahistine reduced the maximal response gain of units showing larger basal values of this parameter and increased it in neurons with smaller basal values, while the minimal response gain was on the average raised. These changes led to a significant decrease in the spatial specificity of the neurons, suggesting that betahistine affects the process of spatiotemporal convergence on vestibular units, likely through a rearrangement of the various inputs. This could be related to the effect of the drug on vestibular compensation.

  3. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  4. RTF Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Rich Text Format, or RTF, is the internal markup language used by Microsoft Word and understood by dozens of other word processors. RTF is a universal file format that pervades practically every desktop. Because RTF is text, it's much easier to generate and process than binary .doc files. Any programmer working with word processing documents needs to learn enough RTF to get around, whether it's to format text for Word (or almost any other word processor), to make global changes to an existing document, or to convert Word files to (or from) another format. RTF Pocket Guide is a concise and e

  5. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  6. Linux Desktop Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brickner, David

    2005-01-01

    While Mac OS X garners all the praise from pundits, and Windows XP attracts all the viruses, Linux is quietly being installed on millions of desktops every year. For programmers and system administrators, business users, and educators, desktop Linux is a breath of fresh air and a needed alternative to other operating systems. The Linux Desktop Pocket Guide is your introduction to using Linux on five of the most popular distributions: Fedora, Gentoo, Mandriva, SUSE, and Ubuntu. Despite what you may have heard, using Linux is not all that hard. Firefox and Konqueror can handle all your web bro

  7. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  8. Openlayers 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gratier, Thomas; Hazzard, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a hobbyist or a professional web developer, if you wish to use maps on your website, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of JavaScript will be helpful, but is not necessary. If you've never worked with maps before, this book will introduce you to some common mapping topics and will guide you through the OpenLayers library. Experienced developers can also use this book as a reference to OpenLayers 3 components and to further enhance their knowledge.

  9. Asterisk The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Leif; Bryant, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Design a complete VoIP or analog PBX with Asterisk, even if you have no previous Asterisk experience and only basic telecommunications knowledge. This bestselling guide makes it easy, with a detailed roadmap to installing, configuring, and integrating this open source software into your existing phone system. Ideal for Linux administrators, developers, and power users, this book shows you how to write a basic dialplan step by step, and quickly brings you up to speed on the latest Asterisk features in version 1.8. Integrate Asterisk with analog, VoIP, and digital telephony systemsBuild a simp

  10. Time a traveler's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1998-01-01

    ""Bucky Fuller thought big,"" Wired magazine recently noted, ""Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both."" In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time? In Time: A Traveler's Guide, Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? P

  11. Closure The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bolin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    If you're ready to use Closure to build rich web applications with JavaScript, this hands-on guide has precisely what you need to learn this suite of tools in depth. Closure makes it easy for experienced JavaScript developers to write and maintain large and complex codebases -- as Google has demonstrated by using Closure with Gmail, Google Docs, and Google Maps. Author and Closure contributor Michael Bolin has included numerous code examples and best practices, as well as valuable information not available publicly until now. You'll learn all about Closure's Library, Compiler, Templates, tes

  12. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  13. 2001 benchmarking guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, S

    2001-01-01

    Our fifth annual guide to benchmarking under managed care presents data that is a study in market dynamics and adaptation. New this year are financial indicators on HMOs exiting the market and those remaining. Hospital financial ratios and details on department performance are included. The physician group practice numbers show why physicians are scrutinizing capitated payments. Overall, hospitals in markets with high managed care penetration are more successful in managing labor costs and show productivity gains in imaging services, physical therapy and materials management.

  14. qooxdoo Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Raffi, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt beginner's guide. The unique style of the book is to set the requirements for an application, Team Twitter, in the first chapter and apply the concepts in the application as you learn in the following chapters. When you complete this book, you would have developed a complete application. Although the scope of this book is only on the Qooxdoo framework, which is a client side framework, we have explained how to set up one of the RPC servers and demonstrated the end to end application in the Team Twitter. This book is intended for the client side developers who design and develop

  15. ATLAS Style Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhandler, E F

    2008-01-01

    This is a compendium of rules, recommendations, information and advice for writing papers and notes within the ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. It covers what to include in the paper, and some general guidelines and specific points about writing a scientific paper. There are sections on the use of English (though it is not a guide to grammar), punctuation, and typography. Advice about the use of LATEX is given in the main text, and there is an appendix on software tools containing general comments about LATEX and information on using Microsoft Word. Currently on version 2.6, 3 March 2017, 47pp.

  16. Plasmonic Demultiplexer and Guiding

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Chenglong

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional plasmonic demultiplexers for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which consist of concentric grooves on a gold film, are proposed and experimentally demonstrated to realize light-SPP coupling, effective dispersion and multiple-channel SPP guiding. A resolution as high as 10 nm is obtained. The leakage radiation microscopy imaging shows that the SPPs of different wavelengths are focused and routed into different SPP strip waveguides. The plasmonic demultiplexer can thus serve as a wavelength division multiplexing element for integrated plasmonic circuit and also as a plasmonic spectroscopy or filter.

  17. The guide star catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Barry M.; Jenkner, Helmut; Russell, Jane L.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of the catalog presents an astronomical overview of the Guide Star Catalog, together with its history, the properties of its current implementation, and the prospects for enhancement. Part 2 presents the algorithms used in photometric and astrometric calibration of the catalog, as well as the analyses of the related errors. Part 3 presents the current structure and content, as well as future enhancements in this area. An overview of the forthcoming publications is given, both with regard to scientific papers and electronic media.

  18. Guide to ILDJIT

    CERN Document Server

    Campanoni, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This book is a guide to getting started with ILDJIT, a compilation framework designed to be both easily extensible and easily configurable. Within this framework, it is possible to build a tool-chain by customizing ILDJIT for specific purposes. Customizations can be used within both static and dynamic compilers already included in the framework without adaptations. Moreover, customizations allow modification of both the behaviors and the characteristics of these compilers to better satisfy the particular need. Currently, ILDJIT is able to translate bytecode programs to generate machine code fo

  19. RACORO Data Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelmann, A

    2010-10-12

    This document provides an overview to the five-month RACORO Campaign. There are many details in such an extensive program that this document cannot capture; therefore, it should be thought of as a guide for acquainting yourself with the program and you are encouraged to contact the members involved. In particular, users of the data are strongly urged to contact instrument principal investigators (PIs) about use of the data. Further, it is highly recommended that studies using the data be done in collaboration with the instrument PIs, since they are in the best position to provide insights and or caveats associated with the data that should be considered.

  20. Android NDK Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ratabouil, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    This beginner's guide focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also see how to avoid some common pitfalls. Are you an Android Java programmer who needs more performance? Are you a C/C++ developer who doesn't want to bother with Java stuff and its out-of-control garbage collector? Do you want to create fast intensive multimedia applications or games? Answer yes to any of the above and this book is for you. With some general knowledge of C/C++ development, you will be able to dive head first into native Android development.