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Sample records for volcanic vents south

  1. Explosive Volcanic Eruptions from Linear Vents on Earth, Venus and Mars: Comparisons with Circular Vent Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Wimert, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Conditions required to support buoyant convective plumes are investigated for explosive volcanic eruptions from circular and linear vents on Earth, Venus, and Mars. Vent geometry (linear versus circular) plays a significant role in the ability of an explosive eruption to sustain a buoyant plume. On Earth, linear and circular vent eruptions are both capable of driving buoyant plumes to equivalent maximum rise heights, however, linear vent plumes are more sensitive to vent size. For analogous mass eruption rates, linear vent plumes surpass circular vent plumes in entrainment efficiency approximately when L(sub o) > 3r(sub o) owing to the larger entrainment area relative to the control volume. Relative to circular vents, linear vents on Venus favor column collapse and the formation of pyroclastic flows because the range of conditions required to establish and sustain buoyancy is narrow. When buoyancy can be sustained, however, maximum plume heights exceed those from circular vents. For current atmospheric conditions on Mars, linear vent eruptions are capable of injecting volcanic material slightly higher than analogous circular vent eruptions. However, both geometries are more likely to produce pyroclastic fountains, as opposed to convective plumes, owing to the low density atmosphere. Due to the atmospheric density profile and water content on Earth, explosive eruptions enjoy favorable conditions for producing sustained buoyant columns, while pyroclastic flows would be relatively more prevalent on Venus and Mars. These results have implications for the injection and dispersal of particulates into the planetary atmosphere and the ability to interpret the geologic record of planetary volcanism.

  2. Explosive volcanism on Mercury: Analysis of vent and deposit morphology and modes of eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Lauren M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2018-03-01

    The MESSENGER mission revealed, for the first time, conclusive evidence of explosive volcanism on Mercury. Several previous works have cataloged the appearance and location of explosive volcanism on the planet using a variety of identifying characteristics, including vent presence and deposit color as seen in multispectral image mosaics. We present here a comprehensive catalog of vents of likely volcanic origin; our classification scheme emphasizes vent morphology. We have analyzed the morphologies of all vents in our catalog, and recognize three main morphologies: "simple vent", "pit vent", and "vent-with-mound". The majority of vents we identify are located within impact craters. The spatial distribution of vents does not correlate with the locations of volcanic smooth plains deposits, in contrast to the Moon, nor do vents correlate with the locations of large impact basins (except for the Caloris and Tolstoj basins). Using the degradation state of the vent host crater as a proxy for maximum age, we suggest that vent formation has been active through the Mansurian and into the Kuiperian periods, although the majority of vents were likely formed much earlier in mercurian history. The morphologies and locations of vents are used to investigate a set of plausible formation geometries. We find that the most likely and most prevalent formation geometry is that of a dike, stalled at depth, which then explosively vents to the surface. We compare the vent and deposit size of mercurian pyroclastic deposits with localized and regional lunar pyroclastic deposits, and find a range of possible eruption energies and corresponding variations in eruption style. Localized lunar pyroclastic deposits and the majority of mercurian pyroclastic deposits show evidence for eruption that is consistent with the magmatic foam at the top of a dike reaching a critical gas volume fraction. A subset of mercurian vents, including the prominent Copland-Rachmaninoff vent to the northeast of the

  3. Sill intrusion in volcanic calderas: implications for vent opening probability

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    Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Martini, Marcello; D'Auria, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Calderas show peculiar behaviors with remarkable dynamic processes, which do not often culminate in eruptions. Observations and studies conducted in recent decades have shown that the most common cause of unrest in the calderas is due to magma intrusion; in particular, the intrusion of sills at shallow depths. Monogenic cones, with large areal dispersion, are quite common in the calderas, suggesting that the susceptibility analysis based on geological features, is not strictly suitable for estimating the vent opening probability in calderas. In general, the opening of a new eruptive vent can be regarded as a rock failure process. The stress field in the rocks that surrounds and tops the magmatic reservoirs plays an important role in causing the rock failure and creating the path that magma can follow towards the surface. In this conceptual framework, we approach the problem of getting clues about the probability of vent opening in volcanic calderas through the study of the stress field produced by the intrusion of magma, in particular, by the intrusion of a sill. We simulate the intrusion of a sill free to expand radially, with shape and dimensions which vary with time. The intrusion process is controlled by the elastic response of the rock plate above the sill, which bends because of the intrusion, and by gravity, that drives the magma towards the zones where the thickness of the sill is smaller. We calculated the stress field in the plate rock above the sill. We found that at the bottom of the rock plate above the sill the maximum intensity of tensile stress is concentrated at the front of the sill and spreads radially with it, over time. For this reason, we think that the front of the spreading sill is prone to open for eruptive vents. Even in the central area of the sill the intensity of stress is relatively high, but at the base of the rock plate stress is compressive. Under isothermal conditions, the stress soon reaches its maximum value (time interval

  4. Serreta 1998-2001 submarine volcanic eruption, offshore Terceira (Azores): Characterization of the vent and inferences about the eruptive dynamics

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    Casas, David; Pimentel, Adriano; Pacheco, José; Martorelli, Eleonora; Sposato, Andrea; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belen; Chiocci, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution bathymetric data and seafloor sampling were used to characterize the most recent volcanic eruption in the Azores region, the 1998-2001 Serreta submarine eruption. The vent of the eruption is proposed to be an asymmetric topographic high, composed of two coalescing volcanic cones, underlying the location where lava balloons had been observed at the sea surface during the eruption. The volcanic products related to the 1998-2001 eruption are constrained to an area of 0.5 km2 around the proposed vent position. A submarine Strombolian-style eruption producing basaltic lava balloons, ash and coarse scoriaceous materials with limited lateral dispersion led to the buildup of the cones. The 1998-2001 Serreta eruption shares many similarities with other intermediate-depth lava balloon-forming eruptions (e.g., the 1891 eruption offshore Pantelleria and the 2011-2012 eruption south of El Hierro), revealing the particular conditions needed for the production of this unusual and scarcely documented volcanic product.

  5. Altered epiphyte community and sea urchin diet in Posidonia oceanica meadows in the vicinity of volcanic CO2 vents.

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    Nogueira, Patricia; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Califano, Gianmaria; Tavares, Ana Mafalda; Santos, Rui; Martínez-Crego, Begoña

    2017-06-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) predicted for 2100 is expected to shift seagrass epiphyte communities towards the dominance of more tolerant non-calcifying taxa. However, little is known about the indirect effects of such changes on food provision to key seagrass consumers. We found that epiphyte communities of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in two naturally acidified sites (i.e. north and south sides of a volcanic CO 2 vent) and in a control site away from the vent at the Ischia Island (NW Mediterranean Sea) significantly differed in composition and abundance. Such differences involved a higher abundance of non-calcareous crustose brown algae and a decline of calcifying polychaetes in both acidified sites. A lower epiphytic abundance of crustose coralline algae occurred only in the south side of the vents, thus suggesting that OA may alter epiphyte assemblages in different ways due to interaction with local factors such as differential fish herbivory or hydrodynamics. The OA effects on food items (seagrass, epiphytes, and algae) indirectly propagated into food provision to the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, as reflected by a reduced P. oceanica exploitation (i.e. less seagrass and calcareous epiphytes in the diet) in favour of non-calcareous green algae in both vent sites. In contrast, we detected no difference close and outside the vents neither in the composition of sea urchin diet nor in the total abundance of calcareous versus non-calcareous taxa. More research, under realistic scenarios of predicted pH reduction (i.e. ≤ 0.32 units of pH by 2100), is still necessary to better understand cascading effects of this altered urchin exploitation of food resources under acidified conditions on ecosystem diversity and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mud volcanism of South-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : South-Caspian depression is presented by area of large warping with thick (more than 25 km) sedimentary series and with wide development of mud volcanism. This depression is unique according to its number of mud volcanoes and intensity of their eruptions. There are about 400 mud volcanoes in this area, which is more than than a half of all volcanoes of the planet. Among them - 220 are continental, more 170 are marine, defined by different methods in the South-Caspian aquatorium. As a result of mudvolcanic activity islands, banks, shoals and underwater ridges are formed in marine conditions. Depths of underwater volcanoes vary from few meters to 900 m as the height of cones are different too. Marine mud volcanoes in geological history of Caspian sea evolution and in its recent history had and important significance. Activity of mud volcanoes in sea conditions lead to the formation of positive elements of relief. Products of ejection take part in the formation of microrelief of surrounding areas of sea bottom influence upon its dynamics and composition of bottom sediments. The carried out comparative analysis of mud volcanism manifestation both onshore and offshore showed the basic differences and similarities in morphology of volcanoes and geology-geochemical peculiarities of eruption products. New data on tectonics of mud volcanism development has been obtained over recent years. Mud volcanoes of South-Caspian depression are studied for assessment and oil-gas content of deep-seated deposits. Geochemical method of search of oil and gas deposits in mudvolcanic areas had been worked out.

  7. Assessing future vent opening locations at the Somma-Vesuvio volcanic complex: 1. A new information geodatabase with uncertainty characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, A.; Bisson, M.; Neri, A.; Cioni, R.; Bevilacqua, A.; Aspinall, W. P.

    2017-06-01

    This study presents new and revised data sets about the spatial distribution of past volcanic vents, eruptive fissures, and regional/local structures of the Somma-Vesuvio volcanic system (Italy). The innovative features of the study are the identification and quantification of important sources of uncertainty affecting interpretations of the data sets. In this regard, the spatial uncertainty of each feature is modeled by an uncertainty area, i.e., a geometric element typically represented by a polygon drawn around points or lines. The new data sets have been assembled as an updatable geodatabase that integrates and complements existing databases for Somma-Vesuvio. The data are organized into 4 data sets and stored as 11 feature classes (points and lines for feature locations and polygons for the associated uncertainty areas), totaling more than 1700 elements. More specifically, volcanic vent and eruptive fissure elements are subdivided into feature classes according to their associated eruptive styles: (i) Plinian and sub-Plinian eruptions (i.e., large- or medium-scale explosive activity); (ii) violent Strombolian and continuous ash emission eruptions (i.e., small-scale explosive activity); and (iii) effusive eruptions (including eruptions from both parasitic vents and eruptive fissures). Regional and local structures (i.e., deep faults) are represented as linear feature classes. To support interpretation of the eruption data, additional data sets are provided for Somma-Vesuvio geological units and caldera morphological features. In the companion paper, the data presented here, and the associated uncertainties, are used to develop a first vent opening probability map for the Somma-Vesuvio caldera, with specific attention focused on large or medium explosive events.

  8. Seagrass ecosystem response to long-term high CO2 in a Mediterranean volcanic vent.

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    Apostolaki, Eugenia T; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Hendriks, Iris E; Olsen, Ylva S

    2014-08-01

    We examined the long-term effect of naturally acidified water on a Cymodocea nodosa meadow growing at a shallow volcanic CO2 vent in Vulcano Island (Italy). Seagrass and adjacent unvegetated habitats growing at a low pH station (pH = 7.65 ± 0.02) were compared with corresponding habitats at a control station (pH = 8.01 ± 0.01). Density and biomass showed a clear decreasing trend at the low pH station and the below- to above-ground biomass ratio was more than 10 times lower compared to the control. C content and δ(13)C of leaves and epiphytes were significantly lower at the low pH station. Photosynthetic activity of C. nodosa was stimulated by low pH as seen by the significant increase in Chla content of leaves, maximum electron transport rate and compensation irradiance. Seagrass community metabolism was intense at the low pH station, with significantly higher net community production, respiration and gross primary production than the control community, whereas metabolism of the unvegetated community did not differ between stations. Productivity was promoted by the low pH, but this was not translated into biomass, probably due to nutrient limitation, grazing or poor environmental conditions. The results indicate that seagrass response in naturally acidified conditions is dependable upon species and geochemical characteristics of the site and highlight the need for a better understanding of complex interactions in these environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling hydrothermal venting in volcanic sedimentary basins: Impact on hydrocarbon maturation and paleoclimate

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    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel W.; Planke, Sverre; Millett, John

    2017-06-01

    Vent structures are intimately associated with sill intrusions in sedimentary basins globally and are thought to have been formed contemporaneously due to overpressure generated by gas generation during thermogenic breakdown of kerogen or boiling of water. Methane and other gases generated during this process may have driven catastrophic climate change in the geological past. In this study, we present a 2D FEM/FVM model that accounts for 'explosive' vent formation by fracturing of the host rock based on a case study in the Harstad Basin, offshore Norway. Overpressure generated by gas release during kerogen breakdown in the sill thermal aureole causes fracture formation. Fluid focusing and overpressure migration towards the sill tips results in vent formation after only few tens of years. The size of the vent depends on the region of overpressure accessed by the sill tip. Overpressure migration occurs in self-propagating waves before dissipating at the surface. The amount of methane generated in the system depends on TOC content and also on the type of kerogen present in the host rock. Generated methane moves with the fluids and vents at the surface through a single, large vent structure at the main sill tip matching first-order observations. Violent degassing takes place within the first couple of hundred years and occurs in bursts corresponding to the timing of overpressure waves. The amount of methane vented through a single vent is only a fraction (between 5 and 16%) of the methane generated at depth. Upscaling to the Vøring and Møre Basins, which are a part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and using realistic host rock carbon content and kerogen values results in a smaller amount of methane vented than previously estimated for the PETM. Our study, therefore, suggests that the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) observed in the fossil record could not have been caused by intrusions within the Vøring and Møre Basins alone and that a contribution

  10. Sill intrusion driven fluid flow and vent formation in volcanic basins: Modeling rates of volatile release and paleoclimate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of mass extinction events in conjunction with climate change occur throughout the geological record and may be accompanied by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The processes that trigger such globally destructive changes are still under considerable debate. These include mechanisms such as poisoning from trace metals released during large volcanic eruptions (Vogt, 1972), CO2 released from lava degassing during the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) (Courtillot and Renne, 2003) and CH4 release during the destabilization of sub-seafloor methane (Dickens et al., 1995), to name a few. Thermogenic methane derived from contact metamorphism associated with magma emplacement and cooling in sedimentary basins has been recently gaining considerable attention as a potential mechanism that may have triggered global climate events in the past (e.g. Svensen and Jamtveit, 2010). The discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes that are spatially associated with such basins also supports the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (e.g. Jamtveit et al., 2004; Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2006). A previous study that investigated this process using a fluid flow model (Iyer et al., 2013) suggested that although hydrothermal plume formation resulting from sill emplacement may indeed release large quantities of methane at the surface, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, some of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales observed in the fossil record. Here, we reinvestigate the rates of gas release during sill emplacement in a case study from the Harstad Basin off-shore Norway with a special emphasis on vent formation. The presented study is based on a seismic line that crosses multiple sill structures emplaced around 55 Ma within the Lower Cretaceous sediments. A single well-defined vent complex is interpreted above the termination of the

  11. Magnetotelluric Investigation of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece

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    Kalisperi, Despina; Romano, Gerardo; Smirnov, Maxim; Kouli, Maria; Perrone, Angela; Makris, John P.; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA) is a chain of volcanic islands in the South Aegean resulting from the subduction of the African tectonic plate beneath the Eurasian plate. It extends from Methana, northwest, to the Island of Nisyros southeast (450 km total length). SAVA comprises a series of dormant and historically active volcanoes, with the most prominent to be Aegina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, Kolumbo, Kos and Nisyros. The aim of the ongoing research project "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)" is to contribute to the investigation of the geoelectric structure of Southern Aegean, and particularly to attempt to image the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this context, onshore magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recently carried out on the central and eastern part of SAVA (Milos, Santorini, Nisyros and Kos Islands). Data were collected using two MT systems running simultaneously plus a remote reference station installed in Omalos plateau (Western Crete). Robust MT data analysis of the broad-band MT soundings and the resulting model of the conductivity structure of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc is presented. The research is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources under the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the context of the Action 'Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers' in the framework of the project title "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)".

  12. Imaging the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, central Chile using magnetotellurics: Evidence for crustal melt regions laterally-offset from surface vents and lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Darcy; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Díaz, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected at the Laguna del Maule volcanic field (LdMVF), located in central Chile (36°S, 70.5°W), which has been experiencing unprecedented upward ground deformation since 2007. These data were used to create the first detailed three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of the LdMVF and surrounding area. The resulting model was spatially complex with several major conductive features imaged at different depths and locations around Laguna del Maule (LdM). A near-surface conductor (C1; 0.5 Ωm) approximately 100 m beneath the lake is interpreted as a conductive smectite clay cap related to a shallow hydrothermal reservoir. At 4 km depth, a strong conductor (C3; 0.3 Ωm) is located beneath the western edge of LdM. The proximity of C3 to the recent Pleistocene-to-Holocene vents in the northwest LdMVF and nearby hot springs suggests that C3 is a hydrous (>5 wt% H2O), rhyolitic partial melt with melt fraction >35% and a free-water hydrothermal component. C3 dips towards, and is connected to, a deeper conductor (C4; 1 Ωm). C4 is located to the north of LdM at >8 km depth below surface and is interpreted as a long-lived, rhyolitic-to-andesitic magma reservoir with melt fractions less than 35%. It is hypothesized that the deeper magma reservoir (C4) is providing melt and hydrothermal fluids to the shallower magma reservoir (C3). A large conductor directly beneath the LdMVF is not imaged with MT suggesting that any mush volume beneath LdM must be anhydrous (10 km) as it moves from the deep magma reservoir (C4) to create small, ephemeral volumes of eruptible melt (C3). It is hypothesized that there may be a north-south contrast in physical processes affecting the growth of melt-rich zones since major conductors are imaged in the northern LdMVF while no major conductors are detected beneath the southern vents. The analysis and interpretation of features directly beneath the lake is complicated by the surface conductor C1 which attenuates

  13. Model for eruption behavior of a volcanic vent in Eastern Mare Serenitatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, G.; McKay, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    Homogeneous glass droplets with an ilmenite pyroxenite composition sampled at the Apollo 17 landing site were apparently formed by lava fountaining of a low-viscosity magma. The droplets studied were collected from the top and bottom of an 80-cm-deep section within a block of clastic material located on the rim of Shorty Crater. At a depth of 80 cm, the samples consist of mostly compound and simple droplets which are nearly all partly crystalline (sample 74001,2). Near the top of the section simple orange noncrystalline glass spheres predominate, although some are partly crystalline (sample 74220). Although texturally different, both samples have identical bulk compositions. Individual droplets within each of the grain size fractions for morphology, amount of glass, and olivine texture. It is clear that ranges of cooling rates varied by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude. It is also apparent that the droplets of the unit represented by sample 74001,2 cooled much more slowly on the average than those within the unit represented by 74220. The two samples may represent parts of an eruption sequence. In a well-collimated vertical fountain, many of the droplets would have fallen back into the fountain and been ''recycled'' to produce compound forms. Slower cooling rates would have allowed time for crystal growth. The resulting deposit would have been relatively thick and centered near the vent. This may have been the eruptive phase during which sample 74001,2 was deposited. As the jet became more dispersed, melt droplets would have cooled rapidly and formed mainly simple glassy droplets. This phase of activity would have formed a thinner tephra blanket and may be represented by sample 74220 and orange glass spheres collected throughout the valley of Taurus-Littrow. 8 figs., 2 tables

  14. Division of volcanic activity cycles in the late mesozoic in South Jiangxi and North Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qinglong; Wu Jianhua

    1999-01-01

    Based on stratigraphical unconformity, rock association, fossil assemblage, isotope age and tectonic features, the volcanic activity in late Mesozoic in south Jiangxi and north Guandong can be divided into four cycles: Yutian volcanic activity cycle, Lianhuazhai volcanic activity cycle. Banshi volcanic activity cycle and Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle. Yutian volcanic cycle which occurs in middle Jurassic epoch is the bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Lianhuazhai volcanic cycle which occurs in late Jurassic epoch is unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite. Banshi volcanic cycle occurs from the late stage of early Cretaceous to the early stage of late Cretaceous epoch. There are two types of rock associations related to this cycle: unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite or basalt and bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle which occurred in late stage of late Cretaceous epoch is the unimodal rock association composed of basalt which is the interlayer of the red sedimentary series

  15. Stonewall Mountain Volcanic Center, southern Nevada: Stratigraphic, structural, and facies relations of outflow sheets, near-vent tuffs, and intracaldera units

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    Weiss, Steven I.; Noble, Donald C.

    1989-05-01

    Directly south and southeast of Stonewall Mountain, Nevada, a depression and north facing caldera scarp were formed during and(or) after eruption of the Spearhead Member of the late Miocene Stonewall Flat Tuff. Abundant large lithic and juvenile blocks are present in the Spearhead Member within 0.5 km of this topographic margin but absent elsewhere in the ash-flow sheet, consistent with eruption from vents in the Stonewall Mountain area. Within about 100,000 years, comendite tuff of the overlying Civet Cat Canyon Member of the Stonewall Flat Tuff buried the depression and associated scarp. The Civet Cat Canyon Member is traceable continuously to the north from an outflow sheet capping northwestern Pahute Mesa, into near-vent tuff on the southeastern flank of Stonewall Mountain. Proximal outflow-sheet tuff locally exhibits strong rheomorphic disruption and is overlain without a cooling break by surge, flow, and fall deposits of trachytic composition. Much of Stonewall Mountain is composed of welded tuff and megabreccia interpreted as intracaldera tuff of the Civet Cat Canyon Member, strongly suggesting that the vent area of the member was largely within Stonewall Mountain. Welded tuff of trachytic composition comprises an important part of the intracaldera Civet Cat Canyon Member, which was intruded by dikes and plugs of trachyte and rhyolite. Juvenile inclusions of basalt dispersed in near-vent facies trachyte tuff provide direct evidence for the high-level involvement of basaltic magma in the evolution of the highly potassic Stonewall Mountain center. Complex discordant compaction foliations and the widespread presence of megabreccia within the intracaldera tuff suggest, following Foley (1978), cauldron subsidence by piecemeal collapse during eruption of the Civet Cat Canyon Member. The elevation of intracaldera tuff and intrusions in Stonewall Mountain above the surrounding ashflow sheet suggests a significant amount of magmatic uplift, perhaps involving the

  16. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  17. Growth and mass wasting of volcanic centers in the northern South Sandwich arc, South Atlantic, revealed by new multibeam mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Leat, Philip T.; Tate, Alex J.; Tappin, David R.; Day, Simon J.; Owen, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    New multibeam (swath) bathymetric sonar data acquired using an EM120 system on the RRS James Clark Ross, supplemented by sub-bottom profiling, reveals the underwater morphology of a not, vert, similar 12,000 km2 area in the northern part of the mainly submarine South Sandwich volcanic arc. The new data extend between 55° 45′S and 57° 20′S and include Protector Shoal and the areas around Zavodovski, Visokoi and the Candlemas islands groups. Each of these areas is a discrete volcanic center. T...

  18. Cretaceous alkaline volcanism in south Marzanabad, northern central Alborz, Iran: Geochemistry and petrogenesis

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    Roghieh Doroozi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The alkali-basalt and basaltic trachy-andesites volcanic rocks of south Marzanabad were erupted during Cretaceous in central Alborz, which is regarded as the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Based on petrography and geochemistry, en route fractional crystallization of ascending magma was an important process in the evolution of the volcanic rocks. Geochemical characteristics imply that the south Marzanabad alkaline basaltic magma was originated from the asthenospheric mantle source, whereas the high ratios of (La/YbN and (Dy/YbN are related to the low degree of partial melting from the garnet bearing mantle source. Enrichment pattern of Nb and depletion of Rb, K and Y, are similar to the OIB pattern and intraplate alkaline magmatic rocks. The K/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios of volcanic rocks range from 62 to 588 and from 4.27 to 9 respectively, that are some higher in more evolved samples which may reflect minor crustal contamination. The isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd respectively vary from 0.70370 to 0.704387 and from 0.51266 to 0.51281 that suggest the depleted mantle as a magma source. The development of south Marzanabad volcanic rocks could be related to the presence of extensional phase, upwelling and decompressional melting of asthenospheric mantle in the rift basin which made the alkaline magmatism in Cretaceous, in northern central Alborz of Iran.

  19. Ferrous iron- and ammonium-rich diffuse vents support habitat-specific communities in a shallow hydrothermal field off the Basiluzzo Islet (Aeolian Volcanic Archipelago).

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    Bortoluzzi, G; Romeo, T; La Cono, V; La Spada, G; Smedile, F; Esposito, V; Sabatino, G; Di Bella, M; Canese, S; Scotti, G; Bo, M; Giuliano, L; Jones, D; Golyshin, P N; Yakimov, M M; Andaloro, F

    2017-09-01

    Ammonium- and Fe(II)-rich fluid flows, known from deep-sea hydrothermal systems, have been extensively studied in the last decades and are considered as sites with high microbial diversity and activity. Their shallow-submarine counterparts, despite their easier accessibility, have so far been under-investigated, and as a consequence, much less is known about microbial communities inhabiting these ecosystems. A field of shallow expulsion of hydrothermal fluids has been discovered at depths of 170-400 meters off the base of the Basiluzzo Islet (Aeolian Volcanic Archipelago, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). This area consists predominantly of both actively diffusing and inactive 1-3 meters-high structures in the form of vertical pinnacles, steeples and mounds covered by a thick orange to brown crust deposits hosting rich benthic fauna. Integrated morphological, mineralogical, and geochemical analyses revealed that, above all, these crusts are formed by ferrihydrite-type Fe 3+ oxyhydroxides. Two cruises in 2013 allowed us to monitor and sampled this novel ecosystem, certainly interesting in terms of shallow-water iron-rich site. The main objective of this work was to characterize the composition of extant communities of iron microbial mats in relation to the environmental setting and the observed patterns of macrofaunal colonization. We demonstrated that iron-rich deposits contain complex and stratified microbial communities with a high proportion of prokaryotes akin to ammonium- and iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophs, belonging to Thaumarchaeota, Nitrospira, and Zetaproteobacteria. Colonizers of iron-rich mounds, while composed of the common macrobenthic grazers, predators, filter-feeders, and tube-dwellers with no representatives of vent endemic fauna, differed from the surrounding populations. Thus, it is very likely that reduced electron donors (Fe 2+ and NH 4 + ) are important energy sources in supporting primary production in microbial mats, which form a habitat

  20. Geochemical of trace elements in volcanics rocks Peninsula Fildes, Fildes Bay Rey Jorge island, south Shetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.; Vaz Chavez, N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present some geochemical data derived from the multielement analysis of three different types of volcanic rocks collected around Fildes Bay on King George Island, South Shetland. Volcanic rocks from Fildes Peninsula Group may be distinguished from those Marian Cove by their hydrothermal alteration. Apparently the correlation between NI ands Cr allows for the observation of the stratigraphic separation of samples of the same kind. Consequently, the correlation between Cu and As show a distinction between Marian Cove propylitised tuffites and both Brecciated Andesites and pyroclastic rock from Fildes Peninsula Group.

  1. Metallogenetic regularity exploration model and prospecting potential of the mesocenozoic volcanic type uranium deposit in the east of south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng; Li Wenjun

    1995-01-01

    During the Meso-Cenozoic era, the crust in the east of South China experienced an evolutional process of compression-relaxed extension-local disintegration, correspondingly, three periods of volcanic activity were developed, forming initial volcanic cycle, principal volcanic cycle and caldera volcanic cycle. The caldera volcanic cycle was expressed as a 'bimodal type' rock suite, indicating the entering of the region into an evolutional stage of new embryonic refitting. The volcanic type uranium deposit is characterized by ore-formation during caldera volcanic cycle, ore control by the mobile belt of caldera volcanic cycle and double superposition and concentration, and it can be summarized as a new unconformity-related type uranium deposit of caldera volcanic series, which is divided into three morphological types: body type, layer type and vein type and relevant exploration models are proposed. The new unconformity-related type uranium deposits of the caldera volcanic series in the east of South China have a great prospecting potential. The tectonomagmatic complex area of the caldera volcanic cycle developed on the granite basement is the favourable target area in searching for large uranium deposits from now on

  2. Geochronological constraints on Cretaceous-Paleocene volcanism in South Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.J.; Cooper, A.F.; Palin, J.M.; Nathan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cretaceous and Paleocene sedimentation in South Westland, New Zealand, is recorded in the Otumotu Formation, Tauperikaka Coal Measures, Whakapohai Sandstone, Arnott Basalt, Buttress Conglomerate, and Tokakoriri Formation, originally named and mapped by Nathan in 1977. Within this stratigraphic sequence, the name Buttress Conglomerate was used to describe volcanic conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points that contained rounded clasts of plagioclasephyric intermediate volcanic rocks. Stratigraphically, the volcanic conglomerate at Porphyry Point forms sharp contacts with the underlying Arnott Basalt (Haumurian) and overlying Tokakoriri Formation (Teurian). The volcanic conglomerate at Buttress Point, however, is entirely fault-bounded. Clasts from each unit were collected and U-Pb zircon dated using the TIMS and ELA-ICP-MS methods. A trachyandesite clast collected at Buttress Point gives an age of 96.9 ± 1.6 Ma, whereas a rhyolite clast collected at Porphyry Point gives an age of 61.4 ± 0.8 Ma. Petrological, geochemical, and stratigraphic data suggest that erosion of the clasts closely followed volcanism, and that these ages accurately reflect the depositional ages of the conglomerates. Conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points have been formally renamed the Porphyry Point Member of the Tokakoriri Formation and the Buttress Point Conglomerate, respectively. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Discovery of modern (post-1850 CE) lavas in south-central British Columbia, Canada: Origin from coal fires or intraplate volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canil, Dante; Mihalynuk, Mitch; Lacourse, Terri

    2018-01-01

    We describe three unusual lavas in the Northern Cordillera in south-central British Columbia, Canada, occurring as spatter, scoria and blocks over small 400 m2 areas. The lavas coat and weld cobbles and pebbles in glacial till and are vesicular and glassy with microlites of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, and xenocrysts of quartz, feldspar or clinopyroxene. Chemically the lavas are basaltic trachyandesite (55-61 wt% SiO2) with trace element patterns similar to average British Columbia upper crust, except for having higher V and lower Zr, Hf, Nb, Th and U. Melting experiments and plagioclase-melt thermometry on the glasses, and phase equilibrium in simple systems, require liquidus temperatures of 1150-1300 °C. Interaction of the liquids with carbonaceous matter at low pressure formed Fe metal spherules and SiC. Radiocarbon ages of charcoal and dendrochronology show the lavas are modern, emplaced in the last 120 years. The similar bulk composition of these lavas to several other Quaternary-aged volcanic centers in the North American Cordillera, some of which show recent seismic activity, could suggest a possible tectonic origin, but the deposits are unusually small and show no central vent for emplacement. Conversely, the balance of evidence would suggest an origin from coal fires or hot gas venting, but is less consistent with the observed calc- and per-alkaline lava compositions, and the lack of known local coal-bearing strata as a heat source. Other anthropogenic origins for the lavas are considered less plausible.

  4. Formation and uranium explorating prospect of sub-volcanic granitic complex and rich uranium ore deposit in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng

    1997-01-01

    The rich uranium ore deposits are all closely related to tecto-magmatism of late-magmatic cycle whether volcanic types or granitic types in south China. Volcanic type rich uranium deposit has closely relationship with sub-volcanic activity, and granitic type rich uranium deposit is also closely related to mid-fine, unequal particle small massif in late main invasion stage. Based on characteristics of magmatism, we name the rock sub-volcanic granite complex, which is a unique style and closely related to the formation of rich uranium ore deposit

  5. Static Vented Chamber and Eddy Covariance Methane Flux Comparisons in Mid-South US Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reba, M. L.; Fong, B.; Adviento-Borbe, A.; Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Rival, I.

    2017-12-01

    Rice cultivation contributes higher amounts of GHG emissions (CO2 and CH4) due to flooded field conditions. A comparison between eddy covariance and static vented flux chamber measurement techniques is presented. Rice GHG emissions originating from plot level chambers may not accurately describe the aggregate effects of all the soil and micrometeorological variations across a production field. Eddy covariance (EC) is a direct, integrated field measurement of field scale trace gases. Flux measurements were collected in NE Arkansas production size rice fields (16 ha, 40 ac) during the 2015 and 2016 production seasons (June-August) in continuous flood (CF) irrigation. The study objectives included quantifying the difference between chamber and EC measurements, and categorizing flux behavior to growth stage and field history. EC daily average emissions correlated with chamber measurements (R2=0.27-0.54) more than average from 09:00-12:00 which encompassed chamber measurement times (R2=0.23-0.32). Maximum methane emissions occurred in the late afternoon from 14:00-18:00 which corresponded with maximum soil heat flux and air temperature. The total emissions from the study fields ranged from 27-117 kg CH4-C ha-1 season-1. The emission profile was lower in 2015, most likely due to higher rainfall and cooler temperatures during the growing season compared to 2016. These findings improve our understanding of GHG emissions at the field scale under typical production practices and validity of chamber and EC flux measurement techniques.

  6. Source and Extent of Volcanic Ashes at the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China and Its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Zhong, Y. T.; Hou, Y. L.; He, B.

    2017-12-01

    Highly correlated with the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) Mass Extinction in stratigraphic section, volcanic ashes around the P-T Boundary in South China have been suggested to be a likely cause of the PTB Mass Extinction. So the nature, source and extent of these volcanic ashes have great significance in figuring out the cause of the PTB Mass Extinction. In this study, we attempt to constrain the source and extent of the PTB volcanic ashes in South China by studying pyroclastic sedimentary rocks and the spatial distribution of tuffs and ashes in South China. The detrital zircons of tuffaceous sandstones from Penglaitan section yield an age spectrum peaked at 252Ma, with ɛHf(t) values varying from -20 to -5 ,and have Nb/Hf, Th/Nb and Hf/Th ratios similar to those from arc/orogenic-related settings. Coarse tuffaceous sandstones imply that their source is in limited distance. Those pyroclastic sedimentary rocks in Penglaitan are well correlated with the PTB volcanic ashes in Meishan GSSP section in stratigraphy. In the spatial distribution, pyroclastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs distribute only in southwest of South China, while finer volcanic ashes are mainly in the northern part. This spatial distribution suggests the source of tuffs and ashes was to the south or southwest of South China. Former studies especially that of Permian-Triassic magmatism in Hainan Island have supported the existence of a continental arc related to the subduction and closure of Palaeo-Tethys on the southwestern margin of South China during Permian to early Triassic. It is suggested that the PTB ashes possibly derived from this Paleo-Tethys continental arc. The fact that volcanic ashes haven't been reported or found in PTB stratum in North China or Northwest China implies a limited extent of the volcanism, which thus is too small to cause the PTB mass extinction.

  7. South Aegean volcanic glass. Separation and analysis by INAA and EPMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminger, S.; Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Pumice from the major volcanic sources (Milos, Nisyros, Yali, Kos and Santorini) in the South Aegean region was investigated to reveal the differences between the composition of the bulk material, which contains a certain percentage of crystallites, and the pure glass phase, which is the main constituent. The knowledge of these differences is important for the identification of vitric tephra layers found in the Eastern Mediterranean region in archaeological context, in deep sea drilling cores and lake sediments. Eruption products, deposited at some distance, show not only a decrease in their grain size, but also have usually lost their crystalline fraction due to gravity separation and consist only of glass shards. Major element distributions in such layers and in pumiceous glass are not sufficient for a reliable identification of the volcanic source, as several eruptions are known to have produced chemically very similar tephra layers in this region. Trace element data, especially of the rather immobile rare earth elements (REEs), can provide greater information on tephra originating from different volcanic eruptions. Therefore, a technique has been developed to separate the glass phase from different primary pumices to reveal differences in their trace element distributions. The concentrations of the major constituents, in particular Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, and Ti were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), those of Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb and Zr by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Subtle differences between the compositions of the glass phase and the bulk material are explained by differentiation during partial crystallization. Their applicability to the classification of tephra layers is demonstrated. (author)

  8. Tectono-volcanic control of fissure type vents for the 28 Ma Panalillo ignimbrite in the Villa de Reyes Graben, San Luis PotosI, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan-Gonzalez, Margarito; Labarthe-Hernandez, Guillermo; Aguillon-Robles, Alfredo; Aguirre-DIaz, Gerardo J

    2008-01-01

    The volcano-tectonic events at the Villa de Reyes Graben (VRG), in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico, include 1) a regional NNE fault system developed before 32 Ma, 2) this pre-32 Ma faulting controlled the emplacement of 31.5 Ma dacitic domes, 3) NE faulting at 28 Ma that displaced the 31.5 Ma dacitic domes and formed the VRG, as well as the oblique grabens of Bledos and Enramadas oriented NW, 4) emplacement of Panalillo ignimbrite at 28 Ma filling the VRG and erupting from fissures related to the oblique grabens, and eruption of Placa basalt apparently also from fault-controlled vents.

  9. Tectono-volcanic control of fissure type vents for the 28 Ma Panalillo ignimbrite in the Villa de Reyes Graben, San Luis PotosI, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tristan-Gonzalez, Margarito; Labarthe-Hernandez, Guillermo; Aguillon-Robles, Alfredo [Instituto de Geologia/DES IngenierIa, UASLP, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava 5, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78240, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico); Aguirre-DIaz, Gerardo J [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230 (Mexico)], E-mail: mtiistan@uasln.mx, E-mail: ger@geociencias.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    The volcano-tectonic events at the Villa de Reyes Graben (VRG), in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico, include 1) a regional NNE fault system developed before 32 Ma, 2) this pre-32 Ma faulting controlled the emplacement of 31.5 Ma dacitic domes, 3) NE faulting at 28 Ma that displaced the 31.5 Ma dacitic domes and formed the VRG, as well as the oblique grabens of Bledos and Enramadas oriented NW, 4) emplacement of Panalillo ignimbrite at 28 Ma filling the VRG and erupting from fissures related to the oblique grabens, and eruption of Placa basalt apparently also from fault-controlled vents.

  10. Microbial community changes at a terrestrial volcanic CO2 vent induced by soil acidification and anaerobic microhabitats within the soil column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Janin; Oppermann, Birte I; Gwosdz, Simone; Möller, Ingo; Herrmann, Martina; Krüger, Martin

    2013-04-01

    CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations is one option currently evaluated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, the impact of a possible CO2 leakage from a storage site into surface environments has to be evaluated. During such a hypothetical leakage event, the CO2 migrates upwards along fractures entering surface soils, a scenario similar to naturally occurring CO2 vents. Therefore, such a natural analogue site at the Laacher See was chosen for an ecosystem study on the effects of high CO2 concentrations on soil chemistry and microbiology. The microbial activities revealed differences in their spatial distribution and temporal variability for CO2 -rich and reference soils. Furthermore, the abundance of several functional and group-specific gene markers revealed further differences, for example, a decrease in Geobacteraceae and an increase in sulphate-reducing prokaryotes in the vent centre. Molecular-biological fingerprinting of the microbial communities with DGGE indicated a shift in the environmental conditions within the Laacher See soil column leading to anaerobic and potentially acidic microenvironments. Furthermore, the distribution and phylogenetic affiliation of the archaeal 16S rRNA genes, the presence of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and the biomarker analysis revealed a predominance of Thaumarchaeota as possible indicator organisms for elevated CO2 concentrations in soils. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lead isotopic compositions of South Sandwich Island volcanic rocks and their bearing on magmagenesis in intra-oceanic island arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, B.

    1983-01-01

    Pb isotope ratios have been measured in 12 volcanic rocks from the South Sandwich Islands. The results are reported. In 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb correlation diagrams, the South Sandwich data plot distinctly above the fields for ocean ridge basalts, and yield trends showing apparent mixing with a sedimentary end member similar to South Atlantic pelagic sediments as reported by Chow and Patterson (1962) and this study. Armstrong and Cooper (1971) have likewise shown that volcanics from the Lesser Antilles show mixing trends with North Atlantic sediments in Pb isotope correlation diagrams. The North Atlantic sediments have distinctly higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios compared to the South Atlantic sediments. The parallel relationships between sediments and volcanic island arc rocks of the North and South Atlantic provide strong evidence for a component of Pb from subducted sediments in the lavas of the west Atlantic basin. In contrast to these data, lavas from the Mariana Arc in the western Pacific show little or no component of Pb from pelagic sediments. The reason for the different behaviors in the two settings is speculative. (author)

  12. Stratigraphical sequence and geochronology of the volcanic rock series in caifang basin, south jiangxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xunsheng; Wu Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    The late Mesozoic volcanic rocks in Jiangxi constitute two volcanic belts: the northern is Xiajiang-Guangfeng volcanic belt, the volcanic rocks series belong to one volcano cycle and named Wuyi group which is subdivided into three formations (Shuangfengling formation, Ehuling formation and Shixi formation); the southern is Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt, the volcanic rocks series in Caifang basin which locates on Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt also belong to only one volcano cycle. It can be subdivided into two lithology and lithofacies units (upper and lower): the lower unit consists of sedimentary rocks and associated with a subordinate amount of volcanic rocks, it belongs to erupt-deposit facies which is the product of early volcanic stage; the upper unit is mostly composed of volcanic rocks, it belongs to erupt facies that is the volcanic eruption product. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of rhyolite? which locates at the top of the upper unit is 130.79 ± 0.73) Ma. According to the new International Stratigraphic Chart, the boundary of Jurassic and Cretaceous is (145.4 ± 4.0) Ma, so the age shows that the geologic period of Caifang volcanic rocks series is early Early Cretaceous epoch. On the basis of lithological correlation, lithofacies and stratigraphic horizon analysis, the volcanic rock series in Caifang basin fall under Wuyi group, and the lower unit could be incorporated into Shuangfengling formation, the upper unit could be incorporated into Ehuling formation. The subdivision of sequence and the determination of geochronology of the volcanic rock series in Caifang basin provide some references for the study of the late Mesozoic volcanic rocks series of the Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt. (authors)

  13. Vented Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan

    2006-04-11

    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  14. 1.60 Ga felsic volcanic blocks in the moraines of the Terre Adelie Craton, Antarctica: comparisons with the Gawler Range Volcanics, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peucat, J.J.; Capdevila, R.; Pecora, L.; Fanning, C.M.; Testut, L.

    2002-01-01

    Rhyodacite and rhyolite blocks found in numerous moraines on the Terre Adelie Craton in Antarctica are samples of a high-temperature high-K calc-alkaline to alkali-calcic igneous suite emplaced at ca 1.60Ga. They comprise lavas and pyroclastic rocks, including ignimbritic varieties, chemically representative of anorogenic and post-orogenic igneous suites. The eruptive centres are probably close to the coast according to radar satellite images that show the trace of the ice streams. The volcanic suite is similar in age, petrography and chemical composition (major and trace elements as well as Nd isotopes) to the Gawler Range Volcanics from the Gawler Craton of South Australia. These similarities strengthen correlations previously established between the Gawler Craton and the Terre Adelie Craton (Mawson Continent). Moreover, the present petrological, geochemical and geochronological data give a new insight into the last major thermal event affecting the Mawson Continent. The results also highlight the useful contribution of moraines to our knowledge of Antarctic geology. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  15. K-Ar ages, paleomagnetism, and geochemistry of the South Auckland volcanic field, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.M.; Okada, T.; Itaya, T.; Shibuya, H.; Smith, I.E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The South Auckland volcanic field is one of the Pliocene-Quaternary intraplate basaltic fields in northern North Island. It consists of at least 97 monogenetic volcanic centres covering an area of c. 300 km 2 , 38 km south of Auckland. Fifty-nine of the volcanic centres are characterised by mainly magmatic or effusive activity that constructed scoria cones and lava flows, while 38 are mainly phreatomagmatic or explosive that produced tuff rings and maars. Rock types consist of basanites, hawaiites, nepheline hawaiites, transitional basalts, and ol-tholeiitic basalts, with relatively minor amounts of nephelinites, alkali basalts, Q-tholeiitic basalts, and nepheline mugearites. Forty-three new K-Ar ages are presented, which range from 0.51 to 1.59 Ma, and show two peaks of activity at 0.6 and 1.3 Ma. Paleomagnetic determinations at 26 selected sites agree well with the paleomagnetic reversal time scale and support the K-Ar age data. Age data from each of the volcanic fields of Okete, Ngatutura, South Auckland, and Auckland, which constitute the Auckland intraplate basaltic province, show that they have developed within a time span of 0.3-1.1 Ma. After activity ceased in any particular field, a new field then developed 35-38 km to the north. These consistent time/space patterns indicate the possibility of a mantle source migrating northwards at c. 5 cm/yr. There is no correlation of rock composition with time, which is consistent with observations in the Northland intraplate province, but is not consistent with the formerly invoked rising diapir model. (author). 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age and its significances of volcanic rocks from banshi basin in south jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baofeng; Wu Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating is applied to geochronological study for tuff of original Jilongzhang formation and rhyolite of original Banshi formation in Banshi basin, located in the Sannan (Longnan, Dingnan, Quannan) -Xunwu volcanic rocks belts in the south of Jiangxi. The result shows that zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of the tuff is (142.5 ± 1.3) Ma and the age of the rhyolite is (131.4 ± 1.3) Ma. According to the latest international stratigraphic chart, the boundary between Jurassic and Cretaceous is (145.4 ± 4.0) Ma. So original Jilongzhang Formation and original Banshi Formation in Banshi basin were formed during early Early Cretaceous. The volcanic series in Banshi basin belongs to only one volcanic cycle. The features of the rock associations consistent with Wuyi group on the Xiajiang-Guangfeng volcanic rocks belts in the north of Jiangxi, so original Jilongzhang formation falls under E'huling formation and original Banshi formation falls under Shixi formation. (authors)

  17. Dating and source determination of volcanic rocks from Khunik area (South of Birjand, South Khorasan using Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Samiee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Khunik area is located in the south of Birjand, Khorasan province, in the eastern margin of Lut block. Tertiary volcanic rocks have andesite to trachy-andesite composition. Dating analyzing by Rb-Sr method on plagioclase and hornblende as well as whole-rock isochron method was performed on pyroxene-hornblende andesite rock unit. On this basis the emplacement age is Upper Paleocene (58±11 Ma. These rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd 0.7046-0.7049 and 2.16-3.12, respectively. According to isotopic data, volcanic rocks originated from depleted mantle and have the least crust contamination while it was fractionated. Geochemically, Khunik volcanic rocks have features typical of calk-alkaline to shoshonite and are metaluminous. Enrichment in LILEs and typical negative anomalies of Nb and Ti are evidences that the volcanic rocks formed in a subduction zone and active continental margin. Modeling suggests that these rocks were derived dominantly from 1–5% partial melting of a mainly spinel garnet lherzolite mantle source that is metasomatized by slab-derived fluid.

  18. Fission-track ages of Neogene and Quaternary volcanic ashes in south of Osaka, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takuo; Nakagawa, Yonosuke; Danhara, Tohru.

    1984-01-01

    A calculation method is proposed for the fission-track ages of zircon crystals in volcanic material. In this method, it is checked whether the spontaneous fission-track number of respective zircon crystals follows the Poisson distribution. If it does, the age is calculated by population method with all crystals, and if not, only with those crystals following the Poisson distribution, eliminating abnormal crystals. Extraneous zircon crystals are thus excluded and crystals with spontaneous fission-track number zero are not ignored. The following ages were obtained: Tamateyama volcanic ash in the Nijo group, 14.0 +- 0.6 Ma; pink volcanic ash in the Osaka group, 1.0 +- 0.2 Ma; Matsuo volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 1.5 +- 0.4 Ma; pumice volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.3 +- 0.4 Ma; Asashiro volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.9 +- 0.6 Ma. (Mori, K.)

  19. Research on evolutionary laws of Sr, Nd, Pb isotopes of uranium metallization and volcanic rocks in south china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong

    1998-01-01

    According to research on evolutionary tracer of Sr, Nd, Pb isotopes, the author proposes that isotopic evolution of Mesozoic volcanics in south China is controlled by regionally metamorphic rocks of ancient land basement, early reformed derivates and recycled continental crust. Isotopic composition of uranium metallization shows the characteristics of crust sources, and Yanshanian accretion of continental margin caused the crust movement such as magmatic activity in lower crust within continent, extension-down-faulting, etc., promoting the migration, enrichment and ore formation of uranium

  20. Holocene volcanic geology, volcanic hazard, and risk on Taveuni, Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, S.J.; Neall, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Holocene volcanic geology of Taveuni has been mapped in order to produce a volcanic hazard and risk assessment for the island. Taveuni is the third-largest island of the Fiji group and home to 14,500 people. At least cubic km 2.7 of olivine-alkali-basalt magma was erupted from over 100 events throughout the Holocene. Vents are concentrated along a northeast-striking rift zone that is parallel to other regional structural trends. There is an overall trend of younging southward along the rift. Holocene lavas and tephras are grouped within six newly defined eruptive periods, established on a basis of radiocarbon dating. Within these periods, 14 tephra layers, useful as local marker horizons, are recognised. At least 58% of Holocene eruptions produced lava flows, while almost all produced some tephra. Individual eruption event volumes ranged between 0.001 and cubic km 0.20 (dense rock equivalent). Many eruptions involved at least some phases of phreatic and/or phreato-magmatic activity, although dominant hydrovolcanic activity was limited to only a few events. A volcanic hazard map is presented, based on the Holocene geology map and statistical analyses of eruption recurrence. The highest levels of ground-based and near-vent hazards are concentrated along the southern portion of the island's rift axis, with the paths of initial lava flows predicted from present topography. Tephra fall hazards are based on eruption parameters interpreted from mapped Holocene tephra layers. Hawaiian explosive-style eruptions appear to be a dominant eruptive process, with prevailing low-level (<3 km) southeasterly winds dispersing most tephra to the northwestern quadrant. Vulnerable elements (population centres, infrastructure, and economy) on Taveuni have been considered in deriving a volcanic risk assessment for the island. A number of infrastructural and subdivision developments are either under way or planned for the island, driven by its highly fertile soils and availability of

  1. Observations and modelling of inflation in the Lazufre volcanic region, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, J.; Lundgren, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) is an active volcanic arc in the central Andes, extending through Peru, southwestern Bolivia, Chile, and northwestern Argentina [De Silva, 1989; De Silva and Francis, 1991]. The CVZ includes a number of collapsed calderas, remnants of catastrophic eruptions, which are now thought to be inactive. However, recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations [Pritchard and Simons, 2004] show surface deformation occurring at some of these large ancient volcanic regions, indicating that magma chambers are slowly inflating beneath the surface. The mechanisms responsible for the initiation and growth of large midcrustal magma chambers remains poorly understood, and InSAR provides an opportunity for us to observe volcanic systems in remote regions that are otherwise difficult to monitor and observe. The Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre ("Lazufre" [Pritchard and Simons, 2002]) volcanic area is one such complex showing recent deformation, with average surface uplift rates of approximately 2.5 cm/year [Froger et al., 2007; Ruch et al, 2008]. We have processed InSAR data from ERS-1/2 and Envisat in the Lazufre volcanic area, including both ascending and descending satellite tracks. Time series analysis of the data shows steady uplift beginning in about 2000, continuing into 2010. We use boundary-element elastic models to invert for the depth and shape of the magmatic source responsible for the surface deformation. Given data from both ascending and descending tracks, we are able to resolve the ambiguity between the source depth and size, and constrain the geometry of the inflating magma source. Finite element modelling allows us to understand the effect of viscoelasticity on the development of the magma chamber.

  2. Devonian sand injections and volcanism in the Murzuq Basin (south-west Libya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Ghienne, Jean-Francois

    system is original by its interaction with volcanism and its situation in an epicontinental intracratonic basin. The sand injections form a seal-bypass system between the Ordovician-Cambrian reservoirs and the Lower Devonian sandstones, breaching through the Silurian shale seal (and source rock...

  3. Timing and compositional evolution of Late Pleistocene to Holocene volcanism within the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, M. E.; Downs, D. T.; Dietterich, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    Harrat Rahat is one of the largest ( 20,000 km2) of 15 active Cenozoic volcanic fields that stretch 3,000 km along the western Arabian Peninsula from Yemen to Syria. The Harrat Rahat volcanic field is 310 km long (N-S) by 75 km wide (E-W), and is dominated by alkalic basalts with minor hawaiite, mugearite, benmoreite, and trachyte eruptives. The timing of volcanism within greater Harrat Rahat is poorly constrained, but field relations and geochronology indicate that northern Harrat Rahat hosted the most recent eruptions. To better constrain the timing and compositional evolution of Harrat Rahat during this recent phase, we present 743 geochemical analyses, 144 40Ar/39Ar ages, and 9 36Cl exposure ages for volcanic strata from northernmost Harrat Rahat. These data demonstrate that volcanism has been ongoing from at least 1.2 Ma to the present, with the most recent eruption known from historical accounts at 1256 CE. Basalt has erupted persistently from 1.2 Ma to the present, but more evolved volcanism has been episodic. Benmoreite erupted at 1.1 Ma and between 550 to 400 ka. Trachytic volcanism has only occurred over the past 150 ka, with the most recent eruption at 5 ka. Aside from the well-documented basaltic eruption at 1256 CE, prior workers interpreted 6 additional basaltic eruptions during the Holocene. However, our 36Cl exposure ages demonstrate that these erupted between 60 to 13 ka. Interestingly, in the northern part of our field area, where the spatial density of volcanic vents is low, young volcanism (<150 ka) is dominated by basaltic eruptions. Conversely, young volcanism in the southern part of our field area, where volcanic vent density is high, is dominated by trachyte. This observation is consistent with a process wherein the time-integrated effects of basaltic influx into the crust in the south produced a mafic intrusive complex, through which younger basaltic magmas cannot ascend. Instead, these magmas stall and produce trachyte, likely through

  4. Using Volcanic Lightning Measurements to Discern Variations in Explosive Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    VHF observations of volcanic lightning have been made during the recent eruptions of Augustine Volcano (2006, Alaska, USA), Redoubt Volcano (2009, Alaska, USA), and Eyjafjallajökull (2010, Iceland). These show that electrical activity occurs both on small scales at the vent of the volcano, concurrent with an eruptive event and on large scales throughout the eruption column during and subsequent to an eruptive event. The small-scale discharges at the vent of the volcano are often referred to as 'vent discharges' and are on the order of 10-100 meters in length and occur at rates on the order of 1000 per second. The high rate of vent discharges produces a distinct VHF signature that is sometimes referred to as 'continuous RF' radiation. VHF radiation from vent discharges has been observed at sensors placed as far as 100 km from the volcano. VHF and infrasound measurements have shown that vent discharges occur simultaneously with the onset of eruption, making their detection an unambiguous indicator of explosive volcanic activity. The fact that vent discharges are observed concurrent with explosive volcanic activity indicates that volcanic ejecta are charged upon eruption. VHF observations have shown that the intensity of vent discharges varies between eruptive events, suggesting that fluctuations in eruptive processes affect the electrification processes giving rise to vent discharges. These fluctuations may be variations in eruptive vigor or variations in the type of eruption; however, the data obtained so far do not show a clear relationship between eruption parameters and the intensity or occurrence of vent discharges. Further study is needed to clarify the link between vent discharges and eruptive behavior, such as more detailed lightning observations concurrent with tephra measurements and other measures of eruptive strength. Observations of vent discharges, and volcanic lightning observations in general, are a valuable tool for volcano monitoring, providing a

  5. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, main central segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous parts of the Yakama Nation lands in south-central Washington are mostly covered by basaltic lava flows and cinder cones that make up the Simcoe Mountains volcanic field. The accompanying geologic map of the central part of the volcanic field has been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on behalf of the Water Resources Program of the Yakama Nation. The volcanic terrain stretches continuously from Mount Adams eastward as far as Satus Pass and Mill Creek Guard Station. Most of the many hills and buttes are volcanic cones where cinders and spatter piled up around erupting vents while lava flows spread downslope. All of these small volcanoes are now extinct, and, even during their active lifetimes, most of them erupted for no more than a few years. On the Yakama Nation lands, the only large long-lived volcano capable of erupting again in the future is Mount Adams, on the western boundary.

  6. The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is

  7. Supplement of: The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium.An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records.Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the amount effect. During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is larger

  8. Radiative impact of Etna volcanic aerosols over south eastern Italy on 3 December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Burlizzi, P.; Kinne, S.; De Tomasi, F.; Hamann, U.; Perrone, M. R.

    2018-06-01

    Irradiance and LiDAR measurements at the surface combined with satellite products from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) and MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) were used to detect and characterize the Etna volcano (Italy) plume that crossed southeastern Italy on 3 December 2015, from about 10:00 up to 11:30 UTC, and estimate its radiative impact. The volcanic plume was delivered by a violent and short paroxysmal eruption that occurred from 02:30 to 03:10 UTC of 3 December 2015, about 400 km away from the monitoring site. Measurements from the LiDAR combined with model results showed that the aerosol optical depth of the volcanic plume, located from about 11 to 13 km above sea level (asl), was equal to 0.80 ± 0.07 at 532 nm. A low tropospheric aerosol load, located up to about 7 km asl, with optical depth equal to 0.19 ± 0.01 at 532 nm was also revealed by the LiDAR measurements. Short-Wave (SW) downward and upward irradiance measurements revealed that the instantaneous SW direct radiative forcing at the surface (DRFsurf) decreased to -146 ± 16 W m-2 at 10:50 UTC because of the volcanic plume passage. A Two-Stream radiative transfer model integrated with experimental measurements, which took into account the volcanic plume and the low tropospheric aerosol properties, was used to reproduce the SW radiative flux measurements at the surface and estimate the aerosol DRF both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface, in addition to the aerosol heating rate vertical profile. We found that the clear-sky, instantaneous, SW DRF at the TOA and the atmospheric forcing were equal to -112 and 33 W m-2, respectively, at 10:50 UTC that represented the time at which the volcanic plume radiative impact was the highest. The SW aerosol heating rate reached the peak value of 1.24 K day-1 at 12 km asl and decreased to -0.06 K day-1 at 11 km asl, at 10:50 UTC. The role of the aerosol load located up to about 7 km asl and the

  9. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  10. Full moment tensor retrieval and fluid dynamics in volcanic areas: The case of phlegraean field (south Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campus, P.; Cespuglio, G.

    1994-04-01

    When studying seismicity in volcanic areas it is appropriate to treat the seismic source in a form a priori not restricted to a double couple, since its mechanism may reflect not only small scale tectonics but also fluid dynamics. The monitoring of fluid dynamics can be therefore attempted from the retrieval of the rupture processes. It is not possible to use standard methods, based on the distribution of polarities of first arrivals to determine the non double-couple components of the seismic source. The new method presented here is based on the wave form inversion of the dominant part of the seismograms, where the signal to noise ratio is very large and allows the inversion of the full seismic moment tensor. The results of a pilot study in the Phlegraean Fields (South Italy) are presented. 13 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  11. 24 CFR 3280.611 - Vents and venting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Materials—(1) Pipe. Vent piping shall be standard weight steel, wrought iron, brass, copper tube DWV, listed...) Size of vent piping—(1) Main vent. The drain piping for each toilet shall be vented by a 11/2 inch... venting cross section of a 11/2 inch diameter vent, connected to the toilet drain by one of the following...

  12. Assessing future vent opening locations at the Somma-Vesuvio volcanic complex: 2. Probability maps of the caldera for a future Plinian/sub-Plinian event with uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, A.; Bevilacqua, A.; Neri, A.; Cioni, R.; Aspinall, W. P.; Bisson, M.; Isaia, R.; Mazzarini, F.; Valentine, G. A.; Vitale, S.; Baxter, P. J.; Bertagnini, A.; Cerminara, M.; de Michieli Vitturi, M.; Di Roberto, A.; Engwell, S.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Flandoli, F.; Pistolesi, M.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we combine reconstructions of volcanological data sets and inputs from a structured expert judgment to produce a first long-term probability map for vent opening location for the next Plinian or sub-Plinian eruption of Somma-Vesuvio. In the past, the volcano has exhibited significant spatial variability in vent location; this can exert a significant control on where hazards materialize (particularly of pyroclastic density currents). The new vent opening probability mapping has been performed through (i) development of spatial probability density maps with Gaussian kernel functions for different data sets and (ii) weighted linear combination of these spatial density maps. The epistemic uncertainties affecting these data sets were quantified explicitly with expert judgments and implemented following a doubly stochastic approach. Various elicitation pooling metrics and subgroupings of experts and target questions were tested to evaluate the robustness of outcomes. Our findings indicate that (a) Somma-Vesuvio vent opening probabilities are distributed inside the whole caldera, with a peak corresponding to the area of the present crater, but with more than 50% probability that the next vent could open elsewhere within the caldera; (b) there is a mean probability of about 30% that the next vent will open west of the present edifice; (c) there is a mean probability of about 9.5% that the next medium-large eruption will enlarge the present Somma-Vesuvio caldera, and (d) there is a nonnegligible probability (mean value of 6-10%) that the next Plinian or sub-Plinian eruption will have its initial vent opening outside the present Somma-Vesuvio caldera.

  13. Link between the granitic and volcanic rocks of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, J. K.; Hatton, C. J.; De Waal, S. A.

    1997-02-01

    Until recently, it was proposed that the Bushveld Complex, consisting of the extrusive Rooiberg Group and the intrusive Rashoop Granophyre, Rustenburg Layered and Lebowa Granite Suites, evolved over a long period of time, possibly exceeding 100 Ma. Most workers therefore considered that the various intrusive and extrusive episodes were unrelated. Recent findings suggest that the intrusive, mafic Rustenburg Layered Suite, siliceous Rashoop Granophyre Suite and the volcanic Rooiberg Group were synchronous, implying that the Bushveld igneous event was short-lived. Accepting the short-lived nature of the complex, the hypothesis that the granites are genetically unrelated to the other events of the Bushveld Complex can be reconsidered. Re-examination of the potential Rooiberg Group/Lebowa Granite Suite relationship suggests that the granites form part of the Bushveld event. Rhyolite lava, granite and granophyre melts originated from a source similar in composition to upper crustal rocks. This source is interpreted to have been melted by a thermal input associated with a mantle plume. Granite intruded after extrusion of the last Rooiberg rhyolite, or possibly overlapped in time with the formation of the youngest volcanic flows.

  14. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, Luigina; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  15. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  16. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  17. Possible Late Pleistocene volcanic activity on Nightingale Island, South Atlantic Ocean, based on geoelectrical resistivity measurements, sediment corings and 14C dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker; Björck, Svante; Cronholm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    . The irregular shapes of the basins and the lack of clear erosional features indicate that they are not eruption craters and were not formed by erosion. Instead, we regard them as morphological depressions formed between ridges of trachytic lava flows and domes at a late stage of the formation of the volcanic...... edifice. The onset of sedimentation within these basins appears to have occurred between 24 and 37 ka with the highest situated wetland yielding the highest ages. These ages are very young compared to the timing of the main phase of the formation of the island, implying volcanic activity on the island......Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island group situated in the central South Atlantic. The oldest of these islands, Nightingale Island, has an age of about 18Ma. In the interior of the island, there are several wetlands situated in topographic depressions. The ages of these basins have been unknown...

  18. Magmatic dyke swarms of the south shetland islands volcanic arc, west-antarctica - tracers of geodynamic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, St.; Miller, H.

    2003-04-01

    Magmatic dykes are essential components of volcanic arcs, following joint systems and fracture zones. This work aims to reconstruct the deformational and intrusive history of the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula by combining structural information with the geochemistry, isotopy and age of the dykes. On the South Shetland Islands volcanic activity began about 130 Ma ago. From Mid to Late Eocene (49-34 Ma) the northern Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America underwent extensional tectonics, which led to sea-floor spreading in the Drake Passage 28 Ma ago. Subsequent slab-rollback caused arc-extension and the opening of the Bransfield Rift as a backarc-basin between 4 and 1.3 Ma ago. Very slow subduction (1mm/a) at the South Shetland trench continues until the present day. Several changes of subduction direction caused crucial variations regarding the tectonic regime in the overlying South Shetland block, being the reason for the shifting strike of the dykes. Several dyke systems were mapped in areas of up to 100000m2, with the outcrop situation being good enough to observe plenty of relative age relationships. ICP-MS geochemical analysis on 132 dykes shows, as expected, that the majority of them correspond to a typical subduction-related calcalcalic suite, ranging from basalts to rhyolites. Nevertheless, some dykes show shoshonitic characteristics and are maybe related to an early stage extensional crustal regime. This is supported by the relative ages observed in the field, indicating, that these dykes belong to the oldest ones outcropping in the investigated area. In one case, the geochemical behaviour of the dyke corresponds clearly to adacitic conditions, being a hint on partially molten subducted oceanic crust. In several areas (e.g. Potter Peninsula, King George Island, and Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island) a strong correlation between chemism and strike of the dykes - and therefore the tectonic regime at the time of intrusion - is observed. Ce

  19. Tectonic implications of the contrasting geochemistry of Damaran mafic volcanic rocks, South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.McG.

    1983-01-01

    Ortho-amphibolites occur in the southern and central parts of the north-east-trending branch of the Damara Orogen. The Matchless Member amphibolites are interbedded with quartzose mica schist. Mobility of Si, ΣFe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P, CO 2 , H 2 O, Rb, Ba, Sr and possibly LREE and immobility of Co, V, Sc, Ga, Zr, Nb, Y and HREE are indicated during metamorphism and reaction with country rock. Central Zone amphibolites are alkaline. The stratigraphically lower amphibolites have a within-plate chemistry; their distribution and associated rock types indicate a continental origin. The Matchless amphibolites have an ocean-floor chemistry. The Damaran sedimentary and orogenic cycle was initiated by continental rifting in three parallel zones in which alkaline acid volcanics occur locally. Widespread subsidence of the rift zones and the intervening areas followed and led to deposition of carbonate and clastic rocks under shallow marine conditions. During renewed rifting, submarine, alkaline basic lavas were extruded. The Southern Margin Zone amphibolites are interbedded with continental slope mixtites and continental rise deep-water fans. Spreading led to continental breakup and the formation of oceanic crust

  20. Biaxial vent extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idemoto, A.; Maki, Y.; Oda, N.

    1981-01-01

    A biaxial vent extruder is described for processing of slurry-like waste fluids or radioactive waste fluids which have a hopper cylinger, a solidifying substance port and a solidified substance port. A plurality of vent cylinders each having a vent port are provided with a plunger type scraper. An extruding cylinder having a single opening for a main screw is connected to the assembled vent cylinders. The main screw extends to the upstream end of the extruding cylinder and a sub-screw extends to the extruding cylinder. The screws each having a full flight engaging the other and a set of rings are mounted on the screws near the respective vent port inlets. The screws are rotated in different directions and inwardly with respect to the vent ports. Rotors may be mounted on the screws to break down solid particles

  1. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places

  2. Paleomagnetism of volcanic rocks from the Northeast of Brazil and the time of the opening of the South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, S.D.C.

    1983-01-01

    In the first part of this paper palaeomagnetic and rock magnetism investigations were developed in volcanic samples from the Northeast of Brazil. The age of the samples spans the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. To accomplish this task four areas were studied and a total of 495 samples from 58 sites were analysed. A portable drilling machine with 2.5 em core diameter was used to collect the samples. The orientation of the samples were obtained by means of a magnetic compass, and a clinometer. The analysis of the magnetic minerals of these samples was done by thermomagnetic curves and by X-ray diffraction. In most cases the magnetic phase in the rocks is mainly titanomagnetite with poor titanium content. Maghemite and sometimes hematite, usually a product of weathering, did not obscure the initial thermoremanent magnetization of these rocks. The second part of this paper deals with the determination of the time of the opening of the South Atlantic ocean by means of palaeomagnetic data. In this paper, however, instead of using the polar wandering paths of the continents (the usual method) statistical tests were applied that give the probability that a certain configuration for the two continents be consistent or not with the palaeomagnetic data for a chosen period. (author)

  3. Tsunami Source Modeling of the 2015 Volcanic Tsunami Earthquake near Torishima, South of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanbata, O.; Watada, S.; Satake, K.; Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.

    2017-12-01

    the physical mechanism of the 2015 Torishima earthquake. First, the estimated large uplift within Smith Caldera implies the earthquake may be related to some volcanic activity of the caldera. Secondly, the modeled ring of subsidence surrounding the caldera suggests that the process may have included notable subsidence, at least on the northeastern side out of the caldera.

  4. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  5. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  6. Investigating Crustal Scale Fault Systems Controlling Volcanic and Hydrothermal Fluid Processes in the South-Central Andes, First Results from a Magnetotelluric Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.; Mitchell, T. M.; Moorkamp, M.; Araya, J.; Cembrano, J. M.; Yanez, G. A.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2017-12-01

    At convergent plate boundaries, volcanic orogeny is largely controlled by major thrust fault systems that act as magmatic and hydrothermal fluid conduits through the crust. In the south-central Andes, the volcanically and seismically active Tinguiririca and Planchon-Peteroa volcanoes are considered to be tectonically related to the major El Fierro thrust fault system. These large scale reverse faults are characterized by 500 - 1000m wide hydrothermally altered fault cores, which possess a distinct conductive signature relative to surrounding lithology. In order to establish the subsurface architecture of these fault systems, such conductivity contrasts can be detected using the magnetotelluric method. In this study, LEMI fluxgate-magnetometer long-period and Metronix broadband MT data were collected at 21 sites in a 40km2 survey grid that surrounds this fault system and associated volcanic complexes. Multi-remote referencing techniques is used together with robust processing to obtain reliable impedance estimates between 100 Hz and 1,000s. Our preliminary inversion results provide evidence of structures within the 10 - 20 km depth range that are attributed to this fault system. Further inversions will be conducted to determine the approximate depth extent of these features, and ultimately provide constraints for future geophysical studies aimed to deduce the role of these faults in volcanic orogeny and hydrothermal fluid migration processes in this region of the Andes.

  7. The unzipping of Africa and South America; New insights from the Etendeka and younger volcanic events along the Angola/Namibia margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerram, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The volcanic margin along Angola is relatively poorly constrained. This study uses new petrographic, geochronological and geochemical observations on a new sample set collected along the margin to help understand the various types and relative timings of volcanic events along the margin. This new study has identified 3 main volcanic events that occur at ~100Ma (Sumbe event 1), 90-92Ma (Serra de Neve (SDN)-Elefantes event 2) and 80-81Ma (Namibe event 3), with the oldest event in the north of the margin and younging southwards. This is contrasting with the main Etendeka pulse in Namibia at around 130 Ma. There is a marked variety of igneous rocks along the margin with a grouping of evolved alkaline rocks in the central SDN-Elefantes section, basic submarine volcanics in the north, and basanite eruptions in the southern section. There is some overlap with geochemical types along the margin. The Sumbe event contains predominantly submarine volcanics and shallow Intrusions. SDN-Elefantes rocks have a mixed type but with a distinctive feldspar rich evolved alkali suite of rocks (nepheline syenites and variations around this composition) which occur as lava flows and shallow intrusions as well as making up the core of the SDN complex. The SDN complex itself is analogous in size to the main volcanic centres in Namibia (such as Messum, Brandberg etc.) and suggests that large volcanic feeding centres are still active along the margin as young as 90ma. These in turn will form large volcano-topographic features. In the south the Ponta Negra and Canico sites mainly contain basanites in the form of lava flows, invasive flows and shallow intrusions. At Canico one intrusive plug was sampled with a similar composition to the evolved SDN-Elefantes suite. In all three events it is clear that the volcanic systems have interacted with the sedimentary systems, in some cases dynamically, in others with regional implications for volcano-tectonic uplift. Specific thanks is given for

  8. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  9. Fault control on patterns of Quaternary monogenetic vents in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and remote sensing data are used to examine the distribution of volcanism and fault geometry in the Ethiopian Rift between Omo-Chew Bahir rift and Tendaho graben during the Quaternary and evaluate their influence on the location and shape of individual vents as well as the development of alignments. The results ...

  10. Prospecting ideas for mesozoic granite-type, volcanics-type and exo-contact-type uranium deposits in South China. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    2001-01-01

    The Mesozoic uranium ore-formation process in South China resulted from the intense volcanic magmatism, the crust-mantle interaction and the fluidization in Yanshanian period, and there is great prospect for large-scale uranium concentration and ore-formation. Therefore, during the prospecting for Mesozoic granite-type, volcanics-type and exo-contact-type uranium deposits it is necessary to introduce deep-source metallogenic theory, to 'desalt' metallogenic theory of epithermal activation, to fully realize that uranium deposits may be formed not only at shallow depth, but also in conditions of deep-source, great depth and high temperature, as well as in environments of deep-source, shallow depth and median temperature, to give emphasis to the early-stage (130-95 Ma) uranium mineralization, to break the man-made boundary in prospecting for uranium only based on host rock type, to strengthen the research on Cretaceous magmatic system

  11. Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, S C

    2000-01-01

    Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or l...

  12. Mineral chemistry of clinopyroxene: guidance on geo- thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Nabar volcanic rocks, South of Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Mehvari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Nabar area that is a part of the Urumieh- Dokhtar volcano- plutonic belt is located in the south of Kashan. Research works such as Emami (Emami, 1993 and Abbasi (Abbasi, 2012 have been done about the geology of this area. Rock units in the study area contain middle- upper Eocene intermediate to acidic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, green marl, shale and sandy marls of Oligo- Miocene, limestones of Qom formation, intrusive granitoids with Oligo- Miocene age and quaternary travertine and recent alluvium (Emami, 1993. The volcanic and sub volcanic rocks of this area are composed of andesite, trachyandesite, dacite, rhyolite and porphyric pyroxene diorite along with pyroclastic rocks. Materials and methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, thin and polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and clinopyroxene minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JXA-8800 analyzer with a voltage of 20 Kv and a current of 12 nA in the Kanazava University of Japan and Cameca-Sx100 analyzer with a voltage of 15 Kv and a current of 15 nA in the Iranian mineral processing research center, Karaj. Discussion On the basis of petrographic investigations, porphyritic, porphyroid, fluidal, amygdaloidal and porphyry with microlitic groundmass are common textures of these rocks. Also plagioclase, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, sanidine and quartz are essential minerals, opaque, zircon and apatite as accessory minerals are observed in the studied rocks. Clinopyroxenes are observed with corona texture that resulted during the uralitization process. On the basis of minerals’ chemistry, pyroxenes are Fe- Mg- Ca type in composition (Morimoto et al., 1988. These clinopyroxenes are augite. Investigations indicate that mineral composition of clinopyroxene can be effectively used to evaluation the P-T conditions during crystallization. Previous research

  13. The use of Remote Sensing for the Study of the Relationships Between Tectonics and Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowicz, J.; Dhont, D.; Yanev, Y.; Bardintzeff, J.

    2004-12-01

    Observations of geometric relationships between tectonics and volcanism is a fruitful approach in geology. On the one hand analysis of the distribution and types of volcanic vents provides information on the geodynamics. On the other hand tectonic analysis explains the location of volcanics vents. Volcanic edifices often result from regional scale deformation, forming open structures constituting preferred pathways for the rise of magmas. Analysis of the shape and the distribution of vents can consequently provide data on the regional deformation. Remote sensing imagery gives synoptic views of the earth surface allowing the analysis of landforms of still active tectonic and volcanic features. Shape and distribution of volcanic vents, together with recent tectonic patterns are best observed by satellite data and Digital Elevation Models than in the field. The use of radar scenes for the study of the structural relationships between tectonic and volcanic features is particularly efficient because these data express sensitive changes in the morphology. In various selected areas, we show that volcanic edifices are located on tension fractures responsible for fissure eruptions, volcanic linear clusters and elongate volcanoes. Different types of volcanic emplacements can be also distinguished such as tail-crack or horse-tail features, and releasing bend basins along strike-slip faults. Caldera complexes seem to be associated to horse-tail type fault terminations. At a regional scale, the distribution of volcanic vents and their relationships with the faults is able to explain the occurrence of volcanism in collisional areas.

  14. Mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Late-Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Kojid area (south of Lahijan, northern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza delavari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic rocks of Kojid area (south of Lahijan crop out in northern Alborz. They show mainly pillow structure with numerous cross-cutting dykes. Based on lithostratigraphic relationships and interpillow pelagic limestones, the volcanics are Late Cretaceous in age. The volcanics of Kojid area are predominantly basic in composition (olivine basalt and basalt and minor more evolved suites such as trachyandesite and dacite. Olivine phenocrysts display forsterite (Fo content of 63 to 83%. The phenocrystic and interstitial clinopyroxene crystals are augite to diopside in composition, with Na2O, Al2O3 and TiO2 contents of 0.24- 0.68, 2.3-6.53 and 1-5.1 wt.%, respectively. Furthermore, plagioclase is labradorite (An%= 51-68. The results of various geothermobarometric methods of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and olivine indicate good correlation with each other. Different thermometric calculations yielded temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1250 °C which are compatible with temperatures of basic melts. Moreover, clinopyroxene and plagioclase barometry of the phenocrysts (4 to 8 Kb and interstitial phases (

  15. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  16. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, David [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  17. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex from the giant Yanbei tin deposit, South China: Implication for multiple magma sources, tin mineralization, and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Lai, Pan-Chen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The giant Yanbei tin ore deposit is the largest porphyry-type tin deposit in South China. The orebodies are hosted by the granite porphyry in the central part of the Yanbei volcanic basin in southern Jiangxi Province. The Yanbei volcanic-intrusive complex mainly consists of dacitic-rhyolitic volcanic rocks, granite, granite porphyry and diabase dikes. In previous papers, the granite porphyry was considered as subvolcanic rocks, which came from the same single magma chamber with the volcanic rocks. In this study, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, as well as whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of different magmatic units in the Yanbei complex are reported. Geochronologic results show that various magmatic units have different formation ages. The dacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 143 ± 1 Ma, and the granite porphyry has the emplacement age of 138 ± 1 Ma. Diabase dikes which represented the final stage of magmatism, yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 128 ± 1 Ma. Distinctive whole rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions suggest that these magmatic units were derived from different magma sources. The volcanic rocks were mainly derived from the partial melting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks without additions of mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry has an A-type geochemical affinity, and was derived from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crustal source with involvement of a subordinate mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry is also a typical stanniferous granite with high F (4070-6090 ppm) and Sn (7-39 ppm) contents. It underwent strongly crystal fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar, and accessory minerals (like apatite, Fe-Ti oxides), which may contribute to the tin mineralization. The diabase was derived by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle which had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. The change of magmatic sources reflected an increasing extensional tectonic environment, perhaps induced by slab

  18. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  19. Structural, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies on Magmatic Dyke Swarms of the South Shetland Islands Volcanic Arc, West Antarctica - Revealing the Geodynamic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.; Miller, H.

    2003-12-01

    Between 2000 and 2002 areas of up to 100,000 m2 have been mapped at several locations of the South Shetland Islands, mainly on King George and Livingston Islands. A structural analysis of the dykes and the host rocks was undertaken, and about 250 dykes were sampled for geochemical studies. On Livingston Island six different strike directions were identified, yielding a reliable relative time sequence as deduced from field-relationships. Geochemically, these dykes can be separated into five different groups, correlating with the different strike directions, one of those groups comprising two directions. Analysis of the structural data shows, that at least on Livingston Island only minor changes of the tensional situation occurred. Geochemical data reveal that all dykes of the South Shetland Islands belong to a calc-alkaline, arc-related suite, ranging from primitive basalts to highly differentiated rhyolites. Interpretation of Sr isotopic data of the dykes proves difficult, as there are indications for sea-water induced Sr-alteration. Nd isotopic analysis yield better results, revealing a three-stage development from the oldest dykes (ɛ Nd -0.2 to 0.6) on Livingston Island towards a second, younger group (ɛ Nd 2.8 to 4.2, also Livingston), terminating with a third one (ɛ Nd 5.2 to 7.6), which includes the youngest dykes on Livingston and all dykes on King George and also Penguin Island. Either two mantle sources were involved, or the amount of crustal contamination changed considerately with time. It may have been high during initial arc volcanism, because of a still unstretched crust, then decreasing continually with progressing volcanism. In any case, the pattern reflects a chronological sequence corresponding with other authors' hypothesis of a migrating arc volcanism from SW to NE, i.e. from Livingston (older dykes) towards King George Island (younger dykes). Pb isotopic data, plottet together with MORB- and sediment-samples dredged from the Drake Passage

  20. Geochemical and isotopic data for restricting seawater intrusion and groundwater circulation in a series of typical volcanic islands in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Chen, Xi; Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Cao, Jifu

    2015-04-15

    The decline of groundwater table and deterioration of water quality related to seawater have long been regarded as a crucial problem in coastal regions. In this work, a hydrogeologic investigation using combined hydrochemical and isotopic approaches was conducted in the coastal region of the South China Sea near the Leizhou peninsular to provide primary insight into seawater intrusion and groundwater circulation. Hydrochemical and isotopic data show that local groundwater is subjected to anthropogenic activities and geochemical processes, such as evaporation, water-rock interaction, and ion exchange. However, seawater intrusion driven by the over-exploitation of groundwater and insufficient recharge is the predominant factor controlling groundwater salinization. Systematic and homologic isotopic characteristics of most samples suggest that groundwater in volcanic area is locally recharged and likely caused by modern precipitation. However, very depleted stable isotopes and extremely low tritium of groundwater in some isolated aquifers imply a dominant role of palaeowater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  2. The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes : Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes occurred within the Okataina Volcanic Centre at c. 21 000 and 18 000 yr B.P., respectively. The widespread rhyolitic pumice fall deposits of Te Rere Ash (volume 5 km 3 ) and Okareka Ash (6 km 3 ) are only rarely exposed in near-source areas, and locations of their vent areas have been uncertain. New exposures and petrographic and chemical analyses show that the Te Rere episode eruptions occurred from multiple vents, up to 20 km apart, on the Haroharo linear vent zone. The Okareka episode eruptions occurred from vents since buried beneath the Tarawera volcanic massif. Eruption of the rhyolitic Okareka pumice fall was immediately preceded by a small basaltic scoria eruption, apparently from vents close to those for the following rhyolite eruptions. Dacitic mixed pumices scattered within the rhyolite pumice layers immediately overlying the scoria were formed by mixing of the basalt and rhyolite magmas. The Te Rere and Okareka pyroclastic eruptions were both followed by extrusion of voluminous rhyolite lavas. These eruptive episodes mark the commencement of growth of the present-day Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Tornado protection by venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable

  4. Increased diversity of sessile epibenthos at subtidal hydrothermal vents: seven hypotheses based on observations at Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nike Bianchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on subtidal hydrothermal vent ecosystems at Milos, Hellenic Volcanic Arc (Aegean Sea, suggested that vent activity increased the species richness of sessile epibenthic assemblages. Based on 303 species found in 6 sites (3 close to vents, 3 farther away, the present paper uses correspondence analysis and species/samples curves to examine the species composition and richness of these assemblages. Differences due to vent proximity were more important than those due to bottom depth and distance from the shore. Diversity was confirmed to be higher near the vents, although none of the 266 species found at the vent sites can be considered as obligate vent-associated species. Seven different, although not mutually exclusive, hypotheses are discussed to explain the pattern of increased epibenthic species diversity at the vent sites, namely: (i vents represent an intermediate disturbance, inducing mortality by the emission of toxic fluids; (ii higher winter temperature allows for the occurrence of warm-water species, which add to the regional background; (iii venting disrupts the homogeneity of the water bottom layer, increasing bottom roughness and hence habitat heterogeneity; (iv deposition of minerals and enhanced bioconstruction by Ca enrichment increment habitat provision; (v fluid emission induces advective mechanisms that favour recruitment; (vi vents emit CO2, nutrients and trace elements that enhance primary productivity; and (vii bacterial chemosynthesis add to photosynthesis to provide a diversity of food sources for the fauna.

  5. Petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of post-ophiolitic volcanic rocks in the Ratouk area (south of Gazik, east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vahedi Tabas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Basaltic volcanoes are one of the volcanisms that have occurred in different parts of the world. The study of these lavas is important for petrologists, because they are seen in different tectonic settings and therefore diverse mechanisms affect their formation (Chen et al., 2007. Young volcanic rocks such as Quaternary basalts are one of latest products of magmatism in Iran that are related to deep fractures and active faults in Quaternary (Emami, 2000. The study area is located at 140km east of Birjand at Gazik 1:100000 geological map (Guillou et al., 1981 and have 60̊ 11' to 60̊ 15 '27" eastward longitude and 32̊ 33' 24" to 32̊ 39' 10" northward latitude. On the basis of structural subdivisions of Iran, this area is located in the northern part of the Sistan suture zone (Tirrul et al., 1983. Because of the importance of basaltic rocks in Sistan suture, this research is done with the aim of investigating the petrography and mineralogy of basaltic lavas, the nature of basaltic and intermediate magmatism and finally determination of tectonomagmatic regime. Materials and methods After field studies and sampling, 85 thin sections were prepared and carefully studied. Then ten samples with the lowest alteration were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Electron probe micro analyses of clinopyroxene and olivine were done at the Iranian mineral processing research center (IMPRC by Cameca SX100 machine. X-ray diffraction analysis of minerals was done at the X-ray laboratory of the University of Birjand. Results In 60km south of GaziK at the east of the southern Khorasan province and the northern part of the Sistan suture zone, volcanic rocks with intermediate (Oligomiocene and

  6. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  7. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  8. Cambrian–early Ordovician volcanism across the South Armorican and Occitan domains of the Variscan Belt in France: Continental break-up and rifting of the northern Gondwana margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pouclet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian–lower Ordovician volcanic units of the South Armorican and Occitan domains are analysed in a tectonostratigraphic survey of the French Variscan Belt. The South Armorican lavas consist of continental tholeiites in middle Cambrian–Furongian sequences related to continental break-up. A significant volcanic activity occurred in the Tremadocian, dominated by crustal melted rhyolitic lavas and initial rifting tholeiites. The Occitan lavas are distributed into five volcanic phases: (1 basal Cambrian rhyolites, (2 upper lower Cambrian Mg-rich tholeiites close to N-MORBs but crustal contaminated, (3 upper lower–middle Cambrian continental tholeiites, (4 Tremadocian rhyolites, and (5 upper lower Ordovician initial rift tholeiites. A rifting event linked to asthenosphere upwelling took place in the late early Cambrian but did not evolve. It renewed in the Tremadocian with abundant crustal melting due to underplating of mixed asthenospheric and lithospheric magmas. This main tectono-magmatic continental rift is termed the “Tremadocian Tectonic Belt” underlined by a chain of rhyolitic volcanoes from Occitan and South Armorican domains to Central Iberia. It evolved with the setting of syn-rift coarse siliciclastic deposits overlain by post-rift deep water shales in a suite of sedimentary basins that forecasted the South Armorican–Medio-European Ocean as a part of the Palaeotethys Ocean.

  9. Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schroedinger Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Petro, N. E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we use recent images and topographic data to map the geology and geomorphology of the lunar South Pole quadrangle (LQ-30) at 1:2.5M scale [1-4] in accordance with the Lunar Geologic Mapping Program. Mapping of LQ-30 began during Mest's postdoctoral appointment and has continued under the PG&G Program, from which funding became available in February 2009. Preliminary map-ping and analyses have been done using base materials compiled by Mest, but properly mosaicked and spatially registered base materials are being compiled by the USGS and should be received by the end of June 2009. The overall objective of this research is to constrain the geologic evolution of the lunar South Pole (LQ-30: 60deg -90deg S, 0deg - +/-180deg ) with specific emphasis on evaluation of a) the regional effects of basin formation on the structure and composition of the crust and b) the spatial distribution of ejecta, in particular resulting from formation of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin and other large basins. Key scientific objectives include: 1) Constraining the geologic history of the lunar South Pole and examining the spatial and temporal variability of geologic processes within the map area. 2) Constraining the vertical and lateral structure of the lunar regolith and crust, assessing the distribution of impact-generated materials, and determining the timing and effects of major basin-forming impacts on crustal structure and stratigraphy in the map area. And 3) assessing the distribution of resources (e.g., H, Fe, Th) and their relationships with surface materials.

  10. Mineral chemistry of clinopyroxene: guidance on geo- thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Nabar volcanic rocks, South of Kashan

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvan Mehvari; Moussa Noghreyan; Mortaza Sharifi; Mohammad Ali Mackizadeh; Seyed Hassan Tabatabaei; Ghodrat Torabi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Nabar area that is a part of the Urumieh- Dokhtar volcano- plutonic belt is located in the south of Kashan. Research works such as Emami (Emami, 1993) and Abbasi (Abbasi, 2012) have been done about the geology of this area. Rock units in the study area contain middle- upper Eocene intermediate to acidic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, green marl, shale and sandy marls of Oligo- Miocene, limestones of Qom formation, intrusive granitoids with Oligo- Miocene age and quaternar...

  11. Chronology and volcanology of the 1949 multi-vent rift-zone eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, A.; Schmincke, H.-U.; White, J. D. L.; Hoernle, K. A.

    1999-12-01

    The compositionally zoned San Juan eruption on La Palma emanated from three eruptive centers located along a north-south-trending rift zone in the south of the island. Seismic precursors began weakly in 1936 and became strong in March 1949, with their foci progressing from the north of the rift zone towards its south. This suggests that magma ascended beneath the old Taburiente shield volcano and moved southward along the rift. The eruption began on June 24, 1949, with phreatomagmatic activity at Duraznero crater on the ridgetop (ca. 1880 m above sea level), where five vents erupted tephritic lava along a 400-m-long fissure. On June 8, the Duraznero vents shut down abruptly, and the activity shifted to an off-rift fissure at Llano del Banco, located at ca. 550 m lower elevation and 3 km to the northwest. This eruptive center issued initially tephritic aa and later basanitic pahoehoe lava at high rates, producing a lava flow that entered the sea. Two days after basanite began to erupt at Llano del Banco, Hoyo Negro crater (ca. 1880 m asl), located 700 m north of Duraznero along the rift, opened on July 12 and produced ash and bombs of basanitic to phonotephritic composition in violent phreatomagmatic explosions ( White and Schmincke, 1999). Llano del Banco and Hoyo Negro were simultaneously active for 11 days and showed a co-variance of their eruption rates indicating a shallow hydraulic connection. On July 30, after 3 days of quiescence at all vents, Duraznero and Hoyo Negro became active again during a final eruptive phase. Duraznero issued basanitic lava at high rates for 12 h and produced a lava flow that descended towards the east coast. The lava contains ca. 1 vol.% crustal and mantle xenoliths consisting of 40% tholeiitic gabbros from the oceanic crust, 35% alkaline gabbros, and 20% ultramafic cumulates. The occurrence of xenoliths almost exclusively in the final lava is consistent with their origin by wall-rock collapse at depth near the end of the eruption

  12. Nd and Sr isotopes and K-Ar ages of the Ulreungdo alkali volcanic rocks in the East Sea, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Kyuhan; Jang Sunkyung; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    Temporal geochemical and isotopical variations in the Ulreundgo alkali volcanic rocks provide important constraints on the origin and evolution of the volcanic rocks in relation to backarc basin tectonism. We determined the K-Ar ages, major and trace element contents, and Nd and Sr isotopic rations of the alkali volcanic rocks. The activities of Ulreungdo volcanoes can be divided, on the basis of radiometric ages and field occurrences, into five stages, though their activities range from 1.4 Ma to 0.01 Ma with short volcanic hiatus (ca. 0.05-0.3 Ma). The Nd-Sr isotopic data for Ulreungdo volcanic rocks enable us to conclude that: (1) the source materials of Ulreungdo volcanics are isotopically heterogeneous in composition, which is explained by the mixing of mantle derived magma and continental crustal source rocks. There is no systematic isotopic variations with eruption stages. Particularly, some volcanic rocks of stage 2 and 3 have extremely wide initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic variations ranging from 0.7038 to 0.7092, which are influenced by seawater alterations; (2) the Ulreungdo volcanic rocks show EMI characteristic, while volcanic rocks from the Jejudo, Yeong-il and Jeon-gok areas have slightly depleted mantle source characteristics; (3) the trachyandesite of the latest eruption stage was originated from the mantle source materials which differ from other stages. A schematic isotopic evolution model for alkali basaltic magma is presented in the Ulreungdo volcanic island of the backarc basin of Japanese island arc system. (author)

  13. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Volcanic Vents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  14. Chemistry and Vent Pressure of Very High-Temperature Gases Emitted from Pele Volcano on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Y.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Galileo data for magma temperature at Pele and HST chemical data (SO2, S2, and SO) for Pele plumes were used to evaluate vent pressure (10 -4 -2 bar), the oxidation state (2-3 log fO2 units below Ni-NiO), and chemistry of volcanic gases. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Origin Of Black Shale (Marl) Formation Aided By Continuous Volcanism For 10Ma Including Oceanic Anoxic Event, OAE2 (93-93.5 Ma) In The Eagle Ford Formation In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, P.; Basu, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons, petrography, major and trace elements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of whole rock black shales(marls) from volcanic subsurface as well as surface exposure ash beds of the Eagle Ford and Boquillas Formations in South Texas. Zircons from the middle part of the 300ft long Eagle Ford cores yield ages of 93.2±1.66 Ma, 94.13±1.25 Ma and 93.7±1.9 Ma. These ages are consistent with the Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) age of deposition in three contiguous cores with spatial separation of 140 miles. An approximate 10Ma duration of deposition of volcanic ash and marl, at a rate of 28ft/Ma for the Eagle Ford is suggested from the 85.76 to 95.5 Ma ages. These ages are from the Eagle Ford ash beds, below the Austin Chalk and above the Buda Limestone and cover the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 at the C-T boundary. Zircons from 7 ash beds in the surface exposures of the Boquillas Formation near Del Rio, yield ages between 84.63 Ma - 90.91 Ma, implying younger than C-T boundary ages for these samples. The mineralogy, major and trace elements of the ash beds suggest their source from nearby arc-derived calc-alkaline volcanism. The ɛHf(T) of the analyzed ash bed zircons yield values between 0 - +8 averaging at +3.5, clearly indicating a mantle component in the host magmas of the zircons. This initial range of ɛHf(T) is similar to arc-volcanism signatures such as the Quaternary andesitic volcanism in Central Mexico. Petrographic analyses of marls away from the visible tuff layer contain phenocrysts of biotite, alkali feldspar and andesitic rock fragments. The whole rock marl with high concentration of some transition metals (V, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mo) and relatively higher MgO and TiO2 contents indicate contemporaneous arc volcanic activity at the time of marl deposition. XRD of subsurface Eagle Ford bulk marl samples from different depths in 4 cores, show volcanogenic clays, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite, dickite and halloysite

  16. 40Ar/39Ar ages of the post-collision volcanic rocks and their geological significance in Yangyingxiang area, south Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Su; Mo Xuanxue; Zhao Zhidan; Zhang Shuangquan; Guo Tieying; Qiu Ruizhao

    2003-01-01

    Ten new 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age determination of mineral separates have been carried out to date volcanic rocks of Yangyingxiang in the eastern part of the Gangdese, Tibet. The age range of Sanidine and biotite in the five volcanic rock samples from the Yangyingxiang is 10.68 ± 0.05 - 11.42 ± 0.09 Ma. These results, combining with the previously published data, confirmed that Neogene post-collision volcanic rocks in the Gangdese widely occurred and their ages were getting younger eastwards. These volcanic rocks are different from those in Pana Formation of Linzizhong group (52.9 ± 2 Ma) outside Yangyingxiang geothermal field. (authors)

  17. Vente d'artisanat

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Associaiton

    2014-01-01

      Éducation et Libération Vente d’artisanat du Tiers Monde Mardi 22 et mercredi 23 avril 2014 CERN, Bâtiment principal Togo, École Arc en ciel, construction des salles de classe. Appel pour le financement de ce chantier afin de libérer l’école de la charge des loyers payés pendant des années. Après nos réalisations en Amérique latine et au Bénin, nous mobilisons nos efforts pour l’école Arc en ciel de Kpémé, au Togo, sur les bords de l’Océan, à mi-chemin entre Lomé et la frontière entre le Bénin et le Togo. Il s’agit d’une école primaire privée, laïque qui a très bonne réputation en termes de résultats, notamment pour les écoliers en fin de scolar...

  18. 14 CFR 23.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Each fuel tank must be vented... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  19. Late Hercynian volcanic and hypovolcanic phenomena in South of the French Massif Central. Associated mineralization: U, F, Ba, Pb, Zn, Sn, W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia; Fuchs

    1983-01-01

    Volcanism of the Stephanian period produced lava rich in potassium and fluorine with mineralization of U, F, Sn, W without Mo in the French Massif Central. Permian volcanism and associated magmatism are reviewed. Studied elements allow the characterization of their thermalism. These mineralizations are important for prospection [fr

  20. Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also

  1. Nd and Sr isotopes and K-Ar ages of the Ulreungdo alkali volcanic rocks in the East Sea, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Kyuhan; Jang Sunkyung [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Keisuke

    1999-07-01

    Temporal geochemical and isotopical variations in the Ulreundgo alkali volcanic rocks provide important constraints on the origin and evolution of the volcanic rocks in relation to backarc basin tectonism. We determined the K-Ar ages, major and trace element contents, and Nd and Sr isotopic rations of the alkali volcanic rocks. The activities of Ulreungdo volcanoes can be divided, on the basis of radiometric ages and field occurrences, into five stages, though their activities range from 1.4 Ma to 0.01 Ma with short volcanic hiatus (ca. 0.05-0.3 Ma). The Nd-Sr isotopic data for Ulreungdo volcanic rocks enable us to conclude that: (1) the source materials of Ulreungdo volcanics are isotopically heterogeneous in composition, which is explained by the mixing of mantle derived magma and continental crustal source rocks. There is no systematic isotopic variations with eruption stages. Particularly, some volcanic rocks of stage 2 and 3 have extremely wide initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic variations ranging from 0.7038 to 0.7092, which are influenced by seawater alterations; (2) the Ulreungdo volcanic rocks show EMI characteristic, while volcanic rocks from the Jejudo, Yeong-il and Jeon-gok areas have slightly depleted mantle source characteristics; (3) the trachyandesite of the latest eruption stage was originated from the mantle source materials which differ from other stages. A schematic isotopic evolution model for alkali basaltic magma is presented in the Ulreungdo volcanic island of the backarc basin of Japanese island arc system. (author)

  2. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Morley, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. This paper discusses a detailed Study Plan which was prepared describing planned geochronology and field studies to assess the chronology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center and other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. A paper was published discussing the geomorphic and soil evidence for a late Pleistocene or Holoceno age for the main cone of the center. The purpose of this paper was to expose the ideas concerning the age of the Lathrop Wells center to scientific scrutiny. Additionally, field evidence was described suggesting the Lathrop Wells center may have formed from multiple eruptive events with significant intervals of no activity between events. This interpretation breaks with established convention in the volcanological literature that small volume basalt centers are monogenetic

  3. Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of Ξ2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/π]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided

  4. Flux and genesis of CO2 degassing from volcanic-geothermal fields of Gulu-Yadong rift in the Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Constraints on characteristics of deep carbon cycle in the India-Asia continent subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Maoliang; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2017-11-01

    Gulu-Yadong rift (GYR) is the longest extensional, NE-SW-trending rift in the Himalayas and Lhasa terrane of South Tibet. Many volcanic-geothermal fields (VGFs), which comprise intense hot springs, steaming fissures, geysers and soil micro-seepage, are distributed in the GYR, making it ideal area for studying deep carbon emissions in the India-Asia continent subduction zone. As for the northern segment of GYR in the Lhasa terrane, its total flux and genesis of CO2 emissions are poorly understood. Following accumulation chamber method, soil CO2 flux survey has been carried out in VGFs (i.e., Jidaguo, Ningzhong, Sanglai, Tuoma and Yuzhai from south to north) of the northern segment of GYR. Total soil CO2 output of the northern GYR is about 1.50 × 107 t a-1, which is attributed to biogenic and volcanic-geothermal source. Geochemical characteristics of the volcanic-geothermal gases (including CO2 and He) of the northern GYR indicate their significant mantle-derived affinities. Combined with previous petrogeochemical and geophysical data, our He-C isotope modeling calculation results show that (1) excess mantle-derived 3He reflects degassing of volatiles related with partial melts from enriched mantle wedge induced by northward subduction of the Indian lithosphere, and (2) the crust-mantle interaction can provide continuous heat and materials for the overlying volcanic-geothermal system, in which magma-derived volatiles are inferred to experience significant crustal contamination during their migration to the surface.

  5. Magma-Tectonic Interactions along the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from the August 1999 Magmatic and Tectonic Event at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P.; Connor, C.; Strauch, W.

    2002-12-01

    Volcanic vent alignments form parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress, accommodating extensional strain via dike injection. Roughly east-west extension within the Central America Volcanic Arc is accommodated along north-northwest-trending basaltic vent alignments. In Nicaragua, these alignments are located in a northwest-trending zone of dextral shear, with shear accommodated along northeast trending bookshelf faults. The recent eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua and Marabios Range seismic swarm revealed the interaction of these fault systems. A low energy (VEI 1), small volume (0.001 km3 DRE) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three tectonic earthquakes (each Mw 5.2) in the vicinity of Cerro Negro hours before the onset of eruptive activity. The temporal and spatial pattern of microseismicity and focal mechanisms of the Mw 5.2 earthquakes suggests the activation of northeast-trending faults northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro within the Marabios Range. The eruption was confined to three new vents formed on the southern flank of Cerro Negro along a preexisting north-northwest trending alignment; the El Hoyo alignment of cinder cones, maars and explosion craters. Surface ruptures formed > 1 km south and southeast of the new vents suggest dike injection. Numerical simulations of conduit flow illustrate that the observed effusion rates (up to 65 ms-1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little or no excess fluid pressure, in response to tectonic strain. These observations and models suggest that 1999 Cerro Negro activity is an excellent example of tectonically induced small-volume eruptions in an arc setting.

  6. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Rogers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp., stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae, bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more

  7. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  8. Venting of gas deflagrations through relief pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...

  9. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. Volcanic Ash Hazards and Risk in Argentina: Scientific and Social Collaborative Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, E. I., II; Violante, R. A.; Vazquez Herrera, M. D.; Martinez Fernandez, M. D. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the absence of alerts or volcanic impacts during 60 years (from 1932, Quizapu-Descabezado Grande -one of the major eruptions of the XX Century- until 1991 Hudson eruption) there was mild remembrance of volcanic hazards in the collective memory of the Argentina citizens. Since then and until April 2015, the social perception changed according to different factors: age, location, education, culture, vulnerability. This variability produces a maze of challenges that go beyond the scientific knowledge. Volcanic health hazards began to be understood in 2008 after the eruption of Chaiten volcano. The particle size of ashfall (concern on epidemiological monitoring. In 2011 the volcanic complex Puyehue - Cordon Caulle eruption produced ashfall through plumes that reached densely populated cities like San Carlos de Bariloche and Buenos Aires. Farther away in South Africa and New Zealand ash plumes forced airlines to cancel local and international flights for several weeks. The fear of another eruption did not wait long when Calbuco volcano started activity in April 2015, it came at a time when Villarrica volcano was also in an eruptive phase, and the SERNAGEOMIN Chile, through the Observatory OVDAS of the Southern Andes, faced multiple natural disasters at the same time, 3 volcanoes in activity, lahars, pyroclastic flows and floods in the North. In Argentina, critical infrastructure, farming, livestock and primary supplies were affected mainly in the western region. Copahue volcano, is increasing unstability on seismic and geochemistry data since 2012. Caviahue resort village, distant only 8 Km. from the active vent happens to be a high vulnerable location. In 2014 GEVAS (Geology, Volcanoes, Environment and Health) Network ARGENTINA Civil Association started collaborative activities with SEGEMAR and in 2015 with the IAPG (Geoethics, Argentina), intending to promote Best Practices in volcanic and geological hazards. Geoscientists and the volcano vulnerable population

  11. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (explored tend to be at high latitudes, such as the ultra-slow to slow spreading Arctic MORs (e.g., Kolbeinsey and Mohns Ridges), the ultra-slow American-Antarctic Ridge, and the intermediate spreading Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Although a greater percentage of the ~11,000 km of BASCs has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity, the discoveries at BASCs in the past decade were mainly at segments with intermediate to fast spreading rates. Using the same equation for F_s vs. u_s, we predicted 71 vent fields remaining to

  12. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 x 10 -5 per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 x 10 -5 per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis

  13. Emergency venting of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.

    1995-01-01

    With the numerical codes developed for safety analysis the venting of steam vessel can be simulated. ATHLET especially is able to predict the void fraction depending on the vessel height. Although these codes contain a one-dimensional model they allow the description of complex geometries due to the detailed nodalization of the considered apparatus. In chemical reactors, however, the venting process is not only influenced by the flashing behaviour but additionally by the running chemical reaction in the vessel. Therefore the codes used for modelling have to consider the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Further multi-component systems and dissolving processes have to be regarded. In order to preduct the fluid- and thermodynamic process it could be helpful to use 3-dimensional codes in combination with the one-dimensional codes as used in nuclear industry to get a more detailed describtion of the running processes. (orig./HP)

  14. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  15. Investigating pyroclast ejection dynamics using shock-tube experiments: temperature, grain size and vent geometry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigala, V.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions eject large quantities of gas and particles into the atmosphere. The portion directly above the vent commonly shows characteristics of underexpanded jets. Understanding the factors that influence the initial pyroclast ejection dynamics is necessary in order to better assess the resulting near- and far-field hazards. Field observations are often insufficient for the characterization of volcanic explosions due to lack of safe access to such environments. Fortunately, their dynamics can be simulated in the laboratory where experiments are performed under controlled conditions. We ejected loose natural particles from a shock-tube while controlling temperature (25˚ and 500˚C), overpressure (15MPa), starting grain size distribution (1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 0.125-0.250 mm), sample-to-vent distance and vent geometry. For each explosion we quantified the velocity of individual particles, the jet spreading angle and the production of fines. Further, we varied the setup to allow for different sample-to-gas ratios and deployed four different vent geometries: 1) cylindrical, 2) funnel with a flaring of 30˚, 3) funnel with a flaring of 15˚ and 4) nozzle. The results showed maximum particle velocities up to 296 m/s, gas spreading angles varying from 21˚ to 37˚ and particle spreading angles from 3˚ to 40˚. Moreover we observed dynamically evolving ejection characteristics and variations in the production of fines during the course of individual experiments. Our experiments mechanistically mimic the process of pyroclast ejection. Thus the capability for constraining the effects of input parameters (fragmentation conditions) and conduit/vent geometry on ballistic pyroclastic plumes has been clearly established. These data obtained in the presence of well-documented conduit and vent conditions, should greatly enhance our ability to numerically model explosive ejecta in nature.

  16. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  17. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    . Few species are common to both the deep and the shallow vents, but some gastropod species show a structured population difference between the sites. Our data indicate that there has been a migration of vent fauna into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean rather than from the known vent sites further south in the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery and sampling of these new arctic vent fields provide unique data to further understand the migration of vent organisms and interactions between different deep sea chemosynthetic environments. Based on the high degree of local adaptation and specialization of fauna from the studied sites we propose the AMOR to be a new zoogeographical province for vent fauna.

  18. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  19. Integrating geological and geophysical data to improve probabilistic hazard forecasting of Arabian Shield volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2016-02-01

    During probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis of volcanic fields, a greater variety of spatial data on crustal features should help improve forecasts of future vent locations. Without further examination, however, geophysical estimations of crustal or other features may be non-informative. Here, we present a new, robust, non-parametric method to quantitatively determine the existence of any relationship between natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic eruptions) and a variety of geophysical data. This provides a new validation tool for incorporating a range of potentially hazard-diagnostic observable data into recurrence rate estimates and hazard analyses. Through this study it is shown that the location of Cenozoic volcanic fields across the Arabian Shield appear to be related to locations of major and minor faults, at higher elevations, and regions where gravity anomaly values were between - 125 mGal and 0 mGal. These findings support earlier hypotheses that the western shield uplift was related to Cenozoic volcanism. At the harrat (volcanic field)-scale, higher vent density regions are related to both elevation and gravity anomaly values. A by-product of this work is the collection of existing data on the volcanism across Saudi Arabia, with all vent locations provided herein, as well as updated maps for Harrats Kura, Khaybar, Ithnayn, Kishb, and Rahat. This work also highlights the potential dangers of assuming relationships between observed data and the occurrence of a natural phenomenon without quantitative assessment or proper consideration of the effects of data resolution.

  20. Holocene volcanism of the upper McKenzie River catchment, central Oregon Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Conrey, Richard M.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Champion, Duane E.; Amidon, William H.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the complexity of eruptive activity within mafic volcanic fields, we present a detailed geologic investigation of Holocene volcanism in the upper McKenzie River catchment in the central Oregon Cascades, United States. We focus on the Sand Mountain volcanic field, which covers 76 km2 and consists of 23 vents, associated tephra deposits, and lava fields. We find that the Sand Mountain volcanic field was active for a few decades around 3 ka and involved at least 13 eruptive units. Despite the small total volume erupted (∼1 km3 dense rock equivalent [DRE]), Sand Mountain volcanic field lava geochemistry indicates that erupted magmas were derived from at least two, and likely three, different magma sources. Single units erupted from one or more vents, and field data provide evidence of both vent migration and reoccupation. Overall, our study shows that mafic volcanism was clustered in space and time, involved both explosive and effusive behavior, and tapped several magma sources. These observations provide important insights on possible future hazards from mafic volcanism in the central Oregon Cascades.

  1. The Park Volcanics Group : field relations of an igneous suite emplaced in the Triassic-Jurassic Murihiku Terrane, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, D.S.; Cook, N.D.J.; Campbell, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Park Volcanics Group is proposed for igneous rocks, either shallow intrusive or extrusive, emplaced in the Murihiku Terrane during Triassic-Jurassic times. The term replaces Park Intrusives of Mutch, some members of which are shown to be extrusive rather than intrusive. Formation status within the group is given to Gowan Andesite and Pinney Volcanics (new names) in western Southland, Glenham Porphyry in eastern Southland, and Barnicoat Andesite (new) in the Richmond area, Nelson. Gowan Andesite is a porphyritic feldspar two-pyroxene andesite with a glassy or microcrystalline groundmass. A suite of low-grade metavolcanic rocks which forms the main mass of Malakoff Hill and which has formerly been included in the 'Park Intrusives' is here excluded and ascribed to the Takitimu Group; representative chemical data are given. Glenham Porphyry is typically a porphyritic feldspar two-pyroxene andesite texturally similar to the Gowan Andesite but with significant geochemical differences. Two volumetrically minor members are recognised, Habukinini Trachydacite and Kenilworth Rhyolite. In the north of its outcrop area, Glenham Porphyry is emplaced on or into Late Triassic terrestrial beds; in the middle it overlies Kaihikuan (Middle Triassic) and is overlain by Otapirian (latest Triassic) marine beds; and in the southeast it is directly overlain by Ururoan (late Early to early Middle Jurassic) conglomerates and marine sandstones. Pinney Volcanics are restricted to a very few, probably one, massive conglomeratic horizon in the Oretian Stage. The commonest rock type is a two-pyroxene trachydacite, modified by very-low-grade burial metamorphism. Auto-brecciation is characteristic and rock types change over short distances. Hornblende-rich variants occur as well as more felsic varieties including rhyolite ignimbrite. These may have been erupted onto a bouldery floodplain or shallow-marine surface, but alternatively may have been mass-emplaced by debris avalanche resulting from

  2. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant

  3. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  4. Recurrence Rate and Magma Effusion Rate for the Latest Volcanism on Arsia Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jacob A.; Wilson, James A.; Connor, Charles B.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Kiyosugi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Magmatism and volcanism have evolved the Martian lithosphere, surface, and climate throughout the history of Mars. Constraining the rates of magma generation and timing of volcanism on the surface clarifies the ways in which magma and volcanic activity have shaped these Martian systems. The ages of lava flows on other planets are often estimated using impact crater counts, assuming that the number and size-distribution of impact craters per unit area reflect the time the lava flow has been on the surface and exposed to potential impacts. Here we show that impact crater age model uncertainty is reduced by adding stratigraphic information observed at locations where neighboring lavas abut each other, and demonstrate the significance of this reduction in age uncertainty for understanding the history of a volcanic field comprising 29 vents in the 110-kilometer-diameter caldera of Arsia Mons, Mars. Each vent within this caldera produced lava flows several to tens of kilometers in length; these vents are likely among the youngest on Mars, since no impact craters in their lava flows are larger than 1 kilometer in diameter. First, we modeled the age of each vent with impact crater counts performed on their corresponding lava flows and found very large age uncertainties for the ages of individual vents, often spanning the estimated age for the entire volcanic field. The age model derived from impact crater counts alone is broad and unimodal, with estimated peak activity in the field around 130Ma (megaannum, 1 million years). Next we applied our volcano event age model (VEAM), which uses a directed graph of stratigraphic relationships and random sampling of the impact crater age determinations to create alternative age models. Monte Carlo simulation was used to create 10,000 possible vent age sets. The recurrence rate of volcanism is calculated for each possible age set, and these rates are combined to calculate the median recurrence rate of all simulations. Applying this

  5. Isotope dates and strontium isotopic ratios for plutonic and volcanic rocks in the Quesnel Trough and Nicola Belt, south central British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preto, V.A.; McMillan, W.J.; Armstrong, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Four distinct events of the southern Intermontane Belt are represented in new K-Ar and Rb-Sr dates. The first and regionally most important event is sharply defined by new K-Ar dates between 200 and 209 Ma for the Thuya, Wildhorse, Iron Mask, and Allison batholiths and a 205 +- 10 Ma Rb-Sr isochron for the Guichon Creek batholith. All these plutons were emplaced approximately at the change from Triassic to Jurassic time. The related and slightly older Nicola volcanic rocks are altered by addition of more radiogenic sedimentary Sr (Carnian Nicola limestone having 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.7075+- 1) and do not give an isochron date. The Coldwater stock is anomalously old (K-Ar dates range from 215-267 Ma). The Mid- to late Jurassic igneous event is indicated by a 141 Ma K-Ar date for the Mount Martley batholith. Mid-Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the Kingsvale Group give a Rb-Sr isochron date of 112 +- 10 Ma and are postdated by the crosscutting and slightly younger Summers Creek stock (100 Ma by K-Ar). The final event straddles the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary with the Nicola batholith emplaced about 60 Ma ago (K-Ar) and the Rey Lake stock perhaps slightly earlier (69 Ma by K-Ar). Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios range from 0.7025-0.7046 with a mean and mode near 0.7037 which is within the range of modern circum-Pacific volcanoes. Initial ratios of 0.7034 +- 1 for the Guichon Creek batholith, 0.7035 +- 1 for the Iron Mask batholith 70435 +-10 for the Thuya batholith, and 0.70379 +- 4 for the Kingsvale volcanic rocks are the most precisely determined. The Coldwater stock is anomalously low at 0.7025. For the other plutonic bodies only scattered or single analyses are available. The Nicola volcanic rocks appear to have once been similar in initial ratio the the Guichon Creek batholith but their calculated initial ratios now scatter from 0.7034-0.7073. (auth)

  6. Analysis of prospecting effect of polonium survey and geoelectric survey extracted uranium and molybdenum in the south of Shengyuan volcanic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hehai

    2007-01-01

    Polonium survey and geoelectric survey extracted uranium and molybdenum show that compound anomaly with sharp anomaly peak of the curve of polonium-210, uranium, molybdenum appears along many survey lines in Bakou area, Shengyuan volcanic basin, which may reflect the enrichment of uranium and molybdenum in rock formation and soil layer. By contrasting the anomaly curve to that above the buried uranium deposit, it is recognized that compound anomaly is closely related to the uranium mineralization condition in the area and some favourable sites for uranium metallogeny have been predicated. (authors)

  7. Review of containment vent filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The technology applied for the design and construction of containment vent filters is compiled and reviewed. The national positions leading to the selection of venting or method of filtration are extracted from position papers. Several areas of further information needs are identified

  8. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  9. Conceptual model of volcanism and volcanic hazards of the region of Ararat valley, Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime

    2015-04-01

    Armenia and the adjacent volcanically active regions in Iran, Turkey and Georgia are located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. The majority of studies of regional collision related volcanism use the model proposed by Keskin, (2003) where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off. In Armenia, >500 Quaternary-Holocene volcanoes from the Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic fields are hosted within pull-apart structures formed by active faults and their segments (Karakhanyan et al., 2002), while tectonic position of the large in volume basalt-dacite Aragats volcano and periphery volcanic plateaus is different and its position away from major fault lines necessitates more complex volcano-tectonic setup. Our detailed volcanological, petrological and geochemical studies provide insight into the nature of such volcanic activity in the region of Ararat Valley. Most magmas, such as those erupted in Armenia are volatile-poor and erupt fairly hot. Here we report newly discovered tephra sequences in Ararat valley, that were erupted from historically active Ararat stratovolcano and provide evidence for explosive eruption of young, mid K2O calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O; amph-bearing) magmas. Such young eruptions, in addition to the ignimbrite and lava flow hazards from Gegham and Aragats, present a threat to the >1.4 million people (~ ½ of the population of Armenia). We will report numerical simulations of potential volcanic hazards for the region of Ararat valley near Yerevan that will include including tephra fallout, lava flows and opening of new vents. Connor et al. (2012) J. Applied Volcanology 1:3, 1-19; Karakhanian et al. (2002), JVGR, 113, 319-344; Keskin, M. (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 24, 8046.

  10. Filtered containment venting in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, L.; Ellisson, K.

    1989-01-01

    After the TMI accident, Swedish authorities decided that all Swedish nuclear power plants should be upgraded with respect to mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. One contribution to meet these ends is filtered containment venting, i.e. means to relieve containment overpressure and to clean the relief gas from radioactive components. The first system in operation was built at the Barsebaeck site (2 BWR's) where a gravel bed filter was installed. For the remaining Swedish units (7 BWR's and 3 PWR's) a passive, self-controlling wet scrubber system, FILTRA-MVSS, is now under installation. The principle of the FILTRA-MVSS is a self-controlling, self-pumping venturi collector submerged in a pool, and it is used to filter out emissions of solid and gaseous radioactive components

  11. Multilayer Insulation Ascent Venting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, R. W.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Johnson, W. L.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal and venting transient experienced by tank-applied multilayer insulation (MLI) in the Earth-to-orbit environment is very dynamic and not well characterized. This new predictive code is a first principles-based engineering model which tracks the time history of the mass and temperature (internal energy) of the gas in each MLI layer. A continuum-based model is used for early portions of the trajectory while a kinetic theory-based model is used for the later portions of the trajectory, and the models are blended based on a reference mean free path. This new capability should improve understanding of the Earth-to-orbit transient and enable better insulation system designs for in-space cryogenic propellant systems.

  12. Eruption Conditions of Pele Volcano on Io Inferred from Chemistry of Its Volcanic Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    We used thermodynamic models and HST observations of Pele plume to calculate the temperature (1430 K) and oxidation state (log fO2 = -11.7) of volcanic gases and magmas of Pele. Our estimated vent pressure is 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) bars.

  13. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180 0 rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements

  14. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  15. Volcanic stratigraphy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joan; Groppelli, Gianluca; Brum da Silveira, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Volcanic stratigraphy is a fundamental component of geological mapping in volcanic areas as it yields the basic criteria and essential data for identifying the spatial and temporal relationships between volcanic products and intra/inter-eruptive processes (earth-surface, tectonic and climatic), which in turn provides greater understanding of the geological evolution of a region. Establishing precise stratigraphic relationships in volcanic successions is not only essential for understanding the past behaviour of volcanoes and for predicting how they might behave in the future, but is also critical for establishing guidelines for exploring economic and energy resources associated with volcanic systems or for reconstructing the evolution of sedimentary basins in which volcanism has played a significant role. Like classical stratigraphy, volcanic stratigraphy should also be defined using a systematic methodology that can provide an organised and comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial evolution of volcanic terrain. This review explores different methods employed in studies of volcanic stratigraphy, examines four case studies that use differing stratigraphic approaches, and recommends methods for using systematic volcanic stratigraphy based on the application of the concepts of traditional stratigraphy but adapted to the needs of volcanological environment.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.710 - Venting, ventilation and combustion air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venting, ventilation and combustion... Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.710 Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (a) The venting as required by... appliance listing and the appliance manufacturer's instructions. (b) Venting and combustion air systems...

  17. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  18. Safe venting of ''red oil'' runaway reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Fauske, H.K.

    1994-01-01

    Calorimetry testing of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) saturated with strong nitric acid was performed to determine the relationship between vent size and pressure buildup in the event of a runaway reaction. These experiments show that runaway can occur in an open system, but that even when runaway is induced in the TBP/HN0 3 system, dangerous pressure buildup will be prevented with practical vent size

  19. Eruption probabilities for the Lassen Volcanic Center and regional volcanism, northern California, and probabilities for large explosive eruptions in the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Chronologies for eruptive activity of the Lassen Volcanic Center and for eruptions from the regional mafic vents in the surrounding area of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range are here used to estimate probabilities of future eruptions. For the regional mafic volcanism, the ages of many vents are known only within broad ranges, and two models are developed that should bracket the actual eruptive ages. These chronologies are used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to match the data for time intervals between eruptions. For the Lassen Volcanic Center, the probability of an eruption in the next year is 1.4x10-4 for the exponential distribution and 2.3x10-4 for the mixed exponential distribution. For the regional mafic vents, the exponential distribution gives a probability of an eruption in the next year of 6.5x10-4, but the mixed exponential distribution indicates that the current probability, 12,000 years after the last event, could be significantly lower. For the exponential distribution, the highest probability is for an eruption from a regional mafic vent. Data on areas and volumes of lava flows and domes of the Lassen Volcanic Center and of eruptions from the regional mafic vents provide constraints on the probable sizes of future eruptions. Probabilities of lava-flow coverage are similar for the Lassen Volcanic Center and for regional mafic vents, whereas the probable eruptive volumes for the mafic vents are generally smaller. Data have been compiled for large explosive eruptions (>≈ 5 km3 in deposit volume) in the Cascade Range during the past 1.2 m.y. in order to estimate probabilities of eruption. For erupted volumes >≈5 km3, the rate of occurrence since 13.6 ka is much higher than for the entire period, and we use these data to calculate the annual probability of a large eruption at 4.6x10-4. For erupted volumes ≥10 km3, the rate of occurrence has been reasonably constant from 630 ka to the present, giving

  20. Developing International Guidelines on Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Charles

    2014-05-01

    tremendous challenge in quantitative volcanic hazard assessments to encompass alternative conceptual models, and to create models that are robust to evolving understanding of specific volcanic systems by the scientific community. A central question in volcanic hazards forecasts is quantifying rates of volcanic activity. Especially for long-dormant volcanic systems, data from the geologic record may be sparse, individual events may be missing or unrecognized in the geologic record, patterns of activity may be episodic or otherwise nonstationary. This leads to uncertainty in forecasting long-term rates of activity. Hazard assessments strive to quantify such uncertainty, for example by comparing observed rates of activity with alternative parametric and nonparametric models. Numerical models are presented that characterize the spatial distribution of potential volcanic events. These spatial density models serve as the basis for application of numerical models of specific phenomena such as development of lava flow, tephra fallout, and a host of other volcanic phenomena. Monte Carlo techniques (random sampling, stratified sampling, importance sampling) are methods used to sample vent location and other key eruption parameters, such as eruption volume, magma rheology, and eruption column height for probabilistic models. The development of coupled scenarios (e.g., the probability of tephra accumulation on a slope resulting in subsequent debris flows) is also assessed through these methods, usually with the aid of event trees. The primary products of long-term forecasts are a statistical model of the conditional probability of the potential effects of volcanism, should an eruption occur, and the probability of such activity occurring. It is emphasized that hazard forecasting is an iterative process, and board consideration must be given to alternative conceptual models of volcanism, weighting of volcanological data in the analyses, and alternative statistical and numerical models

  1. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  2. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  3. TECTONIC VERSUS VOLCANIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMIT DEPRESSION AT MEDICINE LAKE VOLCANO, CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leon Gwynn

    2010-05-01

    Medicine Lake Volcano is a Quaternary shield volcano located in a tectonically complex and active zone at the transition between the Basin and Range Province and the Cascade Range of the Pacific Province. The volcano is topped by a 7x12 km elliptical depression surrounded by a discontinuous constructional ring of basaltic to rhyolitic lava flows. This thesis explores the possibility that the depression may have formed due to regional extension (rift basin) or dextral shear (pull-apart basin) rather than through caldera collapse and examines the relationship between regional tectonics and localized volcanism. Existing data consisting of temperature and magnetotelluric surveys, alteration mineral studies, and core logging were compiled and supplemented with additional core logging, field observations, and fault striae studies in paleomagnetically oriented core samples. These results were then synthesized with regional fault data from existing maps and databases. Faulting patterns near the caldera, extension directions derived from fault striae P and T axes, and three-dimensional temperature and alteration mineral models are consistent with slip across arcuate ring faults related to magma chamber deflation during flank eruptions and/or a pyroclastic eruption at about 180 ka. These results are not consistent with a rift or pull-apart basin. Limited subsidence can be attributed to the relatively small volume of ash-flow tuff released by the only known major pyroclastic eruption and is inconsistent with the observed topographic relief. The additional relief can be explained by constructional volcanism. Striae from unoriented and oriented core, augmented by striae measurements in outcrop suggest that Walker Lane dextral shear, which can be reasonably projected from the southeast, has probably propagated into the Medicine Lake area. Most volcanic vents across Medicine Lake Volcano strike north-south, suggesting they are controlled by crustal weakness related to Basin and

  4. Tectonic versus volcanic origin of the summit depression at Medicine Lake Volcano, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leon Gwynn

    2010-05-01

    Medicine Lake Volcano is a Quaternary shield volcano located in a tectonically complex and active zone at the transition between the Basin and Range Province and the Cascade Range of the Pacific Province. The volcano is topped by a 7x12 km elliptical depression surrounded by a discontinuous constructional ring of basaltic to rhyolitic lava flows. This thesis explores the possibility that the depression may have formed due to regional extension (rift basin) or dextral shear (pull-apart basin) rather than through caldera collapse and examines the relationship between regional tectonics and localized volcanism. Existing data consisting of temperature and magnetotelluric surveys, alteration mineral studies, and core logging were compiled and supplemented with additional core logging, field observations, and fault striae studies in paleomagnetically oriented core samples. These results were then synthesized with regional fault data from existing maps and databases. Faulting patterns near the caldera, extension directions derived from fault striae P and T axes, and three-dimensional temperature and alteration mineral models are consistent with slip across arcuate ring faults related to magma chamber deflation during flank eruptions and/or a pyroclastic eruption at about 180 ka. These results are not consistent with a rift or pull-apart basin. Limited subsidence can be attributed to the relatively small volume of ash-flow tuff released by the only known major pyroclastic eruption and is inconsistent with the observed topographic relief. The additional relief can be explained by constructional volcanism. Striae from unoriented and oriented core, augmented by striae measurements in outcrop suggest that Walker Lane dextral shear, which can be reasonably projected from the southeast, has probably propagated into the Medicine Lake area. Most volcanic vents across Medicine Lake Volcano strike north-south, suggesting they are controlled by crustal weakness related to Basin and

  5. Volcanism on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Io, 1610 to 1995: Galileo to Galileo: 1. Io, 1610-1979; 2. Between Voyager and Galileo: 1979-95; 3. Galileo at Io; Part II. Planetary Volcanism: Evolution and Composition: 4. Io and Earth: formation, evolution, and interior structure; 5. Magmas and volatiles; Part III. Observing and Modeling Volcanic Activity: 6. Observations: thermal remote sensing of volcanic activity; 7. Models of effusive eruption processes; 8. Thermal evolution of volcanic eruptions; Part IV. Galileo at Io: the Volcanic Bestiary: 9. The view from Galileo; 10. The lava lake at Pele; 11. Pillan and Tvashtar: lava fountains and flows; 12. Prometheus and Amirani: Effusive activity and insulated flows; 13. Loki Patera: Io's powerhouse; 14. Other volcanoes and eruptions; Part V. Volcanism on Io: The Global View: 15. Geomorphology: paterae, shields, flows and mountains; 16. Volcanic plumes; 17. Hot spots; Part VI. Io after Galileo: 18. Volcanism on Io: a post-Galileo view; 19. The future of Io observations; Appendix 1; Appendix 2; References; Index.

  6. Venus - Volcanic features in Atla Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image from the Atla region of Venus shows several types of volcanic features and superimposed surface fractures. The area in the image is approximately 350 kilometers (217 miles) across, centered at 9 degrees south latitude, 199 degrees east longitude. Lava flows emanating from circular pits or linear fissures form flower-shaped patterns in several areas. A collapse depression approximately 20 kilometers by 10 kilometers (12 by 6 miles) near the center of the image is drained by a lava channel approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) long. Numerous surface fractures and graben (linear valleys) criss-cross the volcanic deposits in north to northeast trends. The fractures are not buried by the lavas, indicating that the tectonic activity post-dates most of the volcanic activity.

  7. Characterizing the Morphology, Distribution, and Formation Geometry of Mercury's Pyroclastic Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, L. M.; Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.

    2018-05-01

    We present a final catalog of pyroclastic vents on Mercury, identifying 104 candidate pyroclastic vents. We then assess the vent distribution, morphologic variation, and probable formation geometries.

  8. Airborne lidar detection of an underwater thermal vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddewig, Michael R.; Churnside, James H.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2017-07-01

    We report the lidar detection of an underwater feature that appears to be a thermal vent in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, USA, with the Montana State University Fish Lidar. The location of the detected vent was 30 m from the closest vent identified in a United States Geological Survey of Yellowstone Lake in 2008. A second possible vent is also presented, and the appearance of both vents in the lidar data is compared to descriptions of underwater thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake from the geological literature.

  9. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  10. Effusive silicic volcanism in the Paraná Magmatic Province, South Brazil: Physico-chemical conditions of storage and eruption and considerations on the rheological behavior during emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, L. A.; Giordano, D.; Janasi, V. A.; Guimarães, L. F.

    2018-04-01

    Expressive occurrences of effusive deposits were identified in silicic units from the Paraná Magmatic Province outcropping in a key area in south Brazil where three units with different compositions occur (Caxias do Sul dacites, CSd, Barros Cassal andesites to dacites, BCs, and Santa Maria rhyolites, SMr). Textural and chemical characteristics of phenocrysts, microphenocrysts and microlites suggest that crystallization started in a shallow magma chamber and continued during ascent to the surface. These magmas had an unique character (e.g., very high temperatures 1000 °C and low H2O contents 1-2 wt%), and formed several types of deposits that are clearly indicative of locally fed lava flows and had physical properties consistent with this mode of eruption (e.g., viscosities as low as 104.2 Pa·s at ca. 1000 °C for the CSd). The very low estimated H2O contents are a consequence of their petrogenesis (i.e., fractionation from tholeiitic basalts plus assimilation of crustal melts from water-poor granitic sources), and was probably a key factor influencing the non-explosive nature of these deposits. The comparatively higher viscosity calculated for the Santa Maria rhyolite (> 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than CSd) would make it a better candidate to generate expressive pyroclastic deposits, but this might be offset by its remarkably low H2O contents (≤ 1 wt%) and low discharge ratios.

  11. On Small Disturbance Ascent Vent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its ambient pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of a few minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. These pressure differentials are often restricted to low levels to prevent violation of container integrity. Such vents usually consist of fixed orifices, ducts, or combinations of both. Duct conductance behavior is fundamentally different from that for orifices in pressure driven flows governing the launch vehicle ascent depressurization environment. Duct conductance is governed by the average pressure across its length, while orifice conductance is dictated by a pressure ratio. Hence, one cannot define a valid equivalent orifice for a given duct across a range of pressure levels. This presentation discusses development of expressions for these two types of vent elements in the limit of small pressure differentials, explores conditions for their validity, and compares their features regarding ascent depressurization performance.

  12. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  13. Origins of cryptic variation in the Ediacaran-Fortunian rhyolitic ignimbrites of the Saldanha Bay Volcanic Complex, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Stevens, G.; Frei, D.; Joseph, C. S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Saldanha eruption centre, on the West Coast of South Africa, consists of 542 Ma, intracaldera, S-type, rhyolite ignimbrites divided into the basal Saldanha Ignimbrite and the partly overlying Jacob's Bay Ignimbrite. Depleted-mantle Nd model ages suggest magma sources younger than the Early Mesoproterozoic, and located within the Neoproterozoic Malmesbury Group and Swartland complex metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that form the regional basement. The Sr isotope systematics suggest that the dominant source rocks were metavolcaniclastic rocks and metagreywackes, and that the magmas formed from separate batches extracted from the same heterogeneous source. No apparent magma mixing trends relate the Saldanha to the Jacob's Bay Ignimbrites, or either of these to the magmas that formed the Plankiesbaai or Tsaarsbank Ignimbrites in the neighbouring Postberg eruption centre. The magmas were extracted from their source rocks carrying small but significant proportions of peritectic and restitic accessory minerals. Variations in the content of this entrained crystal cargo were responsible for most of the chemical variations in the magmas. Although we cannot construct a cogent crystal fractionation model to relate these groups of magmas, at least some crystal fractionation occurred, as an overlay on the primary signal due to peritectic assemblage entrainment (PAE). Thus, the causes of the cryptic chemical variation among the ignimbrite magmas of the Saldanha centre are variable, but dominated by the compositions of the parent melts and PAE. The preservation of clear, source-inherited chemical signatures, in individual samples, calls into question the common interpretation of silicic calderas as having been formed in large magma reservoirs, with magma compositions shaped by magma mingling, mixing, and fractional crystallization. The Saldanha rocks suggest a more intimate connection between source and erupted magma, and perhaps indicate that silicic magmas are too

  14. A first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland): from the volcanic crisis in 2014 towards a tool for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Jónsdottir, Kristín; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Larsen, Gudrun; Oddsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Bárdarbunga volcano is part of a large volcanic system that had its last confirmed eruption before the present unrest in 1910. This system is partially covered by ice within the Vatnajökull glacier and it extends further to the NNE as well as to SW. Based on historical data, its eruptive activity has been predominantly characterized by explosive eruptions, originating beneath the glacier, and important effusive eruptions in the ice-free part of the system itself. The largest explosive eruptions took place on the southern side of the fissure system in AD 1477 producing about 10 km3 of tephra. Due to the extension and location of this volcanic system, the range of potential eruptive scenarios and associated hazards is quite wide. Indeed, it includes: inundation, due to glacial outburst; tephra fallout, due to ash-rich plume generated by magma-water interaction; abundant volcanic gas release; and lava flows. Most importantly these phenomena are not mutually exclusive and might happen simultaneously, creating the premise for a wide spatial and temporal impact. During the ongoing volcanic crisis at Bárdarbunga, which started on 16 August, 2014, the Icelandic Meteorological Office, together with the University of Iceland and Icelandic Civil Protection started a common effort of drawing, day-by-day, the potential evolution of the ongoing rifting event and, based on the newest data from the monitoring networks, updated and more refined scenarios have been identified. Indeed, this volcanic crisis created the occasion for pushing forward the creation of the first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. We adopted the approach suggested by Newhall and Pallister (2014) and a preliminary ET made of nine nodes has been constructed. After the two initial nodes (restless and genesis) the ET continues with the identification of the location of aperture of future eruptive vents. Due to the complex structure of the system and historical eruptions, this third node

  15. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  16. Investigating the consequences of urban volcanism using a scenario approach II: Insights into transportation network damage and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Daniel M.; Deligne, Natalia I.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Woods, Richard

    2017-06-01

    implementation of evacuation zones; these disrupt crucial north-south links through the south eastern Auckland isthmus, and at times cause up to 435,000 residents and many businesses to be displaced. Ash deposition on road and rail following tephra-producing eruptive phases causes widespread Level-of-Service reduction, and some disruption continues for > 1 month following the end of the eruption until clean-up and re-entry to most evacuated zones is completed. Different tephra dispersal and deposition patterns can result in substantial variations to Level-of-Service and consequences for transportation management. Additional complexities may also arise during times of unrest with no eruption, particularly as residents are potentially displaced for longer periods of time due to extended uncertainties on potential vent location. The Level-of-Service metrics developed here effectively highlight the importance of considering transportation end-users when developing volcanic impact and risk assessments. We suggest that the metrics are universally applicable in other urban environments.

  17. Geophysical expression of caldera related volcanism, structures and mineralization in the McDermitt volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Blakely, R. J.; Moring, B.; Miller, R.

    2013-12-01

    30 km trend that then arcs NE into the caldera. These anomalies reflect near surface rhyolite intrusions that underlie the caldera-fill sediments that have been altered to K-feldpar and clay minerals. K gamma ray anomalies also delineate this zone of alteration. The last phase of volcanism occurs in the central part of the caldera and is associated with a broad aeromagnetic high with individual high-amplitude aeromagnetic highs coincident with three large volcanic vents. No hydrothermal alteration is associated with this last phase of volcanism. On the SW side of the McDermitt volcanic field a 10 km wide, 60 km long, NNW-trending zone of late Miocene normal faults developed after cessation of volcanism and prior to Basin and Range faulting. We propose that this extensional fault zone is the eastern continuation of the NW trending Brothers Fault Zone, but changes to a NNW trend where it is deflected by the plutons that underlies the McDermitt volcanic field. Plutons that underlie all three of these Mid Miocene volcanic fields have minimized post-caldera extensional faulting. Thus only caldera ring fracture faults were available for the development of hydrothermal systems in areas where post caldera intrusive activity was localized.

  18. Genetic diversity and demographic instability in Riftia pachyptila tubeworms from eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coykendall, D.K.; Johnson, S.B.; Karl, S.A.; Lutz, R.A.; Vrijenhoek, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals occupy patchy and ephemeral habitats supported by chemosynthetic primary production. Volcanic and tectonic activities controlling the turnover of these habitats contribute to demographic instability that erodes genetic variation within and among colonies of these animals. We examined DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene loci to assess genetic diversity in the siboglinid tubeworm, Riftia pachyptila, a widely distributed constituent of vents along the East Pacific Rise and Galpagos Rift. Results: Genetic differentiation (FST) among populations increased with geographical distances, as expected under a linear stepping-stone model of dispersal. Low levels of DNA sequence diversity occurred at all four loci, allowing us to exclude the hypothesis that an idiosyncratic selective sweep eliminated mitochondrial diversity alone. Total gene diversity declined with tectonic spreading rates. The southernmost populations, which are subjected to superfast spreading rates and high probabilities of extinction, are relatively homogenous genetically. Conclusions: Compared to other vent species, DNA sequence diversity is extremely low in R. pachyptila. Though its dispersal abilities appear to be effective, the low diversity, particularly in southern hemisphere populations, is consistent with frequent local extinction and (re)colonization events. ?? 2011 Coykendall et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  20. Modelling of particles collection by vented limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Granata, G.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with the use of vented limiters for the collection of neutral particles in Tore Supra. The model developed for experiments is presented together with its experimental validation. Some possible improvements to the present limiter are also proposed. (TEC). 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  2. Kolanut (Cola Nitida Vent Schott of Endlicher)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolanut (Cola Nitida Vent Schott of Endlicher). S.O. Agbeniyi, Otuonye, H.A. andAR. Adedeji Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria. Abstract. The mycoflora associated with processing stages of kolanut post-harvest were evaluated at the Cocoa. Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan Nigeria. Several samples of healthy and ...

  3. Summary of measurements with MicroVent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This summary presents the main results when MicroVent is used in the cooling case, without heat recovery. Experiments have thus been performed with relatively low inlet air temperature (below 15°C). Different solutions have been compared to decrease the risk of draught in the occupied zone: ‐ usi...

  4. 33 CFR 159.61 - Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vents. 159.61 Section 159.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE... to minimize clogging by either the contents of the tank or climatic conditions such as snow or ice. ...

  5. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  6. 33 CFR 183.520 - Fuel tank vent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.520 Fuel tank vent systems. (a) Each fuel tank must have a vent system that prevents pressure in the tank from exceeding 80... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank vent systems. 183.520...

  7. 46 CFR 182.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 182.450 Section 182.450... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must be fitted with a vent pipe connected to the highest point of the tank...

  8. 14 CFR 27.975 - Fuel tank vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents. 27.975 Section 27.975... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.975 Fuel tank vents. (a) Each fuel tank... system must be designed to minimize spillage of fuel through the vents to an ignition source in the event...

  9. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 119.450 Section 119.450... Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must... area of the vent pipe for diesel fuel tanks must be as follows: (1) Not less than the cross sectional...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the tanks to vent pipes. (2) Tanks having a comparatively small surface, such as fuel oil settling... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank-vent piping. 56.50-85 Section 56.50-85 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-85 Tank-vent piping. (a) This section...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...

  12. Filtered atmospheric venting of LWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Bachofner, E.; Graeslund, C.; Johansson, K.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.; Eriksson, B.

    1981-03-01

    The FILTRA project is a cooperative Swedish programme which started in February 1980. It is aimed at investigating the possibility of reducing the risk for a large release of radioactivity, assuming a severe reactor accident. The project has been focused on filtered venting of the reactor containment. The first stage of the project has dealt with two types of severe accident sequences, namely core meltdown as a result of the complete loss of water supplies to the reactor pressure vessel and insufficient cooling of the reactor containment. Some important conclusion are the following. The applicability of computer models used to describe various phenomena in the accident sequence must be scrutinized. The details of the design of the containment are important and must be taken into consideration in a more accurate manner than in previous analyses. A pressure relief area of less than 1 m 2 appears to be adequate. The following principles should guide the technical design of filtered venting systems, namely reduction of the risk for the release of those radioactive substances which could cause long term land contamination, provision for a passive function of the vent filter system during the first 24 hours and achievement of filtering capabilities which make leakages in severe accidents comparable to the leakages of radioactive substances in less severe accidents, which do not necessarily actuate the pressure relief system. Nothing indicates that a system for filtered venting of a BWR containment would have a significant negative effect on the safety within the framework of the design basis. Efforts should be directed towards designing a filtered venting system for a BWR such as Barsebaeck. (authors)

  13. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  14. Evidence for young volcanism on Mercury from the third MESSENGER flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M; Ernst, Carolyn M; Denevi, Brett W; Chapman, Clark R; Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Merline, William J; Solomon, Sean C; Watters, Thomas R; Strom, Robert G; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-08-06

    During its first two flybys of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired images confirming that pervasive volcanism occurred early in the planet's history. MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby revealed a 290-kilometer-diameter peak-ring impact basin, among the youngest basins yet seen, having an inner floor filled with spectrally distinct smooth plains. These plains are sparsely cratered, postdate the formation of the basin, apparently formed from material that once flowed across the surface, and are therefore interpreted to be volcanic in origin. An irregular depression surrounded by a halo of bright deposits northeast of the basin marks a candidate explosive volcanic vent larger than any previously identified on Mercury. Volcanism on the planet thus spanned a considerable duration, perhaps extending well into the second half of solar system history.

  15. Diversity and distribution of microbes in deep-sea sub-vent systems, using newly designed in situ growth chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Utsumi, M.; Urabe, T.; Maruyama, A.

    2004-12-01

    Subsurface of deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments is one of the most difficult fields on the Earth to approach and collect reliable samples for microbiological study. In our Archaean Park project, we developed in situ incubation instruments to directly collect microbes from sub-vent fields through a drilled borehole. After excavation using a portable submarine driller (BMS) around deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Bonin Arc (2001, 2002) and the South Mariana (2003), microbial diversity was examined in samples collected from the boreholes, as well as natural vents, using catheter- and column-type in situ growth chambers. In the catheter samples collected from the Suiyo Seamount, several novel phylotypes of microbial SSU rRNA genes were assigned within epsilon-Proteobacteria and hyperthermophile-related Euryarchaea groups. The former novel epsilon group (SSSV-BE1) was also detected in the South Mariana, but they only appeared in the catheter samples collected just below the venting seafloor. These suggest that the group must be significant in warm, shallow and microaerobic sub-vent layers over the sea, at least in the northwest Pacific Ocean. The column-type in situ growth chamber was specially designed for creating and maintaining physico-chemical gradients in a ca. 40-cm-long column situated on an active vent. In Suiyo Seamount samples (vent temp.: ca. 30-100 degree C), a unique vertical profile was found in the diversity of Archaea. At the column bottom, most of the clones were assigned to be members within the lithoautotrophic thermophilic Ignicoccus, while heterotrophic thermophilic Thermococcus were abundant at the column top. Similar vertical profile has also been appeared in the column samples from the South Mariana. Further quantitative population analysis is now under going using these samples. Our approach to the sub-vent biosphere by the combination of drilling and in situ incubation is almost sure to give us important clues

  16. Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Champion, Duane E.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2016-05-23

    Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake volcano in the southern Cascades arc exhibited widespread and compositionally diverse magmatism ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Nine well-characterized eruptions have taken place at this very large rear-arc volcano since 5,200 years ago, an eruptive frequency greater than nearly all other Cascade volcanoes. The lavas are widely distributed, scattered over an area of ~300 km2 across the >2,000-km2 volcano. The eruptions are radiocarbon dated and the ages are also constrained by paleomagnetic data that provide strong evidence that the volcanic activity occurred in three distinct episodes at ~1 ka, ~3 ka, and ~5 ka. The ~1-ka final episode produced a variety of compositions including west- and north-flank mafic flows interspersed in time with fissure rhyolites erupted tangential to the volcano’s central caldera, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flow at the volcano, the ~950-yr-old compositionally zoned Glass Mountain flow. At ~3 ka, a north-flank basalt eruption was followed by an andesite eruption 27 km farther south that contains quenched basalt inclusions. The ~5-ka episode produced two caldera-focused dacitic eruptions. Quenched magmatic inclusions record evidence of intrusions that did not independently reach the surface. The inclusions are present in five andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic host lavas, and were erupted in each of the three episodes. Compositional and mineralogic evidence from mafic lavas and inclusions indicate that both tholeiitic (dry) and calcalkaline (wet) parental magmas were present. Petrologic evidence records the operation of complex, multi-stage processes including fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing. Experimental evidence suggests that magmas were stored at 3 to 6 km depth prior to eruption, and that both wet and dry parental magmas were involved in generating the more silicic magmas. The broad distribution of eruptive events and the relative

  17. Electron microscopy study of microbial mat in the North Fiji basin hydrothermal vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Kim, J. W.; Lee, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems consisting of hydrothermal vent, hydrothermal sediment and microbial mat are widely spread around the ocean, particularly spreading axis, continental margin and back-arc basin. Scientists have perceived that the hydrothermal systems, which reflect the primeval earth environment, are one of the best places to reveal the origin of life and extensive biogeochemical process of microbe-mineral interaction. In the present study multiline of analytical methods (X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)) were utilized to investigate the mineralogy/chemistry of microbe-mineral interaction in hydrothermal microbial mat. Microbial mat samples were recovered by Canadian scientific submersible ROPOS on South Pacific North Fiji basin KIOST hydrothermal vent expedition 1602. XRD analysis showed that red-colored microbial mat contains Fe-oxides and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Various morphologies of minerals in the red-colored microbial mat observed by SEM are mainly showed sheath shaped, resembled with Leptothrix microbial structure, stalks shaped, similar with Marioprofundus microbial structure and globule shaped microbial structures. They are also detected with DNA analysis. The cross sectional observation of microbial structures encrusted with Fe-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide at a nano scale by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique was developed to verify the structural/biogeochemical properties in the microbe-mineral interaction. Systematic nano-scale measurements on the biomineralization in the microbial mat leads the understandings of biogeochemical environments around the hydrothermal vent.

  18. Volcanic Tephra ejected in south eastern Asia is the sole cause of all historic ENSO events. This natural aerosol plume has been intensified by an anthropogenic plume in the same region in recent decades which has intensified some ENSO events and altered the Southern Oscillation Index characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    ENSO events are the most significant perturbation of the climate system. Previous attempts to link ENSO with volcanic eruptions typically failed because only large eruptions across the globe which eject tephra into the stratosphere were considered. I analyse all volcanic eruptions in South Eastern (SE) Asia (10ºS to 10ºN and from 90ºE to 160ºE) the most volcanically active area in the world with over 23% of all eruptions in the Global Volcanism Program database occurring here and with 5 volcanoes stated to have erupted nearly continuously for 30 years. SE Asia is also the region where the convective arm of the thermally direct Walker Circulation occurs driven by the intense equatorial solar radiation which creates the high surface temperature. The volcanic tephra plume intercepts some of the solar radiation by absorption/reflection which cools the surface and heats the atmosphere creating a temperature inversion compared to periods without the plume. This reduces convection and causes the Walker Cell and Trade Winds to weaken. This reduced wind speed causes the central Pacific Ocean to warm which creates convection there which further weakens the Walker Cell. With the reduced wind stress the western Pacific warm pool migrates east. This creates an ENSO event which continues until the tephra plume reduces, typically when the SE Asian monsoon commences, and convection is re-established over SE Asia and the Pacific warm pool migrates back to the west. Correlations of SE Asian tephra and the ENSO indices are typically over 0.80 at p indices. If two events A and B correlate 5 options are available: 1. A causes B; 2. B causes A; 3. C, another event, causes A &B simultaneously; 4. It's a coincidence; and 5. The relationship is complex with feedback. The volcanic correlations only allow options 1 or 4 as ENSO cannot cause volcanoes to erupt and are backed up by several independent satellite datasets. I conclude volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols over SE Asia are the

  19. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  20. Hawaiian fissure fountains: Quantifying vent and shallow conduit geometry, episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, Carolyn; Fagents, Sarah; Swanson, Donald A.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ericksen, Todd; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Geometries of shallow magmatic pathways feeding volcanic eruptions are poorly constrained, yet many key interpretations about eruption dynamics depend on knowledge of these geometries. Direct quantification is difficult because vents typically become blocked with lava at the end of eruptions. Indirect geophysical techniques have shed light on some volcanic conduit geometries, but the scales are too coarse to resolve narrow fissures (widths typically 1 m). Kīlauea's Mauna Ulu eruption, which started with 30 m. Direct measurements at the ground surface were augmented by tripod-mounted lidar measurements to quantify the shallow conduit geometry for three vents at a resolution eruptive behavior, especially if incorporated into computer models.

  1. Spatio-volumetric hazard estimation in the Auckland volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    The idea of a volcanic field `boundary' is prevalent in the literature, but ill-defined at best. We use the elliptically constrained vents in the Auckland Volcanic Field to examine how spatial intensity models can be tested to assess whether they are consistent with such features. A means of modifying the anisotropic Gaussian kernel density estimate to reflect the existence of a `hard' boundary is then suggested, and the result shown to reproduce the observed elliptical distribution. A new idea, that of a spatio-volumetric model, is introduced as being more relevant to hazard in a monogenetic volcanic field than the spatiotemporal hazard model due to the low temporal rates in volcanic fields. Significant dependencies between the locations and erupted volumes of the observed centres are deduced, and expressed in the form of a spatially-varying probability density. In the future, larger volumes are to be expected in the `gaps' between existing centres, with the location of the greatest forecast volume lying in the shipping channel between Rangitoto and Castor Bay. The results argue for tectonic control over location and magmatic control over erupted volume. The spatio-volumetric model is consistent with the hypothesis of a flat elliptical area in the mantle where tensional stresses, related to the local tectonics and geology, allow decompressional melting.

  2. Explosive Volcanic Activity at Extreme Depths: Evidence from the Charles Darwin Volcanic Field, Cape Verdes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Devey, C. W.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    diameters of up to 20 cm, probably abraded by fluidization within the vent, that were laterally transported for hundreds of meters through water. In spite of the great depth, both edifices feature dense but highly fragmented volcanic deposits with an unexpected combination of large clast sizes and wide clast dispersal. This suggests an energetic eruptive environment, which may have similarities with that seen in pyroclastic eruptions on land.

  3. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Active Volcanism on Io as Seen by Galileo SSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Geissler, P.; Simonelli, D.P.; Carr, M.H.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Senske, D.A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Schubert, G.

    1998-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io has been monitored during the nominal Galileo satellite tour from mid 1996 through late 1997. The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment was able to observe many manifestations of this active volcanism, including (1) changes in the color and albedo of the surface, (2) active airborne plumes, and (3) glowing vents seen in eclipse. About 30 large-scale (tens of kilometers) surface changes are obvious from comparison of the SSI images to those acquired by Voyager in 1979. These include new pyroclastic deposits of several colors, bright and dark flows, and caldera-floor materials. There have also been significant surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission itself, such as a new 400-km-diameter dark pyroclastic deposit around Pillan Patera. While these surface changes are impressive, the number of large-scale changes observed in the four months between the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979 suggested that over 17 years the cumulative changes would have been much more impressive. There are two reasons why this was not actually the case. First, it appears that the most widespread plume deposits are ephemeral and seem to disappear within a few years. Second, it appears that a large fraction of the volcanic activity is confined to repeated resurfacing of dark calderas and flow fields that cover only a few percent of Io's surface. The plume monitoring has revealed 10 active plumes, comparable to the 9 plumes observed by Voyager. One of these plumes was visible only in the first orbit and three became active in the later orbits. Only the Prometheus plume has been consistently active and easy to detect. Observations of the Pele plume have been particularly intriguing since it was detected only once by SSI, despite repeated attempts, but has been detected several times by the Hubble Space Telescope at 255 nm. Pele's plume is much taller (460 km) than during Voyager 1 (300 km) and much fainter at visible wavelengths. Prometheus-type plumes (50

  6. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas

  7. Microgravity change as a precursor to volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Hazel

    1994-07-01

    In recent decades, systematic microgravity studies over some 20 active volcanoes in Central America, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Papua New Guinea and the USA have provided valuable data on sub-surface mass redistribution associated with volcanic activity. Concurrent data on ground deformation are essential to the unambiguous interpretation of gravity changes. In some instances, gravity and elevation vary along the free-air or Bouguer gradients, implying that there has been no sub-surface mass or density change, respectively. Where there are residual gravity changes after correction for elevation changes, magma movements in sub-surface chambers, feeder systems, vents and fissures (dykes) or water table variations are proposed. Although detailed interpretations depend on local circumstances and the calculations depend on source geometry, in general, the smallest residual gravity changes are associated with eruptions from volatile-poor basaltic vents and at extensional rift zones, whereas the highest residual values occur at explosive, subduction-related stratocones built from volatile-rich andesitic magma. The most intriguing, yet difficult, data to interpret derive from large-volume, infrequently erupting volcanic systems where caldera unrest is now becoming well documented and the ultimate hazards are most severe. Mass increases during inflation followed by limited mass loss during subsequent deflation typify these structures.

  8. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  9. Magnetic structure of Basse-Terre volcanic island (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles) inferred from 3D inversion of aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoud, Anne; Bouligand, Claire; Coutant, Olivier; Carlut, Julie

    2017-12-01

    We interpret aeromagnetic data to constrain the magnetic structure of the island of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Aeromagnetic data are inverted in the spatial domain with a Bayesian formulation to retrieve the 3D distribution of rock magnetization intensity and polarity. The inversion is regularized using a correlation length and standard deviation for magnetization chosen to be consistent with results from paleomagnetic measurements on lava flow samples from Basse-Terre. The resulting 3D model of magnetization is consistent at the surface with observed polarities and at depth with a 2D model obtained from a Parker and Huestis (1974) inversion in the Fourier domain. The inferred magnetic structure is compared with the available geological information deduced from published geological, geomorphological and geochronological studies. In the southern part of the island, very low magnetization is observed around the Soufrière lava dome, last activity of the Grande-Découverte-Carmichaël-Soufrière composite volcano, in relation with a high level of hydrothermal alteration. High-magnetizations in the South-East might reflect the presence of massive lava flows and lava domes from the Madeleine vents and Monts Caraïbes. Medium magnetizations in the South-West coincide with the location of debris avalanche deposits associated with the collapse of the former Carmichaël volcano and might reflect less massive lava structure at depth. Using the volume of normal polarity in the South part of Basse-Terre recovered in our 3D model of rock magnetization, we estimate an average construction rate of ∼ 9.4 ×10-4 km3/yr during the Brunhes chron which provides new insights on the volcanic activity of La Soufrière volcano.

  10. The Totumo mud volcano and its near-shore marine sedimentological setting (North Colombia) - From sedimentary volcanism to epithermal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Kaufhold, S.

    2018-04-01

    The Holocene mud volcano exposed at Totumo (younger than 4150 ± 50 yr BP) lines up together with some other landforms of its kind along the Caribbean Coast in northern Colombia. It currently vents a mud of the silicate-phosphate-bearing sulfur-sodium chloride type. The mud volcanoes evolved in an active continental margin setting of the South American Cordillera with high seismicity and affected by pervasive neotectonic structural disturbances. During the Neogene and Quaternary linear terrigenous shoreline sediments alternating with delta deposits evolved on this mobile crustal segment between the Andes and ancient Precambrian cratons. Meso- to microtidal sedimentary settings during transgression and progradation created meta- to instable sedimentary and petrophysical conditions (e.g. overpressure and gas-bearing bubble sands), favorable for the formation of mud volcanoes, whose lithofacies is subdivided into (1) footwall facies (detritus from metabasic, -pelitic source rocks), (2) mud volcano plus lateral facies (material from deep-seated hydrothermal sources, hydrocarbon plays, and brine reflux from the sea), (3) hanging wall facies, sand characterized by a strong longshore drift. The sedimentary volcanism in the area is characterized by different temperatures of formation: (1) pre-stage (oxides, garnet, alumosilicates, tourmaline, zircon, barite, Fe sulfides and -sulfates), light (Ca sulfates, calcite, quartz, feldspar) and clay minerals (kaolinite, mica, pyrophyllite, chlorite, vermiculite) are efficient tools to determine the source of mud, to subdivide the mud volcano system as to its facies and describe its physical-chemical regime as to the temperature of formation, pH and Eh values. The mud volcano system of Totumo bridges the gap between sedimentary "volcanism" and epithermal hot spring deposits of intermediate to high sulfidation and forms a useful "guide" to hydrocarbon accumulation.

  11. First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.

    2001-12-01

    The IASSHA-2001 cruise (Indonesia-Australia Survey for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity) was successfully conducted from June 1 to June 29 on board Baruna Jaya VIII. Preliminary results are reported of the first expedition to locate and study submarine hydrothermal activity in north east Sulawesi. Leg A focussed on Tomini Bay, a virtually unexplored Neogene sedimentary basin. Its objective was to test whether modern sediment-hosted hydrothermal activity occurred on the sea floor. The results of new bathymetric mapping, sediment coring and CTD/transmissometer hydrocasts negate the likely presence in central Tomini Bay of large-scale modern analogues of hydrothermal massive sulfide environments involving hydrothermal venting of basinal or magma-derived fluids into reduced sediments. It is possible that the "heat engine" required to drive circulation of basinal and hydrothermal fluids is today too weak. Surveys around Colo volcano indicate that it may be in its final stage of evolution. Leg B studied the arc and behind-arc sectors of the Sangihe volcanic island chain extending northwards from Quaternary volcanoes on the northeastern tip of Sulawesi's North Arm, near Manado. West of the main active chain and extending northwards from Manado there is a subparallel ridge surmounted by a number of high (>2000 m) seamounts of uncertain age. Fifteen relatively high-standing submarine edifices were crossed during this leg, of which nine were tested for hydrothermal activity by hydrocast and dredging. Eight sites were known from previous bathymetric surveys, and seven are new discoveries made by narrow-beam or multibeam echo sounding. Two submarine edifices at least 1000 m high were discovered in the strait immediately north of Awu volcano on Sangihe Island. One, with crest at 206 m, is surrounded by a circular platform 300m deep which we infer to be a foundered fringing reef to a formerly emergent island. The other, lacking such a platform, appears relatively young and may be

  12. Volcanic Plume Impact on the Atmosphere and Climate: O- and S-Isotope Insight into Sulfate Aerosol Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Martin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of volcanic eruptions on the climate has been studied over the last decades and the role played by sulfate aerosols appears to be major. S-bearing volcanic gases are oxidized in the atmosphere into sulfate aerosols that disturb the radiative balance on earth at regional to global scales. This paper discusses the use of the oxygen and sulfur multi-isotope systematics on volcanic sulfates to understand their formation and fate in more or less diluted volcanic plumes. The study of volcanic aerosols collected from air sampling and ash deposits at different distances from the volcanic systems (from volcanic vents to the Earth poles is discussed. It appears possible to distinguish between the different S-bearing oxidation pathways to generate volcanic sulfate aerosols whether the oxidation occurs in magmatic, tropospheric, or stratospheric conditions. This multi-isotopic approach represents an additional constraint on atmospheric and climatic models and it shows how sulfates from volcanic deposits could represent a large and under-exploited archive that, over time, have recorded atmospheric conditions on human to geological timescales.

  13. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  14. Pacific seamount volcanism in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J. K.

    2007-02-01

    Seamounts constitute some of the most direct evidence about intraplate volcanism. As such, when seamounts formed and into which tectonic setting they erupted (i.e. on-ridge or off-ridge) are a useful reflection of how the properties of the lithosphere interact with magma generation in the fluid mantle beneath. Proportionately few seamounts are radiometrically dated however, and these tend to be recently active. In order to more representatively sample and better understand Pacific seamount volcanism this paper estimates the eruption ages (tvolc) of 2706 volcanoes via automated estimates of lithospheric strength. Lithospheric strength (GTRrel) is deduced from the ratio of gravity to topography above the summits of volcanoes, and is shown to correlate with seafloor age at the time of volcanic loading (Δt) at 61 sites where radiometric constraints upon Δt exist. A trend of fits data for these 61, and with seafloor age (tsf) known, can date the 2706 volcanoes; tvolc = tsf - Δt. Widespread recurrences of volcanism proximal to older features (e.g. the Cook-Austral alignment in French Polynesia) suggest that the lithosphere exerts a significant element of control upon the location of volcanism, and that magmatic throughput leaves the lithosphere more susceptible to the passage of future melts. Observations also prompt speculation that: the Tavara seamounts share morphological characteristics and isostatic compensation state with the Musicians, and probably formed similarly; the Easter Island chain may be a modern analogy to the Cross-Lines; a Musicians - South Hawaiian seamounts alignment may be deflecting the Hawaiian hotspot trace.

  15. Trace elements deposition in the Tierra del Fuego region (south Patagonia) by using lichen transplants after the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (north Patagonia) volcanic eruption in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Jasan, Raquel; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Iavicoli, Ivo; Plá, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata transplants were tested as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in an apparently pristine environment that is Tierra del Fuego region (Patagonia, Argentina). The present survey is connected with the volcanic eruption that started in north Patagonia on June 4, 2011 from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano, Chile (north Patagonia, at 1700 km of distance of our sampling sites). Lichens were collected in September 2011 (one month of exposure) and September 2012 (1 year of exposure) in 27 sites covering the northern region of the province where trees are not present. The atmospheric deposition of 27 elements by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was determined in the collected samples. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the volcanic eruption on the regional atmospheric deposition comparing our results with baseline data we determined in U. barbata in 2006 in the same sites. The second aim was to test possible patterns of bioaccumulation between the two sampling campaigns after the volcanic eruption. With respect to 2006 baseline levels, we found significant higher levels for As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Na, Sb and U in lichens collected after 1 month of exposure (first sampling campaign--2011). Between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) after the eruption, lichens reflected the natural contamination by volcanic ashes with significantly higher median levels of Br, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Sc, and Se. Results confirmed the very good aptitude of U. barbata to reflect the levels of elements in the environment at global scale and to reflect the volcanic emissions at distant places. Volcanic eruptions cause the emission in the atmosphere of elevated levels of particulate matter. In this regard, our findings demonstrate the importance to evaluate the metal composition of the particles to avoid possible health effects.

  16. Ejection age of volcano rocks and trend of volcanic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Keiichi

    1987-10-01

    This report is II-7 of an interim report on research and development of the Sunshine Project for 1986. This report considers on the trend of volcanic activities in the South of Kyushu area. K-Ar age measurement was newly made and reported. Age values obtained were 1.09 plus minus 0.21 Ma for Nagaoyama andesite, 1.33 plus minus 0.18 Ma for Nozato andesite, and 0.3 plus minus 0.1 Ma for Imuta volcanos. Including these age values, from the age values and their distribution of the volcanic rocks in the South Kyushu district, the following three districts were selected to represent the volcanic activities since the Pliocene Epoch. As these districts are mutually overwrapped, verification at these overwrapped districts are necessary. (4 figs, 1 tab, 12 refs)

  17. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    OpenAIRE

    Pech, Ondřej; Jedelský, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of ...

  18. Preliminary geologic map of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-07-01

    The Sleeping Butte volcanic centers comprise two, spatially separate, small-volume ( 3 ) basaltic centers. The centers were formed by mildly explosive Strombolian eruptions. The Little Black Peak cone consists of a main scoria cone, two small satellitic scoria mounds, and associated lobate lava flows that vented from sites at the base of the scoria cone. The Hidden Cone center consists of a main scoria cone that developed on the north-facing slope of Sleeping Butte. The center formed during two episodes. The first included the formation of the main scoria cone, and venting of aa lava flows from radial dikes at the northeast base of the cone. The second included eruption of scoria-fall deposits from the summit crater. The ages of the Little Black Peak and the Hidden Cone are estimated to be between 200 to 400 ka based on the whole-rock K-Ar age determinations with large analytical undertainty. This age assignment is consistent with qualitative observations of the degree of soil development and geomorphic degradation of volcanic landforms. The younger episode of the Hidden Cone is inferred to be significantly younger and probably of Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. This is based on the absence of cone slope rilling, the absence of cone-slope apron deposits, and erosional unconformity between the two episodes, the poor horizon- development of soils, and the presence of fall deposits on modern alluvial surfaces. Paleomagnetic data show that the centers record similar but not identical directions of remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetic data have not been obtained for the youngest deposits of the Hidden Cone center. Further geochronology, soils, geomorphic, and petrology studies are planned of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers 20 refs., 3 figs

  19. PYROCLASTIC FLOW MODELING TO RECONSTRUCT A VOLCANIC EDIFICE IN PAIPA (BOYACÁ-COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Óscar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyroclastic deposits produced by the domes collapse (resurgence of a caldera collapse, at the west of the Honda Grande creek (Paipa, Boyacá-Colombia were related by INGEOMINAS. These deposits fill the valleys of Olitas, Calderitas and a creek at the south of the Alto de los Volcanes reaching distances near to 3 km from the focus between the Alto de los Volcanes and El Mirador Hill.The flows were modeled using 3D Software (Sheridan and Kover, 1996. A volcanic simulation was done obtaining the height and morphology of the volcanic edifice before the collapse during the last eruptive event.

  20. Volcanic history and petrography of the Pliocene Etrüsk Stratovolcano, E Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir; Sharkov, Evgenii; Lustrino, Michele; Mattioli, Michele

    2010-05-01

    The Pliocene Etrusk volcano, with its 3100 m elevation and ~500 km2 area, is one of the major centers of the collision-related volcanism in E Anatolia. It is located in the northeast of Lake Van, sitting almost on the culmination of the "Lake Van dome" structure forming the vertex of the eastern Turkish high plateau (Sengor et al., 2008). A ~5-km-wide horseshoe-shaped caldera, open to the south, is located in the center of the volcano. Apart from two trace element analyses and two K/Ar dates, there are virtually no data available in the literature on this major eruption center. Our study intends to fill this gap with a detailed petrographical, geochemical and geochronological study. Our new K/Ar age determinations indicate that the main volcanic edifice of the Etrusk volcano was formed in period between 4.3 and 3.9 Ma, with the eruption of several intermediate to acid lavas from a central vent. This phase ended up with the formation of a small collapse caldera that produced pyroclastic material emplaced on the earlier lavas. The final impulse of the volcano activity from the Etrusk volcanic center was the eruption of a post-caldera rhyolitic lava flow from the southern flank of the volcano (~3.8-3.7 Ma). After about 2.7 Myr of magmatic quiescence, during the Quaternary time between ~1 and 0.43 Ma, basalts erupted from the SW flank of the Etrusk volcano. They were generated predominantly from a ~N-S extending fissure, as well as from a scoria cone (Karniyarik hill) and a maar-shaped volcanic center (i.e. Düzgeyikçukuru). Edifice-forming products of the Etrüsk stratovolcano are represented by sanidine-plagioclase-biotite-clinopyroxene-phyric trachytes and plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-phyric trachyandesites containing sporadic olivine phenocrysts. K-feldspar is the most abundant mineral phase in trachitic lavas of the Etrüsk volcanic system. Post caldera lavas, on the other hand, have relatively more evolved compositions ranging from trachydacite to

  1. Detecting Volcanic Ash Plumes with GNSS Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, N.; Larson, K. M.; Palo, S. E.; Mattia, M.; Rossi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Roesler, C.; Fee, D.

    2016-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers are commonly placed near volcanic sites to measure ground deformation. In addition to the carrier phase data used to measure ground position, these receivers also record Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) data. Larson (2013) showed that attenuations in SNR data strongly correlate with ash emissions at a series of eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. This finding has been confirmed at eruptions for Tongariro, Mt Etna, Mt Shindake, and Sakurajima. In each of these detections, very expensive geodetic quality GNSS receivers were used. If low-cost GNSS instruments could be used instead, a networked array could be deployed and optimized for plume detection and tomography. The outputs of this sensor array could then be used by both local volcanic observatories and Volcano Ash Advisory Centers. Here we will describe progress in developing such an array. The sensors we are working with are intended for navigation use, and thus lack the supporting power and communications equipment necessary for a networked system. Reliably providing those features is major challenge for the overall sensor design. We have built prototypes of our Volcano Ash Plume Receiver (VAPR), with solar panels, lithium-ion batteries and onboard data storage for preliminary testing. We will present results of our field tests of both receivers and antennas. A second critical need for our array is a reliable detection algorithm. We have tested our algorithm on data from recent eruptions and have incorporated the noise characteristics of the low-cost GNSS receiver. We have also developed a simulation capability so that the receivers can be deployed to optimize vent crossing GNSS signals.

  2. Backprojection of volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  3. Culture-Independent Identification of Manganese-Oxidizing Genes from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chemoautotrophic Ferromanganese Microbial Communities Using a Metagenomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.; Tebo, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial activity has long been recognized as being important to the fate of manganese (Mn) in hydrothermal systems, yet we know very little about the organisms that catalyze Mn oxidation, the mechanisms by which Mn is oxidized or the physiological function that Mn oxidation serves in these hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermal vents with thick ferromanganese microbial mats and Mn oxide-coated rocks observed throughout the Pacific Ring of Fire are ideal models to study the mechanisms of microbial Mn oxidation, as well as primary productivity in these metal-cycling ecosystems. We sampled ferromanganese microbial mats from Vai Lili Vent Field (Tmax=43°C) located on the Eastern Lau Spreading Center and Mn oxide-encrusted rhyolytic pumice (4°C) from Niua South Seamount on the Tonga Volcanic Arc. Metagenomic libraries were constructed and assembled from these samples and key genes known to be involved in Mn oxidation and carbon fixation pathways were identified in the reconstructed genomes. The Vai Lili metagenome assembled to form 121,157 contiguous sequences (contigs) greater than 1000bp in length, with an N50 of 8,261bp and a total metagenome size of 593 Mbp. Contigs were binned using an emergent self-organizing map of tetranucleotide frequencies. Putative homologs of the multicopper Mn-oxidase MnxG were found in the metagenome that were related to both the Pseudomonas-like and Bacillus-like forms of the enzyme. The bins containing the Pseudomonas-like mnxG genes are most closely related to uncultured Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. The Deltaproteobacteria bin appears to be an obligate anaerobe with possible chemoautotrophic metabolisms, while the Chloroflexi appears to be a heterotrophic organism. The metagenome from the Mn-stained pumice was assembled into 122,092 contigs greater than 1000bp in length with an N50 of 7635 and a metagenome size of 385 Mbp. Both forms of mnxG genes are present in this metagenome as well as the genes encoding the putative Mn

  4. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  5. Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dover, Cindy Lee; Cann, J. R.; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Chamberlain, Steven; Delaney, John R.; Janecky, David; Imhoff, Johannes; Tyson, J. Anthony

    We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers) at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers has been documented [Van Dover et al, 1988], the source of this light and its role, if any, in the evolution and adaptation of photobiochemical processes have yet to be determined. Preliminary studies indicate that thermal radiation alone may account for the “glow” ]Smith and Delaney, 1989] and that a novel photoreceptor in shrimp-colonizing black smoker chimneys may detect this “glow” [Van Dover et al., 1989; Pelli and Chamberlain, 1989]. A more controversial question, posed by C. L. Van Dover, J. R. Cann, and J. R. Delaney at the 1993 LITE Workshop at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, is whether there may be sufficient light of appropriate wavelengths to support geothermally driven photosynthesis by microorganisms.

  6. Venting processes: Effects on the vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattwig, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the case of venting as a protective measure against explosions a dangerous pressure wave and a large flame must be expected in the neighbourhood of the vent. Moreover the recoil force which is exerted on the protected vessel can be the cause for the destruction of the plant. Therefore experiments have been made on the dependence of the pressure wave and the recoil force from well-known or easily determinable parameters. The results of the investigations allow the estimation of the maximum overpressure which must be expected at a given point outside the vessel, if the reduced explosion pressure which will be reached in the interior of the vessel is known. Beyond that it could be shown that the maximum recoil force is nearly always considerably smaller than the value given by theory. Only very rarely the theoretical value is reached. Therefore it is totally sufficient for practical purposes when the maximum recoil to be expected is calculated from the theoretical equation. (orig.) [de

  7. MAVEN Contamination Venting and Outgassing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Elaine M.; Hughes, David W.; Secunda, Mark S.; Chen, Philip T.; Morrissey, James R.; Riegle, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) is the first mission to focus its study on the Mars upper atmosphere. MAVEN will study the evolution of the Mars atmosphere and climate, by examining the conduit through which the atmosphere has to pass as it is lost to the upper atmosphere. An analysis was performed for the MAVEN mission to address two distinct concerns. The first goal of the analysis was to perform an outgassing study to determine where species outgassed from spacecraft materials would redistribute to and how much of the released material might accumulate on sensitive surfaces. The second portion of the analysis serves to predict what effect, if any, Mars atmospheric gases trapped within the spacecraft could have on instrument measurements when re-released through vents. The re-release of atmospheric gases is of interest to this mission because vented gases from a higher pressure spacecraft interior could bias instrument measurements of the Mars atmosphere depending on the flow rates and directions.

  8. Venting device for nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro; Ogata, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    An airtight vessel of a venting device of a nuclear reactor container is connected with a reactor container by way of a communication pipeline. A feed water tank is disposed at a position higher than the liquid surface of scrubbing water in the airtight vessel for supplying scrubbing water to the airtight vessel. In addition, a scrubbing water storage tank is disposed at a position hither than the feed water tank for supplying scrubbing water to the feed water tank. Storage water in the feed water tank is introduced into the airtight vessel by the predetermined opening operation of a valve by the pressure exerted on the liquid surface and the own weight of the storage water. Further, the storage water in the scrubbing water storage tank is led into the feed water tank by the water head pressure. The scrubbing water for keeping the performance of the venting device of the reactor container can be supplied by a highly reliable method without using AC power source or the like as a driving source. (I.N.)

  9. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan

    2017-04-01

    (Chilie), Eyfjallajökull (Iceland). The common point of all those eruptions is that all eruption clouds had the external water input. This input was as phreatomagmatic style eruption, ice plugged-vent clearing-vulcanian, heavy rain fall on eruption cloud or on eruptive vent, typhoon, ice grain in eruptive cloud, etc. We will show water input, case by case, to those eruptions belonging to severity index 4. Besides, we will also present other damages created by volcanic ash-aircraft encounters basing on their eruption styles as a result of advanced statistical methods.

  10. Forecasting Effusive Dynamics and Decompression Rates by Magmastatic Model at Open-vent Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; Pistolesi, Marco; Coppola, Diego; Delle Donne, Dario; Genco, Riccardo; Lacanna, Giorgio; Laiolo, Marco; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Valade, Sébastien

    2017-06-20

    Effusive eruptions at open-conduit volcanoes are interpreted as reactions to a disequilibrium induced by the increase in magma supply. By comparing four of the most recent effusive eruptions at Stromboli volcano (Italy), we show how the volumes of lava discharged during each eruption are linearly correlated to the topographic positions of the effusive vents. This correlation cannot be explained by an excess of pressure within a deep magma chamber and raises questions about the actual contributions of deep magma dynamics. We derive a general model based on the discharge of a shallow reservoir and the magmastatic crustal load above the vent, to explain the linear link. In addition, we show how the drastic transition from effusive to violent explosions can be related to different decompression rates. We suggest that a gravity-driven model can shed light on similar cases of lateral effusive eruptions in other volcanic systems and can provide evidence of the roles of slow decompression rates in triggering violent paroxysmal explosive eruptions, which occasionally punctuate the effusive phases at basaltic volcanoes.

  11. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2015-11-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1-6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8-10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20 th and late 19 th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions - a significant (peruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability.

  12. Quantitative volcanic susceptibility analysis of Lanzarote and Chinijo Islands based on kernel density estimation via a linear diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, I.; Romero, M. C.; Sánchez, N.; Morales, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Risk management stakeholders in high-populated volcanic islands should be provided with the latest high-quality volcanic information. We present here the first volcanic susceptibility map of Lanzarote and Chinijo Islands and their submarine flanks based on updated chronostratigraphical and volcano structural data, as well as on the geomorphological analysis of the bathymetric data of the submarine flanks. The role of the structural elements in the volcanic susceptibility analysis has been reviewed: vents have been considered since they indicate where previous eruptions took place; eruptive fissures provide information about the stress field as they are the superficial expression of the dyke conduit; eroded dykes have been discarded since they are single non-feeder dykes intruded in deep parts of Miocene-Pliocene volcanic edifices; main faults have been taken into account only in those cases where they could modified the superficial movement of magma. The application of kernel density estimation via a linear diffusion process for the volcanic susceptibility assessment has been applied successfully to Lanzarote and could be applied to other fissure volcanic fields worldwide since the results provide information about the probable area where an eruption could take place but also about the main direction of the probable volcanic fissures.

  13. Biogeography of Persephonella in deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Western Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka eMino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 P. hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough. Although the strains share > 98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types, indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.

  14. Development of mobile sensor for volcanic observation "HOMURA": Test campaigns for a long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K.; Iwahori, K.; Ito, K.; Sagi, H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned robots are useful to observe volcanic phenomena near active volcanic vents, to learn symptoms and transitions of eruptions, and to mitigate volcanic disasters. We have been trying to develop a practical UGV robot for flexible observation of active volcanic vents. We named this system "Homura". In this presentation, we report results of test campaigns of Homura for observation in a volcanic field. We have developed a prototype of Homura, which is a small robot vehicle with six wheels (75 x 43 x 31 cm and a weight of about 12 kg). It is remotely controlled with mobile phone radio waves; it can move in volcanic fields and send real time data of sensors (camera and gas sensors) equipped in the vehicle to the base station. Homura has a small solar panel (4 W). Power consumption of Homura is about 4 W in operation of sensors and less than 0.1 W in idle state, so that Homura can work outdoors for a long time by intermittent operation.We carried out two test campaigns of Homura at Iwo-yama to examine if Homura can work for a few month in natural volcanic fields (however, it had no solar panel in these campaigns). Iwo-yama is one of craters in the Kirishima volcanic field, SW Japan; the area within 1 km from the crater was an off-limit area from Oct., 2014 to May, 2015 and from Feb. to Mar., 2016 because of strong volcanic seismicity. On Feb. 19th, 2015 and Mar. 7th, 2016, we carried and put Homura at the rim of the crater. Unfortunately, mobile phone connectivity was not entirely stable around Iwo-yama. Then, we did not move Homura and only obtain real time data of the sensors. In the two campaigns, we operated Homura at our office for a few hours every day for 49 and 37 days, respectively. Although the weather was often bad (rain, fog, or cold temperature) during the campaigns, Homura perfectly worked. The results of these campaigns indicate that Homura is useful as s simple monitoring station in volcanic fields where mobile phone connection is available.

  15. Geophysical exploration on the subsurface geology of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We applied self-potential (SP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate geology and shallow structure of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field, part of the European Neogene-Quaternary volcanic province. The aim of the study was to improve knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of these monogenetic volcanoes and of its relationship with the subsurface geology. This study complements previous geophysical studies carried out at a less detailed scale and aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together will constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. SP study complemented previous smaller-scale studies and targeted key areas where ERT could be conducted. The main new results include the generation of resistivity models identifying dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These structures coincide with the deeper ones identified in previous studies, and show that previous Alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Moreover, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area are controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural and hydrogeological differences underneath these monogenetic volcanoes.

  16. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity and epithermal mineralization in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field and their relations to magmatic activity, volcanism and regional extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Jackson, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of middle Miocene age and underlying pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks host widely distributed zones of hydrothermal alteration and epithermal precious metal, fluorite and mercury deposits within and peripheral to major volcanic and intrusive centers of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF) in southern Nevada, near the southwestern margin of the Great Basin of the western United States. Radiometric ages indicate that episodes of hydrothermal activity mainly coincided with and closely followed major magmatic pulses during the development of the field and together spanned more than 4.5 m.y. Rocks of the SWNVF consist largely of rhyolitic ash-flow sheets and intercalated silicic lava domes, flows and near-vent pyroclastic deposits erupted between 15.2 and 10 Ma from vent areas in the vicinity of the Timber Mountain calderas, and between about 9.5 and 7 Ma from the outlying Black Mountain and Stonewall Mountain centers. Three magmatic stages can be recognized: the main magmatic stage, Mountain magmatic stage (11.7 to 10.0 Ma), and the late magmatic stage (9.4 to 7.5 Ma)

  17. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas... include one of the following: (1) Incorporation of an FAA-approved system that recirculates the fuel back...

  18. Thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR containment venting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Sharma, Prashant; Paul, U.K.; Gaikwad, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Installation of additional containment filtered venting system (CFVS) is necessary to depressurize the containment to maintain its mechanical integrity due to over pressurization during severe accident condition. A typical venting system for BWR is modelled using RELAP5 and analysed to investigate the effect of various thermal hydraulic parameters on the operational parameters of the venting system. The venting system consists of piping from the containment to the scrubber tank and exit line from the scrubber tank. The scrubber tank is partially filled with water to enable the scrubbing action to remove the particulate radionuclides from the incoming containment air. The pipe line from the containment is connected to the venturi inlet and the throat of the venturi is open to the scrubber tank water inventory at designed submergence level. The exit of the venturi is open to scrubber tank water. Filters are used in the upper air space of the scrubber tank as mist separator before venting out the air into the atmosphere through the exit vent line. The effect of thermal hydraulic parameters such as inlet fluid temperature, inlet steam content and venturi submergence in the scrubber tank on the venting flow rate, exit steam content, scrubber tank inventory, overflow line and siphon breaker flow rate is analysed. Results show that inlet steam content and the venturi nozzle submergence influence the venting system parameters. (author)

  19. Linking Volcanism and Gas Release from the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province to the PETM: Challenges and Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, H.; Jones, M. T.; Jerram, D. A.; Planke, S.; Kjoberg, S.; Schmid, D. W.; Iyer, K.; Tegner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The main phase of the development of the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province took place about 56 Ma and coincides with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The volcanic activity was characterized by voluminous flood basalts, large plutonic complexes, sub-marine eruptions, widespread tephra deposition, and emplacement of sills and dikes along the continental margins of Norway, Greenland, Ireland, and the UK. Here we review the style and tempo of volcanism during this important period of Earth's history and discuss the sources and volumes of the carbon gases emitted to the ocean and atmosphere. Moreover, we present new data and models from 1) West Greenland showing the impact on sill intrusions on gas generation from heated Cretaceous mudstones, 2) a 3D seismic survey of gas release structures offshore Norway, and 3) Paleocene-Eocene tephra layers from Svalbard and Denmark. Gas migrated out of the contact aureoles by either explosive venting or by slower seepage towards the seafloor as demonstrated by 3D seismic data. Some of the gas was permanently trapped (dry gas and CO2-rich gas) in the source rocks and aureoles. Combined with high-precision zircon ages and a time model for the PETM, our approach may give robust fluxes that can explain both the onset and the body of the PETM.

  20. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  1. Mainshock-Aftershocks Clustering Detection in Volcanic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza Giron, R.; Brodsky, E. E.; Prejean, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal earthquakes tend to break their general Poissonean process behavior by gathering into two main kinds of seismic bursts: swarms and mainshock-aftershocks sequences. The former is commonly related to volcanic or geothermal processes whereas the latter is a characteristic feature of tectonically driven seismicity. We explore the mainshock-aftershock clustering behavior of different active volcanic regions in Japan and its comparison to non-volcanic regions. We find that aftershock production in volcanoes shows mainshock-aftershocks clustering similar to what is observed in non-volcanic areas. The ratio of volanic areas that cluster in mainshock-aftershocks sequences vs the areas that do not is comparable to the ratio of non-volcanic regions that show clustering vs the ones that do not. Furthermore, the level of production of aftershocks for most volcanic areas where clustering is present seems to be of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as the median of the non-volcanic regions. An interesting example of highly aftershock-productive volcanoes emerges from the 2000 Miyakejima dike intrusion. A big seismic cluster started to build up rapidly in the south-west flank of Miyakejima to later propagate to the north-west towards the Kozushima and Niijima volcanoes. In Miyakejima the seismicity showed a swarm-like signature with a constant earthquake rate, whereas Kozushima and Niijima both had expressions of highly productive mainshock-aftershocks sequences. These findings are surprising given the alternative mechanisms available in volcanic systems for releasing deviatoric strain. We speculate that aftershock behavior might hold a relationship with the rheological properties of the rocks of each system and with the capacity of a system to accumulate or release the internal pressures caused by magmatic or hydrothermal systems.

  2. A New Approach to Uncertainty Reduction in Launch Vehicle Compartment Venting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch vehicle compartments are vented to the external environment during ascent to minimize undesirable structural loading. Prediction of venting performance is an...

  3. Design experiments for a vented containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesboel, R.

    1985-01-01

    A filtered containment venting system, operable late in 1985, is currently under installation at the Barsebaeck twin nuclear power station in Sweden. The filter unit, which communicates with the containments of both reactor units, but is separated from them by rupture discs, consists of a concrete bed, 40 m high and 20 m in diameter, filled with gravel of grain size 25-35 mm. The performance of the gravel bed under such accident conditions which might lead to an activation of this safeguard system has been the subject for investigation within the FILTRA project. These investigations have shown that the gravel bed acts as: an expansion volume for decreasing gas pressure and increasing gas residence time, a heat sink for condensing steam, an excellent filter medium for removing aerosols and elemental iodine, and a sump volume for collecting radioactive condensate. The results from iodine retention studies in gravel beds are mainly considered

  4. U-Pb SHRIMP ages of volcanic zircons from the Merrions and Turondale Formations, New South Wales, and the early devonian time-scale: a biostratigraphic and sedimentological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packham, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    U-Pb ages for volcanic zircons from the Lower Devonian Turondale and Merrions Formations initially dated by Jagodzinski and Black (1999) have been recalculated by Compston (2000, 2001). The Turondale, Waterbeach and Merrions Formations are, in ascending stratigraphic order, three of the Lower Devonian deep-water formations of the Hill End Trough. The recent discovery of a Lochkovian conodont fauna of the delta zone in derived limestone blocks from the uppermost beds of the Turondale Formation has established a maximum age for that horizon. The principal lithological assemblages of the formations are volcanic (megaturbidite and lavas), epiclastic turbidites and essentially hemipelagic lithologies. The mean zircon ages, determined by Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP), suggest a long duration for the Merrions Formation, 615 m thick and 91% volcanic, and a very much shorter interval for the upper two-thirds of the Turondale Formation, 360 m thick and 34% volcanic, plus the intervening non-volcanic Waterbeach Formation, 512 m thick. A sedimentological model based on scaled depositional rates for the facies has been used to estimate the relative accumulation rates and durations of the succession from the base of the Turondale Formation to the top of the Merrions Formation The model indicates that the Merrions Formation accumulated in a much shorter time than the interval from the top of the lower Turondale Formation to the base of the Merrions Formation. The analytical uncertainties of the Jagodzinski and Black (1999) zircon ages are large enough to be compatible with the sedimentological model, but the smaller analytical uncertainties calculated by Compston (2000, 2001) fall far from the scaled sedimentological model. Grouping together of the lower Merrions Formation and lower Turondale Formation zircon dates in Compston (2000) for a single mid-Lochkovian age is in conflict with the biostratigraphic and sedimentological evidence available and the derived

  5. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  6. Statistical analysis of dispersal and deposition patterns of volcanic emissions from Mt. Sakurajima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P.; Takemi, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Atsushi; Iguchi, Masato; Jenkins, Susanna F.

    2018-04-01

    With the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) in 2010, interest in the transport of volcanic ash after moderate to major eruptions has increased with regards to both the physical and the emergency hazard management aspects. However, there remain significant gaps in the understanding of the long-term behaviour of emissions from volcanoes with long periods of activity. Mt. Sakurajima (Japan) provides us with a rare opportunity to study such activity, due to its eruptive behaviour and dense observation network. In the 6-year period from 2009 to 2015, the volcano was erupting at an almost constant rate introducing approximately 500 kt of ash per month to the atmosphere. The long-term characteristics of the transport and deposition of ash and SO2 in the area surrounding the volcano are studied here using daily surface observations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and SO2 and monthly ashfall values. Results reveal different dispersal patterns for SO2 and volcanic ash, suggesting volcanic emissions' separation in the long-term. Peak SO2 concentrations at different locations on the volcano vary up to 2 orders of magnitude and decrease steeply with distance. Airborne volcanic ash increases SPM concentrations uniformly across the area surrounding the volcano, with distance from the vent having a secondary effect. During the period studied here, the influence of volcanic emissions was identifiable both in SO2 and SPM concentrations which were, at times, over the recommended exposure limits defined by the Japanese government, European Union and the World Health Organisation. Depositional patterns of volcanic ash exhibit elements of seasonality, consistent with previous studies. Climatological and topographic effects are suspected to impact the deposition of volcanic ash away from the vent: for sampling stations located close to complex topographical elements, sharp changes in the deposition patterns were observed, with ash deposits for neighbouring stations as close as

  7. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain; Vulcanismo cuaternario de la Isla Decepcion (Antartida): una signatura relacionada con la subduccion de la Fosa de las Shetland del Sur en el dominio de tras-arco de la Cuenca de Bransfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-06-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  8. Composite volcanoes in the south-eastern part of İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvacı, Cahit; Pécskay, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    During the Early-Middle Miocene (Western Anatolia) several volcanic fields occur along a NE-SW-trending shear zone, known as İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone. This is a deformed crustal-scale sinistral strike-slip fault zone crossing the Bornova flysch and extending along the NW-boundary of the Menderes Massif by accommodating the differential deformation between the Cycladic and Menderes core complexes within the Aegean extensional system. Here we discuss the volcanic activity in Yamanlar and Yuntdağı fields that is closely related to the extensional tectonics of the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone and in the same time with the episodic core complex denudation of the Menderes Massif. This study documents two composite volcanoes (Yamanlar and Yuntdağı), whose present vent area is strongly eroded and cut by a variety of strike-slip and normal fault systems, the transcurrent NW-SE being the dominant one. The erosional remnants of the vent areas, resembling a shallow crater intrusive complex, illustrate the presence of numerous dykes or variably sized neck-like intrusions and lava flows, typically associated with hydrothermal alteration processes (propylitic and argillic). Such vent areas were observed in both the examined volcanic fields, having ~ 6 km in diameter and being much more eroded toward the south, along the NW-SE fault system. Lava flows and lava domes are sometimes associated with proximal block and ash flow deposits. In the cone-building association part, besides lava flows and remnants of lava domes, rare block and ash and pumice-rich pyroclastic flow deposits, as well as a series of debris-flow deposits, have been observed. The rocks display a porphyritic texture and contain various proportions of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole, rare biotite and corroded quartz. The examined rocks fall at the limit between calc-alkaline to alkaline field, and plot predominantly in high-K andesite and dacite fields and one is rhyolite. The trace

  9. Containment venting sliding pressure venting process for PWR and BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, B.

    1991-01-01

    In order to reduce the residual risk associated with hypothetical severe nuclear accidents, nuclear power plants in Germany as well as in certain other European countries have been or will be backfitted with a system for filtered containment venting. During venting system process design, particular importance is attached to the requirements regarding, for example, high aerosol loading capability, provision for decay heat removal from the scrubber unit, the aerosol spectrum to be retained and entirely passive functioning of the scrubber unit. The aerosol spectrum relevant for process design and testing varies depending on aerosol concentrations, the time at which venting is commenced and whether there is an upstream wetwell, etc. Because of this the Reactor Safety Commission in Germany has specified that SnO 2 with a mass mean diameter of approximately 0.5 μm should be used as an enveloping test aerosol. To meet the above-mentioned requirements, a combined venturi scrubber system was developed which comprises a venturi section and a filter demister section and is operated in the sliding pressure mode. This scrubber system was tested using a full-scale model and has now been installed in 14 PWR and BWR plants in Germany and Finland

  10. Proximal stratigraphy and event sequence of the c. 5600 cal. yr BP Whakatane rhyolite eruption episode from Haroharo volcano, Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Nairn, I.; Smith, V.; Shane, P.

    2005-01-01

    The c. 5600 cal. yr BP Whakatane eruption episode consisted of a sequence of intracaldera rhyolite eruptions from at least five vents spread over 11 km of the Haroharo linear vent zone within Okataina Volcanic Centre. Initial vent-opening eruptions from the Haroharo vent produced coarse lithic clast 'blast beds' and pyroclastic density currents surges). These were immediately followed by eruption of very mobile pumiceous pyroclastic surges from the Makatiti vent 6 km to the southwest. Major plinian eruptions from the Makatiti vent then dispersed Whakatane Tephra pumice fall deposits (bulk volume c. 6 km 3 ) across the northeastern North Island while smaller explosive eruptions produced pyroclastic flows and falls from the Haroharo-Rotokohu vents and at the Pararoa vent on the caldera rim 11 km northeast from Makatiti. The pyroclastic eruptions at all vents were followed by the extrusion of lava flows and domes; extruded lava volumes ranged from 0.03 km 3 for the Pararoa dome to 7.5 km 3 for the Makatiti-Tapahoro lava flows and domes. Minor variations in whole rock and glass chemistry show that the three main vent areas each tapped a slightly different high-silica rhyolite magma. About 10 km 3 of M-type magma was erupted from the Makatiti-Tapahoro vents; c. 1.3 km 3 of H-type magma from the Haroharo-Rotokohu vents, and 0.04 km 3 of P-type magma from the Pararoa vent. There are no significant weathering or erosional breaks within the Whakatane eruptive sequence, which suggests that all Whakatane eruptions occurred within a short time interval. However, extrusion of the Haroharo dome within the Makatiti pyroclastic eruption sequence suggests a duration of c. 2 yr for the main pyroclastic eruption phase. Emplacement of the following voluminous (7.5 km 3 ) lavas from the Makatiti-Tapahoro vents would have occurred over >10 yr at the c. 10-20 m 3 /s inferred extrusion rates. (author). 19 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Volcanic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Soufrière Volcanic Centre, Saint Lucia with implications for volcanic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jan M.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Shane, Phil A.; Howe, Tracy M.

    2013-05-01

    The Soufrière Volcanic Complex (SVC), Saint Lucia, represents one of the largest silicic centres in the Lesser Antilles arc. It comprises extensive pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits, lava flows as well as Peléan-style domes and dome collapse block-and-ash-flow deposits. These deposits occur within and around the Qualibou Depression, a ~ 10-km diameter wide sector collapse structure. To date, vent locations for SVC pyroclastic deposits and their relationship to the sector collapse have been unclear because of limited stratigraphic correlation and few radiometric ages. In this study we reconstruct the geologic history of the SVC in light of new and recently published (U-Th)/He, U-Th and U-Pb zircon chronostratigraphic data, aided by mineralogical and geochemical correlation. Compositionally, SVC deposits are monotonous medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks with 61.6 to 67.7 wt.% SiO2 and display similar trace element abundances. Combined U-Th and (U-Th)/He zircon dating together with 14C ages and mineral fingerprinting reveals significant explosive eruptions at 640, 515, 265, 104, 60 and 40 ka (producing deposits previously grouped together as the "Choiseul" unit) and at 20 ka (Belfond unit). The mineralogically and geochemically distinct Belfond unit is a large, valley-filling pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposit distributed to the north, northeast, south and southeast of the Qualibou Depression that was probably deposited during a single plinian eruption. The unit previously referred to as ‘Choiseul tuff' is much less well defined. The typical Choiseul unit comprises a series of yellowish-white, crystal-poor, non-welded pumiceous pyroclastic deposits cropping out to the north and southeast of the Qualibou depression; however its age is poorly constrained. A number of other units previously mapped as Choiseul can be distinguished based on age, and in some cases mineral and whole rock chemistry. Pyroclastic deposits at Micoud (640 ± 19 ka), Bellevue (264 ± 8 ka), Anse

  12. Deriving spatial patterns from a novel database of volcanic rock geochemistry in the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Benbakkar, Mhammed; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    eruption of 1957 belongs to these primitive clusters and is the only known to have erupted outside the current rift valley in historical times. We thus infer there is a distributed hazard of vent opening susceptibility additional to the susceptibility associated with the main Virunga edifices. This study suggests that the statistical analysis of such geochemical database may help to understand complex volcanic plumbing systems and the spatial distribution of volcanic hazards in active and poorly known volcanic areas such as the Virunga Volcanic Province.

  13. First volcanic CO2 budget estimate for three actively degassing volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, Philippe; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Conde, Vladimir; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Avard, Geoffroy; Muñoz, Angélica

    2014-05-01

    CO2 is a key chemical tracer for exploring volcanic degassing mechanisms of basaltic magmatic systems (1). The rate of CO2 release from sub-aerial volcanism is monitored via studies on volcanic plumes and fumaroles, but information is still sparse and incomplete for many regions of the globe, including the majority of the volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (2). Here, we use a combination of remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements of volcanic gas plumes to provide a first estimate of the CO2 output from three degassing volcanoes in Central America: Turrialba, in Costa Rica, and Telica and San Cristobal, in Nicaragua. During a field campaign in March-April 2013, we obtained (for the three volcanoes) a simultaneous record of SO2 fluxes (from the NOVAC network (3)) and CO2 vs. SO2 concentrations in the near-vent plumes (obtained via a temporary installed fully-automated Multi-GAS instrument (4)). The Multi-GAS time-series allowed to calculate the plume CO2/SO2 ratios for different intervals of time, showing relatively stable gas compositions. Distinct CO2 - SO2 - H2O proportions were observed at the three volcanoes, but still within the range of volcanic arc gas (5). The CO2/SO2 ratios were then multiplied by the SO2 flux in order to derive the CO2 output. At Turrialba, CO2/SO2 ratios fluctuated, between March 12 and 19, between 1.1 and 5.7, and the CO2flux was evaluated at ~1000-1350 t/d (6). At Telica, between March 23 and April 8, a somewhat higher CO2/SO2 ratio was observed (3.3 ± 1.0), although the CO2 flux was evaluated at only ~100-500 t/d (6). At San Cristobal, where observations were taken between April 11 and 15, the CO2/SO2 ratio ranged between 1.8 and 7.4, with a mean CO2 flux of 753 t/d. These measurements contribute refining the current estimates of the total CO2 output from the Central American Volcanic Arc (7). Symonds, R.B. et al., (2001). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 108, 303-341 Burton, M. R. et al. (2013). Reviews in

  14. The Biological Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent as a Model to Study Carbon Dioxide Capturing Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premila D. Thongbam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO2 from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO2 fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture.

  15. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  16. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-05-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  17. Volcanic risk; Risque volcanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles` volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  19. Soil temperature and CO2 degassing, SO2 fluxes and field observations before and after the February 29, 2016 new vent inside Nyiragongo crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagizi, Charles M.; Yalire, Mathieu M.; Ciraba, Honoré M.; Kajeje, Vicky B.; Minani, Abel S.; Kinja, Annie B.; Kasereka, Marcellin M.

    2016-09-01

    Nyiragongo volcano threatens ˜1.5 million inhabitants of Goma (DR Congo) and Gisenyi (Rwanda) cities and people living in the surrounding villages. In 2002, the volcano produced lava flows which invaded Goma and destroyed the economic district of the city, forced a mass exodus of the population and caused the loss of several lives. Nyiragongo volcanic activity is therefore closely followed by the inhabitants, and any news related to increased activity agitates people in the area, especially those in Goma. Here, we report a short time series of soil temperature and carbon dioxide degassing for four locations, and plume sulphur dioxide fluxes preceding and following the opening of a new vent inside the main Nyiragongo crater on February 29, 2016. The observed sudden and unexpected changes in Nyiragongo activity raised the fear of a new volcanic eruption and led to panic in Goma and the surroundings, inducing some people to leaving the city. We use the dataset and field observations before and after the opening of the new vent, in conjunction with published information about Nyiragongo's eruptive mechanism and of the volcano's plumbing system geometry (mainly the crater), to show that the new vent was fed by magma intruded from the lava lake or the upper conduit.

  20. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an

  1. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  2. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  3. Monitoring diffuse degassing in monogentic volcanic field during a quiescent period: the case of Cumbre Vieja (La Palma,Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, F.; Cole, M.; Vaccaro, W.; Alonso Cótchico, M.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic activity at La Palma (Canary Islands) in the last 123 ka has taken place exclusively at the southern part of the island, where Cumbre Vieja volcano, which is characterized by a main north-south rift zone 20 km long and up to 1950 m in elevation and covering an area of 220 km2 with vents located also at the northwest and northeast. Cumbre Vieja is the most active basaltic volcano in the Canaries with 7 historical eruptions being San Juan (1949) and Teneguía (1971) the most recent ones. Since no visible degassing (fumaroles, etc.) at Cumbre Vieja occurs, our geochemical program for the volcanic surveillance of Cumbre Vieja is mainly focused on diffuse degassing monitoring. Diffuse CO2 emission surveys are yearly performed in summer to minimize the influence of meteorological variations. About 570 sampling sites were selected for each survey to obtain a homogeneous distribution after taking into consideration the local geology, structure, and accessibility. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were performed in situ by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared sensor following the accumulation chamber method. The soil CO2 efflux values of the 2017 survey ranged from non-detectable to 47.7 g m-2 d-1. Statistical-graphical analysis of the data show two different geocheleemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 98.2% and 1.8% of the total data, respectively. The geometric means of the B and P populations are 2.9 and 36.5 g m-2 d-1, respectively. Most of the area showed B values while the P values were mainly observed both flanks of the main N-S volcanic rift. To estimate the diffuse CO2 emission in metric tons per day released from Cumbre Vieja (220 km2) for the 2017 survey, we ran about 100 sGs simulations. The estimated 2017 diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere by Cumbre Vieja was at 801 ± 27 t d-1, value relatively higher than the background average of CO2 emission estimated on 374 t d-1 and within the background range of 132 t d-1

  4. A 3D model of crustal magnetization at the Pinacate Volcanic Field, NW Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Abdeslem, Juan; Calmus, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The Pinacate Volcanic Field (PVF) is located near the western border of the southern Basin and Range province, in the State of Sonora NW Mexico, and within the Gulf of California Extensional Province. This volcanic field contains the shield volcano Santa Clara, which mainly consists of basaltic to trachytic volcanic rocks, and reaches an altitude of 1200 m. The PVF disrupts a series of discontinuous ranges of low topographic relief aligned in a NW direction, which consist mainly of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic through Paleogene granitoids. The PVF covers an area of approximately 60 by 55 km, and includes more than 400 well-preserved cinder cones and vents and eight maar craters. It was active from about 1.7 Ma until about 13 ka. We have used the ages and magnetic polarities of the volcanic rocks, along with mapped magnetic anomalies and their inverse modeling to determine that the Pinacate Volcanic Field was formed during two volcanic episodes. The oldest one built the Santa Clara shield volcano of basaltic and trachytic composition, and occurred during the geomagnetic Matuyama Chron of reverse polarity, which also includes the normal polarity Jaramillo and Olduvai Subchrons, thus imprinting both normal and reverse magnetization in the volcanic products. The younger Pinacate series of basaltic composition represents monogenetic volcanic activity that extends all around the PVF and occurred during the subsequent geomagnetic Brunhes Chron of normal polarity. Magnetic anomalies toward the north of the Santa Clara volcano are the most intense in the PVF, and their inverse modeling indicates the presence of a large subsurface body magnetized in the present direction of the geomagnetic field. This suggests that the magma chambers at depth cooled below the Curie temperature during the Brunhes Chron.

  5. Structural control of monogenetic volcanism in the Garrotxa volcanic field (Northeastern Spain) from gravity and self-potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde-Cabusson, S.; Gottsmann, J.; Martí, J.; Bolós, X.; Camacho, A. G.; Geyer, A.; Planagumà, Ll.; Ronchin, E.; Sánchez, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report new geophysical observations on the distribution of subsurface structures associated with monogenetic volcanism in the Garrotxa volcanic field (Northern Spain). As part of the Catalan Volcanic Zone, this Quaternary volcanic field is associated with the European rifts system. It contains the most recent and best preserved volcanic edifices of the Catalan Volcanic Zone with 38 monogenetic volcanoes identified in the Garrotxa Natural Park. We conducted new gravimetric and self-potential surveys to enhance our understanding of the relationship between the local geology and the spatial distribution of the monogenetic volcanoes. The main finding of this study is that the central part of the volcanic field is dominated by a broad negative Bouguer anomaly of around -0.5 mGal, within which a series of gravity minima are found with amplitudes of up to -2.3 mGal. Inverse modelling of the Bouguer data suggests that surficial low-density material dominates the volcanic field, most likely associated with effusive and explosive surface deposits. In contrast, an arcuate cluster of gravity minima to the NW of the Croscat volcano, the youngest volcano of this zone, is modelled by vertically extended low-density bodies, which we interpret as a complex ensemble of fault damage zones and the roots of young scoria cones. A ground-water infiltration zone identified by a self-potential anomaly is associated with a steep horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient and interpreted as a fault zone and/or magmatic fissure, which fed the most recent volcanic activity in the Garrotxa. Gravimetric and self-potential data are well correlated and indicate a control on the locations of scoria cones by NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE striking tectonic features, which intersect the main structural boundaries of the study area to the north and south. Our interpretation of the data is that faults facilitated magma ascent to the surface. Our findings have major implications for understanding the relationship

  6. Burfellshraun - a terrestrial analogue to recent volcanism on mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Henning; Dall, Jørgen; Rossi, Matti

    2004-01-01

    The up to 2000 km long and very young lava flows from Elysium Planitia to Amazonis Planitia on Mars often include km-sized rafting plates. We have studied the unique Burfellshraun lava field east of lake Myvatn in Iceland that, although on a much smaller scale, share many characteristics of the M...... of the formation of Burfellshraun provides new constraints and insight into the extensive recent volcanic activity on Mars....... of the Martian flows. Up to km-sized plates have flowed several km downsteam from the vent area. Our remote sensing studies and field work suggest that the type of eruption seen in Burfellshraun can be found nowhere else on Earth. The only similar lava flows that we have found are those on Mars. Our study...

  7. Initial discussion on ore-forming conditions and prospecting direction of volcanic type uranium deposits in the gangdise tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Baoguang; Wang Sili; Wang Qin; Sun Yue; Du Xiaolin; Chen Yuliang

    2010-01-01

    The most active volcanic activity in the Gangdise tectonic belt happened in early Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene, and Eocene is the most active period. The distribution of volcanic rock is controlled by latitudinal deep fault and deuteric longitudinal fault. Paleo-volcano was located at these structural compounds frequently. The volcanics which appeared near the merdional large scale pull-apart construction in Neogene is considered as land facies medium-acidic volcanics which brought by various kinds of volcanic basin. A large stream sediment anomaly (>6.8 x 10 -6 ) has been found at Cenozoic volcanics in south of CuoQin basin, and its areas amount to hundreds square kilometers. The uranium content of volcanics in Wuyu basin amounts to 20.0 x 10 -6 at most. It has favorable Ore-forming conditions for forming volcanic type uranium deposit due to the volcanic geologic environment, accompanying mineral, region feature of geochemistry and geophysical, volcanic-tectonic depression and so on. The major prospecting targets are the south of CuoQin basin and the Nanmulin district. (authors)

  8. Tank vent processing system having a corrosion preventive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Shoichi; Sato, Hirofumi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion of a tank vent processing device by injecting an oxygen gas. Constitution: Oxygen gas and phosphorous at high temperature are poured into a tank vent processing device and amorphous oxide layers optimum to the prevention of external corrosion are formed to the inner surface of the device. Since the corrosion preventive device using the oxygen gas injection can be constituted as a relatively simple device, it is more economical than constituting a relatively large tank vent processing device with corrosion resistant stainless steels. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Ondrej; Jedelsky, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jicha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  10. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  11. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  12. Geophysical Analysis of Young Monogenetic Volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, S.; Porter, R. C.; Riggs, N.

    2017-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), located in northern Arizona, USA, contains some of the youngest intracontinental volcanism within the United States and, given its recent eruptive history, presents an excellent opportunity to better understand how these systems behave. Geophysical techniques such as magnetics, paleomagnetics, and seismic refraction can be used to understand eruptive behavior and image shallow subsurface structures. As such, they present an opportunity to understand eruptive processes associated with the monogenetic volcanism that is common within the SFVF. These techniques are especially beneficial in areas where erosion has not exposed shallow eruptive features within the volcano. We focus on two volcanoes within the SFVF, Merriam Crater and Crater 120 for this work. These are thought to be some of the youngest volcanoes in the field and, as such, are well preserved. Aside from being young, they both exhibit interesting features such as multiple vents, apparent vent alignment, and lack of erosional features that are present at many of the other volcanoes in the SFVF, making them ideal for this work. Initial results show that shallow subsurface basaltic masses can be located using geophysical techniques. These masses are interpreted as dikes or lava flows that are covered by younger scoria. Propagating dikes drive eruptions at monogenetic volcanoes, which often appear in aligned clusters. Locating these features will further the understanding of how magma is transported and how eruptions may have progressed.

  13. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Löffler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry–climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg – Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1325(e) for aggregate batch vent streams; (ii) For a boiler or process heater, a description of the location at which the vent stream is introduced into the boiler or process heater; (iii) For a boiler or... process vents or halogenated aggregate batch vent streams, the percent reduction of total hydrogen halides...

  15. A bestiary of ordinary vent activities at Stromboli (and what it tells us about vent conditions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2015-04-01

    Normal active degassing at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) is traditionally divided in two classes. Puffing correspond to the frequent (~1 Hz) release of small gas pockets (0.5 - 1 m of diameter) at low exit velocities (5 - 15 m/s). Whereas, Strombolian explosions occur at a frequency of 1 - 10 per hour, and are characterized the ejection of bombs and/or ash at high velocities (50 - 400 m/s). In order to get a broader overview of two types of degassing, we used a thermal high speed FLIR SC655 camera to monitor the temperature anomalies generated by the expelled gas, ash, and/or bombs. The enhanced time and spatial resolutions of the camera (200 frames per second, 15 cm wide pixels) enables to use numerical algorithms to distinguish and characterize individual ejection events. In particular, for each explosion and puff, we compute the temperature, the volume, the exit point and the rise velocities of the expelled material. These values, as well as the frequency of the release events, are used to portray a total of 12 vent activities, observed during three field campaigns in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Sustained puffing was visible on 7 cases, with an intensity ranging on at least two orders of magnitude. Although the released gas volume is sometimes highly variable, on some cases, constant sized puffs allows to define a typical discharge frequency ranging between 0.4 and 1.5 Hz. Regular Strombolian explosions, with various duration, intensity and ash contents, are reported in 6 cases, 2 of them simultaneously presenting a puffing activity. In some cases, we noticed modifications of the vent activity just before the explosions. These precursors, usually lasting about 1 second but occasionally reaching 10 seconds, can be sorted into 1) increase of the puffing activity ; 2) emission of gas plumes ; 3) inflation of the visible vent surface. Finally, one vent activity was hybrid between puffing and Strombolian explosions, with frequent explosions (1 Hz) ejecting numerous

  16. Population genetic structure of Rufous-Vented Prinia (Prinia burnesii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The Rufous-vented Prinia is an endemic species of the. Indian subcontinent that is ..... considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered. Species Act. Cons. Biol. 6: 1584-1594. Heukeshoven J ...

  17. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  18. Explosion testing for the container venting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Green, G.M.; Thomas, R.A.; Demiter, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the study of the hazards of inspecting nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site, the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Hanford Company have developed a container venting system to sample the gases that may be present in various metal drums and other containers. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the probability of ignition while drilling into drums and other containers that may contain flammable gas mixtures. The Westinghouse Hanford Company drilling procedure was simulated by tests conducted in the Bureau's 8-liter chamber, using the same type of pneumatic drill that will be used at the Hanford Site. There were no ignitions of near-stoichiometric hydrogen-air or methane-air mixtures during the drilling tests. The temperatures of the drill bits and lids were measured by an infrared video camera during the drilling tests. These measured temperatures are significantly lower than the ∼500 degree C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated hydrogen-air or the ∼600 degree C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated methane-air. The temperatures are substantially lower than the 750 degree C ignition temperature of hydrogen-air and 1,220 degree C temperature of methane-air when heated by a 1-m-diameter wire

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EMPIRICAL MODELS FOR VENTED LEAN HYDROGEN EXPLOSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Anubhav Sinha; Vendra C. Madhav Rao; Jennifer X. Wen

    2017-01-01

    Explosion venting is a method commonly used to prevent or minimize damage to an enclosure caused by an accidental explosion. An estimate of the maximum overpressure generated though explosion is an important parameter in the design of the vents. Various engineering models (Bauwens et al., 2012, Molkov and Bragin, 2015) and European (EN 14994 ) and USA standards (NFPA 68) are available to predict such overpressure. In this study, their performance is evaluated using a number of published exper...

  20. The ProVent model learns to speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher E

    2014-10-20

    Leroy and colleagues report on the accuracy of the Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation Prognostic Model ('ProVent') in a cohort study of patients ventilated for at least 21 days in one of three hospitals in the north of France. This study is noteworthy because it is the first to describe the performance of the ProVent model both outside the US and in a community hospital-based setting.

  1. A model for vented deflagration of hydrogen in a volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulpuru, S.R.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1982-02-01

    A simple model was constructed to predict the property transients resulting from the deflagration of a combustible mixture in a sphere or cylinder with venting of the gas mixture to the environment. A computer program VENT, was written to solve the model equation. The model will be particularly useful for studying hydrogen burning effects in loss-of-coolant plus losss of emergency coolant accidents in CANDU reactors

  2. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  3. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  4. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-08-10

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant.

  5. SBWR PCCS vent phenomena and suppression pool mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P. [Thermal-Hydraulics Lab., Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Andreani, M. [Nuclear Engineering Lab., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The most important phenomena influencing the effectiveness of the pressure suppression capability of the water pool within the Wetwell compartment of the SBWR Containment, during the period of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) venting, have been critically reviewed. In addition, calculations have been carried-out to determine the condensation of the vented steam and the distribution of the energy deposited in the liquid pool. It has been found that a large contribution to the vapour suppression is due to condensation inside the vent pipe. The condensation rate of the steam inside the bubbles, produced at the vent exit, during their rise to the surface, may however be rather low, because of the large size bubbles. This can lead to vapour channelling to the Wetwell gas space. The above comments are likely to be ameliorated if the vent exit is a distributed source or sparger. Due to the large water flow rates within the {open_quotes}bubbly two-phase plume{close_quotes} generated by the gas injection, the water in the pool above the vent exit is likely to be heated nearly isothermally (perfect mixing). The effect of the suppression pool walls would be to enhance the recirculation and, consequently to promote mixing. The large size of the bubbles therein and of the walls on pool mixing are the most severe difficulties in extrapolating the results from scaled experiments to prototypical conditions.

  6. The 2011 submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    On 10 October 2011 a submarine volcanic eruption began 2 km SW of La Restinga village in the South coast of El Hierro Island (Spain). It became the first submarine eruption reported in 500 years of historical record in the Canary Islands. The eruption took place after three months of intensive seismic activity and ground deformation. The first signal evidencing the eruption was a harmonic tremor signal, located somewhere in the South sector of El Hierro Island and registered in every seismic station on the island. On the following day, the tremoŕs amplitude increased up enough to be felt by the residents of La Restinga. The first visual evidence of the eruption was observed during the afternoon of 12 October, a large light-green coloured area on the sea surface, 2 km to the SW of La Restinga. Three days later, steaming lava fragments were observed floating on the sea, in the area where the vent was supposed to be located. These fragments had a bomb-like shape and their sizes ranged between 10 and 40 cm long. They were bicoloured, a black outer part with a basaltic composition, and a white inner part, highly vesiculated and rich in silica content (>60%). This type of fragments was only observed during the first days of the eruption. Within the next two months further emission episodes have been observed with turbulent water, foam rings and large bubbles on the sea surface. On the 27th of November new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Most of them were "lava balloons" or hollow fragments of lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm, and highly vesiculated outer crust of basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane composition. The emission of these products continues intermitently up to date (January 2012) During the eruption, the GPS monitoring network detected episodes of inflation-deflation and a maximum vertical deformation of 4 cm. The horizontal deformation, which had reached up to 5 cm before the eruption, remains stable. The

  7. Galileo observations of volcanic plumes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.E.; McMillan, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Io's volcanic plumes erupt in a dazzling variety of sizes, shapes, colors and opacities. In general, the plumes fall into two classes, representing distinct source gas temperatures. Most of the Galileo imaging observations were of the smaller, more numerous Prometheus-type plumes that are produced when hot flows of silicate lava impinge on volatile surface ices of SO2. Few detections were made of the giant, Pele-type plumes that vent high temperature, sulfur-rich gases from the interior of Io; this was partly because of the insensitivity of Galileo's camera to ultraviolet wavelengths. Both gas and dust spout from plumes of each class. Favorably located gas plumes were detected during eclipse, when Io was in Jupiter's shadow. Dense dust columns were imaged in daylight above several Prometheus-type eruptions, reaching heights typically less than 100 km. Comparisons between eclipse observations, sunlit images, and the record of surface changes show that these optically thick dust columns are much smaller in stature than the corresponding gas plumes but are adequate to produce the observed surface deposits. Mie scattering calculations suggest that these conspicuous dust plumes are made up of coarse grained “ash” particles with radii on the order of 100 nm, and total masses on the order of 106 kg per plume. Long exposure images of Thor in sunlight show a faint outer envelope apparently populated by particles small enough to be carried along with the gas flow, perhaps formed by condensation of sulfurous “snowflakes” as suggested by the plasma instrumentation aboard Galileo as it flew through Thor's plume [Frank, L.A., Paterson, W.R., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 107, doi:10.1029/2002JA009240. 31-1]. If so, the total mass of these fine, nearly invisible particles may be comparable to the mass of the gas, and could account for much of Io's rapid resurfacing.

  8. Magma wagging and whirling in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Bercovici, David; Jellinek, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Seismic tremor characterized by 0.5-7 Hz ground oscillations commonly occur before and during eruptions at silicic volcanoes with widely ranging vent geometries and edifice structures. The ubiquitous characteristics of this tremor imply that its causes are potentially common to silicic volcanoes. Here we revisit and extend to three dimensions the magma-wagging model for tremor (Jellinek and Bercovici, 2011; Bercovici et al., 2013), wherein a stiff magma column rising in a vertical conduit oscillates against a surrounding foamy annulus of bubbly magma, giving rise to tremor. While prior studies were restricted to two-dimensional lateral oscillations, here we explore three-dimensional motion and additional modes of oscillations. In the absence of viscous damping, the magma column undergoes 'whirling' motion: the center of each horizontal section of the column traces an elliptical trajectory. In the presence of viscous effect we identify new 'coiling' and 'uncoiling' column bending shapes with relatively higher and comparable rates of dissipation to the original two-dimensional magma wagging model. We also calculate the seismic P-wave response of the crustal material around the volcanic conduit to the new whirling motions and propose seismic diagnostics for different wagging patterns using the time-lag between seismic stations. We test our model by analyzing pre-eruptive seismic data from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. In addition to suggesting that the occurrence of elliptical whirling motion more than 1 week before the eruption, our analysis of seismic time-lags also implies that the 2009 eruption was accompanied by qualitative changes in the magma wagging behavior including fluctuations in eccentricity and a reversal in the direction of elliptical whirling motion when the eruption was immediately impending.

  9. Petrography and geochemistry of lithic fragments in ignimbrites from the Mangakino Volcanic Centre : implications for the composition of the subvolcanic crust in western Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippner, S.J.P.; Briggs, R.M.; Wilson, C.J.N.; Cole, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    sampled the subvolcanic crust and volcanic pile from the vent walls en route to the surface. (author). 54 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Seismic equivalents of volcanic jet scaling laws and multipoles in acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Aldridge, David F.

    2018-04-01

    We establish analogies between equivalent source theory in seismology (moment-tensor and single-force sources) and acoustics (monopoles, dipoles and quadrupoles) in the context of volcanic eruption signals. Although infrasound (acoustic waves volcanic eruptions may be more complex than a simple monopole, dipole or quadrupole assumption, these elementary acoustic sources are a logical place to begin exploring relations with seismic sources. By considering the radiated power of a harmonic force source at the surface of an elastic half-space, we show that a volcanic jet or plume modelled as a seismic force has similar scaling with respect to eruption parameters (e.g. exit velocity and vent area) as an acoustic dipole. We support this by demonstrating, from first principles, a fundamental relationship that ties together explosion, torque and force sources in seismology and highlights the underlying dipole nature of seismic forces. This forges a connection between the multipole expansion of equivalent sources in acoustics and the use of forces and moments as equivalent sources in seismology. We further show that volcanic infrasound monopole and quadrupole sources exhibit scalings similar to seismicity radiated by volume injection and moment sources, respectively. We describe a scaling theory for seismic tremor during volcanic eruptions that agrees with observations showing a linear relation between radiated power of tremor and eruption rate. Volcanic tremor over the first 17 hr of the 2016 eruption at Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, obeyed the linear relation. Subsequent tremor during the main phase of the eruption did not obey the linear relation and demonstrates that volcanic eruption tremor can exhibit other scalings even during the same eruption.

  11. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Gravina-Nutzotin belt, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Norman J; Berg, Henry C.; Haffty, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    The Gravina-Nutzotin belt of Middle (?) Jurassic to middle Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks in south and southeastern Alaska includes concentrically zoned ultramafic complexes known to contain platinum-group metals. Previous isotopic, petrologic, and geologic studies suggested a close relation in time and space between the volcanic rocks and the ultramafic complexes. Interpretation of 40 analyses for platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks of the belt indicates a strong geochemical correlation between the two groups of rocks and is in support of their being cogenetic either from directly connected magma chambers and flows or indirectly by selective concentration processes from similar mantle material.

  12. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  13. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  14. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.

    1979-01-01

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  15. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  16. Volcanic crisis in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgs. Víctor Manuel Pérez Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of an investigation which is focussed on some deontological aspects of the scientificjournalism. In the first place it gives a theoretical vision about science, journalism, internet and including some reflectionsabout the deontological principles in handling the information about science and technology. This focus is useful as it formsthe base of an investigation where we deal with the information about a possible ”volcanic crisis” in El Teide during the years2004-2005 done by the digital newspaper” El Dïa” a canarian newspaper from Tenerife. The work required the revision of theinformation which was published and a followed analysis of its context. It was used the digital version with the purpose ofvisualizing the news which was published. It was also compared with a printed version, with local cover but divulged theinformation to the public who was most affected by this particular news. The results give rise to some questions regardinghow the information is given to a topic which is of local interest as well as national and international interest due to therepercussions in the social, economical and tourist field (the tourist field is the main industrial sector in Tenerife by receivingthis type of news.

  17. Imaging of volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io by Galileo during the Galileo Europa Mission and the Galileo Millennium Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.; Phillips, C.B.; Milazzo, M.; Geissler, P.; Turtle, E.P.; Radebaugh, J.; Williams, D.A.; Simonelli, D.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Denk, T.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez, Del; Castillo, E.M.; Belton, M.J.S.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Mueller, B.; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, J.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Bender, K.; Chuang, F.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, E.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Schenk, P.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Procter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Schuster, P.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Jaeger, W.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Gran,

    2001-01-01

    The Solid-State Imaging (SSI) instrument provided the first high- and medium-resolution views of Io as the Galileo spacecraft closed in on the volcanic body in late 1999 and early 2000. While each volcanic center has many unique features, the majority can be placed into one of two broad categories. The "Promethean" eruptions, typified by the volcanic center Prometheus, are characterized by long-lived steady eruptions producing a compound flow field emplaced in an insulating manner over a period of years to decades. In contrast, "Pillanian" eruptions are characterized by large pyroclastic deposits and short-lived but high effusion rate eruptions from fissures feeding open-channel or open-sheet flows. Both types of eruptions commonly have ???100-km-tall, bright, SO2-rich plumes forming near the flow fronts and smaller deposits of red material that mark the vent for the silicate lavas. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Hydrothermal Solute Flux from Ebeko Volcanic Center, Paramushir, Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Y.; Kalacheva, E.; Kotenko, T.; Chaplygin, I.

    2014-12-01

    Ebeko volcano on the northern part of Paramushir Island, Northern Kurils, is characterized by frequent phreatic eruptions, a strong low-temperature fumarolic activity at the summit and was the object of comprehensive volcanological and geochemical studies during the last half a century. The volcanic center is composed of several Pleistocene volcanic structures aadjacent to Ebeko and hosts a hydrothermal system with a high outflow rate of hot SO4-Cl acidic water (Upper Yurieva springs) with the current maximum temperature of ~85oC, pH 1.3 and TDS ~ 10 g/L. All discharging thermal waters are drained by the Yurieva River to the Sea of Okhotsk. The hot springs have been changing in time, generally decreasing their activity from near boiling in 1960s, with TDS ~ 20 g/L and the presence of a small steaming field at the upper part of the ~ 700 m long discharging area, to a much lower discharge rate of main vents, lower temperature and the absence of the steaming ground. The spring chemistry did not react to the Ebeko volcanic activity (14 strong phreato-magmatic events during the last 60 years).The total measured outputs of chloride and sulfur from the system last time (2006-2010) were estimated on average as 730 g/s and 980 g/s, respectively, which corresponds to the equivalent fluxes of 64 t/d of HCl and 169 t/d of SO2. These values are higher than the fumarolic volatile output from Ebeko. The estimated discharge rate of hot (85oC) water from the system with ~ 3500 ppm of chloride is about 0.3 m3/s which is much higher than the thermal water discharge from El Chichon or Copahue volcano-hydrothermal systems and among the highest hot water natural outputs ever measured for a volcano-hydrothermal system. We also report the chemical composition (major and ~ 60 trace elements including REE) of water from the main hot spring vents and the Yurieva river mouth.

  19. Review on geological character and exploration methods of Daqiaowu volcanic-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiangwei

    2009-01-01

    Through a new round of exploration work from 2006 to 2008 on exploration practice and studies, it is suggested that ore host rock in Daqiaowu volcanic rock-type uranium deposit is volcanic breccias which can be classified into two types, one is cryptoexplosion breccias of vent facies,the other is lens-like breccias of crater facies controlled by interlayer structure. Main ore-controlling structure is NW-trending faults, uranium ore bodies in all the mineralized belts of the deposit are mainly NW-trending. The layout of exploration projects in reconnaissance stage should be with flexible principles, so that project arrangement can be adjusted timely with the deepening and changes of geological understanding. (authors)

  20. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  1. QVAST: a new Quantum GIS plugin for estimating volcanic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Cappello, A.; Martí, J.; Del Negro, C.

    2013-11-01

    One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology is the construction of hazard maps simulating different eruptive scenarios that can be used in risk-based decision making in land-use planning and emergency management. The first step in the quantitative assessment of volcanic hazards is the development of susceptibility maps (i.e., the spatial probability of a future vent opening given the past eruptive activity of a volcano). This challenging issue is generally tackled using probabilistic methods that use the calculation of a kernel function at each data location to estimate probability density functions (PDFs). The smoothness and the modeling ability of the kernel function are controlled by the smoothing parameter, also known as the bandwidth. Here we present a new tool, QVAST, part of the open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS, which is designed to create user-friendly quantitative assessments of volcanic susceptibility. QVAST allows the selection of an appropriate method for evaluating the bandwidth for the kernel function on the basis of the input parameters and the shapefile geometry, and can also evaluate the PDF with the Gaussian kernel. When different input data sets are available for the area, the total susceptibility map is obtained by assigning different weights to each of the PDFs, which are then combined via a weighted summation and modeled in a non-homogeneous Poisson process. The potential of QVAST, developed in a free and user-friendly environment, is here shown through its application in the volcanic fields of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and La Garrotxa (NE Spain).

  2. Temporal evolution of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex (Pleistocene), Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchon, V.; Gillot, P. Y.; Quidelleur, X.; Chiesa, S.; Floris, B.

    2008-10-01

    The Roccamonfina volcanic complex (RVC), in southern Italy, is an Early to Middle Pleistocene stratovolcano sharing temporal and morphological characteristics with the Somma-Vesuvius and the Alban Hills; both being associated with high volcanic hazard for the cities of Naples and Rome, respectively. The RVC is important for the understanding of volcanic evolution in the Roman and Campanian volcanic provinces. We report a comprehensive study of its evolution based on morphological, geochemical and K-Ar geochronological data. The RVC was active from c.a. 550 ka to 150 ka. Its evolution is divided into five stages, defining a volcanic pulse recurrence time of c.a. 90-100 kyr. The two initial stages, consisted in the construction of two successive stratovolcanoes of the tephrite-phonolite, namely "High-K series". The first stage was terminated by a major plinian eruption emplacing the trachytic Rio Rava pumices at 439 ± 9 ka. At the end of the second stage, the last High-K series stratovolcano was destroyed by a large sector collapse and the emplacement of the Brown Leucitic Tuff (BLT) at 353 ± 5 ka. The central caldera of the RVC is the result of the overlapping of the Rio Rava and of the BLT explosions. The plinian eruption of the BLT is related to the emptying of a stratified, deep-seated HKS magma chamber during the upwelling of K series (KS) magma, marking a major geochemical transition and plumbing system re-organization. The following stage was responsible for the emplacement of the Lower White Trachytic Tuff at 331 ± 2 ka, and of basaltic-trachytic effusive products erupted through the main vent. The subsequent activity was mainly restricted to the emplacement of basaltic-shoshonitic parasitic cones and lava flows, and of minor subplinian deposits of the Upper White Trachytic Tuff between 275 and 230 ka. The northern crater is most probably a maar that formed by the phreatomagmatic explosion of the Yellow Trachytic Tuff at 230 ka. The latest stage of

  3. Analyse du vent sur l'aérodrome de Brasov-Ghimbav (Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ilie Briceag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette analyse du vent est destinée à préciser les conditions météorologiques locales qui conditionnent le fonctionnement de l'aérodrome de Brasov-Ghimbav. En aviation, la direction et l'intensité du vent sont très importantes pour le décollage et plus encore pour l'atterrissage des aéronefs. L'étude de cet élément météorologique est réalisée à partir d'une analyse climatologique portant sur 39 années, de 1971 à 2009, et d'une analyse aérologique sur 10 années, de 2000 à 2009 (les observations météorologiques ont été fournies par l'Administration Nationale de la Météorologie. Les résultats obtenus montrent la distribution prédominante du vent selon certaines directions, les directions nord-ouest et sud-ouest, pour les observations visuelles anciennes, et les directions ouest-nord-ouest et sud-sud-ouest, pour les observations automatiques au cours des six dernières années. Quelle que soit la méthode d'observation, c'est le vent de travers (directions ouest qui atteint les vitesses les plus élevées sur la piste principale de l'aérodrome de Brasov-Ghimbav, comme du reste sur la piste projetée pour le futur aéroport international de Brasov. Cela constitue un problème pour les aéronefs les plus légers, dont les valeurs limites pour le vent de travers sont faibles. Dans ce contexte, la prévision des vents violents est très importante. La distribution horaire des vents sur la période 2000­2009, montre notamment qu'au printemps et en été, les vents de nord-ouest sont largement dominants durant le jour, en particulier pour les vitesses [10-15 m/s, avec une fréquence maximale entre 10 et 15 heures. L'analyse aérologique des situations météorologiques apporte des éléments d'explication à certaines observations. Ainsi les vitesses du vent ≥ 20 m/s ont été enregistrées majoritairement en présence du cyclone Islandais, lors du passage du front atmosphérique froid, le contraste barrique étant

  4. Shallow vent architecture of Puyehue Cordón-Caulle, as revealed by direct observation of explosive activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, C. I.; Tuffen, H.; Castro, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    On June 4, 2011, an explosive eruption of rhyodacitic magma began at the Puyehue Cordón-Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC), southern Chile. Initial Plinian phases of the eruption produced tephra plumes reaching > 14 km high, the ash from which quickly circumnavigated the globe to cause widespread disruption to air traffic in the Southern Hemisphere. Within two weeks, the continuing explosive eruption was joined by synchronous effusion of lava. We present observations of complex vent activity made 7 months after the eruption onset, on January 4th and 10th, 2012, when explosive activity from PCCVC continued at a lower level of intensity. Fortuitous climatic conditions permitted direct, ground-based observation and video recording of transient vent dynamics within the asymmetrical tephra cone around the main eruptive vent complex and site of lava effusion, as well as real-time collection of juvenile ash as it rained out directly from the active plume. On Jan. 4, explosive activity was semi-continuous ash jetting punctuated by Vulcanian-like blasts. In the ~50m-diameter sub-circular base of the ~400 m-wide, asymmetrical tephra cone, near-continuous ash jetting was observed from two primary point sources. The northerly source was clearly visible, with time-averaged diameter of ~10 m, and the apparently larger southerly source was mostly obscured from view by the ash plume. Activity was at all times somewhat erratic, but followed a rough cyclicity on 30-45 s timescales, consisting of: (1) restriction of the point source into a focused ash jet up to ~50 m high, producing coarse ash dominated by tube pumice (with minor free pyroxene crystals); followed by (2) Vulcanian-like failure of the region around the point source, producing incandescent ballistic bombs thrown up to 100-200 m from the vent. Jetting from the two main point sources combined in the crater to produce a low gas-thrust region and sustained buoyant plume. Directed ash plumes that climbed and breached the inner

  5. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic

  6. Active Volcanic Eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Six views of the volcanic plume named Prometheus, as seen against Io's disk and near the bright limb (edge) of the satellite by the SSI camera on the Galileo spacecraft during its second (G2) orbit of Jupiter. North is to the top of each frame. To the south-southeast of Prometheus is another bright spot that appears to be an active plume erupting from a feature named Culann Patera. Prometheus was active 17 years ago during both Voyager flybys, but no activity was detected by Voyager at Culann. Both of these plumes were seen to glow in the dark in an eclipse image acquired by the imaging camera during Galileo's first (G1) orbit, and hot spots at these locations were detected by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.The plumes are thought to be driven by heating sulfur dioxide in Io's subsurface into an expanding fluid or 'geyser'. The long-lived nature of these eruptions requires that a substantial supply of sulfur dioxide must be available in Io's subsurface, similar to groundwater. Sulfur dioxide gas condenses into small particles of 'snow' in the expanding plume, and the small particles scatter light and appear bright at short wavelengths. The images shown here were acquired through the shortest-wavelength filter (violet) of the Galileo camera. Prometheus is about 300 km wide and 75 km high and Culann is about 150 km wide and less than 50 km high. The images were acquired on September 4, 1996 at a range of 2,000,000 km (20 km/pixel resolution). Prometheus is named after the Greek fire god and Culann is named after the Celtic smith god.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can

  7. Bacterial Diets of Primary Consumers at Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govenar, B.; Shank, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical energy produced by mixing hydrothermal fluids and seawater supports dense biological communities on mid-ocean ridges. The base of the food web at deep-sea hydrothermal vents is formed by chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that use the energy from the oxidation of reduced chemicals to fix inorganic carbon into simple sugars. With the exception of a few species that have chemolithoautotropic bacterial symbionts, most of the vent-endemic macrofauna are heterotrophs that feed on free-living bacteria, protists, and other invertebrates. The most abundant and diverse group of primary consumers in hydrothermal vent communities belong to the Gastropoda, particularly the patellomorph limpets. Gastropod densities can be as high as 2000 individuals m-2, and there can be as many as 13 species of gastropods in a single aggregation of the siboglinid tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and more than 40 species along the East Pacific Rise. Some gastropods are ubiquitous and others are found in specific microhabitats, stages of succession, or associated with different foundation species. To determine the mechanisms of species coexistence (e.g. resource partitioning or competition) among hydrothermal vent primary consumers and to track the flow of energy in hydrothermal vent communities, we employed molecular genetic techniques to identify the gut contents of four species of co-occurring hydrothermal vent gastropods, Eulepetopsis vitrea, Lepetodrilus elevatus, Lepetodrilus ovalis and Lepetodrilus pustulosus, collected from a single diffuse-flow hydrothermal vent site on the East Pacific Rise. Unique haplotypes of the 16S gene that fell among the epsilon-proteobacteria were found in the guts of every species, and two species had gut contents that were similar only to epsilon-proteobacteria. Two species had gut contents that also included haplotypes that clustered with delta-proteobacteria, and one species had gut contents that clustered with alpha- proteobacteria. Differences in the diets

  8. Are vent crab behavioral preferences adaptations for habitat choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Tseng, Li-Chun; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent organisms are adapted to their extreme and patchily distributed habitats. They are expected to have evolved mechanisms that keep them in their specific habitation. Since little is known about the recruitment or habitat selection of HV organisms such as brachyurans, we examined the properties of several hydrothermal vent-associated cues on the behavior of the hydrothermal vent (HV) crab Xenograpsus testudinatus in the laboratory that were contrasted by the offering of non-vent cues. This crab species is endemic and dominates the vent fauna of Turtle Island off the NE coast of Taiwan. HV crabs were separately and in combination offered the following vent-specific cues: (1) sulfuric sediment, (3) air-bubbling, (4) elevated temperature, (5) dead settled zooplankton, (7) other crabs, and (8) shade. The non-vent-specific cues were: (2) quarz sediment, (6) dead fish, (8) light. These cues were provided on either side of a two-choice chamber. The movement of individual crabs was monitored: as initial and final choices, and as the proportion of time the crabs spent in each compartment (resident time). Cues were offered alone and no such cue as a control in the same set-up. Sulfuric sediments and dead fish were significantly more attractive to females, and other crabs irrespective of gender were significantly more attractive to males. When compared to expected distributions, crabs, irrespective of gender, significantly avoided light and tended to select other crabs, air-bubbling, sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, dead fish, dead zooplankton, and quarz sediments in the order of decreasing importance. Data do not support the hypothesis that dead settled zooplankton was particularly attractive nor that the other gender was selected. A combination of several vent-associated cues (sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, air-bubbling) facilitated the strongest attraction to the crabs as reflected by all response variables. The 'first choice' responses

  9. Geologic and geophysical investigations of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ander, M.E.; Heiken, G.; Eichelberger, J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Huestis, S.

    1981-05-01

    A positive, northeast-trending gravity anomaly, 90 km long and 30 km wide, extends southwest from the Zuni uplift, New Mexico. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, an alignment of 74 basaltic vents, is parallel to the eastern edge of the anomaly. Lavas display a bimodal distribution of tholeiitic and alkalic compositions, and were erupted over a period from 4 Myr to present. A residual gravity profile taken perpendicular to the major axis of the anomaly was analyzed using linear programming and ideal body theory to obtain bounds on the density contrast, depth, and minimum thickness of the gravity body. Two-dimensionality was assumed. The limiting case where the anomalous body reaches the surface gives 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ as the greatest lower bound on the maximum density contrast. If 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ is taken as the geologically reasonable upper limit on the maximum density contrast, the least upper bound on the depth of burial is 3.5 km and minimum thickness is 2 km. A shallow mafic intrusion, emplaced sometime before Laramide deformation, is proposed to account for the positive gravity anomaly. Analysis of a magnetotelluric survey suggests that the intrusion is not due to recent basaltic magma associated with the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field. This large basement structure has controlled the development of the volcanic field; vent orientations have changed somewhat through time, but the trend of the volcanic chain followed the edge of the basement structure. It has also exhibited some control on deformation of the sedimentary section.

  10. Rapid uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (Chile) measured by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Singer, B. S.; Pesicek, J. D.; Thurber, C. H.; Jicha, B. R.; Lara, L. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Williams-Jones, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone extends over 500 square kilometers and comprises more than 130 individual vents. As described by Hildreth et al. (2010), the history has been defined from sixty-eight Ar/Ar and K-Ar dates. Silicic eruptions have occurred throughout the past 3.7 Ma, including welded ignimbrite associated with caldera formation at 950 ka, small rhyolitic eruptions between 336 and 38 ka, and a culminating ring of 36 post-glacial rhyodacite and rhyolite coulees and domes that encircle the lake. Dating of five post-glacial flows implies that these silicic eruptions occurred within the last 25 kyr. Field relations indicate that initial eruptions comprised modest volumes of mafic rhyodacite magma that were followed by larger volumes of high silica rhyolite. The post-glacial flare-up of silicic magmatism from vents distributed around the lake, is unprecedented in the history of this volcanic field. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), Fournier et al. (2010) measured uplift at a rate of more than 180 mm/year between 2007 and 2008 in a round pattern centered on the west side of LdM. More recent InSAR observations suggest that rapid uplift has continued from 2008 through early 2011. In contrast, Fournier et al. found no measurable deformation in an interferogram spanning 2003 through 2004. In this study, we model the deformation field using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT), as described by Feigl and Thurber (2009). Two different models fit the data. The first model assumes a sill at ~5 km depth has been inflating at a rate of more than 20 million cubic meters per year since 2007. The second model assumes that the water level in the lake dropped at a rate of 20 m/yr from January 2007 through February 2010, thus reducing the load on an elastic simulation of the crust. The rate of intrusion inferred from InSAR is an order of magnitude higher than the average rate derived from well-dated arc

  11. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  12. Rate of volcanism on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegley, B. Jr.; Prinn, R.G.

    1988-07-01

    The maintenance of the global H 2 SO 4 clouds on Venus requires volcanism to replenish the atmospheric SO 2 which is continually being removed from the atmosphere by reaction with calcium minerals on the surface of Venus. The first laboratory measurements of the rate of one such reaction, between SO 2 and calcite (CaCO 3 ) to form anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), are reported. If the rate of this reaction is representative of the SO 2 reaction rate at the Venus surface, then we estimate that all SO 2 in the Venus atmosphere (and thus the H 2 SO 4 clouds) will be removed in 1.9 million years unless the lost SO 2 is replenished by volcanism. The required rate of volcanism ranges from about 0.4 to about 11 cu km of magma erupted per year, depending on the assumed sulfur content of the erupted material. If this material has the same composition as the Venus surface at the Venera 13, 14 and Vega 2 landing sites, then the required rate of volcanism is about 1 cu km per year. This independent geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of the two discordant (2 cu km/year vs. 200 to 300 cu km/year) geophysically estimated rates is correct. The geochemically estimated rate also suggests that Venus is less volcanically active than the Earth

  13. Preliminary Results on Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Loki's Castle Arctic Vents and Host Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Fernando; Carvalho, Carlos; Inês Cruz, M.; Dias, Ágata; Fonseca, Rita; Relvas, Jorge; Pedersen, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    The Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008, during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF). Loki's Castle is the northernmost hydrothermal vent field discovered to date. It is located at the junction between the Mohns Ridge and the South Knipovich Ridge, in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, at almost 74°N. This junction shows unique features and apparently there is no transform fault to accommodate the deformation generated by the bending of the rift valley from WSW-ENE to almost N-S. The Knipovich Rigde, being a complex structure, is an ultra-slow spreading ridge, with an effective spreading rate of only ~ 6 mm/y. It is partly masked by a substantial cover of glacial and post-glacial sediments, estimated to be between 12 and 20 ky old, derived from the nearby Bear Island fan, to the East of the ridge. The Loki's Castle vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320°C fluid, at the top of a very large sulphide mound, which is estimated to be around 200 m in diameter. About a dozen gravity cores were obtained in the overall area. From these we collected nearly 200 subsamples. Eh and pH were measured in all subsamples. The Portuguese component of the H2Deep project is aimed at characterizing, chemically and mineralogically, the sulphide chimneys and the collected sediments around the vents (up to 5 meters long gravity cores). These studies are aimed at understanding the ore-forming system, and its implications for submarine mineral exploration, as well as the relation of the microbial population with the hydrothermal component of sediments. Here we present an overview of preliminary data on the mineralogical assemblage found in the analyzed sediments and chimneys. The identification of the different mineral phases was obtained through petrographic observations of polished thin sections under the microscope (with both

  14. Estimating Losses from Volcanic Ash in case of a Mt. Baekdu Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Yoon, Seong-Min; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong

    2014-05-01

    We will present the preliminary result of economic losses in South Korea in case of a Mt. Baedu eruption. The Korean peninsula has Mt. Baekdu in North Korea, which will soon enter an active phase, according to volcanologists. The anticipated eruption will be explosive given the viscous and grassy silica-rich magma, and is expected to be one of the largest in recent millennia. We aim to assess the impacts of this eruption to South Korea and help government prepare for the volcanic disasters. In particular, the economic impact from volcanic ash is estimated given the distance from Mt. Baedu to South Korea. In order to scientifically estimate losses from volcanic ash, we need volcanic ash thickness, inventory database, and damage functions between ash thickness and damage ratios for each inventory item. We use the volcanic ash thickness calculated by other research groups in Korea, and they estimated the ash thickness for each eruption scenario using average wind fields. Damage functions are built using the historical damage data in the world, and inventory database is obtained from available digital maps in Korea. According to the preliminary results, the economic impact from volcanic ash is not significant because the ash is rarely deposited in South Korea under general weather conditions. However, the ash can impact human health and environment. Also worst case scenarios can have the significant economic impacts in Korea, and may result in global issues. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-3] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  15. Analysis of Gas Vent System in Overseas LILW Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Ryong; Ha, Jae Chul [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility is currently under construction in Korea. It is located in the aquifer, 80{approx}130 m below the ground surface. Thus, it is expected that disposal facility will be saturated after closure and various gases will be generated from metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials and radiolysis. Generated gases will move up to the upper part of the silo, and it will increase the pressure of the silo. Since the integrity of the engineered barrier could be damaged, development of effective gas vent system which can prevent the gas accumulation in the silo is essential. In order to obtain basic data needed to develop site-specific gas vent system, gas vent systems of Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, which have the disposal concept of underground facility, were analyzed

  16. Vent clearing analysis of a Mark III pressure suppression containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, R.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the vent clearing transient in a Mark III pressure suppression containment after a hypothetical LOCA is carried out. A two-dimensional numerical model solving the transient fluid dynamic equations is used. The geometry of the pressure suppression pool is represented and the pressure and velocity fields in the pool are obtained from the moment the LOCA occurs until the first vent in the drywell wall clears. The results are compared to those obtained with the one-diemensional model used for containment design, with special interest on two-dimensional effects. Some conclusions concerning the effect of the water discharged into the suppression pool through the vents on submerged structures are obtained. Future improvements to the model are suggested. (orig.)

  17. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse delivered to the protective liquid blanket. Configurations used in the study include both 2700 MJ and 350 MJ fusion yields per pulse for 5 meter and 3 meter radius reactor chambers. For the former, an annular jet array is used for the blanket geometry, while in the latter, both annular jet array as well as slab geometries are used. Results of the study indicate that blast venting and wall loading may be manageable in the HYLIFE-II design by a judicious choice of blanket configuration

  18. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  19. Resolving the architecture of monogenetic feeder systems from exposures of extinct volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, J.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Re, G.; White, J. D. L.; Ort, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Monogenetic volcanic fields pose hazards to a number of major cities worldwide. During an eruption, the evolution of the intrusive feeder network modulates eruption behavior and location, as well as the warning signs of impending activity. However, historical examples of monogenetic eruptions are rare, particularly those monitored with the modern tools required to constrain the geometry and interconnectivity of subsurface intrusive feeders (e.g., InSAR, GPS). Geologic exposures in extinct fields around the Colorado Plateau provide clues to the geometry of shallow intrusions (<1000 m depth) that feed monogenetic volcanoes. We present field- and satellite-based observations of exposed intrusions in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field (Arizona), which reveal that many eruptions were fed by interconnected dike-sill systems. Results from the Hopi Buttes show that volcanic cone alignment studies are biased to the identification of dike intrusions, and thereby neglect the important contributions of sills to shallow feeder systems. For example, estimates of intruded volumes in fields exhumed by uplift and erosion in Utah and Arizona show that sills make up 30 - 92% of the shallow intruded volume within 1000 m of the paleosurface. By transporting magma toward and away from eruptive conduits, these sills likely played a role in modulating eruption styles (e.g., explosive vs effusive) and controlling lateral vent migrations. Sill transitions at Hopi Buttes would have produced detectable surface uplifts, and illustrate the importance of geological studies for informing interpretations of geodetic and seismological data during volcanic crises.

  20. Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripepe, M; Barfucci, G; De Angelis, S; Delle Donne, D; Lacanna, G; Marchetti, E

    2016-11-10

    Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.

  1. Determining Volcanic Deformation at San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador by Integrating Radar Interferometry and Seismic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiek, C. G.; Hurtado, J. M.; Velasco, A. A.; Buckley, S. M.; Escobar, D.

    2008-12-01

    From the early 1900's to the present day, San Miguel volcano has experienced many small eruptions and several periods of heightened seismic activity, making it one of the most active volcanoes in the El Salvadoran volcanic chain. Prior to 1969, the volcano experienced many explosive eruptions with Volcano Explosivity Indices (VEI) of 2. Since then, eruptions have decreased in intensity to an average VEI of 1. Eruptions mostly consist of phreatic explosions and central vent eruptions. Due to the explosive nature of this volcano, it is important to study the origins of the volcanism and its relationship to surface deformation and earthquake activity. We analyze these interactions by integrating interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results with earthquake source location data from a ten-month (March 2007-January 2008) seismic deployment. The InSAR results show a maximum of 7 cm of volcanic inflation from March 2007 to mid-October 2007. During this time, seismic activity increased to a Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) value of >400. Normal RSAM values for this volcano are earthquakes that occurred between March 2007 and January 2008 suggests a fault zone through the center of the San Miguel volcanic cone. This fault zone is most likely where dyke propagation is occurring. Source mechanisms will be determined for the earthquakes associated with this fault zone, and they will be compared to the InSAR deformation field to determine if the mid-October seismic activity and observed surface deformation are compatible.

  2. Hydrothermal Vents and Methane Seeps: Rethinking the Sphere of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Levin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although initially viewed as oases within a barren deep ocean, hydrothermal vent and methane seep communities are now recognized to interact with surrounding ecosystems on the sea floor and in the water column, and to affect global geochemical cycles. The importance of understanding these interactions is growing as the potential rises for disturbance from oil and gas extraction, seabed mining and bottom trawling. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the nature, extent and time and space scales of vent and seep interactions with background systems. We document an expanded footprint beyond the site of local venting or seepage with respect to elemental cycling and energy flux, habitat use, trophic interactions, and connectivity. Heat and energy are released, global biogeochemical and elemental cycles are modified, and particulates are transported widely in plumes. Hard and biotic substrates produced at vents and seeps are used by benthic background fauna for attachment substrata, shelter, and access to food via grazing or through position in the current, while particulates and fluid fluxes modify planktonic microbial communities. Chemosynthetic production provides nutrition to a host of benthic and planktonic heterotrophic background species through multiple horizontal and vertical transfer pathways assisted by flow, gamete release, animal movements, and succession, but these pathways remain poorly known. Shared species, genera and families indicate that ecological and evolutionary connectivity exists among vents, seeps, organic falls and background communities in the deep sea; the genetic linkages with inactive vents and seeps and background assemblages however, are practically unstudied. The waning of venting or seepage activity generates major transitions in space and time that create links to surrounding ecosystems, often with identifiable ecotones or successional stages. The nature of all these interactions is dependent on water depth, as

  3. Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps: Rethinking the sphere of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Baco, Amy; Bowden, David; Colaco, Ana; Cordes, Erik E.; Cunha, Marina; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Gobin, Judith; Grupe, Ben; Le, Jennifer; Metaxas, Anna; Netburn, Amanda; Rouse, Greg; Thurber, Andrew; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Vanreusel, Ann; Watling, Les

    2016-01-01

    Although initially viewed as oases within a barren deep ocean, hydrothermal vent and methane seep communities are now recognized to interact with surrounding ecosystems on the sea floor and in the water column, and to affect global geochemical cycles. The importance of understanding these interactions is growing as the potential rises for disturbance from oil and gas extraction, seabed mining and bottom trawling. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the nature, extent and time and space scales of vent and seep interactions with background systems. We document an expanded footprint beyond the site of local venting or seepage with respect to elemental cycling and energy flux, habitat use, trophic interactions, and connectivity. Heat and energy are released, global biogeochemical and elemental cycles are modified, and particulates are transported widely in plumes. Hard and biotic substrates produced at vents and seeps are used by “benthic background” fauna for attachment substrata, shelter, and access to food via grazing or through position in the current, while particulates and fluid fluxes modify planktonic microbial communities. Chemosynthetic production provides nutrition to a host of benthic and planktonic heterotrophic background species through multiple horizontal and vertical transfer pathways assisted by flow, gamete release, animal movements, and succession, but these pathways remain poorly known. Shared species, genera and families indicate that ecological and evolutionary connectivity exists among vents, seeps, organic falls and background communities in the deep sea; the genetic linkages with inactive vents and seeps and background assemblages however, are practically unstudied. The waning of venting or seepage activity generates major transitions in space and time that create links to surrounding ecosystems, often with identifiable ecotones or successional stages. The nature of all these interactions is dependent on water depth, as well as

  4. Multiple-vent programme to test the pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, I.

    1979-01-01

    Three pre-tests with a multiple vent configuration have been performed at the GKSS pressure suppression test facility. First test results indicate significant chugging events with occur periodically with 0.4 to 0.2 Hz. These events appear simultaneously in less than 10 ms at the exit of the three vent pipes and cause pressure pulses in the range of 3 bar. This report gives a short description of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the three pre-tests, test results and a first valuation of the experimental informations. (orig.) [de

  5. Quantifying Volcanic Emissions of Trace Elements to the Atmosphere: Ideas Based on Past Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I.

    2003-12-01

    Extensive data exist from volcanological and geochemical studies about exotic elemental enrichments in volcanic emissions to the atmosphere but quantitative data are quite rare. Advanced, highly sensitive techniques of analysis are needed to detect low concentrations of some minor elements, especially during major eruptions. I will present data from studies done during low levels of activity (incrustations and silica tube sublimates at high temperature fumaroles, from SEM studies of particle samples collected in volcanic plumes and volcanic clouds, from geochemical analysis of volcanic gas condensates, from analysis of treated particle and gas filter packs) and a much smaller number that could reflect explosive activity (from fresh ashfall leachate geochemistry, and from thermodynamic codes modeling volatile emissions from magma). This data describes a highly variable pattern of elemental enrichments which are difficult to quantify, generalize and understand. Sampling in a routine way is difficult, and work in active craters has heightened our awareness of danger, which appropriately inhibits some sampling. There are numerous localized enrichments of minor elements that can be documented and others can be expected or inferred. There is a lack of systematic tools to measure minor element abundances in volcanic emissions. The careful combination of several methodologies listed above for the same volcanic vents can provide redundant data on multiple elements which could lead to overall quantification of minor element fluxes but there are challenging issues about detection. For quiescent plumes we can design combinations of measurements to quantify minor element emission rates. Doing a comparable methodology to succeed in measuring minor element fluxes for significant eruptions will require new strategies and/or ideas.

  6. Combining Geological and Geophysical Data in Volcanic Hazard Estimation for Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, O.; Latchman, J. L.; Connor, C.; Malservisi, R.; Connor, L.

    2014-12-01

    Risk posed by volcanic eruptions are generally quantified in a few ways; in the short term geophysical data such as seismic activity or ground deformation are used to assess the state of volcanic unrest while statistical approaches such as spatial density estimates are used for long term hazard assessment. Spatial density estimates have been used in a number of monogenetic volcanic fields for hazard map generation and utilize the age, location and volumes of previous eruptions to calculate the probability of a new event occurring at a given location within this field. In a previously unpublished study, spatial density estimates of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc showed the island of Dominica to have the highest likelihood of future vent formation. In this current study, this technique was used in combination with relocated seismic events occurring beneath Dominica within the last ~ 20 years as well as InSAR images of ground deformation to generate a hazard map which not only takes into consideration the past events but also the current state of unrest. Here, geophysical data serve as a weighting factor in the estimates with those centers showing more vigorous activity receiving stronger favorability in the assessment for future activity. In addition to this weighting, the bandwidth utilized in the 2D-radially symmetric kernel density function was optimized using the SAMSE method so as to find the value which best minimizes the error in the estimate. The end results of this study are dynamic volcanic hazards maps which will be readily updatable as changes in volcanic unrest occurs within the system.

  7. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  8. Applying geophysical surveys for studying subsurface geology of monogenetic volcanic fields: the example of La Garrotxa Volcanic Field (NE of Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Improving knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of monogenetic volcanoes and the relationship with the subsurface geology is an important task. We applied high-precision geophysical techniques that are self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography, for the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate of La Garrotxa Volcanic Field, which is part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. Previous geophysical studies carried out in the same area at a less detailed scale were aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. Self-potential study allowed identifying key areas where electrical resistivity tomography could be conducted. Dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones were identified through the generation of resistivity models. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These studies show that previous alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Furthermore, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area can be controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural, and hydrogeological features underneath these monogenetic volcanoes. This study was partially funded by the Beca Ciutat d'Olot en Ciències Naturals and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO").

  9. Hunting for Hydrothermal Vents at the Local-Scale Using AUV's and Machine-Learning Classification in the Earth's Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    New AUV-based mapping technology coupled with machine-learning methods for detecting individual vents and vent fields at the local-scale raise the possibility of understanding the geologic controls on hydrothermal venting.

  10. Spectral image analysis of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelman, J.W.; Wescott, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of economic deposits, the semi-arid environment and the youth of applied remote-sensing technology suit the Hopi Buttes volcanic field as a test site for the application of multispectral image analysis to geologic interpretation and uranium evaluation. All possible enhancements of seasonal images were created in the General Electric interactive multispectral analyzer, model 100, and photographed for study. Contrast and directional edge-enhancement excellently delineated the patterns of megafractures and lineaments which are obscure to ground observation, but may control vent positions. Two sets of orthogonal groups of megafractures are oriented in the cardinal and diagonal directions; they suggest rotation of the stress ellipsoid, or the overlap of stresses from a differently oriented ellipsoid in a neighboring region. A megacircle of vents suggests a deep cylindrical fracture zone and possible incipient cauldron. Other circular areas with unusually abundant travertine maars or volcanic-material-free pipes suggest incipient collapse. Band ratios, density slices and histogram stretches selectively enhanced and differentiated stratigraphic formations, limburgite, tuff, travertine, gypsum-argillized rock and Fe-enriched rock. These were portrayed successfully on thematic map-images. A signature was derived for uraniferous travertine-marl and used to map its distribution. 30 refs.; 24 figs

  11. A spaceborne inventory of volcanic activity in Antarctica and southern oceans, 2000-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Smellie, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the more than twenty historically active volcanoes in Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic region only two, to our knowledge, host any ground-based monitoring instruments. Moreover, because of their remoteness, most of the volcanoes are seldom visited, thus relegating the monitoring of volcanism in this region almost entirely to satellites. In this study, high temporal resolution satellite data from the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology's MODVOLC system using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) are complemented with high spatial resolution data (ASTER, or Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, and similar sensors) to document volcanic activity throughout the region during the period 2000–10. Five volcanoes were observed in eruption (Mount Erebus, Mount Belinda, Mount Michael, Heard Island and McDonald Island), which were predominantly low-level and effusive in nature. Mount Belinda produced tephra, building a cinder cone in addition to an extensive lava field. Five volcanoes exhibited detectable thermal, and presumed fumarolic, activity (Deception, Zavodovski, Candlemas, Bristol, and Bellingshausen islands). A minor eruption reported at Marion Island was not detected in our survey due to its small size. This study also discovered a new active vent on Mount Michael, tracked dramatic vent enlargement on Heard Island, and provides an improved picture of the morphology of some of the volcanoes.

  12. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Picard, R.; Valentine, G.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km 2 area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10 -8 to 10 -10 yr -1 2 . The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site

  13. Environmental & Water Quality Operational Studies: Improvement of Hydropower Release Dissolved Oxygen with Turbine Venting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    VENTED HYDROTURBINE .. 38 Model Development .......................................... 38 Model Application...mouth intake (Figures B26-B27). 37 A F -W V .0P V *W V *. V. VW . i. ~ ~ -% PART V: MODELING OF REAERATION THROUGH A VENTED HYDROTURBINE 75. Development

  14. The Volcanism Ontology (VO): a model of the volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, J.; Babaie, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have modeled a part of the complex material and process entities and properties of the volcanic system in the Volcanism Ontology (VO) applying several top-level ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), SWEET, and Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) within a single framework. The continuant concepts in BFO describe features with instances that persist as wholes through time and have qualities (attributes) that may change (e.g., state, composition, and location). In VO, the continuants include lava, volcanic rock, and volcano. The occurrent concepts in BFO include processes, their temporal boundaries, and the spatio-temporal regions within which they occur. In VO, these include eruption (process), the onset of pyroclastic flow (temporal boundary), and the space and time span of the crystallization of lava in a lava tube (spatio-temporal region). These processes can be of physical (e.g., debris flow, crystallization, injection), atmospheric (e.g., vapor emission, ash particles blocking solar radiation), hydrological (e.g., diffusion of water vapor, hot spring), thermal (e.g., cooling of lava) and other types. The properties (predicates) relate continuants to other continuants, occurrents to continuants, and occurrents to occurrents. The ontology also models other concepts such as laboratory and field procedures by volcanologists, sampling by sensors, and the type of instruments applied in monitoring volcanic activity. When deployed on the web, VO will be used to explicitly and formally annotate data and information collected by volcanologists based on domain knowledge. This will enable the integration of global volcanic data and improve the interoperability of software that deal with such data.

  15. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  16. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  17. Elevated Colonization of Microborers at a Volcanically Acidified Coral Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Ian C; Manzello, Derek P; Tribollet, Aline; Valentino, Lauren; Kolodziej, Graham; Donham, Emily M; Fitchett, Mark D; Carlton, Renee; Price, Nichole N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments have demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) conditions projected to occur by the end of the century will slow the calcification of numerous coral species and accelerate the biological erosion of reef habitats (bioerosion). Microborers, which bore holes less than 100 μm diameter, are one of the most pervasive agents of bioerosion and are present throughout all calcium carbonate substrates within the reef environment. The response of diverse reef functional groups to OA is known from real-world ecosystems, but to date our understanding of the relationship between ocean pH and carbonate dissolution by microborers is limited to controlled laboratory experiments. Here we examine the settlement of microborers to pure mineral calcium carbonate substrates (calcite) along a natural pH gradient at a volcanically acidified reef at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Colonization of pioneer microborers was higher in the lower pH waters near the vent field. Depth of microborer penetration was highly variable both among and within sites (4.2-195.5 μm) over the short duration of the study (3 mo.) and no clear relationship to increasing CO2 was observed. Calculated rates of biogenic dissolution, however, were highest at the two sites closer to the vent and were not significantly different from each other. These data represent the first evidence of OA-enhancement of microboring flora colonization in newly available substrates and provide further evidence that microborers, especially bioeroding chlorophytes, respond positively to low pH. The accelerated breakdown and dissolution of reef framework structures with OA will likely lead to declines in structural complexity and integrity, as well as possible loss of essential habitat.

  18. Elevated Colonization of Microborers at a Volcanically Acidified Coral Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Enochs

    Full Text Available Experiments have demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA conditions projected to occur by the end of the century will slow the calcification of numerous coral species and accelerate the biological erosion of reef habitats (bioerosion. Microborers, which bore holes less than 100 μm diameter, are one of the most pervasive agents of bioerosion and are present throughout all calcium carbonate substrates within the reef environment. The response of diverse reef functional groups to OA is known from real-world ecosystems, but to date our understanding of the relationship between ocean pH and carbonate dissolution by microborers is limited to controlled laboratory experiments. Here we examine the settlement of microborers to pure mineral calcium carbonate substrates (calcite along a natural pH gradient at a volcanically acidified reef at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Colonization of pioneer microborers was higher in the lower pH waters near the vent field. Depth of microborer penetration was highly variable both among and within sites (4.2-195.5 μm over the short duration of the study (3 mo. and no clear relationship to increasing CO2 was observed. Calculated rates of biogenic dissolution, however, were highest at the two sites closer to the vent and were not significantly different from each other. These data represent the first evidence of OA-enhancement of microboring flora colonization in newly available substrates and provide further evidence that microborers, especially bioeroding chlorophytes, respond positively to low pH. The accelerated breakdown and dissolution of reef framework structures with OA will likely lead to declines in structural complexity and integrity, as well as possible loss of essential habitat.

  19. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements

  20. Candidate constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    [Introduction] Studies using MESSENGER data suggest that Mercury’s crust is predominantly a product of effusive volcanism that occurred in the first billion years following the planet’s formation. Despite this planet-wide effusive volcanism, no constructional volcanic edifices, characterized by a topographic rise, have hitherto been robustly identified on Mercury, whereas constructional volcanoes are common on other planetary bodies in the solar system with volcanic histories. Here, we descri...

  1. Isotopic feature and uranium dating of the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic rocks from the northern and middle Okinawa Trough were dated by uranium-series dating method. Differential fractions using magnetic procedure were designed to separate samples. New report on the ages and isotopic data of rocks in the northern trough (especially black pumice) was discussed. Based on the uranium dates and Sr-Nd isotopic ratio, magmatic evolution process of the Okinawa Trough was noted. Firstly, there have been wide silicic volcanic activities in the Okinawa Trough from late Pleistocene to present, and the volcanic rocks can be divided into three subgroups. Secondly, magma generally came from PREMA source area under the Okinawa Trough. Magmatic evolution in the northern trough was similar to the middle, but different to the south. Finally, volcanic activities indicated that opening of the southern Okinawa Trough did not happen due to the collision between Luson Arc and Eurasian Plate until the early Pleistocene.

  2. Center for Volcanic and Tectonic Studies: 1992--1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The annual report of the Center for Volcanic Studies (CVTS) contains a series of papers, reprints and a Master of Science thesis that review the progress made by the CVTS between October 1, 1992 and February 1, 1994. During this period CVTS staff focused on several topics that have direct relevance to volcanic hazards related to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These topics include: (1) polygenetic/polycyclic volcanism in Crater Flat, Nevada; (2) the role of the mantle during crustal extension; (3) the detailed geology of Crater Flat, Nevada; (4) Pliocene volcanoes in the Reveille Range, south-central Nevada; (5) estimating the probability of disruption of the proposed repository by volcanic eruptions. This topic is being studied by Dr. C.H. Ho at UNLV. The report contains copies of these individual papers as they were presented in various conference proceedings

  3. Population genetic structure of Rufous-Vented Prinia ( Prinia burnesii )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study is to ascertain genetic variation within Rufous-vented Prinia, Prinia burnesii an endemic species, by DNA fingerprinting applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Genetic material was obtained from three distant sites along western bank of River Indus. These sites include ...

  4. The filtered venting system under construction at barseback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A filter venting containment system, bearing the acronym FILTRA will be installed at the Swedish nuclear power plant Barseback. The Barseback Power Plant is owned by the Southern Sweden Power Supply (Sydkraft AB) and has two 1700-MW boiling water reactors. The reactors are of ASEA-ATOM design with pressure suppression containments (Mark IItype). The installation of the filter venting system is a condition set by the Swedish government for a continued operating license after September 1, 1986. The construction work for the FILTRA plant, the first of its kind ever planned, will be completed at the end of 1985. The FILTRA is designed so that 99.9% of the core inventory of radioactivity, excluding inert gases, is retained in the reactor containment and filter system in the event of containment venting. Another design guideline is to achieve passive functioning of the FILTRA plant during the first 24 h of an accident. The FILTRA plant is common to the two reactors on the site and consists mainly of two systems, a venting system (pressure relief system) and a filtering system. The total cost is approximately U.S. $15 million

  5. Sweden employs a multi venturi scrubber for containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisson, K.; Waltersten, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Filtra-MVSS for filtered venting of containment overpressure is a flexible system capable of covering a wide range of hypothetical design basis events for BWRs and PWRs. The system encompasses a number of special features, can be optimized for a specified decontamination factor, and can accommodate a wide range of off-gas flow rates. (author)

  6. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before removing the cover; (2) If the vault or pit is vented, there must be a means of preventing external sources... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough to...

  7. GPE-BWR and the containment venting and filtering issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, J.; Santiago, J. de

    1988-01-01

    The Spanish Boiling Water Reactor Owner's Group (GPE-BWR) is formed by three utilities, owning four units: Santa Maria de Garona (46 MWe, BWR3, Mark I containment), Cofrentes (975 MWe, BWR6, Mark III containment) and Valdecaballeros (2x975 MWe, BWR6, Mark III containment) - all of the reactors having been supplied by General Electric. One of the GPE-BWR's several committees is the Safety and Licensing Committee, which follows up the evolution of severe accident topics and particularly the containment venting and filtering issue. In September 1987, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), the Spanish Regulatory Body, asked the GPE-BWR to define its position on the installation of a containment venting system. The GPE-BWR created a Working Group which presented a Report on Containment Venting to the CSN in January 1987 gathered from: the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); some US utilities; and several European countries, especially France, Germany and Sweden. CSN's review of the containment venting Report and the Action Plan proposed by the GPE-BWR finished in April 1988. The conclusion of the Report and the proposed Action Plan take into account the US NRC's identified open items on severe accidents and the R and D programs scheduled to close these items

  8. CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

    2006-09-21

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization.

  9. Geology and zircon fission track ages of volcanic rocks in the western part of Hoshino gold area, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadi, Ahmed; Himeno, Osamu; Watanabe, Koichiro; Izawa, Eiji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-12-01

    The Hoshino gold area is located in the western part of the Hohi volcanic zone, northern Kyushu. Volcanic rocks in this area vary from andesitic rocks in the north to dacite and rhyolite in the South. The basement is constituted by metamorphic rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. The volcanic rocks of Pliocene age were subdivided into eight volcanic units. Seven fission track ages of zircons from five volcanic units have been determined, using the external detector method. The age data obtained, combined with some previously reported ages, show that two main volcanic activities have occurred in the area. The first volcanic activity took place around 4.3 Ma, and resulted into the deposition of the Hoshino Andesite and the Ikenoyama Conglomerate. The second main volcanism started around 3.5 Ma, and was characterized by the eruption of the Shakadake Andesite and the Reiganji Andesite at the early stage, then, by more acidic rocks of the Takeyama Andesite, the Hyugami Dacite and the Kuroki Rhyolite at the later stage. The main volcanism in the area ceased around 2.6 Ma. (author)

  10. Influences on the variability of eruption sequences and style transitions in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.; Procter, Jonathan; Agustín-Flores, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monogenetic basaltic volcanism is characterised by a complex array of eruptive behaviours, reflecting spatial and temporal variability of the magmatic properties (e.g. composition, eruptive volume, magma flux) as well as environmental factors at the vent site (e.g. availability of water, country rock geology, faulting). These combine to produce changes in eruption style over brief periods (minutes to days) in many eruption episodes. Monogenetic eruptions in some volcanic fields often start with a phreatomagmatic vent-opening phase that later transforms into "dry" magmatic explosive or effusive activity, with a strong variation in the duration and importance of this first phase. Such an eruption sequence pattern occurred in 83% of the known eruption in the 0.25 My-old Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand. In this investigation, the eruptive volumes were compared with the sequences of eruption styles preserved in the pyroclastic record at each volcano of the AVF, as well as environmental influencing factors, such as distribution and thickness of water-saturated semi- to unconsolidated sediments, topographic position, distances from known fault lines. The AVF showed that there is no correlation between ejecta ring volumes and environmental influencing factors that is valid for the entire AVF. In contrary, using a set of comparisons of single volcanoes with well-known and documented sequences, resultant eruption sequences could be explained by predominant patterns of the environment in which these volcanoes were erupted. Based on the spatial variability of these environmental factors, a first-order susceptibility hazard map was constructed for the AVF that forecasts areas of largest likelihood for phreatomagmatic eruptions by overlaying topographical and shallow geological information. Combining detailed phase-by-phase breakdowns of eruptive volumes and the event sequences of the AVF, along with the new susceptibility map, more realistic eruption scenarios can be

  11. Shield Through Rejuvenated Stage Volcanism On Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, B.; Clague, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Kauai rejuvenated rocks. Niihau rejuvenated lavas are shifted to slightly higher 87Sr/86Sr at a given 143Nd/144Nd than Kauai rejuvenated lavas, consistent with an enhanced carbonate component in their source (Dixon et al., 2008). Rejuvenated stage lavas have a diagnostic Sr and Nd isotopic signature on both Kauai and Niihau, but on Kauai the isotopic shift begins during the postshield stage. For Kauai, age and geochemical data suggest that volcanic activity was near-continuous from shield to postshield to rejuvenated stage, with a change in mantle source at the postshield to rejuvenated transition. On Niihau, a prominent erosional and age gap separates onland shield and postshield rocks from the rejuvenated stage lavas, with the change in mantle sources at the beginning of the rejuvenated stage. ROV dives on six vents off the NW coast of Niihau recovered a suite of highly alkaline basanites with REE patterns similar to Kauai rejuvenated lavas but with isotopic ratios spanning the range of Niihau shield and postshield lavas. These alkaline lavas are highly vesicular and more altered than rejuvenated stage Niihau rocks, are undated, but may straddle the postshield to rejuvenated stage transition. No equivalents exist at other Hawaiian volcanoes.

  12. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  13. Filtered atmospheric venting of light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgran, A.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.

    1982-11-01

    The aim of filtered venting is to improve the function of the reactor containment in connection with very severe accidents. By equipping the containment with a safety valve for pressure relief and allowing the released gases to pass through an effective filter, it should be possible to achieve a considerable protective effect. The work has involved detailed studies of the core meltdown sequence, how the molten core material runs out of the reactor vessel, what effect it has on concrete and other structures and how final cooling of the molten core material takes place. On the basis of previous Swedish studies, the project has chosen to study a filter concept that consists of a gravel bed of large volume. This filter plant shall not only retain the radioactive particles that escape from the containment through the vent line, but shall also condense the accompanying steam. After the government decided in 1981 that Barsebaeck was to be equipped with filtered venting and issued specifications regarding its performance, the project aimed at obtaining results that could be used to design and verify a plant for filtered venting at the Barsebaeck nuclear power station. As far as the other Swedish nuclear power plants at Oskarshamn, Ringhals and Forsmark are concerned, the results are only applicable to a limited extent. Additional studies are required for these nuclear power plants before the value of filtered venting can be assessed. Based on the results of experiments and analyses, the project has made a safety analysis with Barsebaeck as a reference plant in order to study how the introduction of filtered venting affects the safety level at a station. In summary, the venting function appears to entail a not insignificant reduction of risks for boiling water reactors of the Barsebaeck type. For a number of types of such very severe core accident cases, the filter design studied ensures a substantial reduction of the releases. However it has not been possible within the

  14. Geophysical Signatures of cold vents on the northern Cascadia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Paull, C. K.; Spence, G.; Hyndman, R. D.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Lundsten, E.; Ussler, W.; Schwalenberg, K.

    2009-12-01

    The accretionary prism of the northern Cascadia margin is a classic gas hydrate research area. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 146 and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 documented that gas hydrate is widely distributed across the margin. In recent years an increased research focus has been on cold vents, where methane gas is actively released. Two recent expeditions funded by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) were conducted in the area of IODP Sites U1327 and U1328. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was used to map the seafloor bathymetry followed by dives with the ROV Doc Ricketts for ground truth information of various seafloor morphological features identified. The two cruises revealed many new seafloor features indicative of methane venting that were previously unknown. Bullseye Vent (BV) has been extensively studied using seismic imaging, piston coring, heat-flow, controlled-source EM, and deep drilling. BV is seismically defined by a circular wipe-out zone but the new AUV data show that BV is rather an elongated depression. BV is associated with a shoaling in the BSR, but lacks evidence for the existence of an underlying fault in the previous data. Although a massive gas-hydrate plug was encountered within the top 40 mbsf in the IODP holes, the ROV observations only revealed some platy methane derived carbonate outcrops at the outer-most rim of the depressions, a few beds of Vesicomya clams, and no observed gas vents, which together do not indicate that BV is especially active now. Further northeast of BV, but along the same trend, active gas venting was found associated with seafloor blistering and bacterial mats suggesting that there is an underlying fault system providing a fluid flow conduit. The newly discovered vent area has few seismic line crossings; however the available seismic data surprisingly are not associated with wipe-out zones. Another prominent fault-related gas vent also was investigated during the

  15. Acidic volcanic rock and its potential as an objective for uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Torres, R.; Yza Dominguez, R.; Chavez Aguirre, R.; Constantino, H.E.S.E.

    1976-01-01

    The geographical distribution of recent Mexican volcanic rocks is continuous; the older formations are dispersed in isolated outcrops. Continental volcanic events, acidic and basal, took place in the Caenozoic, Mesozoic and Palaeozoic; basic submarine volcanism predominated in the Mesozoic, Palaeozoic and late Precambrian. Access to the Sierra Madre Occidental, a circum-Pacific mountain range covered by rhyolitic rocks, is limited, which restricts the sections studied. Calderas, sources of volcanic emission and preliminary litho-stratigraphic sections have been delimited on the eastern edge of the range. Subduction by the ocean magmatized the continent from the Permian onwards, extravasating and depositing cyclically various magmata through inverted and normal cortical throws. The Sierra Pena Blanca (Chihuahua) section consists of epiclastic and pyroclastic rocks. A calcareous conglomerate is overburdened by alternate basal tuffs and imbricates, forming five units. In the uraniferous district of the Sierra Pena Blanca the hydrothermal alteration argillitized both components of the ''Nopal'' formation. Primary minerals (pitchblende) are found together with silicification. Leaching favours secondary mineralization (uranium silicates) associated with opals. After extrapolation of the features, the following are considered worth-while objectives: the faces, offsets and prolongations of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the southern volcanic mesetas south of the Mexican Transcontinental Rift. Similar objectives of Mesozoic or Palaeozoic age exist in central and southern Mexico. Possible objectives for uranium are: the acidic volcanic rock of the southern and south-western United States of America, the circum-Pacific acidic volcanic rocks of North America and the acidic volcanic mesetas of Central America and in the Andes. (author)

  16. The effect of pressurized magma chamber growth on melt migration and pre-caldera vent locations through time at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of eruptions at long-lived volcanic centers provides a window into the co-evolution of crustal magma transport, tectonic stresses, and unsteady magma generation at depth. Mount Mazama in the Oregon Cascades has seen variable activity over the last 400 ky, including the 50 km3 climactic eruption at ca. 7.7 ka that produced Crater Lake caldera. The physical mechanisms responsible for the assembly of silicic magma reservoirs that are the precursors to caldera-forming eruptions are poorly understood. Here we argue that the spatial and temporal distribution of geographically clustered volcanic vents near Mazama reflects the development of a centralized magma chamber that fed the climactic eruption. Time-averaged eruption rates at Mount Mazama imply an order of magnitude increase in deep magma influx prior to the caldera-forming event, suggesting that unsteady mantle melting triggered a chamber growth episode that culminated in caldera formation. We model magma chamber–dike interactions over ∼50 ky preceding the climactic eruption to fit the observed distribution of surface eruptive vents in space and time, as well as petrologically estimated deep influx rates. Best fitting models predict an expanding zone of dike capture caused by a growing, oblate spheroidal magma chamber with 10–30 MPa of overpressure. This growing zone of chamber influence causes closest approaching regional mafic vent locations as well as more compositionally evolved Mazama eruptions to migrate away from the climactic eruptive center, returning as observed to the center after the chamber drains during the caldera-forming eruption.

  17. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  18. Water column imaging on hydrothermal vent in Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J.; Park, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Water column imaging with Multibeam echosounder systems (MBES) is recently becoming of increasing interest for oceanographic studies. Especially gas bubbles and hot water exposed from hydrothermal vents make acoustic impedance anomalies in cold seawater, water column imaging is very useful for the researchers who want to detect some kinds of hydrothermal activity. We conducted a hydrothermal exploration program, called "INVENT17", using the MBES system, KONGBERG EM122 (12kHz, 1°×1°), mounted on R/V ISABU and we deployed other equipments including video guided hydraulic grab, tow-yo CTD and general CTD with MAPR (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder) in 2017. First, to evaluate its capabilities of detection of hydrothermal vent, the surveys using the MBES were conducted at the Solitaire Field, previously identified hydrothermal area of the Central Indian Ridge. The bathymetric data obtained from MBES provided information about detailed morphology of seafloor, but we were not able to achieve the information from the water column imaging data. But the clue of existence of active hydrothermal vent was detected through the values of ΔNTU, dEh/dt, and OPR gained from MAPR, the data means that the hydrothermal activity affects 100m from the seafloor. It could be the reason that we can't find the hydrothermal activity because the range resolution of water column imaging is pretty rough so that the size of 100m-scaled activity has low possibility to distinguish from seafloor. The other reason is there are no sufficient objects to cause strong scattering like as CO2 bubbles or droplets unlike in the mid-Okinawa Trough. And this suggests that can be a important standard to identify properties of hydrothermal vent sites depending on the presence of scattering objects in water mass. To justify this, we should perform more chemical analysis of hot water emanating from hydrothermal vent and collected several bottles of water sample to do that.

  19. Process for retention of iodine and aerosols during containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, B.; Betz, R.; Greger, G.U.; Werner, K.D.

    1990-05-01

    A process for retention of the majority of aerosols and iodine during containment venting was optimized. For this purpose, sections of a two-stage process comprising a venturi scrubber and a metal-fiber filter demister were tested under containment venting conditions assumed to prevail during a hypothetical core - melt accident and optimized with a view to achieving high decontamination factors and loading capacity while minimizing the size of the process. The loading and retention tests performed in a scrubber operating pressure range between 1 and 10 bar, at temperatures from 50 to 200degC (also boiling pools) and in air and steam atmospheres. Under these unfavorable conditions for aerosol retention, the retention efficiencies were determined at various flow rates with soluble and non-soluble aerosols as well as gaseous iodine. The retention efficiencies for BaSO 4 , uranine and SnO 2 aerosols were determined to be 99.95% to 99.99% for venturi scrubbers with metal-fiber filter demister. The retention efficiency for elemental iodine was determined to be ≥99% including revolatization effects over a 24-hour operating period. The high loading capacity of the venturi scrubber unit was verified after process modifications with various aerosols. The use of full-scale process section together with the best possible simulation of containment venting conditions by the test parameters ensured that the results can be transferred to real venting equipment. The aim of ensuring the retention of the majority of the aerosol-borne activity and of elemental iodine activity and minimizing the process size was clearly achieved and verified by means of this optimized venting equipment under an extremely wide range of hypothetical core-melt accident conditions. (orig.) With 17 refs., 3 tabs., 35 annexes [de

  20. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  1. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  2. 40 CFR 63.115 - Process vent provisions-methods and procedures for process vent group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section. (2) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40... accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or...)(3) of this section. (i) The vent stream volumetric flow rate (Qs), in standard cubic meters per...

  3. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin

    2017-08-16

    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  4. A depositional model for spherulitic carbonates associated with alkaline, volcanic lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Brasier, Alexander T.; Rogerson, Mike; Reijmer, John J.G.; Vonhof, Hubert; Pedley, Martyn

    2017-01-01

    The South Atlantic Aptian ‘Pre-salt’ reservoirs are formed by a combination of spherulitic carbonates and Mg-rich clays accumulated in volcanic alkaline lake settings with exotic chemistries. So far, outcrop analogues characterised by metre-thick successions deposited in lacustrine scenarios are

  5. Remote Sensing and GIS as Tools for Identifying Risk for Phreatomagmatic Eruptions in the Bishoftu Volcanic Field, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, H. G.; Graettinger, A.

    2017-12-01

    Bishoftu is a fast-growing town in the Oromia region of Ethiopia, located 47 km southeast of the nation's capital, Addis Ababa. It is situated atop a monogenetic basaltic volcanic field, called the Bishoftu Volcanic Field (BVF), which is composed of maar craters, scoria cones, lava flows, and rhyolite domes. Although not well dated, the morphology and archeological evidence have been used to infer a Holocene age, indicating that the community is exposed to continued volcanic risk. The presence of phreatomagmatic constructs in particular indicates that the hazards are not only vent-localized, but may have far reaching impacts. Hazard mapping is an essential tool for evaluating and communicating risks. This study presents the results of GIS analyses of proximal and distal syn-eruptive hazards associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions in the BVF. A digitized infrastructure map based on a SPOT 6 satellite image is used to identify the areas at risk from eruption scenarios. Parameters such as wind direction, vent location, and explosion energy are varied for hazard simulations to quantify the area impacted by different eruption scenarios. Proximal syn-eruptive hazards include tephra fall, base pyroclastic surges, and ballistic bombs. Distal hazards include predominantly ash fall. Eruption scenarios are simulated using Eject and Plumeria models as well as similar case studies from other urban volcanic fields. Within 5 km of the volcanic field center, more than 30 km2 of residential and commercial/industrial infrastructure will be damaged by proximal syn-eruptive hazards, in addition to 34 km2 of agricultural land, 291 km of roads, more than 10 km of railway, an airport, and two health centers. Within 100 km of the volcanic field center, ash fall will affect 3946 km2 of agricultural land, 179 km2 of residential land, and 28 km2 of commercial/industrial land. Approximately 2700 km of roads and railways, 553 km of waterways, an airport, and 14 health centers are located

  6. 3D upper crustal seismic structure across Santorini volcanic field: Constraints on magmatic and tectonic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, B.; Hooft, E. E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Papazachos, C. V.; Walls, K.; Paulatto, M.; Morgan, J. V.; Nomikou, P.; Warner, M.

    2017-12-01

    To investigate magmatic-tectonic interactions at an arc volcano, we collected a dense, active-source, seismic dataset across the Santorini Volcano, Greece, with 90 ocean bottom seismometers, 65 land seismometers, and 14,300 marine sound sources. We use over 140,000 travel-time picks to obtain a P-wave tomography model of the upper crustal structure of the Santorini volcano and surrounding tectonically extended region. Regionally, the shallow (Bouguer gravity anomalies and preliminary shallow attenuation results (using waveform amplitudes and t* values). We find regional Pliocene and younger faults bounding basement grabens and horsts to be predominately oriented in a NE-SW direction with Santorini itself located in a graben bounded by faults striking in this direction. In contrast, volcanic vents and dikes expressed at the surface seem to strike about 20° clockwise relative to these regional faults. In the northern caldera of Santorini, a 4-km wide region of anomalously low velocities and high attenuation directly overlies an inferred source of 2011-2012 inflation (4-4.5 km depth), however it is located at shallower depths ( 1-2km). The imaged low-velocity anomaly may correspond to hydrothermal activity (due to increased porosity and alteration) and/or brecciation from a prior episode of caldera collapse. It is bounded by anomalously fast velocities (at 1-2 km depth) that parallel the regional fault orientation and are correspondingly rotated 20° to surface dikes. At 4-5 km depth beneath the northern caldera basin, low-velocity anomalies and attenuated seismic arrivals provide preliminary evidence for a magma body; the low-velocity anomaly is elongated in the same direction as regional volcanic vents. The difference in strike of volcanic and tectonic features indicates oblique extension and potential time-variation in the minimum stress direction.

  7. Degassing during magma ascent in the Mule Creek vent (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, M.V.; Barclay, J.; Carroll, M.R.; Jaupart, Claude; Ratte, J.C.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Tait, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The structures and textures of the rhyolite in the Mule Creek vent (New Mexico, USA) indicate mechanisms by which volatiles escape from silicic magma during eruption. The vent outcrop is a 300-m-high canyon wall comprising a section through the top of a feeder conduit, vent and the base of an extrusive lava dome. Field relations show that eruption began with an explosive phase and ended with lava extrusion. Analyses of glass inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from the lava indicate that the magma had a pre-eruptive dissolved water content of 2.5-3.0 wt% and, during eruption, the magma would have been water-saturated over the vertical extent of the present outcrop. However, the vesicularity of the rhyolite is substantially lower than that predicted from closed-system models of vesiculation under equilibrium conditions. At a given elevation in the vent, the volume fraction of primary vesicles in the rhyolite increases from zero close to the vent margin to values of 20-40 vol.% in the central part. In the centre the vesicularity increases upward from approximately 20 vol.% at 300 m below the canyon rim to approximately 40 vol.% at 200 m, above which it shows little increase. To account for the discrepancy between observed vesicularity and measured water content, we conclude that gas escaped during ascent, probably beginning at depths greater than exposed, by flow through the vesicular magma. Gas escape was most efficient near the vent margin, and we postulate that this is due both to the slow ascent of magma there, giving the most time for gas to escape, and to shear, favouring bubble coalescence. Such shear-related permeability in erupting magma is supported by the preserved distribution of textures and vesicularity in the rhyolite: Vesicles are flattened and overlapping near the dense margins and become progressively more isolated and less deformed toward the porous centre. Local zones have textures which suggest the coalescence of bubbles to form permeable

  8. Maintenir la continuité des collections à l'heure d'Internet : du catalogue de vente au site web de maison de vente

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquet , Françoise

    2014-01-01

    International audience; La Bibliothèque nationale de France conserve depuis des siècles une importante collection de catalogues de vente sur support papier. Cependant avec l’apparition d’Internet on assiste à une dématérialisation des données documentaires en art. Aujourd’hui les sites des maisons de vente offrent en ligne les adjudications des ventes, récentes ou archivées et certaines ventes sont désormais annoncées uniquement sur Internet. Ces informations qui ne se trouvent pas sur les ca...

  9. Vent rate of superconducting magnets during quench in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    When a superconducting magnet goes normal, resistive heating in the conductor evaporates surrounding LHe, which must be vented. The nature and speed at which the magnet goes normal and He is vented are not subject to rigorous analysis. This paper presents vent data from an existing magnet. An approximate mathematical model is derived and fitted to the data to permit scaling of vent requirements to larger size magnets. The worst case models of the vent employed in Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) cryogenic system design are also presented

  10. Lithium, boron and chloride in volcanics and greywackes in Northland, Auckland and the Taupo Volcanic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.G.; Trompetter, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    During magmatic differentiation processes B preferentially partitions into the glassy mesostasis of rhyolite and andesite. The behaviour of Li, on the other hand, varies with the silica content of the rock. Lithium, B, Cl and water contents increase proportionally with the silica concentration of the volcanic rocks. Their relative proportions in andesites of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) appear to reflect the nature of the underlying crust, the dip of the subducting slab and hence the depth and temperature of magma generation. The B/Li ratios of rhyolites associated with the northern Rotorua and Okataina eruptive centres yield lower B/Li ratios than those from Maroa and Taupo centres in the south, where the slab subducts at a shallower angle. Apparently, volcanics associated with a younger subduction event as in the TVZ, contain and retain more Cl, yielding lower Li/Cl ratios for the TVZ than Northland-Auckland basalts. The B/Li ratio of greywackes from the Torlesse terrane ( 1.4). In geothermal wells in Ngawha, hydrothermal alteration yields higher B/Li ratios of >2.8 for Waipapa terrane sedimentary rocks. The Li/Cl ratios for average South and North Island greywackes are similar and may reflect similar degrees of metamorphism. In general, the relative Li, B and Cl contents in greywackes are dictated by the composition of the detrital fragments, the clay fraction, the type of clays and the metamorphic grade. During hydrothermal alteration of rhyolite in the TVZ, Cl always partitions into solution while Li and B have an affinity for the rock. However, more Li remains in the rock than B at any given temperature. The distribution coefficients of Li and B between water and rock increase with increasing temperature. The partitioning of Li between rock and solution in TVZ hydrothermal systems is mainly dictated by temperature, whereas the mass distribution coefficient for B is related to the tectonic setting. An increase in relative Li of the rock is associated with the

  11. In situ Raman-based detections of the hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    the northern South China Sea. Several sediment pore water profiles nearly at the cold seep vent showed the characteristic loss of SO42-, and the increase of CH4, H2S and HS- peaks. Dissolved S8 and CH4had been first found at the fluids under the lush biological communities of the cold seep. This may indicate some bacteria mats at the lush biological communities oxidize hydrogen sulfide and produce elemental sulfur as a byproduct. Our research suggests that the in situ observed H2S:HS-, and HSO4-:SO42- ratios provide elegant pH sensitive "dyes" with which to diagnose the geochemical reactions occurring.

  12. Noble Gas geochemistry of the newly discovered hydrothermal fields in the Gulf of California: preliminary He-isotope ratios from the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero basin vent sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Lupton, J. E.; Evans, L. J.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Neumann, F.; Paduan, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous submarine deep-sea hydrothermal vents related to volcanic activity of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are situated along the Pacific margins of Mexico. Until recently, active hydrothermal venting was unknown between the Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the EPR. MBARI's recent oceanographic surveys have added 7 new active vent sites. In this study, we aimed to sample the high-temperature hydrothermal fluids emanating from two distinct vent sites, named Meyibo and Auka, located in the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero Basin, respectively. Mantle-derived He have long been identified in hydrothermal fluid releases. The presence of He in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA, where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the presence of mantle-derived melts. Preliminary analyses of He-isotope ratios derived from the newly discovered Meyibo and Auka hydrothermal fields show high 3He/4He ratios (~8RA), typical of MORB's. Auka vent field, characterized by chimneys composed of light carbonate minerals and oil-like hydrocarbons, and temperatures between 250-290oC, show average values of ~7.87RA. In contrast, the black-smokers at the Meyibo field, composed of dark sulfide minerals and temperatures over 350oC, yielded a higher He ratio of ~8.24RA. Recently, it has become clear that regional maximum mantle He values correlate with the velocity structure in the mantle, therefore, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle that are undergoing partial melting. Seismic records could then be compared with the geochemical He ratio signal and supply information regarding tectonics and other processes involved in the generation of these gases. The data presented here will be completing a totally new inventory of He results from hydrothermal vents in the EPR and fault-termination basins distributed along the P-NA plate boundary in the Gulf of California. The results will be further coupled with the analysis of other geochemical

  13. In-flight dynamics of volcanic ballistic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Cruz-Vázquez, O.; Del Bello, E.; Scarlato, P.; Ricci, T.

    2017-09-01

    Centimeter to meter-sized volcanic ballistic projectiles from explosive eruptions jeopardize people and properties kilometers from the volcano, but they also provide information about the past eruptions. Traditionally, projectile trajectory is modeled using simplified ballistic theory, accounting for gravity and drag forces only and assuming simply shaped projectiles free moving through air. Recently, collisions between projectiles and interactions with plumes are starting to be considered. Besides theory, experimental studies and field mapping have so far dominated volcanic projectile research, with only limited observations. High-speed, high-definition imaging now offers a new spatial and temporal scale of observation that we use to illuminate projectile dynamics. In-flight collisions commonly affect the size, shape, trajectory, and rotation of projectiles according to both projectile nature (ductile bomb versus brittle block) and the location and timing of collisions. These, in turn, are controlled by ejection pulses occurring at the vent. In-flight tearing and fragmentation characterize large bombs, which often break on landing, both factors concurring to decrease the average grain size of the resulting deposits. Complex rotation and spinning are ubiquitous features of projectiles, and the related Magnus effect may deviate projectile trajectory by tens of degrees. A new relationship is derived, linking projectile velocity and size with the size of the resulting impact crater. Finally, apparent drag coefficient values, obtained for selected projectiles, mostly range from 1 to 7, higher than expected, reflecting complex projectile dynamics. These new perspectives will impact projectile hazard mitigation and the interpretation of projectile deposits from past eruptions, both on Earth and on other planets.

  14. International Collaboration on Building Local Technical Capacities for Monitoring Volcanic Activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Chigna, G.; Morales, H.; Waite, G. P.; Oommen, T.; Lechner, H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Pacaya volcano is a frequently active and potentially dangerous volcano situated in the Guatemalan volcanic arc. It is also a National Park and a major touristic attraction, constituting an important economic resource for local municipality and the nearby communities. Recent eruptions have caused fatalities and extensive damage to nearby communities, highlighting the need for risk management and loss reduction from the volcanic activity. Volcanic monitoring at Pacaya is done by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), instrumentally through one short period seismic station, and visually by the Parque Nacional Volcan de Pacaya y Laguna de Calderas (PNVPLC) personnel. We carry out a project to increase the local technical capacities for monitoring volcanic activity at Pacaya. Funding for the project comes from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists through the Geoscientists Without Borders program. Three seismic and continuous GPS stations will be installed at locations within 5 km from the main vent at Pacaya, and one webcam will aid in the visual monitoring tasks. Local educational and outreach components of the project include technical workshops on data monitoring use, and short thesis projects with the San Carlos University in Guatemala. A small permanent exhibit at the PNVPLC museum or visitor center, focusing on the volcano's history, hazards and resources, will also be established as part of the project. The strategy to involve a diverse group of local collaborators in Guatemala aims to increase the chances for long term sustainability of the project, and relies not only on transferring technology but also the "know-how" to make that technology useful. Although not a primary research project, it builds on a relationship of years of joint research projects at Pacaya between the participants, and could be a model of how to increase the broader impacts of such long term collaboration partnerships.

  15. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  16. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  18. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  19. Source mechanism of volcanic tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrick, M.G.; Qamar, A.; St. Lawrence, W.F.

    1982-10-10

    Low-frequency (<10 Hz) volcanic earthquakes originate at a wide range of depths and occur before, during, and after magmatic eruptions. The characteristics of these earthquakes suggest that they are not typical tectonic events. Physically analogous processes occur in hydraulic fracturing of rock formations, low-frequency icequakes in temperate glaciers, and autoresonance in hydroelectric power stations. We propose that unsteady fluid flow in volcanic conduits is the common source mechanism of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes (tremor). The fluid dynamic source mechanism explains low-frequency earthquakes of arbitrary duration, magnitude, and depth of origin, as unsteady flow is independent of physical properties of the fluid and conduit. Fluid transients occur in both low-viscosity gases and high-viscosity liquids. A fluid transient analysis can be formulated as generally as is warranted by knowledge of the composition and physical properties of the fluid, material properties, geometry and roughness of the conduit, and boundary conditions. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the fluid dynamic theory, we consider a single-phase fluid, a melt of Mount Hood andesite at 1250/sup 0/C, in which significant pressure and velocity variations occur only in the longitudinal direction. Further simplification of the conservation of mass and momentum equations presents an eigenvalue problem that is solved to determine the natural frequencies and associated damping of flow and pressure oscillations.

  20. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  1. Fractal analysis: A new tool in transient volcanic ash plume characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournigand, Pierre-Yves; Peña Fernandez, Juan Jose; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Perugini, Diego; Sesterhenn, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    varying rates. Increasing fractal dimension correspond to an increase in the overall complexity of plume shape and thus to an increase in flow turbulence over time. Accordingly, numerical simulations show that, fractal dimension increases faster with increasing Reynolds number. However, other parameters seem to play a role in volcanic plumes evolution. The features of the eruption source (e.g. vent number, size and shape, ejection duration, number and time interval between the different ejection pulses that characterize unsteady eruptions) seem also to have an effect on this time evolution with for example a single vent source generating a faster increase of the fractal dimension than in the case of a plume fed by several vents over time. This first attempt to use fractal analysis on volcanic plume could be the starting point towards a new kind of tools for volcanic plume characterization potentially giving an access to parameters so far unreachable by only using more traditional techniques. Fractal dimension analysis applied on volcanic plumes could directly link a shape evolution to source conditions and thus help to constrain uncertainties existing on such parameters.

  2. Volcanism and hydrothermalism on a hotspot-influenced ridge: Comparing Reykjanes Peninsula and Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałgan, Dominik; Devey, Colin W.; Yeo, Isobel A.

    2017-12-01

    Current estimates indicate that the number of high-temperature vents (one of the primary pathways for the heat extraction from the Earth's mantle) - at least 1 per 100 km of axial length - scales with spreading rate and should scale with crustal thickness. But up to present, shallow ridge axes underlain by thick crust show anomalously low incidences of high-temperature activity. Here we compare the Reykjanes Ridge, an abnormally shallow ridge with thick crust and only one high-temperature vent known over 900 km axial length, to the adjacent subaerial Reykjanes Peninsula (RP), which is characterized by high-temperature geothermal sites confined to four volcanic systems transected by fissure swarms with young (Holocene) volcanic activity, multiple faults, cracks and fissures, and continuous seismic activity. New high-resolution bathymetry (gridded at 60 m) of the Reykjanes Ridge between 62°30‧N and 63°30‧N shows seven Axial Volcanic Ridges (AVR) that, based on their morphology, geometry and tectonic regime, are analogues for the volcanic systems and fissure swarms on land. We investigate in detail the volcano-tectonic features of all mapped AVRs and show that they do not fit with the previously suggested 4-stage evolution model for AVR construction. Instead, we suggest that AVR morphology reflects the robust or weak melt supply to the system and two (or more) eruption mechanisms may co-exist on one AVR (in contrast to 4-stage evolution model). Our interpretations indicate that, unlike on the Reykjanes Peninsula, faults on and around AVRs do not cluster in orientation domains but all are subparallel to the overall strike of AVRs (orthogonal to spreading direction). High abundance of seamounts shows that the region centered at 62°47‧N and 25°04‧W (between AVR-5 and -6) is volcanically robust while the highest fault density implies that AVR-1 and southern part of AVR-6 rather undergo period of melt starvation. Based on our observations and interpretations we

  3. Shuttle Gaseous Hydrogen Venting Risk from Flow Control Valve Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Baurle, Robert A.; Gafney, Richard L.; Norris, Andrew T.; Pellett, Gerald L.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a series of studies to assess the potential risk associated with the failure of one of three gaseous hydrogen flow control valves in the orbiter's main propulsion system during the launch of Shuttle Endeavour (STS-126) in November 2008. The studies focused on critical issues associated with the possibility of combustion resulting from release of gaseous hydrogen from the external tank into the atmosphere during assent. The Shuttle Program currently assumes hydrogen venting from the external tank will result in a critical failure. The current effort was conducted to increase understanding of the risk associated with venting hydrogen given the flow control valve failure scenarios being considered in the Integrated In-Flight Anomaly Investigation being conducted by NASA.

  4. A vented pump limiter for the reversed field pinch RFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonato, P.

    1998-01-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma performance, as in the Tokamak, is strongly correlated with the edge neutral particle control. The drawbacks of the conventional magnetic divertors and throat limiters on the RFP plasma have slackened the application of an active particle control system in existing devices. An advanced solution, based on the idea of the 'vented pump limiter' experimented on Tore Supra, has been conceived for RFX. This type of pump limiter is very attractive for a RFP. In this paper, the design of a 'vented limiter' prototype for RFX is presented. Up to six modules of this limiter can be installed at the equatorial plane of RFX, allowing a particle exhaust efficiency comparable with a divertor or a throat limiter working in a Tokamak. Finally, the optimization of this concept for the next step RFP device is presented. (orig.)

  5. Radiological Design Summary Report for TRU Vent and Purge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taus, L.B.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. Detailed quotations of the requirements for applicable regulatory documents can be found in the accompanying Implementation Guide. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, per Engineering Standard 01064, shall consider / shall evaluate indicates that the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. The Transuranic Vent and Purge process is not a project, but is considered a process change. This process has been performed successfully by Solid Waste on lower activity TRU drums. This summary report applies a graded approach and describes how the Transuranic Vent and Purge process meets each of the applicable radiological design criteria and requirements specified in Manual WSRC-TM-95-1, Engineering Standard Number 01064

  6. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  7. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  8. Acidophiles of saline water at thermal vents of Vulcano, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Susan; Norris, R

    2002-06-01

    DNA was extracted from samples taken from close to acidic hydrothermal vents on shore of the Aeolian Island of Vulcano (Italy). RNA gene sequences were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. A sequence with an origin in samples at 35 degrees and 45 degrees C corresponded to that of a novel Acidithiobacillus species that was isolated from water close to the vents. Novel, iron-oxidizing mesophilic acidophiles were isolated through enrichment cultures with ferrous iron but were not represented in the clone banks of environmental rDNA. These acidophiles were related to Thiobacillus prosperus, which was isolated previously from Vulcano. The archaeal sequences that comprised a clone bank representing a high-temperature sample (75 degrees C) corresponded to those of Acidianus brierleyi and of thermophiles previously isolated from Vulcano, Thermoplasma volcanium and Acidianus infernus.

  9. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity

  10. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  11. Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava

  12. Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, John; Gordeev, Evgenii; Izbekov, Pavel; Kasahara, Minoru; Lees, Jonathan

    The Kamchatka Peninsula and contiguous North Pacific Rim is among the most active regions in the world. Kamchatka itself contains 29 active volcanoes, 4 now in a state of semi-continuous eruption, and I has experienced 14 magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes since accurate recording began in 1962. At its heart is the uniquely acute subduction cusp where the Kamchatka and Aleutian Arcs and Emperor Seamount Chain meet. Volcanism and Subduction covers coupled magmatism and tectonics in this spectacular region, where the torn North Pacific slab dives into hot mantle. Senior Russian and American authors grapple with the dynamics of the cusp with perspectives from the west and east of it, respectively, while careful tephrostratigraphy yields a remarkably precise record of behavior of storied volcanoes such as Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch. Towards the south, Japanese researchers elucidate subduction earthquake processes with unprecedented geodetic resolution. Looking eastward, new insights on caldera formation, monitoring, and magma ascent are presented for the Aleutians. This is one of the first books of its kind printed in the English language. Students and scientists beginning research in the region will find in this book a useful context and introduction to the region's scientific leaders. Others who wish to apply lessons learned in the North Pacific to their areas of interest will find the volume a valuable reference.

  13. ´Áā lava flows in the Deccan Volcanic Province, India, and their significance for the nature of continental flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J.; Blake, S.; Bondre, N. R.; Phadnis, V. M.; Self, S.

    2011-08-01

    Newly identified ´áā lava flows outcrop intermittently over an area of ~110 km2 in the western Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP), India. They occur in the upper Thakurvadi Formation in the region south of Sangamner. The flows, one of which is compound, are 15-25 m thick, and exhibit well-developed basal and flow-top breccias. The lavas have microcrystalline groundmasses and are porphyritic or glomerocrystic and contain phenocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene or plagioclase feldspar. They are chemically similar to compound pāhoehoe flows at a similar stratigraphic horizon along the Western Ghats. Petrographic and geochemical differences between ´áā flows at widely spaced outcrops at the same stratigraphic horizon suggest that they are the product of several eruptions, potentially from different sources. Their presence in the DVP could suggest relative proximity to vents. This discovery is significant because ´áā lavas are generally scarce in large continental flood basalt provinces, which typically consist of numerous inflated compound pāhoehoe lobes and sheet lobes. Their scarcity is intriguing, and may relate to either their occurrence only in poorly preserved or exposed proximal areas or to the flat plateau-like topography of flood basalt provinces that may inhibit channelization and ´áā formation, or both. In this context, the ´áā flow fields described here are inferred to be the products of eruptions that produced unusually high-effusion-rate lavas compared to typical flood basalt eruptions. Whether these phases were transitional to lower intensity, sustained eruptions that fed extensive low effusion rate pāhoehoe flow fields remains unclear.

  14. Imaging an off-axis volcanic field in the Main Ethiopian Rift using 3-D magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Fisseha, S.; Hogg, C.

    2017-12-01

    In active continental rifts, asthenospheric upwelling and crustal thinning result in the ascent of melt through the crust to the surface. In the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), most volcanic activity is located in magmatic segments in the rift centre, but there are areas of significant off-axis magmatism as well. The Butajira volcanic field is part of the Silti Debre Zeyt Fault (SDZF) zone in the western Main Ethiopian Rift. It is characterized by densely clustered volcanic vents (mostly scoria cones) and by limited seismic activity, which is mainly located along the big border faults that form the edge of a steep escarpment. Seismic P-Wave tomography reveals a crustal low velocity anomaly in this area. We present newly collected Magnetotelluric (MT) data to image the electrical conductivity structure of the area. We deployed 12 LMT instruments and 27 broadband stations in the western flank of the rift to further investigate the along-rift and depth extent of a highly conductive region under the SDZF which was previously identified by MT data collected on the central volcano Aluto and along a cross-rift transverse. This large conductor was interpreted as potential pathways for magma and fluid in the crust. MT Stations were positioned in five NW-SE running 50 km long profiles, covering overall 100km along the rift and providing good coverage for a 3-D inversion of the data to image this enigmatic area of the MER.

  15. Evidence of volcanic and glacial activity in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Mellon, Michael T.; Banks, Maria E.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae show numerous examples of enigmatic landforms previously interpreted to have been influenced by a water/ice-rich geologic history. These landforms include giant polygons bounded by kilometer-scale arcuate troughs, bright pitted mounds, and mesa-like features. To investigate the significance of the last we have analyzed in detail the region between 60°N, 290°E and 10°N, 360°E utilizing HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) images as well as regional-scale data for context. The mesas may be analogous to terrestrial tuyas (emergent sub-ice volcanoes), although definitive proof has not been identified. We also report on a blocky unit and associated landforms (drumlins, eskers, inverted valleys, kettle holes) consistent with ice-emplaced volcanic or volcano-sedimentary flows. The spatial association between tuya-like mesas, ice-emplaced flows, and further possible evidence of volcanism (deflated flow fronts, volcanic vents, columnar jointing, rootless cones), and an extensive fluid-rich substratum (giant polygons, bright mounds, rampart craters), allows for the possibility of glaciovolcanic activity in the region.Landforms indicative of glacial activity on Chryse/Acidalia suggest a paleoclimatic environment remarkably different from today's. Climate changes on Mars (driven by orbital/obliquity changes) or giant outflow channel activity could have resulted in ice-sheet-related landforms far from the current polar caps.

  16. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J; Houghton, Bruce F.; Orr, Tim R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  17. Fluid volcanism on Miranda and Ariel - Flow morphology and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Several types of volcanic units have been recognized on the icy Uranian satellites Miranda and Ariel. On Miranda, ridges characterized by crest grooves are up to 10 km wide and 500 m high. A continuous flat-topped flow band also 10 km wide and 500 m high forms the outer southern margin of Elsinore Corona, which appears to comprise coalesced flow bands and ridges. On Ariel, in addition to at least one ridge unit similar to those on Miranda, flood plains material has covered the floors of deep chasmata (grabens) and an irregular depression. Flows on both satellites are characterized by linear vent geometries and distinct topographic margins, which indicate extrusion of a relatively viscous material. The topography of the flows can be used to estimate flow viscosity or yield strength using a Bingham plastic model. Extrusion viscosity estimates, incorporating plausible volcanologically based emplacement time scales and a rigid crust correction, range from 10 MP to 1 GP (10 TP in the unlikely absence of a chilled crust). Viscosity estimates are dependent on the assumed emplacement time scale, however, and could be as high as 10 PP, if a solid-state-based time scale is assumed.

  18. Primary Formation Path of Formaldehyde in Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Satoshi

    2018-03-01

    Formaldehyde is abundant in the universe and one of the fundamental molecules for life. Hydrothermal vents produce a substantial amount of hydrogen molecules by serpentinization and promote reductive reactions of single carbon compounds. The abundance of formaldehyde is expected to be low due to the high Gibbs free energy in hydrothermal vents. We consider two competing formation pathways of formaldehyde: (1) the reduction of CO by H2 and (2) the reduction of HCOOH by H2 to form a methanediol, followed by the dehydration of the methanediol. We performed a number of quantum chemical simulations to examine the formation of formaldehyde in the gas phase as well as in aqueous solution. The energy barrier is significantly reduced by the catalytic effect of water molecules in aqueous solution and becomes lowest when a water cluster consisted of 5 water molecules catalyzes the reduction. The energy barrier to form a methanediol by the reduction of HCOOH is lower by 17.5 kcal/mol than that to form a formaldehyde by the reduction of CO. Considering the low energy barrier to dehydrate methanediol, the primary pathway to form formaldehyde in hydrothermal vents is concluded to be the reduction of HCOOH by H2, followed by the dehydration of methanediol.

  19. A helium venting model for a SSC half cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.H.; McAshan, M.S.; Schiesser, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    When a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet quenches, the quench protection system will intentionally quench other magnets in the half cell. The result is that the stored energy of all of these quenched magnets will be absorbed equally among them. These simultaneous quenches produce heat, which diffuses from the magnet coils to the main helium (He) coolant channels and thereby eventually causes an increase in the He pressure. When the quench is detected, vent valves open to minimize the He pressure increase and thus prevent damage to the magnets. The performance of the He venting system has been modeled and simulated to establish whether the venting will take place as required. The model consists of partial differential equation energy balances written radially for the magnet coils, collar, and yoke; and ordinary differential equations of energy and mass balance written for the He in the magnets and relief header. The basic algorithm is the numerical method of lines, with finite difference approximation of the spatial derivatives, and time integration by LSODES. Simulation results are presented for an SSC half cell of the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility. The results are also compared with recent string quench measurements performed at the Fermilab String Test Facility

  20. Reversible Venting Stitch for Fenestrating Valve-less Glaucoma Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Handan; Vu, Priscilla Q; Nguyen, Anhtuan H; Nugent, Alexander; Chopra, Vikas; Francis, Brian A; Tan, James C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this is to describe a venting stitch modification for valveless glaucoma aqueous shunts and characterize early postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medication use following the modification. Retrospective chart review of 61 sequential patients undergoing Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI)-350 implantation at the Doheny Eye Institute. Twenty-four patients received a glaucoma shunt with venting stitch modification (modified BGI) and 37 patients received an unmodified shunt (BGI-only). IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and number of hypotony cases (intraocular pressure ≤5 mm Hg) were compared between the groups. T-tests were used for statistical analysis. At postoperative-day 1, mean IOP was significantly lower compared with preoperatively in the modified BGI group (14 mm Hg; reduced by 51%; P<0.0001) but not the BGI-only group (27 mm Hg; P=0.06). IOP difference between groups persisted till immediately before tube opening (P=0.005) and fewer IOP-lowering medications needed in the modified BGI group (P<0.0001). One case (4.2%) of postoperative hypotony was encountered with BGI modification, which resolved after the stitch was removed in clinic. The venting stitch valveless shunt modification allows for effective, reliable, and safe control of early postoperative IOP.

  1. Mars Global Surveyor Data Analysis Program. Origins of Small Volcanic Cones: Eruption Mechanisms and Implications for Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagents, Sarah A.; Greeley, Ronald; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to determine the origins of small volcanic cones observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, and their implications for regolith ice stores and magma volatile contents. For this 1-year study, our approach involved a combination of: Quantitative morphologic analysis and interpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data; Numerical modeling of eruption processes responsible for producing the observed features; Fieldwork on terrestrial analogs in Iceland. Following this approach, this study succeeded in furthering our understanding of (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of near-surface water ice, as defined by the distribution and sizes of rootless volcanic cones ("pseudocraters"), and (ii) the properties, eruption conditions, and volatile contents of magmas producing primary vent cones.

  2. Morphology, volcanism, and mass wasting in Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Gardner, J.V.; Mayer, L.A.; Buktenica, M.W.; Dartnell, P.; Ramsey, D.W.; Robinson, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Crater Lake was surveyed nearly to its shoreline by high-resolution multibeam echo sounding in order to define its geologic history and provide an accurate base map for research and monitoring surveys. The bathymetry and acoustic backscatter reveal the character of landforms and lead to a chronology for the concurrent filling of the lake and volcanism within the ca. 7700 calibrated yr B.P. caldera. The andesitic Wizard Island and central-plattform volcanoes are composed of sequences of lava deltas that record former lake levels and demonstrate simultaneous activity at the two vents. Wizard Island eruptions ceased when the lake was ~80 m lower than at present. Lava streams from prominent channels on the surface of the central platform descended to feed extensive subaqueous flow fields on the caldera floor. The Wizard Island and central-platform volcanoes, andesitic Merriam Cone, and a newly discovered probable lava flow on the eastern floor of the lake apparently date from within a few hundred years of caldera collapse, whereas a small rhydacite dome was emplaced on the flank of Wizard Island at ca. 4800 cal. yr B.P. Bedrock outcrops on the submerged caldera walls are shown in detail and, in some cases, can be correlated with exposed geologic units of Mount Mazama. Fragmental debris making up the walls elsewhere consists of narrow talus cones forming a dendritic pattern that leads to fewer, wider ridges downslope. Hummocky topography and scattered blocks up to ~280 m long below many of the embayments in the caldera wall mark debris-avalanche deposits that probably formed in single events and commonly are affected by secondary failures. The flat-floored, deep basins contain relatively fine-grained sediment transported from the debris aprons by sheet-flow turbidity currents. Crater Lake apparently filled rapidly (ca. 400-750 yr) until reaching a permeable layer above glaciated lava identified by the new survey in the northeast caldera wall at ~1845 m elevation

  3. Westinghouse containment filtered venting system wet scrubber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensson, S.; Nilsson, P-O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima event Westinghouse has further developed and enhanced its filtered containment venting system (FCVS) product line. The filtration efficiency of the proven FILTRA-MVSS system installed at all Swedish NPPs as well as at the Muhelberg plant in Switzerland has been enhanced and a new wet scrubber design, SVEN (Safety Venting), based on the FILTRA-MVSS tradition, developed. To meet increased filtration requirements for organic iodine these two wet scrubber products have been complemented with a zeolite module. The offering of a select choice of products allows for a better adjustment to the specific constraints and needs of each nuclear power station that is planning for the installation of such a system. The FILTRA-MVSS (MVSS=Multi Venturi Scrubber System) is a wet containment filtered vent system that uses multiple venturies to create an interaction between the vent gases and the scrubber media allowing for removal of aerosols and gaseous iodines in a very efficient manner. The FILTRA-MVSS was originally developed to meet stringent requirements on autonomy and maintained filtration efficiency over a wide range of venting conditions. The system was jointly developed in the late 80's by ABB Atom and ABB Flaekt, today Westinghouse and Alstom. Following installations in Sweden and Switzerland the system was further developed by replacement of the gravel-bed moisture separator with a standard demister and by addition of a set of sintered metal fibre filter cartridges placed after the moisture separator step. The system is today offered as a modular steel tank design to simplify installation at site. To reduce complexity and delivery time Westinghouse has developed an alternative design in which the venturi module is replaced by a submerged metal fibre filter cartridges module. This new wet scrubber design, SVEN (patent pending), provides a flexible, compact, and lower weight system, while still preserving and even enhancing the filtration

  4. First results of the Piton de la Fournaise STRAP 2015 experiment: multidisciplinary tracking of a volcanic gas and aerosol plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulet, Pierre; Di Muro, Andréa; Colomb, Aurélie; Denjean, Cyrielle; Duflot, Valentin; Arellano, Santiago; Foucart, Brice; Brioude, Jérome; Sellegri, Karine; Peltier, Aline; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Barthe, Christelle; Bhugwant, Chatrapatty; Bielli, Soline; Boissier, Patrice; Boudoire, Guillaume; Bourrianne, Thierry; Brunet, Christophe; Burnet, Fréderic; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Gabarrot, Franck; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Guadagno, Christian; Jeamblu, Fréderic; Kowalski, Philippe; Leclair de Bellevue, Jimmy; Marquestaut, Nicolas; Mékies, Dominique; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Pianezze, Joris; Portafaix, Thierry; Sciare, Jean; Tournigand, Arnaud; Villeneuve, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The STRAP (Synergie Transdisciplinaire pour Répondre aux Aléas liés aux Panaches volcaniques) campaign was conducted over the entire year of 2015 to investigate the volcanic plumes of Piton de La Fournaise (La Réunion, France). For the first time, measurements at the local (near the vent) and at the regional scales were conducted around the island. The STRAP 2015 campaign has become possible thanks to strong cross-disciplinary collaboration between volcanologists and meteorologists. The main observations during four eruptive periods (85 days) are summarised. They include the estimates of SO2, CO2 and H2O emissions, the altitude of the plume at the vent and over different areas of La Réunion Island, the evolution of the SO2 concentration, the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol extinction profile. A climatology of the volcanic plume dispersion is also reported. Simulations and measurements show that the plumes formed by weak eruptions have a stronger interaction with the surface of the island. Strong SO2 mixing ratio and particle concentrations above 1000 ppb and 50 000 cm-3 respectively are frequently measured over a distance of 20 km from Piton de la Fournaise. The measured aerosol size distribution shows the predominance of small particles in the volcanic plume. Several cases of strong nucleation of sulfuric acid have been observed within the plume and at the distal site of the Maïdo observatory. The STRAP 2015 campaign provides a unique set of multi-disciplinary data that can now be used by modellers to improve the numerical parameterisations of the physical and chemical evolution of the volcanic plumes.

  5. Reconstructing an Explosive Basaltic Eruption in the Pinacate Volcanic Field, NW Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki, E. E.; Clarke, A. B.; Arrowsmith, R.; Lynch, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Tephra deposits from explosive volcanic eruptions provide a means to reconstruct eruption characteristics, such as column height and erupted volume. Parameters like these are essential in assessing the explosivity of past eruptions and associated volcanic hazards. We applied such methods to a basaltic tephra deposit from one of the youngest eruptions in the Pinacate volcanic field (NW Sonora, Mexico). This roughly circular tephra blanket extends 13 km E-W and 13 km N-S, and covers an area of at least 135 km2. The source vent of this eruption is hypothesized to be the Tecolote volcano (lat 31.877, long -113.362), which is dated to 27 ± 6 ka (40Ar/39Ar). Fifty-three pits were dug across the extent of the tephra deposit to measure its thickness, record stratigraphy, characterize grain size distribution, and determine maximum clast size. Isopleth and isopach maps were created from these data to determine the column height (>9 km), estimate mass eruption rate (>2.1x106 kg/s), and calculate the erupted volume (>4.2x10-2 km3). Stratigraphic descriptions support two distinct episodes of tephra production. Unit A is dispersed in an approximately circular pattern ( 6.5 km radius) with its center shifted to the east of the vent. The distribution of Unit B is oblate ( 9.5 km major axis, 4.5 km minor axis) and trends to the southeast of the vent. Lava samples were collected from each of the seven Tecolote flows for XRF and ICP-MS geochemical analyses. These samples were compared to geochemical signatures from a Tecolote bomb, tephra from Units A and B, and cinder from the La Laja cone, which is the youngest dated cone in the field at 12 ± 4 ka (40Ar/39Ar). The La Laja sample is geochemically distinct from all Tecolote samples, confirming that it did not contribute to the two tephra units. Tephra from Unit A and Unit B have distinct signatures and fit within the geochemical evolution of the Tecolote lavas, supporting two explosive episodes from the Tecolote volcano, which has

  6. Fluidal deep-sea volcanic ash as an indicator of explosive volcanism (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Portner, R. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Fluidal glassy lava fragments are now known to be abundant at sites of submarine eruptions including the mid-ocean ridge system, near-ridge seamount chains, mid-plate volcanoes and the submarine rifts of ocean islands, deep-sea (4200m) alkalic lava fields, back-arc spreading centers, and arc volcanoes. Fluidal fragments at these diverse settings have compositions including basanite, tholeiite, boninite, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite. Fragments include straight, bent, curved, and coiled Pele's hair; flat, curved, twisted, folded, bent, or keeled ribbons; and flat, curved, or intensely folded limu o Pele. Most of these morphologies attach to blocky glass fragments. The fluidal fragments from different settings and depths are strikingly similar in morphology with variable vesicularity and particle thickness. They have been sampled flat and steep, rocky to sediment-covered substrates. Two different mechanisms are proposed to explain their origin: magmatic-volatile fragmentation during eruption and sea floor lava-water interactions. Volatiles in the melts and ambient water are present in all submarine volcanic settings, making it difficult to separate their role in forming the fragments. Submarine bubble-burst (strombolian) activity has been observed in situ at an active vent at -1200m on West Mata Volcano. However, lava-water interaction at elevated pressure has not been observed to make such fluidal fragments except in laboratory simulations. Lava-water interaction models suggest that pore water in sediment trapped beneath advancing lava flows migrates into the overlying flow where it expands to steam, and the expanding steam bubble escapes explosively through the flow top to form the fluidal fragments. This is different from the hollow (water-filled) pillars that form in inflating flows as trapped water escapes. Pillars grow upwards at contacts between flow lobes, thus the water exiting through pillars never enters (or exits) the molten lava flow interior. Another

  7. Dynamics of hydrocarbon vents: Focus on primary porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Shedd, W.; Abichou, T.; Pineda-Garcia, O.; Silva, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of hydrocarbon release by monitoring activity of a single vent at a 1215m deep site in the Gulf of Mexico (GC600). An autonomous camera, deployed by the submersible ALVIN, was programmed to capture a close-up image every 4 seconds for approximately 3.5 hours. The images provided the ability to study the gas hydrate outcrop site (that measured 5.2x16.3cm3) in an undisturbed state. The outcrop included an array of 38 tube-like vents through which dark brown oil bubbles are released at a rate ranging from 8 bubbles per minute to 0 bubbles per minute. The average release of bubbles from all the separate vents was 59.5 bubbles per minute, equating the total volume released to 106.38cm per minute. The rate of bubble release decreased toward the end of the observation interval, which coincided approximately with the tidal minimum. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola, Desbruyères & Toulmond, 1998) were abundant at the vent site. The image sequence showed the ice-worms actively moving in and out of burrows in the mound. It has been speculated that Hesiocaeca methanicola contribute to gas hydrate decomposition by creating burrows and depressions in the gas hydrate matrix (Fisher et al, 2000). Ice worm burrows could generate pathways for the passage of oil and gas through the gas hydrate mound. Gas hydrates commonly occur along active and/or passive continental margins (Kennicutt et al, 1988a). The release of oil and gas at this particular hydrocarbon seep site is along a passive continental margin, and controlled primarily by active salt tectonics as opposed to the movement of continental tectonic plates (Salvador, 1987). We propose a descriptive model governing the release of gas and oil from deep sub-bottom reservoirs at depths of 3000-5000m (MacDonald, 1998), through consolidated and unconsolidated sediments, and finally through gas hydrate deposits at the sea floor. The oil and gas escape from the source rock and/or reservoir through

  8. Toward Assessing the Causes of Volcanic Diversity in the Cascades Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Kent, A. J.; Abers, G. A.; Pitcher, B.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Schmandt, B.

    2017-12-01

    A fundamental unanswered question in subduction system science is the cause of the observed diversity in volcanic arc style at an arc-segment to whole-arc scale. Specifically, we have yet to distinguish the predominant mantle and crustal processes responsible for the diversity of arc volcanic phenomenon, including the presence of central volcanoes vs. dispersed volcanism; episodicity in volcanic fluxes in time and space; variations in magma chemistry; and differences in the extent of magmatic focusing. Here we present a thought experiment using currently available data to estimate the relative role of crustal magmatic processes in producing the observed variations in Cascades arc volcanism. A compilation of available major element compositions of Quaternary arc volcanism and estimates of eruptive volumes are used to examine variations in the composition of arc magmas along strike. We then calculate the Quaternary volcanic heat flux into the crust, assuming steady state, required to produce the observed distribution of compositions via crystallization of mantle-derived primitive magmas vs. crustal melting using experiment constraints on possible liquid lines of descent and crustal melting scenarios. For pure crystallization, heat input into the crust scales with silica content, with dacitic to rhyolite compositions producing significantly greater latent heat relative to basalts to andesites. In contrast, the heat required to melt lower crustal amphibolite decreases with increasing silica and is likely provided by the latent heat of crystallization. Thus we develop maximum and minimum estimates for heat added to the crust at a given SiO2 range. When volumes are considered, we find that the average Quaternary volcanic heat flux at latitudes south of South Sister to be more than twice that to the north. Distributed mafic volcanism produces only a quarter to half the heat flux calculated for the main edifices at a given latitude because of their lesser eruptive volumes

  9. The Archaen volcanic facies in the Migori segment, Nyanza greenstone belt, Kenya: stratigraphy, geochemistry and mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichang'l, D. W.; MacLean, W. H.

    The Migori segment is an 80 by 20 km portion of the Nyanza greenstone belt which forms the northern part of the Archean Tanzanian Craton in western Kenya, northern Tanzania and southeastern Uganda. It consists of two volcanic centres, each with central, proximal and distal volcanic facies, comprising the Migori Group, the Macalder and Lolgorien Subgroups, and eleven volcano-sedimentary formations. The centres are separated by a basin of tuffs and greywacke turbidites. The volcanics are bimodal mafic basalt and dolerite ( Zr/Y = 3.8 - 6.5, La N/Yb N = 1.0 - 2.4) , and felsic calc-alkaline dacite-rhyolite ( Zr/Y = 10 - 21, La N/Yb N = 19 - 42 ) and high-K dacite ( Zr/Y = 9 - 16, La N/Yb N = 21 - 22 ). Felsic units form approximately three-fourths of the volcanic stratigraphy. Basalts, calc-alkaline dacites and rhyolites were deposited in a submarine environment, but the voluminous high-K dacites were erupted subaerially. The turbidites contain units of iron-formations. Granitic intrusions are chemically continuous with the high-K dacites. The felsic volcanics are anologous to those found at modern volcanic arc subduction settings involving continental crust. The Macalder ZnCuAuAg volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits is in central facies basalts-greywacke-rhyolite. Gold mineralisation occurs in proximal facies tuffs and iron formation, and in oblique and semi-conformable quartz veins. Greenstones in the Nyanza belt are dominated by calc-alkaline felsic volcanics in constrast to the komatiite-tholeiitic basalt volcanism in the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa, and a mixture of the two types in the Zimbabwe Craton.

  10. Volcanic hazards and public response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.

    1988-05-01

    Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.

  11. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-24

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  12. Volcanic tremor and local earthquakes at Copahue volcanic complex, Southern Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; Del Pezzo, E.; Bengoa, C.; Caselli, A.; Badi, G.; Almendros, J.

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper we describe the results of a seismic field survey carried out at Copahue Volcano, Southern Andes, Argentina, using a small-aperture, dense seismic antenna. Copahue Volcano is an active volcano that exhibited a few phreatic eruptions in the last 20 years. The aim of this experiment was to record and classify the background seismic activity of this volcanic area, and locate the sources of local earthquakes and volcanic tremor. Data consist of several volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, and many samples of back-ground seismic noise. We use both ordinary spectral, and multi-spectral techniques to measure the spectral content, and an array technique [Zero Lag Cross Correlation technique] to measure the back-azimuth and apparent slowness of the signals propagating across the array. We locate VT earthquakes using a procedure based on the estimate of slowness vector components and S-P time. VT events are located mainly along the border of the Caviahue caldera lake, positioned at the South-East of Copahue volcano, in a depth interval of 1-3 km below the surface. The background noise shows the presence of many transients with high correlation among the array stations in the frequency band centered at 2.5 Hz. These transients are superimposed to an uncorrelated background seismic signal. Array solutions for these transients show a predominant slowness vector pointing to the exploited geothermal field of "Las Maquinitas" and "Copahue Village", located about 6 km north of the array site. We interpret this coherent signal as a tremor generated by the activity of the geothermal field.

  13. A new Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn (VERDI): Application to El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Becerril, L.; Martí, J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important issues in modern volcanology is the assessment of volcanic risk, which will depend - among other factors - on both the quantity and quality of the available data and an optimum storage mechanism. This will require the design of purpose-built databases that take into account data format and availability and afford easy data storage and sharing, and will provide for a more complete risk assessment that combines different analyses but avoids any duplication of information. Data contained in any such database should facilitate spatial and temporal analysis that will (1) produce probabilistic hazard models for future vent opening, (2) simulate volcanic hazards and (3) assess their socio-economic impact. We describe the design of a new spatial database structure, VERDI (Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn), which allows different types of data, including geological, volcanological, meteorological, monitoring and socio-economic information, to be manipulated, organized and managed. The root of the question is to ensure that VERDI will serve as a tool for connecting different kinds of data sources, GIS platforms and modeling applications. We present an overview of the database design, its components and the attributes that play an important role in the database model. The potential of the VERDI structure and the possibilities it offers in regard to data organization are here shown through its application on El Hierro (Canary Islands). The VERDI database will provide scientists and decision makers with a useful tool that will assist to conduct volcanic risk assessment and management.

  14. Analysis of design and operational effects of filtered containment venting on depressurization and fission product release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon; Seol, Wook-Cheol; Kim, Jisu [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Effects of design and operational parameters of filtered containment venting system during a specified containment depressurization and relative aero sol release amount are analyzed. The analyses is performed by using the MAAP4 code for the APR1400 reactor. Major results uniquely identified from the analyses can be noted as following: Even though containment depressurization is accelerated as the pipe size increases, the venting system solution is also depleted earlier. Elapsed times to reach lower end pressure of 2 bar are nearly identical regardless of the vent initiation pressure and thus early venting is not much beneficial than late venting. Stroke time of the isolation valves has no effect on the depressurization performance and thus slow opening is beneficial for load reduction from the vent effluent.

  15. Modelling of vented dust explosions – empirical foundation and prospects for future validation of CFD codes

    OpenAIRE

    Skjold, Trygve; Wingerden, Kees van; Hansen, Olav R.; Eckhoff, Rolf Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Presented at: HAZARDS XX, Manchester, 23–25 November 2008 Explosion venting is the most frequently used method for mitigating the effects from accidental dust explosions in the process industry. Optimal design of vent systems and credible execution of risk assessments in powder handling plants require practical and reliable ways of predicting the course and consequences of vented dust explosions. The main parameters of interest include flame propagation and pressure build-up ...

  16. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  17. Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria Found at Slow-Spreading Ridge: a Case Study of Capelinhos Hydrothermal Vent (Lucky Strike, MAR 37°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, P. A.; Rommevaux, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Emerson, D.; Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.

    2015-12-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria becomes increasingly described in different geological settings from volcanically active seamounts, coastal waters, to diffuse hydrothermal vents near seafloor spreading centers [Emerson et al., 2010]. They have been mostly identified and described in Pacific Ocean, and have been only recently found in hydrothermal systems associated to slow spreading center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) [Scott et al., 2015]. During the MoMARSAT'13 cruise at Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (MAR), a new hydrothermal site was discovered at about 1.5 km eastward from the lava lake and from the main hydrothermal vents. This active venting site, named Capelinhos, is therefore the most distant from the volcano, features many chimneys, both focused and diffuses. The hydrothermal end-member fluids from Capelinhos are different from those of the other sites of Lucky Strike, showing the highest content of iron (Fe/Mn≈3.96) and the lowest chlorinity (270 mmol/l) [Leleu et al., 2015]. Most of the chimneys exhibit rust-color surfaces and bacterial mats near diffuse flows. During the MoMARSAT'15 cruise, an active chimney, a small inactive one, and rust-color bacterial mat near diffuse flow were sampled at Capelinhos. Observations by SEM of the hydrothermal samples revealed the presence of iron oxides in an assemblage of tubular "sheaths", assembled "stalks", helical "stalks" and amorphous aggregates. These features are similar to those described from the Loihi iron-mats deposits and argue for the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Cultures under micro-aerobic and neutral pH conditions allowed us to isolate strains from the small inactive chimney. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates and environmental samples will soon be performed, which should confirm the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria and reveal the organization of bacterial communities in this original and newly discovered hydrothermal site of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Emerson

  18. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6

  19. Absolute Magnetization Distribution on Back-arc Spreading Axis Hosting Hydrothermal Vents; Insight from Shinkai 6500 Magnetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Honsho, C.; Mochizuki, N.; Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.

    2013-12-01

    demagnetized by hydrothermal circulation. The low magnetization zones around the off-axis vent sites are about ten times wider than those surrounding the on-axis sites, possibly reflecting the longer duration of hydrothermal circulation at these sites. Another interesting result is that the absolute magnetization shows extremely high intensities (>80 A/m) at the neo volcanic zones (NVZ) and relatively low intensities (age due to the combination of the both hydrothermal rapid alteration and the low-temperature gradual alteration processes.

  20. Influence of a Vented Mouthguard on Physiological Responses in Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Antina; Laessing, Johannes; Kwast, Stefan; Busse, Martin

    2018-05-23

    Schulze, A, Laessing, J, Kwast, S, and Busse, M. Influence of a vented mouthguard on physiological responses in handball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Mouthguards (MGs) improve sports safety. However, airway obstruction and a resulting decrease in performance are theoretical disadvantages regarding their use. The study aim was to assess possible limitations of a "vented" MG on aerobic performance in handball. The physiological effects were investigated in 14 male professional players in a newly developed handball-specific course. The measured values were oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate, and lactate. Similar oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) values were observed with and without MG use (51.9 ± 6.4 L·min·kg vs. 52.1 ± 10.9 L·min·kg). During maximum load, ventilation was markedly lower with the vented MG (153.1 ± 25 L·min vs. 166.3 ± 20.8 L·min). The endexpiratory concentrations of O2 (17.2 ± 0.5% vs. 17.6 ± 0.8%) and CO2 (4.0 ± 0.5% vs. 3.7 ± 0.6%) were significantly lower and higher, respectively, when using the MG. The inspiration and expiration times with and without the MG were 0.6 ± 0.1 seconds vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 seconds and 0.7 ± 0.2 seconds vs. 0.6 ± 0.2 seconds (all not significant), respectively, indicating that there was no relevant airflow restriction. The maximum load was not significantly affected by the MG. The lower ventilation for given V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values associated with MG use may be an effect of improved biomechanics and lower respiratory drive of the peripheral musculature.

  1. Settling-driven gravitational instabilities associated with volcanic clouds: new insights from experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Simona; Bonadonna, Costanza; Manzella, Irene

    2017-06-01

    Downward propagating instabilities are often observed at the bottom of volcanic plumes and clouds. These instabilities generate fingers that enhance the sedimentation of fine ash. Despite their potential influence on tephra dispersal and deposition, their dynamics is not entirely understood, undermining the accuracy of volcanic ash transport and dispersal models. Here, we present new laboratory experiments that investigate the effects of particle size, composition and concentration on finger generation and dynamics. The experimental set-up consists of a Plexiglas tank equipped with a removable plastic sheet that separates two different layers. The lower layer is a solution of water and sugar, initially denser than the upper layer, which consists of water and particles. Particles in the experiments include glass beads as well as andesitic, rhyolitic and basaltic volcanic ash. During the experiments, we removed the horizontal plastic sheet separating the two fluids. Particles were illuminated with a laser and filmed with a HD camera; particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to analyse finger dynamics. Results show that both the number and the downward advance speed of fingers increase with particle concentration in the upper layer, while finger speed increases with particle size but is independent of particle composition. An increase in particle concentration and turbulence is estimated to take place inside the fingers, which could promote aggregation in subaerial fallout events. Finally, finger number, finger speed and particle concentration were observed to decrease with time after the formation of fingers. A similar pattern could occur in volcanic clouds when the mass supply from the eruptive vent is reduced. Observed evolution of the experiments through time also indicates that there must be a threshold of fine ash concentration and mass eruption rate below which fingers do not form; this is also confirmed by field observations.

  2. Pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic studies for horizontal vent exit of Indian PHWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, N.; Bajaj, S.S.; Saha, P.

    1994-01-01

    The standard Indian PHWR incorporates a pressure suppression type of containment system with a suppression pool.The design of KAPS (Kakrapar Atomic Power Station) suppression pool system adopts a modified system of downcomers having horizontal vents as compared to vertical vents of NAPS (Narora Atomic Power Station). Hydrodynamic studies for vertical vents have been reported earlier. This paper presents hydrodynamic studies for horizontal type vent system during LOCA. These studies include the phenomenon of vent clearing (where the water slug standing in downcomer initially is injected to wetwell due to rapid pressurization of drywell) followed by pool swell (elevation of pool water due to formation of bubbles due to air mass entering pool at the exit of horizontal vents from drywell). The analysis performed for vent clearing and pool swell is based on rigorous thermal hydraulic calculation consisting of conservation of air-steam mixture mass, momentum and thermal energy and mass of air. Horizontal vent of downcomer is modelled in such a way that during steam-air flow, variation of flow area due to oscillating water surface in downcomer could be considered. Calculation predicts that the vent gets cleared in about 1.0 second and the corresponding downward slug velocity in the downcomer is 4.61 m/sec. The maximum pool swell for a conservative lateral expansion is calculated to be 0.56 m. (author). 3 refs., 12 figs

  3. Explosion hazards of LPG-air mixtures in vented enclosure with obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yaxing; Lian, Zhen

    2017-07-15

    Numerical simulations were performed to study explosion characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) explosion in enclosure with a vent. Unlike explosion overpressure and dynamic pressure, explosion temperature of the LPG-air mixture at a given concentration in a vented enclosure has very little variation with obstacle numbers for a given blockage ratio. For an enclosure without obstacle, explosion overpressures for the stoichiometric mixtures and the fuel-lean mixtures reach their maximum within the vent and that for fuel-rich mixture reaches its maximum beyond and near the vent. Dynamic pressures produced by an indoor LPG explosion reach their maximum always beyond the vent no matter obstacles are present or not in the enclosure. A LPG explosion in a vented enclosure with built-in obstacles is strong enough to make the brick and mortar wall with a thickness of 370mm damaged. If there is no obstacle in the enclosure, the lower explosion pressure of several kPa can not break the brick and mortar wall with a thickness of 370mm. For a LPG explosion produced in an enclosure with a vent, main hazards, within the vent, are overpressure and high temperature. However main hazards are dynamic pressure, blast wind, and high temperature beyond the vent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas explosion in domestic buildings. The vented gas explosion[sub][/sub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Chyży

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic information, related to the so-called vented gas explosion, has been presented. The vented explosion it is an explosion, during which the destruction of the weakest elements of the structure occurs. Through the resulting holes (decompressing surfaces can flow both combustion products and non-burned gas mixture. In consequence, reduction of the maximum explosion pressure[i] P[sub]red [/sub][/i] may be significant. Often, a gas explosion occurs inside residential buildings. In this case, natural vents are window and door openings.[b]Keywords[/b]: gas, explosion, combustion, explosion vents

  5. Ground-Based Remote Sensing of Volcanic CO2 Fluxes at Solfatara (Italy—Direct Versus Inverse Bayesian Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Queißer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is the second most abundant volatile species of degassing magma. CO2 fluxes carry information of incredible value, such as periods of volcanic unrest. Ground-based laser remote sensing is a powerful technique to measure CO2 fluxes in a spatially integrated manner, quickly and from a safe distance, but it needs accurate knowledge of the plume speed. The latter is often difficult to estimate, particularly for complex topographies. So, a supplementary or even alternative way of retrieving fluxes would be beneficial. Here, we assess Bayesian inversion as a potential technique for the case of the volcanic crater of Solfatara (Italy, a complex terrain hosting two major CO2 degassing fumarolic vents close to a steep slope. Direct integration of remotely sensed CO2 concentrations of these vents using plume speed derived from optical flow analysis yielded a flux of 717 ± 121 t day−1, in agreement with independent measurements. The flux from Bayesian inversion based on a simple Gaussian plume model was in excellent agreement under certain conditions. In conclusion, Bayesian inversion is a promising retrieval tool for CO2 fluxes, especially in situations where plume speed estimation methods fail, e.g., optical flow for transparent plumes. The results have implications beyond volcanology, including ground-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases and verification of satellite soundings.

  6. Development and analysis of vent-filtered containment conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Walling, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual filtered-vented containment systems have been postulated for a reference large, dry, pressurized water reactor containment, and the systems have been analyzed to determine design parameters, actuation/operation requirements, and overall feasibility. The primary design challenge has been found to emanate from pressure spikes caused by core debris bed interactions with water and by hydrogen deflagrations. Circumvention of the pressure spikes may require a more complicated actuation logic than has previously been considered. Otherwise, major reductions in consequences for certain severe accidents appear to be possible with relatively simple systems. A probabilistic assessment of competing risks remains to be performed

  7. Clad vent set cup closure-weld-zone grinding evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Woods, A.T.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1996-04-01

    Clad vent set (CVS) cups were ground in the closure-weld zone to reduce the wall-thickness variation created by the cup deep-drawing process. A significantly more uniform wall thickness would be beneficial for the CVS closure-weld operation. The goal was to reduce the average within-cup wall-thickness variation (defined as the range of wall thicknesses in the closure-weld zone) approximately 50% from the Cassini production value of 42 microm. This goal was shown to be achievable but, unfortunately, not with the existing blank and formed cup thicknesses

  8. Air-cleaning devices for vented filtered LMFBR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1982-07-01

    An effort lasting several years is summarized which evaluated, developed and tested air cleaning devices for potential use in breeder reactor containment venting applications. State-of-technology evaluations were completed for both a hypothetical head release accident and a primary vessel melt-through accident. Commercially available systems or components were tested which included HEPA filters, sand and gravel beds, and aqueous scrubbers. Large-scale demonstration tests were completed and results are presented for two- and three-stage conventional aqueous scrubber systems; and for a newly developed passive, submerged gravel scrubber

  9. Vented fuel experiment for gas-cooled fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Gat, U.; Conlin, J.A.; Campana, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-equalized and vented fuel rod is being irradiated in an instrumented capsule designated GB-10 to approximately 100MWd/kg-heavy metal. The fuel is a sol-gel-derived 88 at.% uranium (approximately 9% 235 U) and 12 at.% plutonium oxide, and the cladding is 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel. The capsule is being irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and has exceeded a burnup of 70MWd/kg. The fuel has been operated at linear power rates of 39 and 44kW/m, and peak outer cladding temperature of 565 and 630 0 C respectively. A similar fuel rod in a previous capsule (GB-9) was subjected to 48kW/m (685 0 C). Helium gas sweeps through any portion of the three regions of the fuel rod, namely: fuel, blanket, and charcoal trap. The charcoal trap is operated at about 300 0 C. An on-line Ge(Li) detector is used to analyse release rates of several gamma-emitting noble gas isotopes. Analyses are performed primarily on sweep gas flowing through the entire fuel rod, and for sweeps over the top of the charcoal trap. Sweep gas samples are analyzed for stable noble gas isotopes. Results in the form of ratios of release rate over birth rate (R/B) and venting rate over birth rate (V/B) are derived. R/B rates range from 10 -4 % to 30% while V/B ranges from 10 -6 % to 30%. Flow conductance in the capsule was monitored by recording the flow rate and pressure drop across the fuel rod and inlet sweep line. The flow conductance has been falling with increasing burnup, currently restricting the flow to about 20ml (s.t.p.)/min at a pressure difference of about 1.5MPa. Venting rates of the gaseous fission products as a function of gas pressure in the range 6.9 to 1.4MPa have also been measured. Planned future experiments include the monitoring of tritium release, venting and cladding permeation rates, and its molecular form. First measurements have been made. A simulated leak experiment will determine the mixture of fission gases as a function of flow rate and the most

  10. ACE puts containment venting systems to the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merilo, M.

    1990-01-01

    Filtered venting of reactor containments has received considerable attention recently as a method for avoiding containment failure due to overpressure during severe accidents. Several proposed filtration devices have been tested in the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) programme, such that a self consistent comparison of the aerosol removal characteristics of these systems could be obtained. Considering the different design, requirements and operating conditions of the filter devices, a direct comparison is not possible, nor appropriate. Nevertheless, large scale models, using full scale elements of the various devices whenever feasible, have been tested with consistent mixtures of aerosols and carrier gases. (author)

  11. AREVA’s Containment Venting Technologies and Experience Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, M.

    2015-07-01

    The AREVA Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) is a product family that minimizes the environmental impact in case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP). Our experience is based on a large-scale test and qualification program as well as on the design, licensing and installation of more than 80 projects worldwide. The product family provides flexibility regarding the adaptation to respective accident scenarios, applicable codes and standards, seismic design, supply chain, implementation and localization. AREVA has broad experience of managing fleet supplies, successful support of licensing and cooperating with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of pressurized and boiling water reactors (PWR and BWR). (Author)

  12. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  13. Doubly stochastic models for volcanic hazard assessment at Campi Flegrei caldera

    CERN Document Server

    Bevilacqua, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This study provides innovative mathematical models for assessing the eruption probability and associated volcanic hazards, and applies them to the Campi Flegrei caldera in Italy. Throughout the book, significant attention is devoted to quantifying the sources of uncertainty affecting the forecast estimates. The Campi Flegrei caldera is certainly one of the world’s highest-risk volcanoes, with more than 70 eruptions over the last 15,000 years, prevalently explosive ones of varying magnitude, intensity and vent location. In the second half of the twentieth century the volcano apparently once again entered a phase of unrest that continues to the present. Hundreds of thousands of people live inside the caldera and over a million more in the nearby city of Naples, making a future eruption of Campi Flegrei an event with potentially catastrophic consequences at the national and European levels.

  14. The timing and origin of pre- and post-caldera volcanism associated with the Mesa Falls Tuff, Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Champion, Duane E.; Kuntz, Mel A.

    2018-01-01

    We present new sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for pre- and post-caldera rhyolites from the second volcanic cycle of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, which culminated in the caldera-forming eruption of the Mesa Falls Tuff at ca. 1.3 Ma. These data allow for a detailed reconstruction of the eruptive history of the second volcanic cycle and provide new insights into the petrogenesis of rhyolite domes and flows erupted during this time period. 40Ar/39Ar age data for the biotite-bearing Bishop Mountain flow demonstrate that it erupted approximately 150 kyr prior to the Mesa Falls Tuff. Integrating 40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for the post-caldera Island Park rhyolite domes suggests that these five crystal-rich rhyolites erupted over a centuries-long time interval at 1.2905 ± 0.0020 Ma (2σ). The biotite-bearing Moonshine Mountain rhyolite dome was originally thought to be the downfaulted vent dome for the pre-caldera Bishop Mountain flow due to their similar petrographic and oxygen isotope characteristics, but new 40Ar/39Ar dating suggest that it erupted near contemporaneously with the Island Park rhyolite domes at 1.2931 ± 0.0018 Ma (2σ) and is a post-caldera eruption. Despite their similar eruption ages, the Island Park rhyolite domes and the Moonshine Mountain dome are chemically and petrographically distinct and are not derived from the same source. Integrating these new data with field relations and existing geochemical data, we present a petrogenetic model for the formation of the post-Mesa Falls Tuff rhyolites. Renewed influx of basaltic and/or silicic recharge magma into the crust at 1.2905 ± 0.0020 Ma led to [1] the formation of the Island Park rhyolite domes from the source region that earlier produced the Mesa Falls Tuff and [2] the formation of Moonshine Mountain dome from the source region that earlier produced the biotite-bearing Bishop Mountain flow. These magmas were stored in the crust for less than a few thousand

  15. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  16. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    This research project adopted an interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). New data were produced that: (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  17. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  18. Flow of supersonic jets across flat plates: Implications for ground-level flow from volcanic blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Mara M.; Prisco, David; Austin, Joanna M.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    2014-04-01

    We report on laboratory experiments examining the interaction of a jet from an overpressurized reservoir with a canonical ground surface to simulate lateral blasts at volcanoes such as the 1980 blast at Mount St. Helens. These benchmark experiments test the application of supersonic jet models to simulate the flow of volcanic jets over a lateral topography. The internal shock structure of the free jet is modified such that the Mach disk shock is elevated above the surface. In elevation view, the width of the shock is reduced in comparison with a free jet, while in map view the dimensions are comparable. The distance of the Mach disk shock from the vent is in good agreement with free jet data and can be predicted with existing theory. The internal shock structures can interact with and penetrate the boundary layer. In the shock-boundary layer interaction, an oblique shock foot is present in the schlieren images and a distinctive ground signature is evident in surface measurements. The location of the oblique shock foot and the surface demarcation are closely correlated with the Mach disk shock location during reservoir depletion, and therefore, estimates of a ground signature in a zone devastated by a blast can be based on the calculated shock location from free jet theory. These experiments, combined with scaling arguments, suggest that the imprint of the Mach disk shock on the ground should be within the range of 4-9 km at Mount St. Helens depending on assumed reservoir pressure and vent dimensions.

  19. Post Fukushima requirement of containment filtered venting system in NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, Anuj Kumar; Bera, S.; Nagrale, D.B.; Lakshmanan, S.P.; Baburajan, P.K.; Paul, U.K.; Gaikwad, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Post Fukushima safety enhancement through provision of an additional layer of Defence-in-Depth in the existing and new Indian nuclear power plants has led to the need of containment filtered venting system (CFVS). The regulatory review of the design of CFVS is in progress. In order to assess the same, the regulatory knowledge base had to be generated on the current state of the art of the design of such a system by study of the international experience on this system available in the open literature. The regulatory stand on requirements and implementation status of the CFVS in various countries were also studied. The information available on design features of various kinds of venting systems, relevant design basis and/or acceptance criteria were collected for supporting the design safety review of the Indian CFVS under consideration. During the on-going regulatory review process several analyses have been carried out, some more are in progress, to support the deliberations and decision making. This paper presents the above mentioned information and the summary of the analyses carried out including the status and outcome. Important aspects of the design review and associated analyses are also presented in this paper which includes the descriptions of the work on CFD study of venturi atomization, thermal hydraulics studies, shielding analysis and source term estimation studies carried out by the regulatory body. (author)

  20. Numerical Analysis of a Passive Containment Filtered Venting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taejoon; Ha, Huiun; Heo, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The passive Containment Filtered Venting system (CFVS) does not have principally any kind of isolation valves or filtering devices which need periodic maintenance. In this study, the hydro-thermal analysis is presented to investigate the existence of flow instability in the passive CFVS and its performance under the pressure change of APR+ containment building with LB-LOCA M/E data. The Passive Containment Filtered Venting System was suggested as a part in i-Power development project and the operation mechanism was investigated by numerical modeling and simulation using GOTHIC8.0 system code. There are four Phases for consideration to investigate the pressurization of the containment building, loss of hydrostatic head in the pipe line of CFVS, opening of pipe line and gas ejection to the coolant tank, and the head recovery inside the pipe as the containment gas exhausted. The simulation results show that gas generation rate determine the timing of head recovery in the CFVS pipe line and that the equipment of various devices inducing pressure loss at the pipe can give the capacity of Phase control of the passive CFVS operation

  1. Performance assessment of containment filtered venting system with Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinarayna, K.N.V.; Ali, Seik Mansoor; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Venting through appropriate filtration systems is now being considered as a severe accident management strategy for maintaining the containment integrity and also as a means to reduce the radiological consequences to the public and environment. The option of filtered containment venting appears to have assumed significance in the post- Fukushima accident backdrop. Back-fitting of a suitable Venturi scrubber based CFVS for the Indian BWRs (TAPS- 1 and 2) at Tarapur is now being contemplated. Several key issues need to be carefully addressed for ensuring the desired functional capability of such a system. At the outset, this paper highlights a few thermal hydraulic issues that are of interest from regulatory perspective. This is followed by a detailed description of the mathematical models developed for assessing the depressurization characteristics of CFVS, energy absorption capacity of the Scrubber Tank (ST) water inventory, iodine removal and aerosol retention capability etc. Finally, application of these models to investigate the response of CFVS under twin unit SBO conditions in TAPS-1 and 2 is presented. The studies presented here give insight into the key variables affecting the CFVS performance and would be useful to both the system designer as well as the regulator. (author)

  2. A finite element analysis of novel vented dental abutment geometries for cement-retained crown restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lucas C; Saba, Juliana N; Meyer, Clark A; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Wadhwani, Chandur; Rodrigues, Danieli C

    2016-11-01

    Recent literature indicates that the long-term success of dental implants is, in part, attributed to how dental crowns are attached to their associated implants. The commonly utilized method for crown attachment - cementation, has been criticized because of recent links between residual cement and peri-implant disease. Residual cement extrusion from crown-abutment margins post-crown seating is a growing concern. This study aimed at (1) identifying key abutment features, which would improve dental cement flow characteristics, and (2) understanding how these features would impact the mechanical stability of the abutment under functional loads. Computational fluid dynamic modeling was used to evaluate cement flow in novel abutment geometries. These models were then evaluated using 3D-printed surrogate models. Finite element analysis also provided an understanding of how the mechanical stability of these abutments was altered after key features were incorporated into the geometry. The findings demonstrated that the key features involved in improved venting of the abutment during crown seating were (1) addition of vents, (2) diameter of the vents, (3) location of the vents, (4) addition of a plastic screw insert, and (5) thickness of the abutment wall. This study culminated in a novel design for a vented abutment consisting of 8 vents located radially around the abutment neck-margin plus a plastic insert to guide the cement during seating and provide retrievability to the abutment system.Venting of the dental abutment has been shown to decrease the risk of undetected residual dental cement post-cement-retained crown seating. This article will utilize a finite element analysis approach toward optimizing dental abutment designs for improved dental cement venting. Features investigated include (1) addition of vents, (2) diameter of vents, (3) location of vents, (4) addition of plastic screw insert, and (5) thickness of abutment wall.

  3. A finite element analysis of novel vented dental abutment geometries for cement‐retained crown restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lucas C.; Saba, Juliana N.; Meyer, Clark A.; Chung, Kwok‐Hung; Wadhwani, Chandur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent literature indicates that the long‐term success of dental implants is, in part, attributed to how dental crowns are attached to their associated implants. The commonly utilized method for crown attachment – cementation, has been criticized because of recent links between residual cement and peri‐implant disease. Residual cement extrusion from crown‐abutment margins post‐crown seating is a growing concern. This study aimed at (1) identifying key abutment features, which would improve dental cement flow characteristics, and (2) understanding how these features would impact the mechanical stability of the abutment under functional loads. Computational fluid dynamic modeling was used to evaluate cement flow in novel abutment geometries. These models were then evaluated using 3D‐printed surrogate models. Finite element analysis also provided an understanding of how the mechanical stability of these abutments was altered after key features were incorporated into the geometry. The findings demonstrated that the key features involved in improved venting of the abutment during crown seating were (1) addition of vents, (2) diameter of the vents, (3) location of the vents, (4) addition of a plastic screw insert, and (5) thickness of the abutment wall. This study culminated in a novel design for a vented abutment consisting of 8 vents located radially around the abutment neck‐margin plus a plastic insert to guide the cement during seating and provide retrievability to the abutment system.Venting of the dental abutment has been shown to decrease the risk of undetected residual dental cement post‐cement‐retained crown seating. This article will utilize a finite element analysis approach toward optimizing dental abutment designs for improved dental cement venting. Features investigated include (1) addition of vents, (2) diameter of vents, (3) location of vents, (4) addition of plastic screw insert, and (5) thickness of abutment wall. PMID

  4. Dinasour extinction and volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, J. A.

    There is at present some controversy about the reason for the mass extinction of dinosaurs and other forms of life at the end of the Cretaceous. A suggestion by Alvarez et al. [1980] that this was due to the collision of the earth with a meteorite 10 km or so in diameter has excited considerable interest [Silver and Schultz, 1982] and also some criticism [Stanley, 1984]. A recent publication [Wood, 1984] describing the catastrophic effects of a relatively minor lava flow in Iceland suggests that intense volcanic activity could have played a large part in the extinctions. In this letter it is pointed out that the Deccan lava flows in India took place in the appropriate time and may well have been of sufficient magnitude to be a major factor in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (C-T) boundary catastrophe.

  5. The Massive Compound Cofre de Perote Shield Volcano: a Volcanological Oddity in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, L.; Carrasco-Nunez, G.; Diaz-Castellon, R.; Rodriguez, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Cofre de Perote volcano anchors the northern end of the easternmost of several volcanic chains orthogonal to the E-W trend of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). Its structure, geochemistry, and volcanic history diverge significantly from that of the large dominantly andesitic stratovolcanoes that have been the major focus of research efforts in the MVB. Andesitic-trachyandesitic to dacitic-trachydacitic effusive activity has predominated at Cofre de Perote, forming a massive low-angle compound shield volcano that dwarfs the more typical smaller shield volcanoes of the central and western MVB. The 4282-m-high volcano overlooking Xalapa, the capital city of the State of Veracruz, has a diameter of about 30 km and rises more than 3000 m above the coastal plain to the east. Repeated edifice collapse has left massive horseshoe-shaped scarps that truncate the eastern side of the edifice. Five major evolutionary stages characterize the growth of this compound volcano: 1) emplacement of a multiple-vent dome complex forming the basal structure of Cofre de Perote around 1.9-1.3 Ma; 2) construction of the basal part of the compound shield volcano from at least two main upper-edifice vents at about 400 ka; 3) effusion of the summit dome-like lavas through multiple vents at ca. 240 ka; 4) eruption of a large number of geochemically diverse, alkaline and calc-alkaline Pleistocene-to-Holocene monogenetic cones (likely related to regional volcanism) through the flanks of the Cofre de Perote edifice; 5) late-stage, large-volume edifice collapse on at least two occasions (ca. 40 ka and ca. 10 ka), producing long-runout debris avalanches that traveled to the east. An undated tephra layer from Cofre de Perote overlies deposits likely of the youngest collapse. Cofre de Perote is one of several volcanoes in the roughly N-S-trending chain that has undergone major edifice collapse. As with Citlaltepetl (Pico de Orizaba) and Las Cumbres volcanoes, Cofre de Perote was constructed at the

  6. Externally triggered renewed bubble nucleation in basaltic magma: the 12 October 2008 eruption at Halema‘uma‘u Overlook vent, Kīlauea, Hawai‘i, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca J.; Manga, Michael; Degruyter, Wim; Swanson, Donald; Houghton, Bruce F.; Orr, Tim R.; Patrick, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    From October 2008 until present, dozens of small impulsive explosive eruptions occurred from the Overlook vent on the southeast side of Halema‘uma‘u Crater, at Kīlauea volcano, USA. These eruptions were triggered by rockfalls from the walls of the volcanic vent and conduit onto the top of the lava column. Here we use microtextural observations and data from clasts erupted during the well-characterized 12 October 2008 explosive eruption at Halema‘uma‘u to extend existing models of eruption triggering. We present a potential mechanism for this eruption by combining microtextural observations with existing geophysical and visual data sets. We measure the size and number density of bubbles preserved in juvenile ejecta using 2D images and X-ray microtomography. Our data suggest that accumulations of large bubbles with diameters of >50μm to at least millimeters existed at shallow levels within the conduit prior to the 12 October 2008 explosion. Furthermore, a high number density of small bubbles nucleation of bubbles. Visual observations, combined with preexisting geophysical data, suggest that the impact of rockfalls onto the magma free surface induces pressure changes over short timescales that (1) nucleated new additional bubbles in the shallow conduit leading to high number densities of small bubbles and (2) expanded the preexisting bubbles driving upward acceleration. The trigger of eruption and bubble nucleation is thus external to the degassing system.

  7. Exceptional discovery of a shallow-water hydrothermal site in the SW area of Basiluzzo islet (Aeolian archipelago, South Tyrrhenian Sea: An environment to preserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esposito

    Full Text Available The geological, biological and geochemical features of a particular field of hydrothermal vents, discovered in the Panarea Volcanic Complex during a research survey carried out in 2015, are described for the first time. The site, located at 70-80 m depth off the South-western coast of the islet of Basiluzzo, was named Smoking Land for the presence of a large number of wide and high active chimneys and was characterized in terms of dissolved benthic fluxes, associated macrofauna and megafauna communities and preliminary mineralogy and geochemistry of chimney structures. On the whole field, a total of 39 chimneys, different in size and shape, were closely observed and described; 14 of them showed emission of low temperature hydrothermal fluids of marine origin characterized by acidified chemical conditions. The CTD and benthic chamber measurements highlighted that the Smoking Land is able to form a sea water bottom layer characterized by variable acidity and high DIC and trace elements concentrations; these characteristics weaken moving away from the chimney mouths. The SEM-EDS analysis of the collected solid samples revealed a chimney structure principally composed by amorphous and low crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides of hydrothermal origins. The ROV explorations revealed a wide coverage of red algae (Peyssonnelia spp. colonized by the green algae Flabiella petiolata and by suspension feeders, mainly sponges, but also bryozoans, and tubicolous polychaetes. Although novent-exclusive species were identified, the benthic communities found in association to the chimneys included more taxa than those observed in the surrounding no-vent rocky areas. These first findings evidence a submarine dynamic habitat where geological, chemical and biological processes are intimately connected, making the Smoking Land an important site in terms of marine heritage that should be safeguarded and protected.

  8. Exceptional discovery of a shallow-water hydrothermal site in the SW area of Basiluzzo islet (Aeolian archipelago, South Tyrrhenian Sea): An environment to preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaloro, Franco; Canese, Simonepietro; Bo, Marzia; Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Pietro; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Giordano, Patrizia; Spagnoli, Federico; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M.; Scotti, Gianfranco; Romeo, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The geological, biological and geochemical features of a particular field of hydrothermal vents, discovered in the Panarea Volcanic Complex during a research survey carried out in 2015, are described for the first time. The site, located at 70–80 m depth off the South-western coast of the islet of Basiluzzo, was named Smoking Land for the presence of a large number of wide and high active chimneys and was characterized in terms of dissolved benthic fluxes, associated macrofauna and megafauna communities and preliminary mineralogy and geochemistry of chimney structures. On the whole field, a total of 39 chimneys, different in size and shape, were closely observed and described; 14 of them showed emission of low temperature hydrothermal fluids of marine origin characterized by acidified chemical conditions. The CTD and benthic chamber measurements highlighted that the Smoking Land is able to form a sea water bottom layer characterized by variable acidity and high DIC and trace elements concentrations; these characteristics weaken moving away from the chimney mouths. The SEM-EDS analysis of the collected solid samples revealed a chimney structure principally composed by amorphous and low crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides of hydrothermal origins. The ROV explorations revealed a wide coverage of red algae (Peyssonnelia spp.) colonized by the green algae Flabiella petiolata and by suspension feeders, mainly sponges, but also bryozoans, and tubicolous polychaetes. Although novent-exclusive species were identified, the benthic communities found in association to the chimneys included more taxa than those observed in the surrounding no-vent rocky areas. These first findings evidence a submarine dynamic habitat where geological, chemical and biological processes are intimately connected, making the Smoking Land an important site in terms of marine heritage that should be safeguarded and protected. PMID:29300784

  9. Annually resolved southern hemisphere volcanic history from two Antarctic ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    1997-07-01

    The continuous sulfate analysis of two Antarctic ice cores, one from the Antarctic Peninsula region and one from West Antarctica, provides an annually resolved proxy history of southern semisphere volcanism since early in the 15th century. The dating is accurate within ±3 years due to the high rate of snow accumulation at both core sites and the small sample sizes used for analysis. The two sulfate records are consistent with each other. A systematic and objective method of separating outstanding sulfate events from the background sulfate flux is proposed and used to identify all volcanic signals. The resulting volcanic chronology covering 1417-1989 A.D. resolves temporal ambiguities about several recently discovered events. A number of previously unknown, moderate eruptions during late 1600s are uncovered in this chronology. The eruption of Tambora (1815) and the recently discovered eruption of Kuwae (1453) in the tropical South Pacific injected the greatest amount of sulfur dioxide into the southern hemisphere stratosphere during the last half millennium. A technique for comparing the magnitude of volcanic events preserved within different ice cores is developed using normalized sulfate flux. For the same eruptions the variability of the volcanic sulfate flux between the cores is within ±20% of the sulfate flux from the Tambora eruption.

  10. Evaluation of early Archean volcaniclastic and volcanic flow rocks as possible sites for carbonaceous fossil microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maud M

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks have traditionally been the focus of the search for Archean microfossils; the Earth's oldest fossil bacteria are associated with carbonaceous matter in sedimentary cherts in greenstone belts in the eastern Pilbara block of Western Australia and Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa. Reports of possible fossils in a martian meteorite composed of igneous rock and the discovery of modern bacteria associated with basalts have stimulated a new look at Archean volcanic rocks as possible sites for fossil microbes. This study examines silicified volcaniclastic rocks, near-surface altered volcanic flow rocks, and associated stromatolite- like structures from the Archean Barberton greenstone belt to evaluate their potential for the preservation of carbonaceous fossils. Detrital carbonaceous particles are widely admixed with current-deposited debris. Carbonaceous matter is also present in altered volcanic flow rocks as sparse particles in silica veins that appear to be fed by overlying carbonaceous chert layers. Neither microfossils nor mat-like material was identified in the altered volcanic rocks or adjacent stromatolite-like structures. Ancient volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks are not promising sites for carbonaceous fossil preservation.

  11. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for the Katmai volcanic cluster, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes

    2000-01-01

    The world’s largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century broke out at Novarupta (fig. 1) in June 1912, filling with hot ash what came to be called the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and spreading downwind more fallout than all other historical Alaskan eruptions combined. Although almost all the magma vented at Novarupta, most of it had been stored beneath Mount Katmai 10 km away, which collapsed during the eruption. Airborne ash from the 3-day event blanketed all of southern Alaska, and its gritty fallout was reported as far away as Dawson, Ketchikan, and Puget Sound (fig. 21). Volcanic dust and sulfurous aerosol were detected within days over Wisconsin and Virginia; within 2 weeks over California, Europe, and North Africa; and in latter-day ice cores recently drilled on the Greenland ice cap. There were no aircraft in Alaska in 1912—fortunately! Corrosive acid aerosols damage aircraft, and ingestion of volcanic ash can cause abrupt jet-engine failure. Today, more than 200 flights a day transport 20,000 people and a fortune in cargo within range of dozens of restless volcanoes in the North Pacific. Air routes from the Far East to Europe and North America pass over and near Alaska, many flights refueling in Anchorage. Had this been so in 1912, every airport from Dillingham to Dawson and from Fairbanks to Seattle would have been enveloped in ash, leaving pilots no safe option but to turn back or find refuge at an Aleutian airstrip west of the ash cloud. Downwind dust and aerosol could have disrupted air traffic anywhere within a broad swath across Canada and the Midwest, perhaps even to the Atlantic coast. The great eruption of 1912 focused scientific attention on Novarupta, and subsequent research there has taught us much about the processes and hazards associated with such large explosive events (Fierstein and Hildreth, 1992). Moreover, work in the last decade has identified no fewer than 20 discrete volcanic vents within 15 km of Novarupta (Hildreth and others

  12. Mapping Intraplate Volcanic Fields: A Case Study from Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, D. T.; Stelten, M. E.; Champion, D. E.; Dietterich, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    Continental intraplate mafic volcanoes are typically small-volume (200 volcanic fields proposed to be active worldwide during the Holocene. Their small individual eruption volumes make any hazards low, however their high prevalence offsets this by raising the risk to populations and infrastructure. The western Arabian Plate hosts at least 15 continental, intra-plate volcanic fields that stretch >3,000 km south to north from Yemen to Turkey. In total, these volcanic fields comprise one of the largest alkali basalt volcanic provinces on Earth, covering an area of 180,000 km2. With a total volume of 20,000 km3, Harrat Rahat in western Saudi Arabia is one of the largest of these volcanic fields. Our study focused on mapping the northern third of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field using a multidisciplinary approach. We have discriminated >200 individual eruptive units, mainly basaltic lava flows throughout Harrat Rahat that are distinguished through a combination of field observations, petrography, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar radiometric and 36Cl cosmogenic surface-exposure dating. We have compiled these results into a high-resolution geologic map, which provides new information about the timing, compositions, and eruptive processes of Quaternary volcanism in Harrat Rahat. For example, prior mapping and geochronology undertaken during the 1980s suggested that the majority of mafic and silicic volcanics erupted during the Miocene and Pliocene, whereas several of the youngest-appearing lava flows were interpreted to be Neolithic ( 7,000 to 4,500 years BP) to post-Neolithic. New mapping and age-constrained stratigraphic relations indicate that all exposed volcanic units within the northern third of Harrat Rahat erupted during the Pleistocene, with the exception of a single Holocene eruption in 1256 AD. This new multidisciplinary mapping is critical for understanding the overall spatial, temporal, and compositional evolution of Harrat Rahat, timescales of

  13. Integrating a vented airspace into a spray-foam insulated solid masonry historic building in a cold climate: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzekova, Ekaterina; Pressnail, K.D.; Binkley, Clarissa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto (Canada); Pearson, Nastassja [Halsall Associates Limited (Canada); Pasqualini, Paul [Engineering Link Inc (Canada); Aikin, Craig [Halcrow Yolles (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Thermal insulation was not included during the construction of historic brick buildings in Canada. Although thermal retrofits can improve building energy performance and occupant comfort, heritage requirements restrict the use of internal insulation. This paper presents an innovative Vented Masonry Retrofit (VMR), which consists of creating a vented airspace by incorporating Mortairvent between the insulation and the masonry. A numerical model and a field trial involving a three-storey heritage building were performed to compare the hygrothermal performance of the VMR with that of standard interior insulation. Temperature and relative humidity were collected during the winter months in foam-insulated, side-by-side wall assemblies along the east and south facing walls using both approaches. Modeling results predicted that using VMR assemblies would reduce the moisture content in both east and south elevations to below that obtained with standard insulation. However, the field trial showed improvement only along the south facade. Long term performance evaluation is required far a better evaluation of the VMR approach.

  14. MODIS volcanic ash retrievals vs FALL3D transport model: a quantitative comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Folch, A.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite retrievals and transport models represents the key tools to monitor the volcanic clouds evolution. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, the real-time tracking and forecasting of volcanic clouds is key for aviation safety. Together with the security reasons also the economical consequences of a disruption of airports must be taken into account. The airport closures due to the recent Icelandic Eyjafjöll eruption caused millions of passengers to be stranded not only in Europe, but across the world. IATA (the International Air Transport Association) estimates that the worldwide airline industry has lost a total of about 2.5 billion of Euro during the disruption. Both security and economical issues require reliable and robust ash cloud retrievals and trajectory forecasting. The intercomparison between remote sensing and modeling is required to assure precise and reliable volcanic ash products. In this work we perform a quantitative comparison between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of volcanic ash cloud mass and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with the FALL3D ash dispersal model. MODIS, aboard the NASA-Terra and NASA-Aqua polar satellites, is a multispectral instrument with 36 spectral bands operating in the VIS-TIR spectral range and spatial resolution varying between 250 and 1000 m at nadir. The MODIS channels centered around 11 and 12 micron have been used for the ash retrievals through the Brightness Temperature Difference algorithm and MODTRAN simulations. FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic particles that outputs, among other variables, cloud column mass and AOD. Three MODIS images collected the October 28, 29 and 30 on Mt. Etna volcano during the 2002 eruption have been considered as test cases. The results show a general good agreement between the retrieved and the modeled volcanic clouds in the first 300 km from the vents. Even if the

  15. Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al

    2012-10-01

    Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.

  16. Natural Ventilation Effectiveness of Round Wall-Mounted Vent Caps in Residential Kitchens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Pin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of different numbers of wall-mounted vent caps and their installation locations on the indoor air environment in residential kitchens, for which limited information is available. Wind tunnel tests were performed to study the induced ventilation rates of a vent cap, and the impact of vent caps on the natural ventilation efficiency in residential kitchens was examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD numerical simulations. The results were then applied to determine the appropriate quantity of vent caps and their proper installation location. The wind tunnel test results indicated that outdoor winds with speeds of 0–6 m/s that flow parallel to the wall with a vent cap induce indoor air to exit through the cap with ventilation rates of 0–20 m3/h; when the wind blows perpendicular to the wall, outdoor air with 0–31.9 m3/h flows indoors. CFD numerical simulations showed that the installation of kitchen vent caps can reduce the average carbon monoxide concentration in the cook’s breathing zone. A sufficient quantity of vent caps and the proper installation location are required to ensure the natural ventilation effectiveness of wall-mounted vent caps.

  17. 40 CFR 63.113 - Process vent provisions-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.113 Process vent provisions—reference control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vent provisions-reference control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  18. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process vents... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  1. Inerting of a Vented Aircraft Fuel Tank Test Article with Nitrogen-Enriched Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burns, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...) required to inert a vented aircraft fuel tank. NEA, generated by a hollow fiber membrane gas separation system, was used to inert a laboratory fuel tank with a single vent on top designed to simulate a transport category airplane fuel tank...

  2. Spatial scaling of bacterial community diversity at shallow hydrothermal vents: a global comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop Ristova, P.; Hassenrueck, C.; Molari, M.; Fink, A.; Bühring, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    Marine shallow hydrothermal vents are extreme environments, often characterized by discharge of fluids with e.g. high temperatures, low pH, and laden with elements toxic to higher organisms. They occur at continental margins around the world's oceans, but represent fragmented, isolated habitats of locally small areal coverage. Microorganisms contribute the main biomass at shallow hydrothermal vent ecosystems and build the basis of the food chain by autotrophic fixation of carbon both via chemosynthesis and photosynthesis, occurring simultaneously. Despite their importance and unique capacity to adapt to these extreme environments, little is known about the spatial scales on which the alpha- and beta-diversity of microbial communities vary at shallow vents, and how the geochemical habitat heterogeneity influences shallow vent biodiversity. Here for the first time we investigated the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity patterns and their interconnectivity at geochemically diverse shallow vents on a global scale. This study presents data on the comparison of bacterial community structures on large (> 1000 km) and small (0.1 - 100 m) spatial scales as derived from ARISA and Illumina sequencing. Despite the fragmented global distribution of shallow hydrothermal vents, similarity of vent bacterial communities decreased with geographic distance, confirming the ubiquity of distance-decay relationship. Moreover, at all investigated vents, pH was the main factor locally structuring these communities, while temperature influenced both the alpha- and beta-diversity.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Puttagunta, S. Maxwell, D. Berger, and M. Zuluaga

    2015-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research assessed whether these negative pressures prevail through a variety of environmental conditions.

  4. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. 50.46a Section 50.46a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... function of these systems. High point vents are not required for the tubes in U-tube steam generators...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a...

  6. Greated era of volcanic front in Middle Kyushu and Western Chugoku districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hirotake; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Koyaguchi, Takehiro

    1987-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the era when the creation of the volcanos commenced which were extending from north-east to south west, by using the K-Ar age of volcanic rocks which were continuously distributed from middle Kyushu to San-in district and which were mainly composed of amphibole andesite. By comparing with geological map, relation with the stratigraphic order of layers at Yabakei, Himejima and Aono were considered. It was concluded that, in every place, the vocanic activities commenced much later era than creation of basement rock. It was also recognized that, by studying the relation with Phillipine Plate, deep earthquake was related with the volcanic front of south west Japan arc. (8 figs, 2 tabs, 14 refs)

  7. OECD/NEA/CSNI Status Report on Filtered Containment Venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemain, D.; Guentay, S.; Basu, S.; Sonnenkalb, M.; Lebel, L.; Ball, J.; Allelein, H.J.; Liebana Martinez, B.; Eckardt, B.; Losch, N.; Ammirabile, L.; ); Gryffroy, D.; Sallus, L.; Kroes, A.; Rensonnet, T.; Anden, A.; Gyepi-Garbrah, S.; Viktorov, A.; Duspiva, J.; Routamo, T.; Guieu, S.; Hotta, A.; Nakamura, H.; Song, J.H.; Ha, K.S.; Filio, C.; Kuznetsov, M.V.; Kubisova, L.; Nemec, T.; Frid, W.; Loy, D.; Pellini, D.; Zieger, T.; Herranz Puebla, L.; Amri, A.; Kissane, M.; )

    2014-01-01

    This Status Report provides a comprehensive description of safety requirements associated with Filtered Containment Venting Systems (FCVSs) (Chapter 3) and of the status of FCVS implementation (Chapter 4) as provided by the various contributing countries. The different level of detail describing the accident management situation in different countries in relation to FCVS reflects in part the reality of the different levels of the current regulatory and/or technological appraisal of FCVS internationally. Further, the safety requirements differ in various countries being more-or-less prescriptive with FCVS not necessarily explicitly mandated or not considered as the primary measure to prevent containment over-pressurization. The following requirements may be prescribed for FCVS depending on venting strategies and objectives: vent capacity, vent opening and closing pressures, vent timing, venting system design requirements, consideration of possible hydrogen loads, radiological objectives, FCVS decontamination factors (DFs) for radioactive aerosols, for molecular iodine, etc. These are all discussed in detail in the report. A description of the FCV strategies for emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and SAM domains is provided in Chapter 5. FCVS are considered to be an additional system to protect the containment integrity. FCVSs are typically to be used in SAs as part of the overall applied SAM strategy for PWRs and BWRs, while they are also used in DBA for some PHWRs (CANDUs). Operation of a FCVS is also considered in some countries and for some reactor designs for accident management other than countering the long-term over-pressurization of the containment, e.g., for BWRs in the case of loss of heat sink to remove decay heat or to reduce the hydrogen inventory in the containment. Chapter 6 presents the well-known existing filtration technologies e.g., scrubbers, deep-bed filtration and different sorption systems. Details of systems for which information was

  8. Geomicrobiology of Hydrothermal Vents in Yellowstone Lake: Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis suggest Importance of Geochemistry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Macur, R.; Jay, Z.; Clingenpeel, S.; Tenney, A.; Lavalvo, D.; Shanks, W. C.; McDermott, T.; Kan, J.; Gorby, Y.; Morgan, L. A.; Yooseph, S.; Varley, J.; Nealson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large, high-altitude, fresh-water lake that straddles the most recent Yellowstone caldera, and is situated on top of significant hydrothermal activity. An interdisciplinary study is underway to evaluate the geochemical and geomicrobiological characteristics of several hydrothermal vent environments sampled using a remotely operated vehicle, and to determine the degree to which these vents may influence the biology of this young freshwater ecosystem. Approximately six different vent systems (locations) were sampled during 2007 and 2008, and included water obtained directly from the hydrothermal vents as well as biomass and sediment associated with these high-temperature environments. Thorough geochemical analysis of these hydrothermal environments reveals variation in pH, sulfide, hydrogen and other potential electron donors that may drive primary productivity. The concentrations of dissolved hydrogen and sulfide were extremely high in numerous vents sampled, especially the deeper (30-50 m) vents located in the Inflated Plain, West Thumb, and Mary Bay. Significant dilution of hydrothermal fluids occurs due to mixing with surrounding lake water. Despite this, the temperatures observed in many of these hydrothermal vents range from 50-90 C, and elevated concentrations of constituents typically associated with geothermal activity in Yellowstone are observed in waters sampled directly from vent discharge. Microorganisms associated with elemental sulfur mats and filamentous ‘streamer’ communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5-6) were dominated by members of the deeply-rooted bacterial Order Aquificales, but also contain thermophilic members of the domain Archaea. Assembly of metagenome sequence from the Inflated Plain vent biomass and to a lesser extent, West Thumb vent biomass reveal the importance of Sulfurihydrogenibium-like organisms, also important in numerous terrestrial geothermal

  9. Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti Volcanic Highland, Georgia:The Result of Mantle Plumes Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti continental volcanic highland (1500-2500 m a.s.l) is located in the SW part of the Lesser Caucasus. In Georgia the highland occupies more than 4500 km2, however its large part spreads towards the South over the territories of Turkey and Armenia. One can point out three stages of magmatic activity in this volcanic highland: 1. Early Pliocene activity (5.2-2.8 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when a large part of the highland was built up. It is formed from volcanic lava-breccias of andesite-dacitic composition, pyroclastic rocks and andesite-basalt lava flow. The evidences of this structure are: a large volume of volcanic material (>1500 km3); big thickness (700-1100 m in average), large-scale of lava flows (length 35 km, width 2.5-3.5 km, thickness 30-80 m), big thickness of volcanic ash horizons (300 cm at some places) and big size of volcanic breccias (diameter >1 m). Based on this data we assume that a source of this structure was a supervolcano (Okrostsvaridze et al., 2016); 2. Early Pleistocene activity (2.4 -1.6 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when continental flood basalts of 100-300 m thickness were formed. The flow is fully crystalline, coarse-grained, which mainly consist of olivine and basic labradorite. There 143Nd/144Nd parameter varies in the range of +0.41703 - +0.52304, and 87Sr/88Sr - from 0.7034 to 0.7039; 3. Late Pleistocene activity (0.35-0.021 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when intraplate Abul-Samsari linear volcanic ridge of andesite composition was formed stretching to the S-N direction for 40 km with the 8-12 km width and contains more than 20 volcanic edifices. To the South of the Abul-Samsari ridge the oldest (0.35-0.30 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) volcano Didi Abuli (3305 m a.s.l.) is located. To the North ages of volcano edifices gradually increase. Farther North the youngest volcano Tavkvetili (0.021-0. 030 Ma) is located (2583 m a.s.l.). One can see from this description that the Abul-Samsari ridge has all signs characterizing

  10. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry investigations of the mixed convection exchange flow through a horizontal vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrall, Kevin; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel; Vauquelin, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    The exchange flow through a horizontal vent linking two compartments (one above the other) is studied experimentally. This exchange is here governed by both the buoyant natural effect due to the temperature difference of the fluids in both compartments, and the effect of a (forced) mechanical ventilation applied in the lower compartment. Such a configuration leads to uni- or bi-directional flows through the vent. In the experiments, buoyancy is induced in the lower compartment thanks to an electrical resistor. The forced ventilation is applied in exhaust or supply modes and three different values of the vent area. To estimate both velocity fields and flow rates at the vent, measurements are realized at thermal steady state, flush the vent in the upper compartment using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV), which is original for this kind of flow. The SPIV measurements allows the area occupied by both upward and downward flows to be determined.

  11. Venting krypton-85 from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    To permit the less restricted access to the reactor building necessary to maintain instrumentation and equipment, and to proceed towad the total decontamination of the facility, General Public Utilities, operators of the facility referred to hereafter as GPU, asked the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or NRC, for permission to remove the 85 Kr from the reactor building by venting it to the environment. GPU supported their request with the Safety Analysis and Environmental Assessment Report on the proposed reactor building venting plan. On June 12, 1980, after seven months of licensing deliberations and numerous public hearings, the NRC granted GPU's request. The actual venting took place between June 28 and July 11, 1980. This report presents an overview of the detailed effort involved in the TMI-2 reactor building venting program. The findings reported here are condensed from a published report entitled TMI-2 Reactor Building Purge--Kr-85 Venting

  12. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  13. On magma fragmentation by conduit shear stress: Evidence from the Kos Plateau Tuff, Aegean Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Danilo M.; Simei, Silvia; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2008-12-01

    Large silicic explosive eruptions are the most catastrophic volcanic events. Yet, the intratelluric mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Here we report a field and laboratory study of the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT, 161 ka, Aegean Volcanic Arc), which provides an excellent geological example of conduit processes that control magma vesiculation and fragmentation during intermediate- to large-scale caldera-forming eruptions. A prominent feature of the KPT is the occurrence of quite unusual platy-shaped tube pumice clasts in pyroclastic fall and current deposits from the early eruption phases preceding caldera collapse. On macroscopic and SEM observations, flat clast faces are elongated parallel to tube vesicles, while transverse surfaces often occur at ~ 45° to vesicle elongation. This peculiar pumice texture provides evidence of high shear stresses related to strong velocity gradients normal to conduit walls, which induced vesiculation and fragmentation of the ascending magma. Either an increasing mass discharge rate without adequate enlargement of a narrow central feeder conduit or a developing fissure-like feeder system related to incipient caldera collapse provided suitable conditions for the generation of plate tube pumice within magma volumes under high shear during the pre-climactic KPT eruption phases. This mechanism implies that the closer to the conduit walls (where the stronger are the velocity gradients) the larger was the proportion of plate vs. conventional (lensoid) juvenile fragments in the ascending gas-pyroclast mixture. Consequently, plate pumice clasts were mainly entrained in the outer portions of the jet and convecting regions of a sustained, Plinian-type, eruption column, as well as in occasional lateral blast currents generated at the vent. As a whole, plate pumice clasts in the peripheral portions of the column were transported at lower altitudes and deposited by fallout or partial collapse closer to the vent relative to lensoid ones

  14. Heavy metals from Kueishantao shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, offshore northeast Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Gang; Lyu, Shuang-Shuang; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Lebrato, Mario; Li, Xiaohu; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Shallow water hydrothermal vents are a source of heavy metals leading to their accumulation in marine organisms that manage to live under extreme environmental conditions. This is the case at Kueishantao (KST) shallow-sea vents system offshore northeast Taiwan, where the heavy metal distribution in vent fluids and ambient seawater is poorly understood. This shallow vent is an excellent natural laboratory to understand how heavy and volatile metals behave in the nearby water column and ecosystem. Here, we investigated the submarine venting of heavy metals from KST field and its impact on ambient surface seawater. The total heavy metal concentrations in the vent fluids and vertical plumes were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than the overlying seawater values. When compared with deep-sea hydrothermal systems, the estimated KST end-member fluids exhibited much lower concentrations of transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn) but comparable concentrations of toxic metals such as Pb and As. This may be attributed to the lower temperature of the KST reaction zone and transporting fluids. Most of the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, As, Y, and Ba) in the plumes and seawater mainly originated from hydrothermal venting, while Cd and Pb were largely contributed by external sources such as contaminated waters (anthropogenic origin). The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the surface seawater indicated that seafloor venting impacts ambient seawater. The measurable influence of KST hydrothermal activity, however, was quite localized and limited to an area of heavy metals emanating from the yellow KST hydrothermal vent were: 430-2600 kg Fe, 24-145 kg Mn, 5-32 kg Ba, 10-60 kg As, 0.3-1.9 kg Cd, and 2-10 kg Pb. This study provides important data on heavy metals from a shallow-sea hydrothermal field, and it helps to better understand the environmental impact of submarine shallow hydrothermal venting.

  15. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin

    2017-10-01

    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  16. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    vent position, volume, eruption rate, wind directions and topography. Therefore, numerical simulations with controlled parameters are needed for more precise volcanic eruption predictions. The use of the next-generation system should enable the visualization of past volcanic eruptions datasets such as distributions, eruption volumes and eruption rates, on maps and diagrams using timeline and GIS technology. Similar volcanic eruptions scenarios should be easily searchable from the eruption database. Using the volcano hazard assessment system, prediction of the time and area that would be affected by volcanic eruptions at any locations near the volcano should be possible, using numerical simulations. The system should estimate volcanic hazard risks by overlaying the distributions of volcanic deposits on major roads, houses and evacuation areas using a GIS enabled systems. Probabilistic volcanic hazards maps in active volcano sites should be made based on numerous numerical simulations. The next-generation real-time hazard assessment system would be implemented with user-friendly interface, making the risk assessment system easily usable and accessible online.

  17. Vent hood concept for safely unloading TRUPACT-IIs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Receipt of transuranic (TRU) waste in the TRUPACT-2 shipping package, implies a potential of receiving waste packages contaminated with only alpha emitters or emitting hazardous gases. Due to the difficulty of rapidly detecting low-level alpha contamination, a strict contamination control system has been developed to check incoming waste packages in a controlled environment. A part of this control is the use of a vent hood system for the TRUPACT-2 shipping container unloading process. A clear final shroud with a monitored/filtered exhaust system has been designed and fabricated to permit direct surveillance of TRU waste packages prior to exposing personnel or facilities to possible radioactive contamination or hazardous gases. This concept has also been adapted to similar evolutions in which packages are exposed that hold TRU or hazardous materials but cannot be directly monitored prior to opening

  18. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulant) Thermodynamic Vent System Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low-gravity (space) environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leaks. During low-gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. A series of TVS tests was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a liquid oxygen (LO2) simulant. The tests were performed at tank til1 levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%, and with a specified tank pressure control band. A transient one-dimensional TVS performance program is used to analyze and correlate the test data for all three fill levels. Predictions and comparisons of ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature with test data are presented.

  19. Vented fuel experiment for gas-cooled fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Gat, U.; Conlin, J.A.; Campana, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A pressure-equalized and vented fuel rod is being irradiated in an instrumented capsule designated GB-10 to approximately 100 MWd/kg-heavy metal. The fuel is a sol-gel derived 88 atom-percent uranium (approximately 9 percent 235 U) 12 atom-percent plutonium oxide, and the cladding is 20 percent cold-worked 316 stainless steel. The capsule is being irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and has exceeded a burnup of 70 MWd/kg. The fuel has been operated at linear power rates of 39 and 44 kW/ m, and peak outer cladding temperature of 565 0 and 630 0 C respectively. A similar fuel rod in a previous capsule (GB-9) was subjected to 48 kW/m (685 0 C). 4 references. (auth)

  20. Photometric analysis of a space shuttle water venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.; Murad, E.; Pike, C. P.; Kofsky, I. L.; Trowbridge, C. A.; Rall, D. L. A.; Satayesh, A.; Berk, A.; Elgin, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a preliminary interpretation of a recent experiment conducted on Space Shuttle Discovery (Mission STS 29) in which a stream of liquid supply water was vented into space at twilight. The data consist of video images of the sunlight-scattering water/ice particle cloud that formed, taken by visible light-sensitive intensified cameras both onboard the spacecraft and at the AMOS ground station near the trajectory's nadir. This experiment was undertaken to study the phenomenology of water columns injected into the low-Earth orbital environment, and to provide information about the lifetime of ice particles that may recontact Space Shuttle orbits later. The findings about the composition of the cloud have relevance to ionospheric plasma depletion experiments and to the dynamics of the interaction of orbiting spacecraft with the environment.

  1. Venus - Limited extension and volcanism along zones of lithospheric weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    Three global-scale zones of possible tectonic origin are described as occurring along broad, low rises within the Equatorial Highlands on Venus (lat 50 deg N to 50 deg S, long 60 deg to 310 deg). The two longest of these tectonic zones, the Aphrodite-Beta and Themis-Atla zones, extend for 21,000 and 14,000 km, respectively. Several lines of evidence indicate that Beta and Atla Regiones, located at the only two intersections of the three major tectonic zones, are dynamically supported volcanic terranes associated with currently active volcanism. Rift valleys south of Aphrodite Terra and between Beta and Phoebe Regiones are characterized by 75- to 100-km widths, raised rims, and extensions of only a few tens of kilometers, about the same magnitudes as in continental rifts on the earth. Horizontal extension on Venus was probably restricted by an early choking-off of plate motion by high crustal and upper-mantle temperatures, and the subsequent loss of water and an asthenosphere.

  2. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  3. Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.; Leonard, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a multi-disciplinary research programme was launched, a GNS Science-University of Auckland collaboration with the aim of DEtermining VOlcanic Risk in Auckland (DEVORA). A major aspiration of DEVORA is development of a probabilistic hazard model for the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). This will be achieved by investigating past eruption magnitude-frequency relationships and comparing these with similar data from analogous volcanic fields. A key data set underpinning this is an age database for the AVF. To this end a comprehensive dating campaign is planned as part of DEVORA. This report, Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field, is a synthesis of all currently available age data for the AVF. It represents one of several reports carried out as part of the 'synthesis' phase of DEVORA, whereby existing data from all previous work is collated and summarised, so that gaps in current knowledge can be identified and addressed. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Volcanic eruptions are cooling the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses how volcanic eruptions may influence the climate. The environmental impacts both on the earth surface and the atmosphere are surveyed. Some major eruptions in modern times are mentioned

  5. Stochastic Modeling of Past Volcanic Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The statistical foundation of disaster risk analysis is past experience. From a scientific perspective, history is just one realization of what might have happened, given the randomness and chaotic dynamics of Nature. Stochastic analysis of the past is an exploratory exercise in counterfactual history, considering alternative possible scenarios. In particular, the dynamic perturbations that might have transitioned a volcano from an unrest to an eruptive state need to be considered. The stochastic modeling of past volcanic crises leads to estimates of eruption probability that can illuminate historical volcanic crisis decisions. It can also inform future economic risk management decisions in regions where there has been some volcanic unrest, but no actual eruption for at least hundreds of years. Furthermore, the availability of a library of past eruption probabilities would provide benchmark support for estimates of eruption probability in future volcanic crises.

  6. Vent Complexes above Dolerite Sills in Phanerozoic LIPs: Implications for Proterozoic LIPs and IOCG Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, R. E.; Bleeker, W.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Polozov, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    New insights into the origin of IOCG (iron oxide copper gold) deposits [e.g., 1, 2, 3] follow from recent studies of Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Detailed seismic studies of the 62-55 Ma North Atlantic Igneous Province and complementary studies in the 183 Ma Karoo and 250 Ma Siberian LIPs reveal thousands of hydrothermal vent complexes (HVCs). Up to 5-10 km across at the paleosurface, these vents connect to underlying dolerite sills at paleodepths of up to 8 km [4, 5, 6, 7]. They originate from explosive release of gases generated when thick sills (>50 m) are emplaced into volatile-rich but low-permeability sedimentary strata. HVCs are phreatomagmatic in origin. Their architecture, economic potential for IOCG-type deposits, and effects on climate strongly depend on the type of host rocks (black shales at Karoo and evaporites at Siberian LIPs) and its fluid (brines) saturation at the time of emplacement. About 250 HVCs associated with the Siberian LIP are mineralized having magnetite in the matrix. Some are being mined for Fe (Korshunovskoe and Rudnogorskoe), but their economic potential for copper and gold mineralization is understudied. These observations from the Phanerozoic LIP record suggest that HVCs should also be an essential component of sill provinces associated with Proterozoic LIPs, with a potential for causing major climatic shifts and IOCG-type deposits, particularly if the host sediments include substantial evaporites. Two examples are discussed here. The 725 Ma Franklin LIP covers 1.1 Mkm2 in northern Canada [8]; in the Minto Inlier of Victoria Island, this event comprises volcanics, sills, and breccia pipes [9, 10]. The breccia pipes appear identical to HVCs and, furthermore, the presence of evaporites in the host sediments of the Shaler Supergroup suggests (based on the Siberian trap example) the potential for IOCG-type mineralization. Could 1.59 Ga sills, as exemplified by the exposed Western Channel Diabase sills on the eastern

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents As required in § 63.11496(f), you must comply with the requirements for metal HAP process vents as shown in the...

  8. Spatial and Temporal Population Genetics at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents Along the East Pacific Rise and Galapagos Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    frequent physical disturbance. Earval dispersal among disjunct vent sites facilitates the persistence of sessile invertebrate species in these...among disjunct vent sites facilitates the persistence of sessile invertebrate species in these geologically and chemically dynamic habitats despite...the reproductive biology of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 52, 89-94. Chevaldonne P, Jollivet D

  9. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  10. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    Most of Earth's volcanoes are located near active tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates move relative to each other resulting in deformation. Likewise, subsurface magma movement and pressure changes in magmatic systems can cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface. The study of the shape of Earth and therefore studies of surface deformation is called geodesy. Modern geodetic techniques allow precise measurements (˜1 mm accuracy) of deformation of tectonic and magmatic systems. Because of the spatial correlation between tectonic boundaries and volcanism, the tectonic and volcanic deformation signals can become intertwined. Thus it is often important to study both tectonic and volcanic deformation processes simultaneously, when one is trying to study one of the systems individually. In this thesis, I present research on crustal deformation and magmatic processes at active plate boundaries. The study areas cover divergent and transform plate boundaries in south Iceland and convergent and transform plate boundaries in Central America, specifically Nicaragua and El Salvador. The study is composed of four main chapters: two of the chapters focus on the magma plumbing system of Hekla volcano, Iceland and the plate boundary in south Iceland; one chapter focuses on shallow controls of explosive volcanism at Telica volcano, Nicaragua; and the fourth chapter focuses on co- and post-seismic deformation from a Mw = 7.3 earthquake which occurred offshore El Salvador in 2012. Hekla volcano is located at the intersection of a transform zone and a rift zone in Iceland and thus is affected by a combination of shear and extensional strains, in addition to co-seismic and co-rifting deformation. The inter-eruptive deformation signal from Hekla is subtle, as observed by a decade (2000-2010) of GPS data in south Iceland. A simultaneous inversion of this data for parameters describing the geometry and source characteristics of the magma chamber at Hekla, and

  11. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  12. Unexpected HIMU-type late-stage volcanism on the Walvis Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homrighausen, S.; Hoernle, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Wartho, J.-A.; Hauff, F.; Portnyagin, M.; Werner, R.; van den Bogaard, P.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.

    2018-06-01

    Volcanic activity at many oceanic volcanoes, ridges and plateaus often reawakens after hiatuses of up to several million years. Compared to the earlier magmatic phases, this late-stage (rejuvenated/post-erosional) volcanism is commonly characterized by a distinct geochemical composition. Late-stage volcanism raises two hitherto unanswered questions: Why does volcanism restart after an extended hiatus and what is the origin of this volcanism? Here we present the first 40Ar/39Ar age and comprehensive trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data from seamounts located on and adjacent to the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic ocean basin. The Walvis Ridge is the oldest submarine part of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track and is famous as the original type locality for the enriched mantle one (EM I) end member. Consistent with the bathymetric data, the age data indicates that most of these seamounts are 20-40 Myr younger than the underlying or nearby Walvis Ridge basement. The trace element and isotope data reveal a distinct compositional range from the EM I-type basement. The composition of the seamounts extend from the St. Helena HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/204Pb mantle with radiogenic Pb isotope ratios) end member to an enriched (E) Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt (MORB) type composition, reflecting a two-component mixing trend on all isotope diagrams. The EMORB end member could have been generated through mixing of Walvis Ridge EM I with normal (N) MORB source mantle, reflecting interaction of Tristan-Gough (EM I-type) plume melts with the upper mantle. The long volcanic quiescence and the HIMU-like geochemical signature of the seamounts are unusual for classical hotspot related late-stage volcanism, indicating that these seamounts are not related to the Tristan-Gough hotspot volcanism. Two volcanic arrays in southwestern Africa (Gibeon-Dicker Willem and Western Cape province) display similar ages to the late-stage Walvis seamounts and also have HIMU-like compositions

  13. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Inês; Divya, Baby; Martins, Inês; Vandeperre, Frederic; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Bettencourt, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are extreme habitats that are distributed worldwide in association with volcanic and tectonic events, resulting thus in the establishment of particular environmental conditions, in which high pressure, steep temperature gradients, and potentially toxic concentrations of sulfur, methane and heavy metals constitute driving factors for the foundation of chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. Of all the different macroorganisms found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus is the most abundant species inhabiting the vent ecosystems from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). In the present study, the effect of long term acclimatization at atmospheric pressure on host-symbiotic associations were studied in light of the ensuing physiological adaptations from which the immune and endosymbiont gene expressions were concomitantly quantified by means of real-time PCR. The expression of immune genes at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 week and 3 weeks post-capture acclimatization was investigated and their profiles compared across the samples tested. The gene signal distribution for host immune and bacterial genes followed phasic changes in gene expression at 24 h, 1 week and 3 weeks acclimatization when compared to other time points tested during this temporal expression study. Analyses of the bacterial gene expression also suggested that both bacterial density and activity could contribute to shaping the intricate association between endosymbionts and host immune genes whose expression patterns seem to be concomitant at 1 week acclimatization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess the distribution and prevalence of endosymbiont bacteria within gill tissues confirming the gradual loss of sulfur-oxidizing (SOX) and methane-oxidizing (MOX) bacteria during acclimatization. The present study addresses the deep-sea vent mussel B. azoricus as a model organism to study how acclimatization in aquaria and the