Sample records for volcanic arc magmas

  1. Primitive magmas at five Cascade volcanic fields: Melts from hot, heterogeneous sub-arc mantle (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Bruggman, P.E.; Christiansen, R.L.; Clynne, M.A.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Hildreth, W.


    Major and trace element concentrations, including REE by isotope dilution, and Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotope ratios have been determined for 38 mafic lavas from the Mount Adams, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic fields, in the Cascade arc, northwestern part of the United States. Many of the samples have a high Mg# [100Mg/(Mg + FeT) > 60] and Ni content (>140 ppm) such that we consider them to be primitive. We recognize three end-member primitive magma groups in the Cascades, characterized mainly by their trace-element and alkali-metal abundances: (1) High-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) has trace element abundances similar to N-MORB, except for slightly elevated LILE, and has Eu/Eu* > 1. (2) Arc basalt and basaltic andesite have notably higher LILE contents, generally have higher SiO2 contents, are more oxidized, and have higher Cr for a given Ni abundance than HAOT. These lavas show relative depletion in HFSE, have lower HREE and higher LREE than HAOT, and have smaller Eu/Eu* (0.94-1.06). (3) Alkali basalt from the Simcoe volcanic field east of Mount Adams represents the third end-member, which contributes an intraplate geochemical signature to magma compositions. Notable geochemical features among the volcanic fields are: (1) Mount Adams rocks are richest in Fe and most incompatible elements including HFSE; (2) the most incompatible-element depleted lavas occur at Medicine Lake; (3) all centers have relatively primitive lavas with high LILE/HFSE ratios but only the Mount Adams, Lassen, and Medicine Lake volcanic fields also have relatively primitive rocks with an intraplate geochemical signature; (4) there is a tendency for increasing 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/204Pb, and ??18O and decreasing 206Pb/204Pb and 143Nd/144Nd from north to south. The three end-member Cascade magma types reflect contributions from three mantle components: depleted sub-arc mantle modestly enriched in LILE during ancient subduction; a modern, hydrous subduction component

  2. Geochemical differentiation processes for arc magma of the Sengan volcanic cluster, Northeastern Japan, constrained from principal component analysis (United States)

    Ueki, Kenta; Iwamori, Hikaru


    In this study, with a view of understanding the structure of high-dimensional geochemical data and discussing the chemical processes at work in the evolution of arc magmas, we employed principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate the compositional variations of volcanic rocks from the Sengan volcanic cluster of the Northeastern Japan Arc. We analyzed the trace element compositions of various arc volcanic rocks, sampled from 17 different volcanoes in a volcanic cluster. The PCA results demonstrated that the first three principal components accounted for 86% of the geochemical variation in the magma of the Sengan region. Based on the relationships between the principal components and the major elements, the mass-balance relationships with respect to the contributions of minerals, the composition of plagioclase phenocrysts, geothermal gradient, and seismic velocity structure in the crust, the first, the second, and the third principal components appear to represent magma mixing, crystallizations of olivine/pyroxene, and crystallizations of plagioclase, respectively. These represented 59%, 20%, and 6%, respectively, of the variance in the entire compositional range, indicating that magma mixing accounted for the largest variance in the geochemical variation of the arc magma. Our result indicated that crustal processes dominate the geochemical variation of magma in the Sengan volcanic cluster.

  3. Magnesium Isotopes as a Tracer of Crustal Materials in Volcanic Arc Magmas in the Northern Cascade Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. Brewer


    Full Text Available Fifteen North Cascade Arc basalts and andesites were analyzed for Mg isotopes to investigate the extent and manner of crustal contributions to this magmatic system. The δ26Mg of these samples vary from within the range of ocean island basalts (the lightest being −0.33 ± 0.07‰ to heavier compositions (as heavy as −0.15 ± 0.06‰. The observed range in chemical and isotopic composition is similar to that of other volcanic arcs that have been assessed to date in the circum-pacific subduction zones and in the Caribbean. The heavy Mg isotope compositions are best explained by assimilation and fractional crystallization within the deep continental crust with a possible minor contribution from the addition of subducting slab-derived fluids to the primitive magma. The bulk mixing of sediment into the primitive magma or mantle source and the partial melting of garnet-rich peridotite are unlikely to have produced the observed range of Mg isotope compositions. The results show that Mg isotopes may be a useful tracer of crustal input into a magma, supplementing traditional methods such as radiogenic isotopic and trace element data, particularly in cases in which a high fraction of crustal material has been added.

  4. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.


    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of

  5. Glass inclusions in volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin: constraints on magma genesis and evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The major elemnt compositions of glass inclusions in plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts of basalt and pumice in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin are determined by electron microprobe. The results indicate that basalt and pumice are cognate and respectively represent the proluots at early stages of mgmtism and at late stage of crystal fractionation. The initial magrma in the trough is rich in H2O. The variation of H2O content in magma may play an important role in the magma evolution. Plagioclase is the mineral crystallized throughout the whole magrmatic process and accumulates in the zoned magma chamber. From these features it can he inferred that the initial magma in the Okinawa Trough, whose opening began in recent years, is serious ly affected by fluid or other materials carried by subducting slab and the geocbemical feature of volcanic rocks is in some degree similar to that of lavas in island-arc environments.

  6. On magma fragmentation by conduit shear stress: Evidence from the Kos Plateau Tuff, Aegean Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Palladino, Danilo M.; Simei, Silvia; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos


    Large silicic explosive eruptions are the most catastrophic volcanic events. Yet, the intratelluric mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Here we report a field and laboratory study of the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT, 161 ka, Aegean Volcanic Arc), which provides an excellent geological example of conduit processes that control magma vesiculation and fragmentation during intermediate- to large-scale caldera-forming eruptions. A prominent feature of the KPT is the occurrence of quite unusual platy-shaped tube pumice clasts in pyroclastic fall and current deposits from the early eruption phases preceding caldera collapse. On macroscopic and SEM observations, flat clast faces are elongated parallel to tube vesicles, while transverse surfaces often occur at ~ 45° to vesicle elongation. This peculiar pumice texture provides evidence of high shear stresses related to strong velocity gradients normal to conduit walls, which induced vesiculation and fragmentation of the ascending magma. Either an increasing mass discharge rate without adequate enlargement of a narrow central feeder conduit or a developing fissure-like feeder system related to incipient caldera collapse provided suitable conditions for the generation of plate tube pumice within magma volumes under high shear during the pre-climactic KPT eruption phases. This mechanism implies that the closer to the conduit walls (where the stronger are the velocity gradients) the larger was the proportion of plate vs. conventional (lensoid) juvenile fragments in the ascending gas-pyroclast mixture. Consequently, plate pumice clasts were mainly entrained in the outer portions of the jet and convecting regions of a sustained, Plinian-type, eruption column, as well as in occasional lateral blast currents generated at the vent. As a whole, plate pumice clasts in the peripheral portions of the column were transported at lower altitudes and deposited by fallout or partial collapse closer to the vent relative to lensoid ones

  7. Transition of magma genesis estimated by change of chemical composition of Izu-bonin arc volcanism associated with spreading of Shikoku Basin (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Ishii, T.


    the Shikoku basin, and these rocks show about 26Ma, at the beginning of activity of Shikoku Basin, of Ar-Ar ages (Ishizuka, pers comm.). Therefore, it is considered that these volcanics are associated with rifting acrivity before spreading of back-arc basin. Based on these observations, it is considered that the chemical characteristics of Izu-Ogasawara arc volcanism were changed at spreading of Shikoku Basin. That is, low incompatible element content activity had continued from tholeiitic activity in the Haha-Jima during early arc volcanism to normal arc volcanism in the Izu forearc region recovered during ODP Leg126 operation. High incompatible element activity had begun at the beginning of back-arc basin activity, and incompatible element content of Izu arc magma was decreasing after spreading of Shikoku Basin to recent activity. We considered these characteristics are interpreted that mantle beneath island arc were change depleted composition to enrich composition at the back arc basin activity. And we assumed that this mantle movement is associated with back-arc basin activity.

  8. Controls on magma permeability in the volcanic conduit during the climactic phase of the Kos Plateau Tuff eruption (Aegean Arc) (United States)

    Degruyter, W.; Bachmann, O.; Burgisser, A.


    X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) was applied to pumices from the largest Quaternary explosive eruption of the active South Aegean Arc (the Kos Plateau Tuff; KPT) in order to better understand magma permeability within volcanic conduits. Two different types of pumices (one with highly elongated bubbles, tube pumice; and the other with near spherical bubbles, frothy pumice) produced synchronously and with identical chemical composition were selected for µCT imaging to obtain porosity, tortuosity, bubble size and throat size distributions. Tortuosity drops on average from 2.2 in frothy pumice to 1.5 in tube pumice. Bubble size and throat size distributions provide estimates for mean bubble size (~93-98 μm) and mean throat size (~23-29 μm). Using a modified Kozeny-Carman equation, variations in porosity, tortuosity, and throat size observed in KPT pumices explain the spread found in laboratory measurements of the Darcian permeability. Measured difference in inertial permeability between tube and frothy pumices can also be partly explained by the same variables but require an additional parameter related to the internal roughness of the porous medium (friction factor f 0 ). Constitutive equations for both types of permeability allow the quantification of laminar and turbulent gas escape during ascent of rhyolitic magma in volcanic conduits.

  9. Low-pressure evolution of arc magmas in thickened crust: The San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain, Central Andes, Northern Chile (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Kojima, Shoji; Aguilera, Felipe; Simon, Klaus; Hartmann, Gerald


    Magmatism at Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), or Central Andes, is strongly influenced by differentiation and assimilation at high pressures that occurred at lower levels of the thick continental crust. This is typically shown by high light to heavy rare earth element ratios (LREE/HREE) of the erupted lavas at this volcanic zone. Increase of these ratios with time is interpreted as a change to magma evolution in the presence of garnet during evolution of Central Andes. Such geochemical signals could be introduced into the magmas be high-pressure fractionation with garnet on the liquidus and/or assimilation from crustal rocks with a garnet-bearing residue. However, lavas erupted at San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain show no evidence of garnet fractionation in their trace element patterns. This volcanic chain is located in the active volcanic arc, between 22°00‧S and 22°30‧S, over a continental crust ˜70 km thick. Sampled lavas show Sr/Y and Sm/Yb ratios Chile. We relate our geochemical observations to shallow crustal evolution of primitive magmas involving a high degree of assimilation of upper continental crust. We emphasize that low pressure AFC- (Assimilation Fractional Crystallization) type evolution of the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain reflects storage, fractionation, and contamination of mantle-derived magmas at the upper felsic crust (<40 km depth). The ascent of mantle-derived magmas to mid-crustal levels is related with the extensional regime that has existed in this zone of arc-front offset since Late-Miocene age, and the relatively thin portion of mafic lower crust observed below the volcanic chain.

  10. Precursory deformation and depths of magma storage revealed by regional InSAR time series surveys: example of the Indonesian and Mexican volcanic arcs (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.; Aoki, Y.


    Despite the threat posed to millions of people living in the vicinity of volcanoes, only a fraction of the worldwide ~800 potentially active arc volcanoes have geodetic monitoring. Indonesian and Mexican volcanoes are sparsely monitored with ground-based methods but especially dangerous, emphasizing the need for remote sensing monitoring. In this study we take advantage of over 1200 ALOS InSAR images to survey the entire west Sunda and Mexican volcanic arcs, covering a total of 500 000 km2. We use 2 years of data to monitor the background activity of the Indonesian arc, and 4 years of data at four volcanic edifices (Sinabung, Kerinci, Merapi, and Agung), as well as 4 years of data to survey the Mexican arc. We derive time-dependent ground deformation data using the Small Baseline technique with DEM error correction. We detect seven volcanoes with significant deformation in the west-Sunda arc: six inflating volcanoes (Sinabung, Kerinci, Slamet, Lawu, Lamongan, and Agung) and one deflating volcano (Anak Krakatau). Three of the six inflating centers erupted during or after the observation period. We detect inflation prior to Sinabung's first Holocene eruption in September 2010, followed by a small deflation of the summit area. A similar signal is observed at Kerinci before and after its April 2009 eruption. We also detect uplift prior to Slamet's eruption in April 2009. Agung, in Bali, whose last eruption was in 1964, has been inflating steadily between mid 2007 and early 2009, followed by a period with little deformation until mid-2011. Inflation not followed by eruption is also observed at Lamongan and Lawu, both historically active centers. The close relation between periods of activity and observed deformation suggests that edifice inflation is of magmatic origin and represents the pressurization of reservoirs caused by ascent of new magma. We model the observed deformation and show that the seven deforming Indonesian volcanoes have shallow magma reservoirs at ~1

  11. Unraveling the diversity in arc volcanic eruption styles: Examples from the Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska (United States)

    Larsen, Jessica F.


    The magmatic systems feeding arc volcanoes are complex, leading to a rich diversity in eruptive products and eruption styles. This review focuses on examples from the Aleutian subduction zone, encompassed within the state of Alaska, USA because it exhibits a rich diversity in arc structure and tectonics, sediment and volatile influx feeding primary magma generation, crustal magma differentiation processes, with the resulting outcome the production of a complete range in eruption styles from its diverse volcanic centers. Recent and ongoing investigations along the arc reveal controls on magma production that result in diversity of eruptive products, from crystal-rich intermediate andesites to phenocryst-poor, melt-rich silicic and mafic magmas and a spectrum in between. Thus, deep to shallow crustal "processing" of arc magmas likely greatly influences the physical and chemical character of the magmas as they accumulate in the shallow crust, the flow physics of the magmas as they rise in the conduit, and eruption style through differences in degassing kinetics of the bubbly magmas. The broad spectrum of resulting eruption styles thus depends on the bulk magma composition, melt phase composition, and the bubble and crystal content (phenocrysts and/or microlites) of the magma. Those fundamental magma characteristics are in turn largely determined by the crustal differentiation pathway traversed by the magma as a function of tectonic location in the arc, and/or the water content and composition of the primary magmas. The physical and chemical character of the magma, set by the arc differentiation pathway, as it ascends towards eruption determines the kinetic efficiency of degassing versus the increasing internal gas bubble overpressure. The balance between degassing rate and the rate at which gas bubble overpressure builds then determines the conditions of fragmentation, and ultimately eruption intensity.

  12. Magma-Tectonic Interactions along the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from the August 1999 Magmatic and Tectonic Event at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua (United States)

    La Femina, P.; Connor, C.; Strauch, W.


    Volcanic vent alignments form parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress, accommodating extensional strain via dike injection. Roughly east-west extension within the Central America Volcanic Arc is accommodated along north-northwest-trending basaltic vent alignments. In Nicaragua, these alignments are located in a northwest-trending zone of dextral shear, with shear accommodated along northeast trending bookshelf faults. The recent eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua and Marabios Range seismic swarm revealed the interaction of these fault systems. A low energy (VEI 1), small volume (0.001 km3 DRE) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three tectonic earthquakes (each Mw 5.2) in the vicinity of Cerro Negro hours before the onset of eruptive activity. The temporal and spatial pattern of microseismicity and focal mechanisms of the Mw 5.2 earthquakes suggests the activation of northeast-trending faults northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro within the Marabios Range. The eruption was confined to three new vents formed on the southern flank of Cerro Negro along a preexisting north-northwest trending alignment; the El Hoyo alignment of cinder cones, maars and explosion craters. Surface ruptures formed > 1 km south and southeast of the new vents suggest dike injection. Numerical simulations of conduit flow illustrate that the observed effusion rates (up to 65 ms-1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little or no excess fluid pressure, in response to tectonic strain. These observations and models suggest that 1999 Cerro Negro activity is an excellent example of tectonically induced small-volume eruptions in an arc setting.

  13. An InSAR survey of the central Andes: Constraints on magma chamber geometry and mass balance in a volcanic arc (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.


    The central Andes (14-28o S) has a high density of volcanoes, but a sparse human population, such that the activity of most volcanoes is poorly constrained. We use InSAR to conduct the first systematic observations of deformation at nearly 900 volcanoes (about 50 of which are classified ``potentially active'') during the 1992-2002 time interval. We find volcanic deformation in four locations. Subsidence is seen at Robledo (or Cerro Blanco) caldera, Argentina. We observe inflation at the stratovolcano Uturuncu, Bolivia, near stratovolcano Hualca Hualca, Peru, and in a region not associated with any known edifice on the border between Chile and Argentina that we call ``Lazufre'' because it lies between volcanoes Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre. The deformation pattern can be well explained by a uniform point-source source of inflation or deflation, but we compare these model results with those from a tri-axial point-source ellipsoid to test the robustness of estimated source depth and source strength (inferred here to be volume change). We further explore the sensitivity of these parameters to elastic half-space and layered-space models of crustal structure, and the influence of local topography. Because only one satellite look direction is available for most time periods, a variety of models are consistent with our observations. If we assume that inflation is due solely to magmatic intrusion, we can compare the rate of magma intrusion to volcanic extrusion during the decade for which data is available and the longer-term geologic rate. For the last decade, the ratio of volume intruded to extruded is between about 1-10, which agrees with previous geologic estimates in this and other volcanic arcs. The combined rate of intrusion and extrusion is within an order of magnitude of the inferred geologic rate.

  14. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert


    and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic lavas and Payún Matrú rocks indicate that the trachytes of Payún Matrú are the result of fractional crystallization of basaltic parent magmas without significant upper crustal contamination, and that the basalts have a geochemical similarity to ocean island...... basalt (La/Nb = 0·8–1·5, La/Ba = 0·05–0·08). The Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic to trachytic rocks range between 0·703813 and 0·703841 (87Sr/86Sr) and 0·512743 and 0·512834 (143Nd/144Nd). Mass-balance and Rayleigh fractionation models support the proposed origin of the trachytes...... that the basaltic lavas originated in the asthenospheric mantle, probably within the spinel stability field and beneath an attenuated continental lithosphere in the back-arc area. The lack of a slab-fluid signature in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field rocks, along with unpublished and published geophysical results...

  15. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia (United States)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.


    The Kamchatka Peninsula is home to some of the most prolific subduction related volcanic activity in the world. Gorely caldera and its central volcano are located in the rear of its currently active Eastern Volcanic Front. Recent work determined the presence of explosive ignimbrite eruptions sourced from Gorely volcano during the Pleistocene. We studied 32 eruptive units, including tephrochronologically-dated Holocene tephra, stratigraphically-arranged ignimbrites, as well as pre- and post-caldera lavas. We analyzed oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene and plagioclase grains by laser fluorination, and major and trace element compositions of whole rocks. In addition, we determined 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions. Chemical compositions show that Gorely eruptive units range from basalt to basaltic andesite in the "Pra-Gorely" stages prior to caldera formation and the modern Gorely stages forming its current edifice. In contrast, eruptive material from earlier ignimbrites exposed at Opasny Ravine consists primarily of dacite. Whole rock analyses for Gorely indicate that silicic rocks and ignimbrites volumetrically dominate all other products, forming separate bimodal peaks in our SiO2-frequency diagram. In addition, trace element concentrations and ratios define two trends, one for more silicic and another for more mafic material. δ18Omelt values range from a low of 4.85 up to 6.22‰, where the lowest value was found in the last caldera forming eruption, suggesting incorporation of hydrothermally-altered material from earlier eruptions. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.70328 to 0.70351 and from 0.51303 to 0.51309 respectively, with higher and more diverse values being characteristic of earlier ignimbrite units; again suggesting incorporation of surrounding crustal material. In contrast to these results, MELTS modeling using a variety of likely primitive basalts from Gorely shows it is possible to obtain silicic

  16. Volcanic emission of radionuclides and magma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.; Le Cloarec, M.F.; Ardouin, B.; Le Roulley, J.C.


    210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po, the last decay products of the 238 U series, are highly enriched in volcanic plumes, relative to the magma composition. Moreover this enrichment varies over time and from volcano to volcano. A model is proposed to describe 8 years of measurements of Mt. Etna gaseous emissions. The lead and bismuth coefficients of partition between gaseous and condensated phases in the magma are determined by comparing their concentrations in lava flows and condensated volatiles. In the case of volatile radionuclides, an escaping time is calculated which appears to be related to the volcanic activity. Finally, it is shown that that magma which is degassing can already be partly degassed; it should be considered as a mixture of a few to 50% of deep non-degassed magma with a well degassed superficial magma cell. (orig.)

  17. Magma wagging and whirling in volcanic conduits (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Bercovici, David; Jellinek, Mark


    Seismic tremor characterized by 0.5-7 Hz ground oscillations commonly occur before and during eruptions at silicic volcanoes with widely ranging vent geometries and edifice structures. The ubiquitous characteristics of this tremor imply that its causes are potentially common to silicic volcanoes. Here we revisit and extend to three dimensions the magma-wagging model for tremor (Jellinek and Bercovici, 2011; Bercovici et al., 2013), wherein a stiff magma column rising in a vertical conduit oscillates against a surrounding foamy annulus of bubbly magma, giving rise to tremor. While prior studies were restricted to two-dimensional lateral oscillations, here we explore three-dimensional motion and additional modes of oscillations. In the absence of viscous damping, the magma column undergoes 'whirling' motion: the center of each horizontal section of the column traces an elliptical trajectory. In the presence of viscous effect we identify new 'coiling' and 'uncoiling' column bending shapes with relatively higher and comparable rates of dissipation to the original two-dimensional magma wagging model. We also calculate the seismic P-wave response of the crustal material around the volcanic conduit to the new whirling motions and propose seismic diagnostics for different wagging patterns using the time-lag between seismic stations. We test our model by analyzing pre-eruptive seismic data from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. In addition to suggesting that the occurrence of elliptical whirling motion more than 1 week before the eruption, our analysis of seismic time-lags also implies that the 2009 eruption was accompanied by qualitative changes in the magma wagging behavior including fluctuations in eccentricity and a reversal in the direction of elliptical whirling motion when the eruption was immediately impending.

  18. Volcanism in slab tear faults is larger than in island-arcs and back-arcs. (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Passaro, Salvatore; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Ventura, Guido


    Subduction-transform edge propagators are lithospheric tears bounding slabs and back-arc basins. The volcanism at these edges is enigmatic because it is lacking comprehensive geological and geophysical data. Here we present bathymetric, potential-field data, and direct observations of the seafloor on the 90 km long Palinuro volcanic chain overlapping the E-W striking tear of the roll-backing Ionian slab in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The volcanic chain includes arc-type central volcanoes and fissural, spreading-type centers emplaced along second-order shears. The volume of the volcanic chain is larger than that of the neighbor island-arc edifices and back-arc spreading center. Such large volume of magma is associated to an upwelling of the isotherms due to mantle melts upraising from the rear of the slab along the tear fault. The subduction-transform edge volcanism focuses localized spreading processes and its magnitude is underestimated. This volcanism characterizes the subduction settings associated to volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers.

  19. Progressive enrichment of arc magmas caused by the subduction of seamounts under Nishinoshima volcano, Izu-Bonin Arc, Japan (United States)

    Sano, Takashi; Shirao, Motomaro; Tani, Kenichiro; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Fujii, Toshitsugu


    The chemical composition of intraplate seamounts is distinct from normal seafloor material, meaning that the subduction of seamounts at a convergent margin can cause a change in the chemistry of the mantle wedge and associated arc magmas. Nishinoshima, a volcanic island in the Izu-Bonin Arc of Japan, has been erupting continuously over the past 2 years, providing an ideal opportunity to examine the effect of seamount subduction on the chemistry of arc magmas. Our research is based on the whole-rock geochemistry and the chemistry of minerals within lavas and air-fall scoria from Nishinoshima that were erupted before 1702, in 1973-1974, and in 2014. The mineral phases within the analyzed samples crystallized under hydrous conditions (H2O = 3-4 wt.%) at temperatures of 970 °C-990 °C in a shallow (3-6 km depth) magma chamber. Trace element data indicate that the recently erupted Nishinoshima volcanics are much less depleted in the high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) than other volcanics within the Izu-Bonin Arc. In addition, the level of enrichment in the Nishinoshima magmas has increased in recent years, probably due to the addition of material from HIMU-enriched (i.e., high Nb/Zr and Ta/Hf) seamounts on the Pacific Plate, which is being subducted westwards beneath the Philippine Sea Plate. This suggests that the chemistry of scoria from Nishinoshima volcano records the progressive addition of components derived from subducted seamounts.

  20. Monitoring the Sumatra volcanic arc with InSAR (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Hong, S.; Amelung, F.


    The Sumatra volcanic arc is the result of the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Sunda plate. The arc consists of 35 known volcanic centers, subaerials on the west coast of the Sumatra and Andaman Islands and submarines between these islands. Six active centers are known in the Sumatra volcanic arc. Surface deformation in volcanic areas usually indicates movement of magma or hydrothermal fluids at depth. Here we present a satellite-based Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey of the Sumatra volcanic arc using ALOS data. Spanning the years 2007 to beginning of 2009, our survey reveals the background level of activity of the 35 volcanoes. We processed data from 40 tracks (24 in descending orbit and 16 in ascending orbit) to cover the whole Sumatra arc. In the first results five of these six known active centers show no sign of activity: Dempo, Kaba, Marapi, Talang and Peuet. The remaining active volcano, Mount Kerinci, has an ambiguous signal. We used pair-wise logic and InSAR time series of the available ALOS data to determine if the observed InSAR signal is caused by ground deformation or by atmospheric delays.

  1. U-series isotopes in arc magma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkesworth, C.; Turner, S.; McDermott, F.; Peate, D.; Van Calsteren, P.


    Thorium is not readily mobilized in the fluid component along destructive plate margins. Uranium is mobilized, and the resultant fractionation in U/Th can be used to estimate the rates of transfer slab derived components through the mantle wedge. The variations in Th/Yb, and by implication in the fractionation-corrected Th abundances of arc magmas largely depend on the contributions from subducted sediments. It is inferred that the distinctive high Th/Ta ratios of subduction related magmas primarily reflect the Th/Ta ratios of the subducted sediments, and that such high Th/Ta ratios are generated by processes other than those associated with recent subduction-related magmatism. Uranium and thorium isotopes have also been used to evaluate magma residence times within the crust. Thus, separated minerals and groundmass from six rocks erupted in the last 4,000 years from Soufriere on St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles, scatter about a 50,000 year errorchron on the U-Th equiline diagram (Heath et al., 1977). Models are currently being developed to investigate how such apparent ages may relate to calculated replenishment times in steady state systems. Bulk continental crust has a lower U/Th ratio (0.25) than at least some estimates for the bulk Earth (0.26) and the depleted upper mantle (0.39). However, the island arc rocks with low U/Th ratios appear to have inherited those from subducted sediments, and arc rocks with a low sediment contribution have significantly higher U/Th. Consequently, the U/Th ratios of new crustal material generated along destructive plate margins are significantly higher than those of bulk continental crust. The low average U/Th of bulk crust may be primarily due to different crust generation processes in the Archaean, when U would be less mobile because conditions were less oxidising, and when residual garnet may have had more of a role in crust generation processes. Extended abstract. 4 figs., 23 refs.

  2. Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas (United States)

    Georgatou, Ariadni; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rezeau, Hervé; Wälle, Markus


    New petrographic and geochemical data on magmatic sulphide inclusions (MSIs) are presented and discussed for 15 Quaternary volcanic centers of the Ecuadorian frontal, main and back volcanic arc. MSIs occur mostly in Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite and/or magnetite-ilmenite pair) and to a lesser extent in silicate minerals (amphibole, plagioclase, and pyroxene). MSIs are present in all volcanic centers ranging in composition from basalt to dacite (SiO2 = 50-67 wt.%), indicating that sulphide saturation occurs at various stages of magmatic evolution and independently from the volcano location along the volcanic arc. MSIs also occur in dioritic, gabbroic and hornblenditic magmatic enclaves of the volcanic rocks. MSIs display variable sizes (1-30 μm) and shapes (globular, ellipsoidal, angular, irregular) and occur mostly as polymineralic inclusions composed of Fe-rich and Cu-poor (pyrrhotite) and Cu-rich (mostly chalcopyrite) phases. Aerial sulphide relative abundances range from 0.3 to 7 ppm in volcanic host rocks and from 13 to 24 ppm in magmatic enclaves. Electron microprobe analyses of MSIs indicate maximum metal contents of Cu = 65.7 wt.%, Fe = 65.2 wt.%, Ni = 10.1 wt.% for those hosted in the volcanic rocks and of Cu = 57.7 wt.%, Fe = 60.9 wt.%, Ni = 5.1 wt.%, for those hosted in magmatic enclaves. Relationships of the sulphide chemistry to the host whole rock chemistry show that with magmatic differentiation (e.g., increasing SiO2) the Cu and Ni content of sulphides decrease whereas the Fe and S contents increase. The opposite behavior is observed with the increase of Cu in the whole rock, because the latter is anti-correlated with the SiO2 whole rock content. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of MSIs returned maximum values of PGEs and noble metals of Pd = 30 ppm, Rh = 8.1 ppm, Ag = 92.8 ppm and Au = 0.6 ppm and Pd = 43 ppm, Rh = 22.6 ppm, Ag = 89 ppm and Au = 1 ppm for those hosted in volcanic rocks and magmatic enclaves, respectively. These PGE contents display a

  3. Origin of silicic magmas along the Central American volcanic front: Genetic relationship to mafic melts (United States)

    Vogel, Thomas A.; Patino, Lina C.; Eaton, Jonathon K.; Valley, John W.; Rose, William I.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Viray, Ela L.


    Silicic pyroclastic flows and related deposits are abundant along the Central American volcanic front. These silicic magmas erupted through both the non-continental Chorotega block to the southeast and the Paleozoic continental Chortis block to the northwest. The along-arc variations of the silicic deposits with respect to diagnostic trace element ratios (Ba/La, U/Th, Ce/Pb), oxygen isotopes, Nd and Sr isotope ratios mimic the along-arc variation in the basaltic and andesitic lavas. This variation in the lavas has been interpreted to indicate relative contributions from the slab and asthenosphere to the basaltic magmas [Carr, M.J., Feigenson, M.D., Bennett, E.A., 1990. Incompatible element and isotopic evidence for tectonic control of source mixing and melt extraction along the Central American arc. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 105, 369-380.; Patino, L.C., Carr, M.J. and Feigenson, M.D., 2000. Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 138 (3), 265-283.]. With respect to along-arc trends in basaltic lavas the largest contribution of slab fluids is in Nicaragua and the smallest input from the slab is in central Costa Rica — similar trends are observed in the silicic pyroclastic deposits. Data from melting experiments of primitive basalts and basaltic andesites demonstrate that it is difficult to produce high K 2O/Na 2O silicic magmas by fractional crystallization or partial melting of low-K 2O/Na 2O sources. However fractional crystallization or partial melting of medium- to high-K basalts can produce these silicic magmas. We interpret that the high-silica magmas associated Central America volcanic front are partial melts of penecontemporaneous, mantle-derived, evolved magmas that have ponded and crystallized in the mid-crust — or are melts extracted from these nearly completely crystallized magmas.

  4. Mercury and Iodine systematics of volcanic arc fluids (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.; Fehn, U.; Lu, Z.


    The mantle has low Mercury and Iodine concentrations, but these elements occur in volcanic gases and hydrothermal fluids at ppb (Hg) and ppm (Iodine) levels. Possibly, the Hg and Iodine concentrations in volcanic fluids reflect subducted sediment sources in arc magmas. Iodine is a biophilic element, and I129/I values indicate that subducted sediment (especially organic matter) is an important Iodine source for arc magmas. It is uncertain if this is true for Hg as well, although in the surface environment Hg is commonly associated with organic matter. We present 60 new analyses of Hg and I in fluids from volcanoes in Central America, New Zealand, Japan, and the Cascades. A first assessment suggests that Iodine is released to some degree in the early stage of subduction in the forearc, whereas Hg may be released largely below the main volcanic arc. Isotope and trace element signatures of volcanic rocks of the investigated volcanoes show no simple correlation with Hg or Iodine abundances. The acid hot spring fluids of Copahue volcano (Argentina) carried ~ 200 ppt Hg in January 1999, ~80 ppt Hg in March 2008, and 90 ppt Hg in the crater lake in March 1997. The dissolved Hg fluxes from the Copahue hydrothermal system are ~300 gr Hg/year in 1999 and ~130 gr Hg/year in 2008. The bulk hydrothermal Hg flux (particle bound+dissolved) in 2008 was ~ 350 gr Hg/year. The potential Mercury evasion from these hydrothermal spring fluids into the air has not yet been incorporated in these estimates.

  5. The Origin of Tholeiitic and Calc-Alkaline Trends in Arc Magmas (United States)

    Luffi, P. I.; Lee, C.


    It has long been recognized that tholeiitic (TH, high-Fe/Mg) and calc-alkaline (CA, low-Fe/Mg) magmatic series define the two most important igneous differentiation trends shaping Earth's crust. While oceanic crust formation at mid-ocean ridges is typically confined to a TH trend, arc magmatism at convergent margins, considered to significantly contribute to continent formation, generates both TH and CA trends. Thus, the origin of these trends - a key issue to understanding how continental crust forms - is matter of ongoing debate. Prevalent factors thought to contribute to the TH-CA duality are: 1) redox conditions (oxygen fugacity, fO2) and H2O contents in magmas, which control the onset and abundance of high-Fe/Mg oxide mineral fractionation; 2) crystallization depths that regulate the fractionating solid assemblage and thereby the solid/liquid Kd(Fe-Mg). Relying on an extensive geochemical dataset of modern arc volcanics and thermodynamic phase equilibria modeling, here we examine the validity and relative importance of these factors in arc petrogenesis. First, to discriminate igneous rocks more efficiently, we formulate an improved CA/TH index solely based on FeO-MgO systematics. We then confirm on a quantitative basis that, on regional scales, arcs formed on thick crust tend to be more calk-alkaline than those emplaced on thinner crust are, and show that the effect of fO2 on the CA/TH index in arc magmas is more significant than that of H2O. Importantly, we demonstrate that CA trends typical for continental arcs only form when crystal fractionation is accompanied by the assimilation of oxidized crustal components; in the absence of buffering oxidized assimilants fractionating magmas follow a TH trend more common in island arcs, irrespective of their H2O content and initial fO2 level. We find that high-pressure fractionation of amphibole and garnet in arc magmas occurs too late to have a significant influence on the CA/TH index; in addition, garnet-melt and

  6. Petrographic and Geochemical Investigation of Andesitic Arc Volcanism: Mount Kerinci, Sunda Arc, Indonesia (United States)

    Tully, M.; Saunders, K.; Troll, V. R.; Jolis, E.; Muir, D. D.; Deegan, F. M.; Budd, D. A.; Astbury, R.; Bromiley, G. D.


    Present knowledge of the chain of dominantly andesitic volcanoes, which span the Sumatran portion of the Sunda Arc is extremely limited. Previous studies have focused on Toba and Krakatau, although over 13 further volcanic edifices are known. Several recent explosive eruptions in Sumatra such as that of Mt. Sinabung, 2014, have highlighted the potential hazard that these volcanoes pose to the local and regional communities. Mount Kerinci, is one of the most active of the volcanoes in this region, yet little is known about the petrogenesis of the magma by which it is fed. Kerinci is located approximately mid-way between Toba in the North and Krakatau in the south. Along arc variations are observed in the major, minor and trace elements of whole rock analyses. However, bulk rock approaches produce an average chemical composition for a sample, potentially masking important chemical signatures. In-situ micro-analytical analysis of individual components of samples such as melt inclusions, crystals and groundmass provides chemical signatures of individual components allowing the evolution of volcanic centres to be deciphered in considerably more detail. Examination of whole rock chemistry indicates its location may be key to unravelling the petrogenesis of the arc as significant chemical changes occur between Kerinci and Kaba, 250 km to the south. Kerinci samples are dominantly porphyritic with large crystals of plagioclase, pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, rare olivine crystals are observed. Plagioclase and pyroxene crystals are chemically zoned and host melt inclusions. Multiple plagioclase populations are observed. A combination of in-situ micro-analysis techniques will be used to characterise the chemical composition of melt inclusions and crystals. These data can be used along with extant geothermobarometric models to help determine the magma source, storage conditions and composition of the evolving melt. Integration of the findings from this study with existing data for

  7. Seismic tremors and magma wagging during explosive volcanism. (United States)

    Jellinek, A Mark; Bercovici, David


    Volcanic tremor is a ubiquitous feature of explosive eruptions. This oscillation persists for minutes to weeks and is characterized by a remarkably narrow band of frequencies from about 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz (refs 1-4). Before major eruptions, tremor can occur in concert with increased gas flux and related ground deformation. Volcanic tremor is thus of particular value for eruption forecasting. Most models for volcanic tremor rely on specific properties of the geometry, structure and constitution of volcanic conduits as well as the gas content of the erupting magma. Because neither the initial structure nor the evolution of the magma-conduit system will be the same from one volcano to the next, it is surprising that tremor characteristics are so consistent among different volcanoes. Indeed, this universality of tremor properties remains a major enigma. Here we employ the contemporary view that silicic magma rises in the conduit as a columnar plug surrounded by a highly vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. We demonstrate that, for most geologically relevant conditions, the magma column will oscillate or 'wag' against the restoring 'gas-spring' force of the annulus at observed tremor frequencies. In contrast to previous models, the magma-wagging oscillation is relatively insensitive to the conduit structure and geometry, which explains the narrow band of tremor frequencies observed around the world. Moreover, the model predicts that as an eruption proceeds there will be an upward drift in both the maximum frequency and the total signal frequency bandwidth, the nature of which depends on the explosivity of the eruption, as is often observed.

  8. Toward Assessing the Causes of Volcanic Diversity in the Cascades Arc (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Kent, A. J.; Abers, G. A.; Pitcher, B.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Schmandt, B.


    A fundamental unanswered question in subduction system science is the cause of the observed diversity in volcanic arc style at an arc-segment to whole-arc scale. Specifically, we have yet to distinguish the predominant mantle and crustal processes responsible for the diversity of arc volcanic phenomenon, including the presence of central volcanoes vs. dispersed volcanism; episodicity in volcanic fluxes in time and space; variations in magma chemistry; and differences in the extent of magmatic focusing. Here we present a thought experiment using currently available data to estimate the relative role of crustal magmatic processes in producing the observed variations in Cascades arc volcanism. A compilation of available major element compositions of Quaternary arc volcanism and estimates of eruptive volumes are used to examine variations in the composition of arc magmas along strike. We then calculate the Quaternary volcanic heat flux into the crust, assuming steady state, required to produce the observed distribution of compositions via crystallization of mantle-derived primitive magmas vs. crustal melting using experiment constraints on possible liquid lines of descent and crustal melting scenarios. For pure crystallization, heat input into the crust scales with silica content, with dacitic to rhyolite compositions producing significantly greater latent heat relative to basalts to andesites. In contrast, the heat required to melt lower crustal amphibolite decreases with increasing silica and is likely provided by the latent heat of crystallization. Thus we develop maximum and minimum estimates for heat added to the crust at a given SiO2 range. When volumes are considered, we find that the average Quaternary volcanic heat flux at latitudes south of South Sister to be more than twice that to the north. Distributed mafic volcanism produces only a quarter to half the heat flux calculated for the main edifices at a given latitude because of their lesser eruptive volumes

  9. Magma evolution in the Pliocene Pleistocene succession of Kos, South Aegean arc (Greece) (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Moulton, Ben


    This study investigates the petrogenesis of Pliocene-Quaternary andesites, dacites and rhyolites of the island of Kos. These volcanic rocks differ from other volcanic centres in the South Aegean arc in the narrow range of Pliocene volcanic products, the abundance of high-silica rhyolite, the lower ɛNd for a given Sr isotope composition, and greater depth to the subducting slab. Pliocene and early Pleistocene dacite stocks and rhyolite domes are succeeded by younger tuffs, notably the 0.16 Ma Kos Plateau Tuff derived from a super-eruption of an andesite stratocone now subsided beneath the sea south of Kos. Volcanic products in tuffs have been sampled from lithic clasts. Andesite, dacite and rhyolite all have ɛNd ˜+ 1.5 to -1.5 and 86Sr/ 87Sr ˜ 0.7042; this unusual composition is argued to be the result of subduction of sediments derived from the River Nile. All rock types show structures indicative of widespread magma mixing, including complexly zoned plagioclase, clinopyroxene and amphibole containing glass inclusions of trachyte and rhyolite compositions. The observed rocks result from fractionation and mixing of three principal magma types: (a) calc-alkaline high-Al basalt that fractionated to andesite at the base of crust; (b) partially melted metabasaltic amphibolite underplated at the base of crust, that fractionated to produce high-SiO 2 rhyolite; and (c) a minor component of trachytic magma from partial melting of enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The complexly zoned phenocrysts with glass inclusions provide specific evidence for mixing of these three components. Specifically, it was the emplacement of the andesite into a voluminous rhyolite magma in a mid-crustal magma chamber that led to the explosive Kos Plateau Tuff super-eruption.

  10. Volcanic systems of Iceland and their magma source (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir


    Several active hot-spot volcanoes produce magma from mantle sources which composition varies on decadal time scale. This is probably best demonstrated by the recent work of Pietruszka and collaborators on Kilauea, Hawaii. In marked contrast, basalt lavas from volcanic system in Iceland located above the presumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume have uniform isotope composition over the last 10 thousand years. Volcanic systems are composed of a central volcano and a fissure swarm, or a combination of both and they represent a fundamental component of the neovolcanic zones in Iceland. Four such systems, those of Askja, Bárðarbunga, Kverkfjöll and Grímsvötn in central Iceland were chosen for investigation. The last three have central volcanoes covered by the Vatnajökull ice-sheet whereas part of their fissure swarms is ice-free. Tephra produced during subglacial eruptions together with lavas from the fissure swarms of Holocene age have been collected and analysed for Sr, Nd and Th isotope ratios. Those volcanic formations that can be univocally correlated to a given volcanic system display uniform isotope ratio but different from one volcanic system to another. An exception to this regularity is that Askja products have isotope ratios indistinguishable from those of Gímsvötn, but since these volcanic systems lies far apart their lava fields do not overlap. A practical aspect of these findings was demonstrated during the rifting event of Bárðarbunga and fissure eruption forming the Holuhraun lava field. Relatively low, O isotope ratios in these basalts and heterogeneous macrocrystal composition have been ascribed to important metabasaltic crustal contamination with or without crystal mush recycling. In that case a surprisingly efficient magma mixing and melt homogenization must have occurred in the past beneath the volcanic systems. One possibility is that during the rapid deglaciation much mantle melting occurred and melts accumulated at the mantle

  11. Across-arc versus along-arc Sr-Nd-Pb isotope variations in the Ecuadorian volcanic arc (United States)

    Ancellin, Marie-Anne; Samaniego, Pablo; Vlastélic, Ivan; Nauret, François; Gannoun, Adbelmouhcine; Hidalgo, Silvana


    Previous studies of the Ecuadorian arc (1°N-2°S) have revealed across-arc geochemical trends that are consistent with a decrease in mantle melting and slab dehydration away from the trench. The aim of this work is to evaluate how these processes vary along the arc in response to small-scale changes in the age of the subducted plate, subduction angle, and continental crustal basement. We use an extensive database of 1437 samples containing 71 new analyses, of major and trace elements as well as Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from Ecuadorian and South Colombian volcanic centers. Large geochemical variations are found to occur along the Ecuadorian arc, in particular along the front arc, which encompasses 99% and 71% of the total variations in 206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Quaternary Ecuadorian volcanics, respectively. The front arc volcanoes also show two major latitudinal trends: (1) the southward increase of 207Pb/204Pb and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd reflect more extensive crustal contamination of magma in the southern part (up to 14%); and (2) the increase of 206Pb/204Pb and decrease of Ba/Th away from ˜0.5°S result from the changing nature of metasomatism in the subarc mantle wedge with the aqueous fluid/siliceous slab melt ratio decreasing away from 0.5°S. Subduction of a younger and warmer oceanic crust in the Northern part of the arc might promote slab melting. Conversely, the subduction of a colder oceanic crust south of the Grijalva Fracture Zone and higher crustal assimilation lead to the reduction of slab contribution in southern part of the arc.

  12. Distinctly different parental magmas for plutons and lavas in the central Aleutian arc (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Rioux, M. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Bolge, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.


    While it is generally agreed that continental crust is generated by arc magmatism, average arc lavas are basaltic while the bulk continental crust is andesitic, and this has led to many models for secondary reprocessing of the arc crust in order to form continental crust. We report new data on calc-alkaline plutons in the central Aleutians showing that they have distinctly different sources compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas. Therefore the lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks from the central Aleutian arc show higher SiO2 at a given Mg#, higher ɛNd- and ɛHf-values, and lower Pb isotope ratios than Holocene volcanic rocks from the same region. Instead, the plutonic rocks resemble volcanics from the western Aleutians isotopically, and have chemical compositions similar to bulk continental crust. These data could reflect temporal variation of Aleutian magma source compositions, from Eocene-Miocene "isotopically depleted" and predominantly calc-alkaline to Holocene "isotopically enriched" and predominantly tholeiitic. Alternatively, they may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons and lavas: calc-alkaline magmas with higher Si content and high viscosity may preferentially form plutons, perhaps after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. The latter case implies that the upper and middle arc crust is more like the calc-alkaline bulk composition of the continental crust than the lavas alone. Crustal reprocessing mechanisms that preserve upper and middle arc crust, while removing lower arc crust, can account for the genesis and evolution of continental crust. Since gabbroic lower arc crust extends from ca 20-40 km depth, and is density stable over most of this depth range, "delamination" of dense lithologies [1] may not be sufficient to accomplish this. Alternatively

  13. The geochemistry of marine sediments, island arc magma genesis, and crust-mantle recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Othman, D.; Paris-6 Univ., 75; White, W.M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Patchett, J.; Arizona Univ., Tucson


    To assess the role of sediment subduction and recycling in island arc magma genesis and mantle evolution, we have determined Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios and the concentrations of K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sr, U, Th, Pb and rare earth elements in 36 modern marine sediments, including Mn nodules, biogenic oozes, and pelagic and hemipelagic clays from the Pacific, Antlantic and Indian Oceans. Sr and Nd isotope ratios and the Sr/Nd concentration ratios in sediments are such that mixing between subducted sediment on the one hand and depleted mantle or subducted oceanic crust on the other can produce mixing arrays which may pass either through or outside of the oceanic basalt Sr-Nd isotope 'mantle array'. Thus whether isotope compositions of island arc volcanics (IAV) plot inside our outside of the mantle array is not a good indication of whether or not their sources contain a subducted sediment component. The presence of subducted sediment in the sources of IAV should lead to Cs/Rb and Pb/Ce ratios which are higher than those in oceanic basalts, and Ba/Rb ratios which may be either higher or lower than oceanic basalts. Simple mixing calculations suggest that as little as a percent or so sediment in island arc magma sources can account for the observed Cs/Rb, Pb/Ce, and Ba/Rb ratios in IAV. However, it does not appear that high Ba/La ratios and negative Ce anomalies in IAV are inherited from sediment in IAV magma sources. It is more likely these features reflect fractionation of alkalis and alkaline earths from rare earths during slab dehydration and metasomatism. Pb isotope ratios in sediments from the Warton Basin south of the Sunda Arc are collinear in 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Bp/ 204 Pb space with volcanics from West Sunda, but not with volcanics from the East Sunda. This collinearity is consistent with the hypothesis that sediments similar to these are being subducted to the magma genesis zone of the West Sunda Arc. (orig./WB)

  14. Concentration variance decay during magma mixing: a volcanic chronometer. (United States)

    Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Cristina P; Petrelli, Maurizio; Dingwell, Donald B


    The mixing of magmas is a common phenomenon in explosive eruptions. Concentration variance is a useful metric of this process and its decay (CVD) with time is an inevitable consequence during the progress of magma mixing. In order to calibrate this petrological/volcanological clock we have performed a time-series of high temperature experiments of magma mixing. The results of these experiments demonstrate that compositional variance decays exponentially with time. With this calibration the CVD rate (CVD-R) becomes a new geochronometer for the time lapse from initiation of mixing to eruption. The resultant novel technique is fully independent of the typically unknown advective history of mixing - a notorious uncertainty which plagues the application of many diffusional analyses of magmatic history. Using the calibrated CVD-R technique we have obtained mingling-to-eruption times for three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) in the range of tens of minutes. These in turn imply ascent velocities of 5-8 meters per second. We anticipate the routine application of the CVD-R geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes in future in order to constrain typical "mixing to eruption" time lapses such that monitoring activities can be targeted at relevant timescales and signals during volcanic unrest.

  15. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy) (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.


    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  16. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel


    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  17. The evolution of hydrous magmas in the Tongariro Volcanic Centre : the 10 ka Pahoka-Mangamate eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, A.; Palin, J.M.; White, J.D.L.; Nakagawa, M.; Stirling, C.


    The majority of arc-type andesites in the Tongariro Volcanic Centre are highly porphyritic, hornblende-free, two-pyroxene andesites. An exception is tephras from the c. 10,000 ka Pahoka-Mangamate event. Magmas of these Plinian eruptions bypassed the extensive crustal mush columns under the central volcanoes and sequentially derived a series of almost aphyric rocks spanning a compositional range from dacite to basaltic andesite. Mineral composition, trace element and isotopic data suggest that this eruptive series tapped a mid-crustal magma reservoir, resulting in the initial eruption of an hydrous dacitic magma and several following eruptions characterised by less-evolved and less-hydrous compositions at progressively higher temperatures and substantially lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. Systematic changes in magma chemistry are also reflected in a sequential change in phenocryst content starting with an early hornblende-plagioclase-dominated assemblage to a late olivine-plagioclase-dominated assemblage. (author).

  18. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina J.; Wallace, Paul J.; Clynne, Michael A.; Rasmussen, D.J.; Weis, D.


    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO>7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  19. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav


    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2009), s. 1301-1312 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismicity and tectonics * volcano seismology * subduction zone processes * volcanic arc processes * magma migration and fragmentation * Pacific Ocean Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2009

  20. Intra-Arc extension in Central America: Links between plate motions, tectonics, volcanism, and geochemistry (United States)

    Phipps Morgan, Jason; Ranero, Cesar; Vannucchi, Paola


    This study revisits the kinematics and tectonics of Central America subduction, synthesizing observations of marine bathymetry, high-resolution land topography, current plate motions, and the recent seismotectonic and magmatic history in this region. The inferred tectonic history implies that the Guatemala-El Salvador and Nicaraguan segments of this volcanic arc have been a region of significant arc tectonic extension; extension arising from the interplay between subduction roll-back of the Cocos Plate and the ~10-15 mm/yr slower westward drift of the Caribbean plate relative to the North American Plate. The ages of belts of magmatic rocks paralleling both sides of the current Nicaraguan arc are consistent with long-term arc-normal extension in Nicaragua at the rate of ~5-10 mm/yr, in agreement with rates predicted by plate kinematics. Significant arc-normal extension can ‘hide' a very large intrusive arc-magma flux; we suggest that Nicaragua is, in fact, the most magmatically robust section of the Central American arc, and that the volume of intrusive volcanism here has been previously greatly underestimated. Yet, this flux is hidden by the persistent extension and sediment infill of the rifting basin in which the current arc sits. Observed geochemical differences between the Nicaraguan arc and its neighbors which suggest that Nicaragua has a higher rate of arc-magmatism are consistent with this interpretation. Smaller-amplitude, but similar systematic geochemical correlations between arc-chemistry and arc-extension in Guatemala show the same pattern as the even larger variations between the Nicaragua arc and its neighbors. We are also exploring the potential implications of intra-arc extension for deformation processes along the subducting plate boundary and within the forearc ‘microplate'.

  1. Eruption Depths, Magma Storage and Magma Degassing at Sumisu Caldera, Izu-Bonin Arc: Evidence from Glasses and Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.


    Island arc volcanoes can become submarine during cataclysmal caldera collapse. The passage of a volcanic vent from atmospheric to under water environment involves complex modifications of the eruption style and subsequent transport of the pyroclasts. Here, we use FTIR measurements of the volatile contents of glass and melt inclusions in the juvenile pumice clasts in the Sumisu basin and its surroundings (Izu-Bonin arc) to investigate changes in eruption depths, magma storage and degassing over time. This study is based on legacy cores from ODP 126, where numerous unconsolidated (250 m), massive to normally graded pumice lapilli-tuffs were recovered over four cores (788C, 790A, 790B and 791A). Glass and clast geochemistry indicate the submarine Sumisu caldera as the source of several of these pumice lapilli-tuffs. Glass chips and melt inclusions from these samples were analyzed using FTIR for H2O and CO2 contents. Glass chips record variable H2O contents; most chips contain 0.6-1.6 wt% H2O, corresponding to eruption depths of 320-2100 mbsl. Variations in glass H2O and pressure estimates suggest that edifice collapse occurred prior-to or during eruption of the oldest of these samples, and that the edifice may have subsequently grown over time. Sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from two units record variably degassed but H2O-rich melts (1.1-5.6 wt% H2O). The lowest H2O contents overlap with glass chips, consistent with degassing and crystallization of melts until eruption, and the highest H2O contents suggest that large amounts of degassing accompanied likely explosive eruptions. Most inclusions, from both units, contain 2-4 wt% H2O, which further indicates that the magmas crystallized at pressures of ~50-100 MPa, or depths ~400-2800 m below the seafloor. Further glass and melt inclusion analyses, including major element compositions, will elucidate changes in magma storage, degassing and evolution over time.

  2. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  3. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos


    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  4. Magma addition rates in continental arcs: New methods of calculation and global implications (United States)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Paterson, S. R.


    The transport of mass, heat and geochemical constituents (elements and volatiles) from the mantle to the atmosphere occurs via magma addition to the lithosphere. Calculation of magma addition rates (MARs) in continental arcs based on exposed proportions of igneous arc rocks is complex and rarely consistently determined. Multiple factors influence MAR calculations such as crust versus mantle contributions to magmas, a change in MARs across the arc and with depths throughout the arc crustal column, `arc tempos' with periods of high and low magmatic activity, the loss of previous emplaced arc rocks by subsequent magmatism and return to the mantle, arc migration, variations in the intrusive versus extrusive additions and evolving arc widths and thicknesses during tectonism. All of these factors need to be considered when calculating MARs.This study makes a new attempt to calculate MARs in continental arcs by studying three arc sections: the Famatinian arc, Argentina, the Sierra Nevada batholith, California and the Coast Mountain batholith, Washington and British Columbia. Arcs are divided into fore-arc, main arc and back arc sections and `boxes' with a defined width, length and thickness spanning upper middle and lower crustal levels are assigned to each section. Representative exposed crustal slices for each depth are then used to calculate MARs based on outcrop proportions for each box. Geochemical data is used to infer crustal recycling percentages and total thickness of the arc. Preliminary results show a correlation between MARs, crustal thicknesses and magmatic flare-up durations. For instance, the Famatinian arc shows a strong decrease in MARs between the main arc section (9.4 km3/Ma/arc-km) and the fore-arc (0.61 km3/Ma/arc-km) and back-arc (1.52 km3/Ma/arc-km) regions and an increase in the amount of magmatism with depth.Global MARs over geologic timescales have the potential to investigate mantle melt generation rates and the volatile outgassing contribution

  5. Deformation patterns, magma supply, and magma storage at Karymsky Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia, 2000-2010, revealed by InSAR (United States)

    Ji, Lingyun; Izbekov, Pavel; Senyukov, Sergey; Lu, Zhong


    Under a complex geological region influenced by the subduction of the Pacific plate, Kamchatka Peninsula is one of the most active volcanic arcs in the Pacific Rim. Due to logistical difficulty in instrumentation, shallow magma plumbing systems beneath some of the Kamchatkan volcanoes are poorly understood. InSAR offers a safe and quick method for monitoring volcanic deformation with a high spatial resolution. In this study, a group of satellite radar interferograms that span the time interval from 2000 to 2010 shows eruptive and non-eruptive deformation at Karymsky Volcanic Center (KVC), Kamchatka, Russia. All the interferograms provide details of the activity around the KVC during 2000-2010, as follows: (1) from 2000 to 2004, the Karymsky-AN (Akademia Nauk) area deflated and the MS (Maly Semyachik) area inflated, (2) from 2004 to 2006, the Karymsky-AN area deflated with ongoing eruption, while the MS area subsided without eruption, (3) from 2006 to 2008, as with 2000-2004, the Karymsky-AN area deflated and the MS area inflated, (4) from 2008 to 2010, the Karymsky-AN area inflated up to 3 cm, and the MS area subsided. Point source models suggest that two magma reservoirs provide a good fit to the observed deformation. One source is located beneath the area between Karymsky and AN at a depth of approximately 7.0 km, and the other one is situated beneath MS at a depth of around 5.8 km. Synchronous deformation patterns suggest that two magma systems are fed from the same deep magma source and connected by a fracture zone. The InSAR results are consistent with GPS ground deformation measurements, seismic data, and petrological constraints.

  6. Magma interaction in the root of an arc batholith (United States)

    Chapman, T.; Robbins, V.; Clarke, G. L.; Daczko, N. R.; Piazolo, S.


    Fiordland, New Zealand, preserves extensive Cretaceous arc plutons, emplaced into parts of the Delamerian/Ross Orogen. Dioritic to gabbroic material emplaced at mid to lower crustal levels are exposed in the Malaspina Pluton (c. 1.2 GPa) and the Breaksea Orthogneiss (c. 1.8 GPa). Distinct magmatic pulses can be mapped in both of these plutons consistent with cycles of melt advection. Relationships are consistent with predictions from lower crustal processing zones (MASH and hot zones) considered important in the formation of Cordilleran margins. Metamorphic garnet growth is enhanced along magmatic contacts, such as where hornblende gabbronorite is cut by garnet-clinopyroxene-bearing diorite. Such features are consistent with cycles of incremental emplacement, younger magma having induced localised garnet granulite metamorphism in wall rock of older material. Temperature estimates and microstructures preserved in garnet granulite are consistent with sub-solidus, water-poor conditions in both the Malaspina and Breaksea Orthogneiss. The extent and conditions of the metamorphism implies conditions and duration was incapable of partially melting older wall rock material. The nature of interactions in intermediate to basic compositions are assessed in terms of magma genesis in the Cretaceous batholith. Most of the upper crustal felsic I-type magmatism along the margin being controlled by high-pressure garnet-clinopyroxene fractionation.

  7. Depleted arc volcanism in the Alboran Sea and shoshonitic volcanism in Morocco: geochemical and isotopic constraints on Neogene tectonic processes (United States)

    Gill, R. C. O.; Aparicio, A.; El Azzouzi, M.; Hernandez, J.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bourgois, J.; Marriner, G. F.


    Samples of volcanic rocks from Alborán Island, the Alboran Sea floor and from the Gourougou volcanic centre in northern Morocco have been analyzed for major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes to test current theories on the tectonic geodynamic evolution of the Alboran Sea. The Alborán Island samples are low-K tholeiitic basaltic andesites whose depleted contents of HFS elements (˜0.5×N-MORB), especially Nb (˜0.2×N-MORB), show marked geochemical parallels with volcanics from immature intra-oceanic arcs and back-arc basins. Several of the submarine samples have similar compositions, one showing low-Ca boninite affinity. 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios fall in the same range as many island-arc and back-arc basin samples, whereas 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (on leached samples) are somewhat more radiogenic. Our data point to active subduction taking place beneath the Alboran region in Miocene times, and imply the presence of an associated back-arc spreading centre. Our sea floor suite includes a few more evolved dacite and rhyolite samples with ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0 up to 0.717 that probably represent varying degrees of crustal melting. The shoshonite and high-K basaltic andesite lavas from Gourougou have comparable normalized incompatible-element enrichment diagrams and Ce/Y ratios to shoshonitic volcanics from oceanic island arcs, though they have less pronounced Nb deficits. They are much less LIL- and LREE-enriched than continental arc analogues and post-collisional shoshonites from Tibet. The magmas probably originated by melting in subcontinental lithospheric mantle that had experienced negligible subduction input. Sr-Nd isotope compositions point to significant crustal contamination which appears to account for the small Nb anomalies. The unmistakable supra-subduction zone (SSZ) signature shown by our Alboran basalts and basaltic andesite samples refutes geodynamic models that attribute all Neogene volcanism in the Alboran domain to decompression melting of upwelling asthenosphere

  8. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.


    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at contamination are most evident in pre-ore magmas, whereas ore-forming intrusions at low temperatures are dominated by crystal

  9. Using experimental petrology to constrain genesis of wet, silicic magmas in the Tonga-Kermadec island arc (United States)

    Brens, R.; Rushmer, T. A.; Turner, S.; Adam, J.


    The Tongan arc system is comprised of a pair of island chains, where the western chain is the active volcanic arc. A range of rock suites, from basaltic andesites (53-56% SiO2) to dacites (64-66% SiO2), has been recovered from Late, Tofua and Fonualei in the Tonga-Kermadec primitive island arc system. For which the question arises: What is the mechanism that allows for silicic magmas to develop in a primitive island arc system? Caufield et al. (2012) suggest that fractional crystallization of a multi magma chamber process, with varying depth, is responsible for the silicic magma generation in this arc. Models such as this one have been proposed and experimentally tested in other systems (Novarupta, Alaska) to explain the origin of these silicic rocks. Our Tongan suite of rocks has had a full geochemical analysis for majors, traces and isotopes. The lavas from Tofua and Late are Fe-rich and have low concentrations of K, Rb, Ba, Zr, REE, Pb and U. However, experimental studies are needed to complement the extensive geochemical analysis done on the Tongan arc. Former geochemical work done on the igneous rocks from both of these volcanic suites from this arc suggests that the source of these rocks extend from 1.5-5.5 km in depth (Caulfield et al., 2012). Here, we present an experimental study of the phase equilibria on a natural andesitic sample (Late 1, from Ewart et al., 1975) from the island of Late. Experiments were run using the temperature constraints between 900 to 1220oC, pressure from 5 to 25 kbars and H2O addition of mostly 5wt% (but some results were obtained at 2wt% in the rocks). In the presence of 5 wt% water, phase equilibria of these experiments show the garnet stability field at >10 kb for 900 oC and increases with increasing temperature, while plagioclase enters at lower pressures when garnet exits. Experimental results currently suggests, at lower temperatures (900-950oC), a fractional crystallization relationship due to shallow level pressures of

  10. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an assessment of shallow magma occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Flexser, S.


    Recent geological and geophysical data for five magma-hydrothermal systems were studied for the purpose of developing estimates for the depth, volume and location of magma beneath each area. The areas studied were: (1) Salton Trough, (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent volcanic activity and published indications of crustal melt zones. 23 figs.

  11. Miocene shoshonite volcanism in Sardinia: Implications for magma sources and geodynamic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean (United States)

    Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Mameli, Paola; Natali, Claudio


    In this paper we document the existence of a Miocene shoshonite (SHO) volcanism in Northern Sardinia (Anglona). This occurrence completes the spectrum of orogenic magmas related to the subduction process which developed from the Eocene along the Palaeo-European continental margin, in concert with the opening of the Ligurian-Balearic back-arc basin and southeastward drift/rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica continental block. K-Ar ages show that the oldest volcanics of the area are calcalkaline (CA) basalts and andesites (~ 21 Ma), overlain by 19.7-18.4 Ma-old more potassic products such as high-potassium calcalkaline (HK-CA) and SHO lavas. CA, HK-CA and SHO suites include basalts and differentiated lavas of andesite and latite composition, respectively, that (according to the PELE software modelling) represent ~ 40-45% residual liquid fraction after shallow fractional crystallization. Application of the "Arc Magma Simulator" software suggests that the generation of primary melts of the distinct suites may occur at similar degrees of partial melting (5-8%) and melting pressures (2-2.2 GPa, ~ 60-70 km depth) in the mantle wedge. By contrast, the potassic character of parental melts of CA, HK-CA and SHO suites is controlled by 1) the amount of subducted continental components (possibly terrigenous sediments) and 2) the pressure (depth) at which these metasomatic agents are released from the slab. Results suggest that the slab depth beneath the volcanic district increased from ~ 80-100 to 100-120 km for CA and SHO magmas, respectively. Accordingly, the evolution from CA to SHO magmatism in the same plumbing system could be related to slab deepening and increase of the subduction angle of ~ 5-10° in the time span of 2-3 Ma. This tectono-magmatic scenario conforms to the major anticlockwise rotation (~ 30°) event of the Sardinia block (between 20.5 and 18 Ma). This geodynamic evolution preludes the development of the volcanism in the Apennine-Tyrrhenian domains, where the

  12. Spatial distribution of helium isotopes in volcanic gases and thermal waters along the Vanuatu (New Hebrides) volcanic arc (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Allard, P.; Fourré, E.; Bani, P.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Gauthier, P. J.; Parello, F.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.


    We report the first helium isotope survey of volcanic gases, hot springs and some olivine phenocrysts along the Vanuatu island arc, from Tanna in the south to Vanua Lava in the north. Low CO2 content and low 3He/4He ratios in thermal fluids of Epi (4.0 ± 0.1 Ra), Efate (4.5 ± 0.1 Ra) and Pentecost (5.3 ± 0.5 Ra) islands coherently indicate reduced mantle gas leakage and crustal contamination by radiogenic helium on these extinct volcanic systems of the former (Pliocene) arc. Instead, presently active Vanuatu volcanoes display 3He/4He and C/3He ratios typical of subduction-related volcanic arcs: 3He/4He ratios range from 6.4 ± 0.5 Ra in southernmost Tanna and 7.23 ± 0.09 Ra in northernmost Vanua Lava to typical MORB values in the central islands of Gaua (7.68 ± 0.06 Ra), Ambrym (7.6 ± 0.8 Ra) and Ambae (7 ± 2 Ra in groundwaters, 7.9 ± 1.4 Ra in olivine phenocrysts, and 8.0 ± 0.1 Ra in summit fumaroles of Aoba volcano). On Ambrym, however, we discover that hydrothermal manifestations separated by only 10-15 km on both sides of a major E-W transverse fault zone crossing the island are fed by two distinct helium sources, with different 3He/4He signatures: while fluids in southwest Ambrym (Baiap and Sesivi areas) have typical arc ratios (7.6 ± 0.8 Ra), fluids on the northwest coast (Buama Bay area) display both higher 3He/4He ratios (9.8 ± 0.2 Ra in waters to 10.21 ± 0.08 Ra in bubbling gases) and lower C/3He ratios that evidence a hotspot influence. We thus infer that the influx of Indian MORB mantle beneath the central Vanuatu arc, from which Ambrym magmas originate, also involves a 3He-rich hotspot component, possibly linked to a westward influx of Samoan hotspot material or another yet unknown local source. This duality in magmatic He source at Ambrym fits with the bimodal composition and geochemistry of the erupted basalts, implying two distinct magma sources and feeding systems. More broadly, the wide He isotopic variations detected along the Vanuatu

  13. The PROTEUS Experiment: Active Source Seismic Imaging of the Crustal Magma Plumbing Structure of the Santorini Arc Volcano (United States)

    Hooft, E. E. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Nomikou, P.; Toomey, D. R.; Papazachos, C. V.; Warner, M.; Heath, B.; Christopoulou, M. E.; Lampridou, D.; Kementzetzidou, D.


    The goal of the PROTEUS seismic experiment (Plumbing Reservoirs Of The Earth Under Santorini) is to examine the entire crustal magma plumbing system beneath a continental arc volcano and determine the magma geometry and connections throughout the crust. These physical parameters control magma migration, storage, and eruption and inform the question of how physical and chemical processing of magma at arc volcanoes forms the andesitic rock compositions that dominate the lower continental crust. These physical parameters are also important to understand volcanic-tectonic interactions and geohazards. Santorini is ideal for these goals because the continental crust has been thinned by extension and so the deep magmatic system is more accessible, also it is geologically well studied. Since the volcano is a semi-submerged, it was possible to collect a unique 3D marine-land active source seismic dataset. During the PROTEUS experiment in November-December of 2015, we recorded 14,300 marine sound sources from the US R/V Langseth on 89 OBSIP short period ocean bottom seismometers and 60 German and 5 Greek land seismometers. The experiment was designed for high-density spatial sampling of the seismic wavefield to allow us to apply two state-of-the-art 3D inversion methods: travel time tomography and full waveform inversion. A preliminary travel time tomography model of the upper crustal seismic velocity structure of the volcano and surrounding region is presented in an accompanying poster. We also made marine geophysical maps of the seafloor using multi-beam bathymetry and of the gravity and magnetic fields. The new seafloor map reveals the detailed structure of the major fault system between Santorini and Amorgos, of associated landslides, and of newly discovered volcanic features. The PROTEUS project will provide new insights into the structure of the whole crustal magmatic system of a continental arc volcano and its evolution within the surrounding tectonic setting.

  14. Magma genesis and slab-wedge interaction across an island arc-continent collision zone, East Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerff, J.A.


    This thesis presents the results of a detailed trace element and isotope geochemistry study into the magma-genesis ofvolcanoes in the Adonara-Pantar Section (APS) ofthe East Sunda Arc in Indonesia, a setting where an oceanic island arc is colliding with a passive continental margin. Sr, Nd, Pb, Ra,

  15. Magma genesis and slab-wedge interaction across an island arc-continent collision zone, East Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerff, J.A.


    This thesis presents the results of a detailed trace element and isotope geochemistry study into the magma-genesis ofvolcanoes in the Adonara-Pantar Section (APS) ofthe East Sunda Arc in Indonesia, a setting where an oceanic island arc is colliding with a passive continental margin. Sr, Nd, Pb,

  16. Drilling into Rhyolitic Magma at Shallow depth at Krafla Volcanic Complex, NE-Iceland (United States)

    Mortensen, A. K.; Markússon, S. H.; Gudmundsson, Á.; Pálsson, B.


    Krafla volcanic complex in NE-Iceland is an active volcano but the latest eruption was the Krafla Fires in 1975-1984. Though recent volcanic activity has consisted of basaltic fissure eruptions, then it is rhyolitic magma that has been intercepted on at least two occasions while drilling geothermal production wells in the geothermal field suggesting a layered magma plumbing system beneath the Krafla volcanic complex. In 2008 quenched rhyolitic glass was retrieved from the bottom of well KJ-39, which is 2865 m deep ( 2571 m true vertical depth). In 2009 magma was again encountered at an even shallower depth and in more than 2,5 km distance from the bottom of well KJ-39, but in 2009 well IDDP-1 was drilled into magma three times just below 2100 m depth. Only on the last occasion was quenched glass retrieved to confirm that magma had been encountered. In well KJ-39 the quenched glass was rhyolitic in composition. The glass contained resorbed minerals of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite, but the composition of the glass resembles magma that has formed by partial melting of hydrated basalt. The melt was encountered among cuttings from impermeable, coarse basaltic intrusives at a depth, where the well was anticipated to penetrate the Hólseldar volcanic fissure. In IDDP-1 the quenched glass was also rhyolitic in composition. The glass contained less than 5% of phenocrysts, but the phenocryst assemblage included andesine plagioclase, augite, pigeonite, and titanomagnetite. At IDDP-1 the melt was encountered below a permeable zone composed of fine to coarse grained felsite and granophyre. The disclosure of magma in two wells at Krafla volcanic complex verify that rhyolitic magma can be encountered at shallow depth across a larger area within the caldera. The encounter of magma at shallow depth conforms with that superheated conditions have been found at >2000 m depth in large parts of Krafla geothermal field.

  17. Geochemical Variation of Subducting Pacific Crust Along the Izu-Bonin Arc System and its Implications on the Generation of Arc Magmas (United States)

    Durkin, K.; Castillo, P.; Abe, N.; Kaneko, R.; Straub, S. M.; Garcia, E. S. M.; Yan, Q.; Tamura, Y.


    Subduction zone magmatism primarily occurs due to flux melting of the mantle wedge that has been metasomatized by the slab component. The latter is enriched in volatiles and fluid-mobile elements and derived mainly from subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC). Subduction input has been linked to arc output in many studies, but this relationship is especially well documented in sedimented arc-trench systems. However, the Izu-Bonin system is sediment-poor, therefore the compositional and latitudinal variations (especially in Pb isotopes) of its arc magmas must be sourced from the subduction component originating primarily from the AOC. Pb is a very good tracer of recycled AOC that may contribute 50% or more of arc magma Pb. Izu-Bonin arc chemistry suggests a subduction influx of Indian-type crust, but the subducting crust sampled at ODP Site 1149 is Pacific-type. The discrepancy between subduction input and arc output calls into question the importance of the AOC as a source of the subduction component, and raises major concerns with our understanding of slab input. During the R/V Revelle 1412 cruise in late 2014, we successfully dredged vertical fault scarps at several sites from 27.5 N to 34.5 N, spanning a range of crustal ages that include a suggested compositional change at ~125 Ma. Major element data show an alkali enrichment towards the north of the study transect. Preliminary incompatible trace element data (e.g. Ba, Zr and Sr) data support this enrichment trend. Detailed mass balance calculations supported by Sr, Nd, Hf and especially Pb isotope analyses will be performed to evaluate whether the AOC controls the Pb isotope chemistry of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc.

  18. The onset of the volcanism in the Ciomadul Volcanic Dome Complex (Eastern Carpathians): Eruption chronology and magma type variation (United States)

    Molnár, Kata; Harangi, Szabolcs; Lukács, Réka; Dunkl, István; Schmitt, Axel K.; Kiss, Balázs; Garamhegyi, Tamás; Seghedi, Ioan


    Combined zircon U-Th-Pb and (U-Th)/He dating was applied to refine the eruption chronology of the last 2 Myr for the andesitic and dacitic Pilişca volcano and Ciomadul Volcanic Dome Complex (CVDC), the youngest volcanic area of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, located in the southernmost Harghita, eastern-central Europe. The proposed eruption ages, which are supported also by the youngest zircon crystallization ages, are much younger than the previously determined K/Ar ages. By dating every known eruption center in the CVDC, repose times between eruptive events were also accurately determined. Eruption of the andesite at Murgul Mare (1865 ± 87 ka) and dacite of the Pilişca volcanic complex (1640 ± 37 ka) terminated an earlier pulse of volcanic activity within the southernmost Harghita region, west of the Olt valley. This was followed by the onset of the volcanism in the CVDC, which occurred after several 100s kyr of eruptive quiescence. At ca. 1 Ma a significant change in the composition of erupted magma occurred from medium-K calc-alkaline compositions to high-K dacitic (Baba-Laposa dome at 942 ± 65 ka) and shoshonitic magmas (Malnaş and Bixad domes; 964 ± 46 ka and 907 ± 66 ka, respectively). Noteworthy, eruptions of magmas with distinct chemical compositions occurred within a restricted area, a few km from one another. These oldest lava domes of the CVDC form a NNE-SSW striking tectonic lineament along the Olt valley. Following a brief (ca. 100 kyr) hiatus, extrusion of high-K andesitic magma continued at Dealul Mare (842 ± 53 ka). After another ca. 200 kyr period of quiescence two high-K dacitic lava domes extruded (Puturosul: 642 ± 44 ka and Balvanyos: 583 ± 30 ka). The Turnul Apor lava extrusion occurred after a ca. 200 kyr repose time (at 344 ± 33 ka), whereas formation of the Haramul Mic lava dome (154 ± 16 ka) represents the onset of the development of the prominent Ciomadul volcano. The accurate determination of eruption dates shows that the

  19. Radioactive equilibria and disequilibria of U-series nuclides in erupting magmas from Izu arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Jun; Kurihara, Yuichi; Takahashi, Masaomi


    Radioactive disequilibria among U-series nuclides are observed in the magmas from volcanoes in the world. Basaltic products from Izu arc volcanoes, including Izu-Oshima and Fuji volcanoes, show 230 Th 238 U and 226 Ra> 230 Th disequilibria, indicating that the addition of U-and Ra-rich fluid from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge at the magma genesis. The disequilibria of 226 Ra> 230 Th in the erupting magmas suggest that the timescale from magma genesis to the eruption may be less than 8000 years. (author)

  20. The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran (United States)

    Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.


    The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and Kharestan porphyry prospects, near Taftan volcano, as well as the Saindak Cu-Au porphyry deposit and world-class Reko Diq Cu-Au porphyry deposit, near Koh-i-Sultan volcano to the east-northeast in Pakistan. The host rocks for the Chahnaly deposit include early Miocene andesite and andesitic volcaniclastic rocks that are intruded by younger dacitic domes. Unaltered late Miocene dacitic ignimbrites overlie these rocks. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology data yield ages between 21.8 and 9.9 Ma for the acidic-intermediate regional volcanism. The most recent volcanic activity of the Bazman stratovolcano involved extrusion of an olivine basalt during Pliocene to Quaternary times. Interpretation of geochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks are synsubduction and calc-alkaline to subalkaline. The lack of a significant negative Eu anomaly, a listric-shaped rare earth element pattern, and moderate La/Yb ratios of host suites indicate a high water content of the source magma.

  1. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian


    are composed of 2-10 m thick melanocratic layers rich in clinopyroxene and sometimes olivine, relative to the thicker overlying leucocratic oxide gabbros. While the overall compositional variation is limited (Mg# clinopyroxene 72-84; An% plagioclase 56-85), the melanocratic bases display spikes in Mg# and Cr2O......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An......-rich) indicate that the recharge magma carried plagioclase xenocrysts (high An-type). The lack of evolved gabbros suggests formation in a dynamic magma chamber with frequent recharge, tapping and fractionation. Modelling of these compositional trends shows that the parent magma was similar to known transitional...

  2. Magma Differentiation Processes That Develop an "Enriched" Signature in the Izu Bonin Rear Arc: Evidence from Drilling at IODP Site U1437 (United States)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.


    The Izu Bonin rear arc represents a unique laboratory to study the development of continental crust precursors at an intraoceanic subduction zone., Volcanic output in the Izu Bonin rear arc is compositionally distinct from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, with med- to high-K and LREE-enrichment similar to the average composition of the continental crust. Drilling at IODP Expedition 350 Site U1437 in the Izu Bonin rear arc obtained volcaniclastic material that was deposited from at least 13.5 Ma to present. IODP Expedition 350 represents the first drilling mission in the Izu Bonin rear arc region. This study presents fresh glass and mineral compositions (obtained via EMP and LA-ICP-MS) from unaltered tephra layers in mud/mudstone (Lithostratigraphic Unit I) and lapillistone (Lithostratigraphic Unit II) <4.5 Ma to examine the geochemical signature of Izu Bonin rear arc magmas. Unit II samples are coarse-grained tephras that are mainly rhyolitic in composition (72.1-77.5 wt. % SiO2, 3.2-3.9 wt. % K2O and average Mg# 24) and LREE-enriched. These rear-arc rhyolites have an average La/Sm of 2.6 with flat HREEs, average Th/La of 0.15, and Zr/Y of 4.86. Rear-arc rhyolite trace element signature is distinct from felsic eruptive products from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, which have lower La/Sm and Th/La as well as significantly lower incompatible element concentrations. Rear arc rhyolites have similar trace element ratios to rhyolites from the adjacent but younger backarc knolls and actively-extending rift regions, but the latter is typified by lower K2O, as well as a smaller degree of enrichment in incompatible elements. Given these unique characteristics, we explore models for felsic magma formation and intracrustal differentiation in the Izu Bonin rear arc.

  3. Degassing during quiescence as a trigger of magma ascent and volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Girona, Társilo; Costa, Fidel; Schubert, Gerald


    Understanding the mechanisms that control the start-up of volcanic unrest is crucial to improve the forecasting of eruptions at active volcanoes. Among the most active volcanoes in the world are the so-called persistently degassing ones (e.g., Etna, Italy; Merapi, Indonesia), which emit massive amounts of gas during quiescence (several kilotonnes per day) and erupt every few months or years. The hyperactivity of these volcanoes results from frequent pressurizations of the shallow magma plumbing system, which in most cases are thought to occur by the ascent of magma from deep to shallow reservoirs. However, the driving force that causes magma ascent from depth remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that magma ascent can be triggered by the passive release of gas during quiescence, which induces the opening of pathways connecting deep and shallow magma reservoirs. This top-down mechanism for volcanic eruptions contrasts with the more common bottom-up mechanisms in which magma ascent is only driven by processes occurring at depth. A cause-effect relationship between passive degassing and magma ascent can explain the fact that repose times are typically much longer than unrest times preceding eruptions, and may account for the so frequent unrest episodes of persistently degassing volcanoes.

  4. Oxidation State of Iron in the Izu-Bonin Arc Initial Magma and Its Influence Factors (United States)

    Li, H.; Arculus, R. J.; Brandl, P. A.; Hamada, M.; Savov, I. P.; Zhu, S.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Tepley, F. J., III; Meffre, S.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; McCarthy, A.; Barth, A. P.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Sun, W.


    The redox state of mantle-derived magmas is a controversial issue, especially whether island arc basalts are more oxidized than those from mid-ocean ridges. Usually, arc magmas have higher Fe3+/Fe2+ and calculated oxygen fugacity (fO2) than mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). It is the high fO2 of arc magma that apparently delays onset of sulfide fractionation and sequestration of precious/base metals thereby facilitating the formation of many giant gold-copper deposits typically associated with subduction zones. But due to a paucity of Fe3+/Fe2+ data for primary mantle-derived arc magmas, the cause for high fO2 of these magma types is still controversial; causes may include inter alia subduction-released oxidized material addition to the mantle wedge source of arc magma, partial melting of subducted slab, and redox changes occurring during ascent of the magma. Fortunately, IODP expedition 351 drilling at IODP Site U1438 in the Amami-Sankaku Basin of the northwestern Philipine Sea, adjacent to the proto-Izu-Bonin Arc at the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), recovered not only volcaniclastics derived from the inception of Izu-Bonin Mariana (IBM) arc in the Eocene, but also similar materials for the Arc's subsequent evolution through to the Late Oligocene and abandonment of the KPR as a remnant arc. Samples of the pre-Arc oceanic crustal basement were also recovered enabling us to determine the fO2of the mantle preceding arc inception. As the oxidation state of iron in basaltic glass directly relates to the fO2 , the Fe3+/∑Fe ratio [Fe3+/(Fe3++ Fe2+)] of basaltic glass are quantified by synchrotron-facilitated micro X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy to reflect its fO2. Fe K-edge µ-XANES spectra were recorded in fluorescence mode at Beamline 15U1, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Synthetic silicate glass with known Fe3+/∑Fe ratio was used in data handling. The experimental results as well as preliminary data from IODP Expedition 351

  5. Explosive to Effusive Transition in Intermediate Volcanism: An Analysis of Changing Magma System Conditions in Dominica (United States)

    Bersson, J.; Waters, L. E.; Frey, H. M.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Manon, M. R. F.


    The oscillation between explosive and effusive intermediate (59-62 wt% SiO2) volcanism in the Roseau Valley on Dominica, an island in the Lesser Antilles Arc, provides an opportunity to investigate temporal changes in the magmatic system. Here, we test the relationship between the Roseau ignimbrites (1-65 ka) and the Micotrin dome ( 1.1 ka) which are proposed to originate from the same magmatic system, with a detailed petrologic analysis of phenocrysts to determine commonalities or changes in pre-eruptive conditions (i.e., intensive variables). The ignimbrites are saturated in five phenocrysts (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + ilmenite + magnetite ± amphibole ± quartz), and the lava dome contains the same assemblage, but with notable differences: amphiboles are entirely reacted, and quartz occurs in greater abundance. Plagioclase in the ignimbrites ranges in composition from An46-93, and those in the dome range from An46-85. Two Fe-Ti oxide geo-thermometry reveal pre-eruptive temperatures from 730-820°C for three different ignimbrite units, whereas the pre-eruptive temperature for the dome is slightly hotter (850±23°C). Values of fO2 (relative to NNO) derived from Fe-Ti oxide oxygen-barometry range from +0.3 to +1.32 ΔNNO for the ignimbrites, which overlap with those from the dome (+0.5 to +0.9 ΔNNO). Pre-eruptive temperatures, plagioclase compositions, whole rock and glass compositions are incorporated into a plagioclase-liquid hygrometer to determine pre-eruptive melt H2O contents for each sample. H2O contents for ignimbrites range from 7.1-9.3 wt%, and those from the lava dome range from 6.7-7.1 wt%. Application of a H2O solubility model shows that water contents for the Roseau magmas correspond to pressures of 3-5 kbar. The most notable difference between the explosive and effusive magmas is that the lava dome has a higher pre-eruptive temperature than the ignimbrites. However, the results collectively suggest that more recent volcanism in

  6. Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks with carbonatite affinity in the Bohemian Massif: Their sources and magma generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Štěpánková-Svobodová, Jana


    Roč. 46, 1/2 (2014), s. 45-58 ISSN 0369-2086 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300130902 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alkaline volcanic rocks * melilitic rocks * carbonatites * magma generation * metasomatism * Cenozoic * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Magnetotelluric Investigation of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece (United States)

    Kalisperi, Despina; Romano, Gerardo; Smirnov, Maxim; Kouli, Maria; Perrone, Angela; Makris, John P.; Vallianatos, Filippos


    The South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA) is a chain of volcanic islands in the South Aegean resulting from the subduction of the African tectonic plate beneath the Eurasian plate. It extends from Methana, northwest, to the Island of Nisyros southeast (450 km total length). SAVA comprises a series of dormant and historically active volcanoes, with the most prominent to be Aegina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, Kolumbo, Kos and Nisyros. The aim of the ongoing research project "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)" is to contribute to the investigation of the geoelectric structure of Southern Aegean, and particularly to attempt to image the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this context, onshore magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recently carried out on the central and eastern part of SAVA (Milos, Santorini, Nisyros and Kos Islands). Data were collected using two MT systems running simultaneously plus a remote reference station installed in Omalos plateau (Western Crete). Robust MT data analysis of the broad-band MT soundings and the resulting model of the conductivity structure of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc is presented. The research is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources under the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the context of the Action 'Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers' in the framework of the project title "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)".

  8. Silica-enriched mantle sources of subalkaline picrite-boninite-andesite island arc magmas (United States)

    Bénard, A.; Arculus, R. J.; Nebel, O.; Ionov, D. A.; McAlpine, S. R. B.


    Primary arc melts may form through fluxed or adiabatic decompression melting in the mantle wedge, or via a combination of both processes. Major limitations to our understanding of the formation of primary arc melts stem from the fact that most arc lavas are aggregated blends of individual magma batches, further modified by differentiation processes in the sub-arc mantle lithosphere and overlying crust. Primary melt generation is thus masked by these types of second-stage processes. Magma-hosted peridotites sampled as xenoliths in subduction zone magmas are possible remnants of sub-arc mantle and magma generation processes, but are rarely sampled in active arcs. Published studies have emphasised the predominantly harzburgitic lithologies with particularly high modal orthopyroxene in these xenoliths; the former characteristic reflects the refractory nature of these materials consequent to extensive melt depletion of a lherzolitic protolith whereas the latter feature requires additional explanation. Here we present major and minor element data for pristine, mantle-derived, lava-hosted spinel-bearing harzburgite and dunite xenoliths and associated primitive melts from the active Kamchatka and Bismarck arcs. We show that these peridotite suites, and other mantle xenoliths sampled in circum-Pacific arcs, are a distinctive peridotite type not found in other tectonic settings, and are melting residues from hydrous melting of silica-enriched mantle sources. We explore the ability of experimental studies allied with mantle melting parameterisations (pMELTS, Petrolog3) to reproduce the compositions of these arc peridotites, and present a protolith ('hybrid mantle wedge') composition that satisfies the available constraints. The composition of peridotite xenoliths recovered from erupted arc magmas plausibly requires their formation initially via interaction of slab-derived components with refractory mantle prior to or during the formation of primary arc melts. The liquid

  9. Thermomechanical controls on magma supply and volcanic deformation: application to Aira caldera, Japan (United States)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Joachim; Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Iguchi, Masato


    Ground deformation often precedes volcanic eruptions, and results from complex interactions between source processes and the thermomechanical behaviour of surrounding rocks. Previous models aiming to constrain source processes were unable to include realistic mechanical and thermal rock properties, and the role of thermomechanical heterogeneity in magma accumulation was unclear. Here we show how spatio-temporal deformation and magma reservoir evolution are fundamentally controlled by three-dimensional thermomechanical heterogeneity. Using the example of continued inflation at Aira caldera, Japan, we demonstrate that magma is accumulating faster than it can be erupted, and the current uplift is approaching the level inferred prior to the violent 1914 Plinian eruption. Magma storage conditions coincide with estimates for the caldera-forming reservoir ~29,000 years ago, and the inferred magma supply rate indicates a ~130-year timeframe to amass enough magma to feed a future 1914-sized eruption. These new inferences are important for eruption forecasting and risk mitigation, and have significant implications for the interpretations of volcanic deformation worldwide. PMID:27619897

  10. Thermomechanical controls on magma supply and volcanic deformation: application to Aira caldera, Japan. (United States)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Joachim; Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Iguchi, Masato


    Ground deformation often precedes volcanic eruptions, and results from complex interactions between source processes and the thermomechanical behaviour of surrounding rocks. Previous models aiming to constrain source processes were unable to include realistic mechanical and thermal rock properties, and the role of thermomechanical heterogeneity in magma accumulation was unclear. Here we show how spatio-temporal deformation and magma reservoir evolution are fundamentally controlled by three-dimensional thermomechanical heterogeneity. Using the example of continued inflation at Aira caldera, Japan, we demonstrate that magma is accumulating faster than it can be erupted, and the current uplift is approaching the level inferred prior to the violent 1914 Plinian eruption. Magma storage conditions coincide with estimates for the caldera-forming reservoir ~29,000 years ago, and the inferred magma supply rate indicates a ~130-year timeframe to amass enough magma to feed a future 1914-sized eruption. These new inferences are important for eruption forecasting and risk mitigation, and have significant implications for the interpretations of volcanic deformation worldwide.

  11. Magmas in motion: Degassing in volcanic conduits and fabrics of pyroclastic density current (United States)

    Burgisser, Alain

    Volcanoes are caused by the transport of magma batches from the Earth's crust to the surface. These magmas in motion undergo drastic changes of rheologic properties during their journey to the surface and this work explores how these changes affect volcanic eruptions. The first part of this study is devoted to the dynamic aspects of degassing and permeability in magmas with high pressure, high temperature experiments on natural volcanic rocks. Degassing is measured by the influence of decompression rate on the growth of the bubbles present in the magma while permeability is deduced from the temporal evolution of these bubbles. The parameterization of our results in a numerical model of volcanic conduit flow show that previous models based on equilibrium degassing overestimate the acceleration and the decompression rate of the magma. Assessing permeability effects derived form our results show that the transition between explosive and effusive eruptions is a strong function of the magma initial ascent rate. The second part of this work is a unification of two end-members of pyroclastic currents (highly concentrated pyroclastic flows and dilute, turbulent pyroclastic surges) using theoretical scaling arguments based on multiphase physics. Starting from the dynamics of the particle interactions with a fundamental eddy, we consider the full spectrum of eddies generated within a turbulent current. We demonstrate that the presence of particles with various sizes induces a density stratification of the current, leading to its segregation into a basal concentrated part overlain by a dilute cloud. To verify our predictions on the interactions of such a segregated pyroclastic current with its surroundings (hills and sea), we studied the products of the 2050 BP caldera-forming eruption of Okmok Volcano (Alaska). This field study allowed us to reconstruct the eruptive sequence and to validate the main aspects of our theoretical model, such as the superposition of a dense and

  12. Magma shearing and friction in the volcanic conduit: A crystal constraint (United States)

    Wallace, P. A.; Kendrick, J. E.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Ashworth, J. D.; Coats, R.; Miwa, T.; Mariani, E.; Lavallée, Y.


    Magma shearing and friction processes in the shallow volcanic conduit are typical manifestations of strain localisation, which in turn can have an influential role on magma ascent dynamics. The thermal consequences of such events could drive the destabilisation of magma and thus dictate the style of activity at the surface. Shear heating and fault friction are prime candidates for the generation of significant quantities of heat. Here we use a combination of field and experimental evidence to investigate how crystals can act as sensitive recorders of both physical and chemical processes occurring in the shallow volcanic conduit. Spine extrusion during the closing of the 1991-95 eruption at Unzen volcano, Japan, provided the unique opportunity to investigate marginal shear zone formation, which preserves a relic of the deformation during magma ascent. Our results show that crystals can effectively act as a deformation marker during magma ascent through the viscous-brittle transition by accommodating strain in the form of crystal plasticity before fracturing (comminution). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) reveals up to 40° lattice distortion of biotite phenocrysts in zones of high shear, with negligible plasticity further away. Plagioclase microlites display a systematic plastic response to an increase in shear intensity, as recorded by an increase in lattice distortion towards the spine margin of up to 9°. This localisation of strain within the shear zone is also accompanied by the destabilisation of hydrous mineral phases (i.e. amphibole), compaction of pores (23-13% Φ), glass devitrification and magnetic anomalies. The narrow zone of disequilibrium textures suggests the likely effect of a thermal input due to strain localisation being the contributing factor. These observations are complimented by high-temperature high-velocity rotary shear experiments which simulate the deformation evolution during shear. Hence, understanding these shallow volcanic

  13. The magma plumbing system in the Mariana Trough back-arc basin at 18° N (United States)

    Lai, Zhiqing; Zhao, Guangtao; Han, Zongzhu; Huang, Bo; Li, Min; Tian, Liyan; Liu, Bo; Bu, Xuejiao


    Mafic magmas are common in back-arc basin, once stalled in the crust, these magmas may undergo different evolution. In this paper, compositional and textural variations of plagioclase as well as mineral-melt geothermobarometry are presented for basalts erupted from the central Mariana Trough (CMT). These data reveal crystallization conditions and we attempt a reconstruction of the magma plumbing system of the CMT. Plagioclase megacrysts, phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, microlites, olivine, spinel, and clinopyroxene have been recognized in basalt samples, using BSE images and compositional features. The last three minerals are homogeneous as microphenocrysts. Mineral-melt barometry indicates that plagioclase crystals crystallized and eventually grew into phenocrysts and megacrysts in mush zone with depth of 5-9 km, in which the normal zoning plagioclases crystallized in the interval of various batches of basic magma recharging. Plagioclase megacrysts and phenocrysts were dissolved and/or resorbed, when new basic magmas injected into the mush zone near Moho depth. It is inferred that magma extracted from the mush zone, and adiabatically ascended via different pathways. Some basaltic magmas underwent plagioclase and clinopyroxene microphenocrysts crystallization in low-pressure before eruption. Plagioclase microlites and outermost rims probably crystallized after eruption.

  14. Temperatures and isotopic evolution of silicic magmas, Taupo Volcanic Zone and Coromandel, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Rui-Zhong H.; Graham, I.J.; Houston-Eleftheriadis, C.


    A new set of oxygen and strontium isotope data on rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrites of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and the Coromandel Peninsula provides new limits for petrogenic models. For oxygen isotopes, the rock matrix is frequently altered, so that values for magma need to be phenocryst based. Within TVZ a trend towards more negative δ 1 8O values for more recent magmas appears likely (average before about 1 Ma and for Coromandel near 8.0 per mille; after 1 Ma near 7.5 per mille). This could indicate the gradual removal of supracrustal contaminants from the zones of magma accumulation and extrusion. Similar trends within Coromandel cannot yet be resolved. A generally positive correlation is found for oxygen and strontium isotopes of magmas. Most magmas have a limited range of isotopic values, which then becomes a fingerprint (e.g., the Mamaku, Matahina, and Waiotapu Ignimbrites). A narrow range of eruption temperatures of 880 ± 60 o C is derived from quartz-plagioclase fractionations of 0.98 ± 0.25 per mille δ 1 8O values of quartz and feldspar phenocrysts are sufficiently low to suggest interaction between surface water and magma. However, large negative oxygen isotope anomalies (such as known from Yellowstone), could be no more than partially concealed by the isotopically less depleted meteoric water of New Zealand, and have not yet been found in New Zealand. (authors). 45 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  15. The change of magma chamber depth in and around the Baekdu Volcanic area from late Cenozoic (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Oh, C. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Lee, S. G.; Liu, J.


    The Baekdu Volcano is a 2750m high stratovolcanic cone resting on a basaltic shield and plateau and locates on the North Korea-China border. Its volcanic history can be divided into four stages (from the oldest to the youngest): (i) preshield plateau-forming eruptions, (ii) basalt shield formation, (iii) construction of a trachytic composite cone, and (iv) explosive ignimbrite forming eruptions. In the First stage, a fissure eruption produced basalts from the Oligocene to the Miocene (28-13 Ma) forming preshield plateau. Fissure and central eruptions occurred together during the shield-forming eruptions (4.21-1.70 Ma). In the third stage, the trachytic composite volcano formed during the Pleistocene (0.61-0.09 Ma). In this stage, magma changed to an acidic melt. The latest stage has been characterized by explosive ignimbrite-forming eruptions during the Holocene. The composite volcanic part consists of the Xiaobaishan, Lower, Middle and Upper Trachytes with rhyolites. The whole rock and clinopyroxene in basalts, trachytic and rhyolite, are analyzed to study the depth of magma chambers under the Baekdu Volcano. From the rhyolite, 9.8-12.7kbar is obtained for the depth of magma chamber. 3.7-4.1, 8.9-10.5 and 8.7 kbar are obtained from the middle, lower and Xiaobaishan trachytes. From the first and second stage basalts, 16.9-17.0 kbar and 14-14.4kbar are obtained respectively. The first stage basalt give extrusive age of 11.98 Ma whereas 1.12 and 1.09 Ma are obtained from the feldspar and groundmass in the second stage basalt. The Xiaobaishan trachyte and rhyolite give 0.25 and 0.21 Ma whereas the Middle trachyte gives 0.07-0.06 Ma. These data indicate that the magma chambers of the first and second stage basalts were located in the mantle and the magma chamber for the second stage basalt may have been underplated below continental crust. The Xiaobisan trachyte and rhyolite originated from the magma chamber in the depth of ca. 30-40 km and the Middle trachyte

  16. The effect of giant lateral collapses on magma pathways and the location of volcanism. (United States)

    Maccaferri, Francesco; Richter, Nicole; Walter, Thomas R


    Flank instability and lateral collapse are recurrent processes during the structural evolution of volcanic edifices, and they affect and are affected by magmatic activity. It is known that dyke intrusions have the potential to destabilise the flanks of a volcano, and that lateral collapses may change the style of volcanism and the arrangement of shallow dykes. However, the effect of a large lateral collapse on the location of a new eruptive centre remains unclear. Here, we use a numerical approach to simulate the pathways of magmatic intrusions underneath the volcanic edifice, after the stress redistribution resulting from a large lateral collapse. Our simulations are quantitatively validated against the observations at Fogo volcano, Cabo Verde. The results reveal that a lateral collapse can trigger a significant deflection of deep magma pathways in the crust, favouring the formation of a new eruptive centre within the collapse embayment. Our results have implications for the long-term evolution of intraplate volcanic ocean islands.

  17. Seismic evidence for arc segmentation, active magmatic intrusions and syn-rift fault system in the northern Ryukyu volcanic arc (United States)

    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki


    Tectonic and volcanic structures of the northern Ryukyu arc are investigated on the basis of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data. The study area forms an active volcanic front in parallel to the non-volcanic island chain in the eastern margin of the Eurasian plate and has been undergoing regional extension on its back-arc side. We carried out a MCS reflection experiment along two across-arc lines, and one of the profiles was laid out across the Tokara Channel, a linear bathymetric depression which demarcates the northern and central Ryukyu arcs. The reflection image reveals that beneath this topographic valley there exists a 3-km-deep sedimentary basin atop the arc crust, suggesting that the arc segment boundary was formed by rapid and focused subsidence of the arc crust driven by the arc-parallel extension. Around the volcanic front, magmatic conduits represented by tubular transparent bodies in the reflection images are well developed within the shallow sediments and some of them are accompanied by small fragments of dipping seismic reflectors indicating intruded sills at their bottoms. The spatial distribution of the conduits may suggest that the arc volcanism has multiple active outlets on the seafloor which bifurcate at crustal depths and/or that the location of the volcanic front has been migrating trenchward over time. Further distant from the volcanic front toward the back-arc (> 30 km away), these volcanic features vanish, and alternatively wide rift basins become predominant where rapid transitions from normal-fault-dominant regions to strike-slip-fault-dominant regions occur. This spatial variation in faulting patterns indicates complex stress regimes associated with arc/back-arc rifting in the northern Okinawa Trough.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Magmas near the critical degassing pressure drive volcanic unrest towards a critical state (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Paonita, Antonio; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Costa, Antonio; Caliro, Stefano; De Martino, Prospero; Acocella, Valerio; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean


    During the reawaking of a volcano, magmas migrating through the shallow crust have to pass through hydrothermal fluids and rocks. The resulting magma–hydrothermal interactions are still poorly understood, which impairs the ability to interpret volcano monitoring signals and perform hazard assessments. Here we use the results of physical and volatile saturation models to demonstrate that magmatic volatiles released by decompressing magmas at a critical degassing pressure (CDP) can drive volcanic unrest towards a critical state. We show that, at the CDP, the abrupt and voluminous release of H2O-rich magmatic gases can heat hydrothermal fluids and rocks, triggering an accelerating deformation that can ultimately culminate in rock failure and eruption. We propose that magma could be approaching the CDP at Campi Flegrei, a volcano in the metropolitan area of Naples, one of the most densely inhabited areas in the world, and where accelerating deformation and heating are currently being observed. PMID:27996976

  19. Importance of Geodetically Controlled Topography to Constrain Rates of Volcanism and Internal Magma Plumbing Systems (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, S. M.; Garvin, James B.; Quick, Lynnae C.


    Investigation of lava flow deposits is a key component of Investigation II.A.1 in the VEXAG Goals, Objectives and Investigations. Because much of the Venus surface is covered in lava flows, characterization of lava flow emplacement conditions(eruption rate and eruption duration) is critical for understanding the mechanisms through which magma is stored and released onto the surface as well as for placing constraints on rates of volcanic resurfacing throughout the geologic record preserved at the surface.

  20. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the lassen volcanic center, California: Resolving crustal and mantle contributions to continental Arc magmatism (United States)

    Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.; Winer, G.S.; Grice, W.C.


    This study reports oxygen isotope ratios determined by laser fluorination of mineral separates (mainly plagioclase) from basaltic andesitic to rhyolitic composition volcanic rocks erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), northern California. Plagioclase separates from nearly all rocks have ??18O values (6.1-8.4%) higher than expected for production of the magmas by partial melting of little evolved basaltic lavas erupted in the arc front and back-arc regions of the southernmost Cascades during the late Cenozoic. Most LVC magmas must therefore contain high 18O crustal material. In this regard, the ??18O values of the volcanic rocks show strong spatial patterns, particularly for young rhyodacitic rocks that best represent unmodified partial melts of the continental crust. Rhyodacitic magmas erupted from vents located within 3.5 km of the inferred center of the LVC have consistently lower ??18 O values (average 6.3% ?? 0.1%) at given SiO2 contents relative to rocks erupted from distal vents (>7.0 km; average 7.1% ?? 0.1%). Further, magmas erupted from vents situated at transitional distances have intermediate values and span a larger range (average 6.8% ?? 0.2%). Basaltic andesitic to andesitic composition rocks show similar spatial variations, although as a group the ??18O values of these rocks are more variable and extend to higher values than the rhyodacitic rocks. These features are interpreted to reflect assimilation of heterogeneous lower continental crust by mafic magmas, followed by mixing or mingling with silicic magmas formed by partial melting of initially high 18O continental crust (??? 9.0%) increasingly hybridized by lower ??18O (???6.0%) mantle-derived basaltic magmas toward the center of the system. Mixing calculations using estimated endmember source ??18O values imply that LVC magmas contain on a molar oxygen basis approximately 42 to 4% isotopically heavy continental crust, with proportions declining in a broadly regular fashion toward the

  1. Evolution of silicic magmas in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center: cycles associated with caldera collapse (United States)

    Ruprecht, J. S.; Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.; Huber, C.; Skopelitis, A.; Schnyder, C.


    Multiple eruptions of silicic magma (dacite and rhyolites) occurred over the last ~ 3 My in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center (eastern Aegean sea). Over the course of this period, magmas have changed from hornblende-biotite rich units with low eruption temperatures (≤750-800 °C; Kefalos and Kos units) to hotter (>800-850 °C), pyroxene-bearing units (Nisyros units) and are transitioning back to colder magmas (Yali units). Using bulk-rock compositions, mineral chemistry, and zircon Hf isotopes, we show that the two different types of silicic magmas followed the same differentiation trend; they all evolved by crystal fractionation (and minor assimilation) from parents with intermediate compositions characterized by high Sr/Y and low Nb content, following a wet, high oxygen fugacity liquid line of descent typical of subduction zones. As the transition between the Kos-Kefalos and Nisyros-type magmas occurred immediately and abruptly after the major caldera collapse in the area (the 161 ky Kos Plateau Tuff; KPT), we suggest that the efficient emptying of the magma chamber during the KPT drew most of the eruptible magma out and partly froze the silicic magma source zone in the upper crust due to rapid unloading, decompression and resulting crystallization. Therefore, the system had to reinstate a shallow silicic production zone from more mafic parents, recharged at temperatures typically around 850-900 °C from the mid to lower crust. The first silicic eruptions evolving from these parents after the caldera collapse (Nisyros units) were thus slightly hotter and less evolved than the Kefalos-Kos package. However, with time, the upper crustal intermediate mush grew and cooled, leading to interstitial melt compositions reaching again the highly-evolved, cold state that prevailed prior to the Kefalos-Kos. The recent (albeit not precisely dated) eruption of the high-SiO2 rhyolite of Yali suggests that another large, potentially explosive magma chamber is presently building

  2. Geochemical Relationships between Volcanic and Plutonic Upper to Mid Crustal Exposures of the Rosario Segment, Alisitos Arc (Baja California, Mexico): An Outstanding Field Analog to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc (United States)

    Morris, R.; DeBari, S. M.; Busby, C. J.; Medynski, S.


    Exposed paleo-arcs, such as the Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos Arc in Baja California, Mexico, provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of arc crust through time. Remarkable 3-D exposures of the Rosario segment record crustal generation processes in the volcanic rocks and underlying plutonic rocks. In this study, we explore the physical and geochemical connection between the plutonic and volcanic sections of the extensional Alisitos Arc, and elucidate differentiation processes responsible for generating them. These results provide an outstanding analog for extensional active arc systems, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc. Upper crustal volcanic rocks have a coherent stratigraphy that is 3-5 km thick and ranges in composition from basalt to dacite. The most felsic compositions (70.9% SiO2) are from a welded ignimbrite unit. The most mafic compositions (51.5% SiO2, 3.2% MgO) are found in basaltic sill-like units. Phenocrysts in the volcanic units include plagioclase +/- amphibole and clinopyroxene. The transition to deeper plutonic rocks is clearly an intrusive boundary, where plutonic units intrude the volcanic units. Plutonic rocks are dominantly a quartz diorite main phase with a more mafic, gabbroic margin. A transitional zone is observed along the contact between the plutonic and volcanic rocks, where volcanics have coarsely recrystallized textures. Mineral assemblages in the plutonic units include plagioclase +/- quartz, biotite, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Most, but not all, samples are low K. REE patterns are relatively flat with limited enrichment. Normalization diagrams show LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, where trends are similar to average IBM values. We interpret plutonic and volcanic units to have similar geochemical relationships, where liquid lines of descent show the evolution of least to most evolved magma types. We provide a model for the formation and magmatic evolution of the Alisitos Arc.

  3. Temperatures and isotopic evolution of silicic magmas, Taupo Volcanic Zone and Coromandel, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Rui-Zhong, Hu; Graham, I.J.; Houston-Eleftheriadis, C.


    A new set of oxygen and strontium isotope data on rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrites of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and the Coromandel Peninsula provides new limits for petrogenetic models. For oxygen isotopes, the rock matrix is frequently altered, so that values for magma need to be phenocryst based. Within TVZ a trend towards more negative delta 1 8 O values for more recent magmas appears likely (average before about 1 Ma and for Coromandel near 8.0 per thousand; after 1 Ma near 7.5 per thousand). This could indicate the gradual removal of supracrustal contaminants from the zones of magma accumulation and extrusion. Similar trends within Coromandel cannot yet be resolved. A generally positive correlation is found for oxygen and strontium isotopes of magmas. Most magmas have a limited range of isotopic values, which then becomes a useful fingerprint (e.g., the Mamaku, Matahina, and Waiotapu Ignimbrites). A narrow range of eruption temperatures of 880 plus or minus 60degC is derived from quartz-plagioclase fractionations of 0.98 plus or minus 0.25 per thousand delta 1 8 O for 15 magmas. Some delta 1 8 O values of quartz and feldspar phenocrysts are sufficiently low to suggest interaction between surface water and magma. However, large negative oxygen isotope anomalies (such as known from Yellowstone), could be no more than partially concealed by the isotopically less depleted meteoric water of New Zealand, and have not yet been found in New Zealand. (author). 45 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  4. The role of amphibole in Merapi arc magma petrogenesis: insights from petrology and geochemistry of lava hosted xenoliths and xenocrysts (United States)

    Chadwick, J. P.; Troll, V. R.; Schulz, B.; Dallai, L.; Freda, C.; Schwarzkopf, L. M.; Annersten, H.; Skogby, H.


    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the role of amphibole in the differentiation of arc magmas. The geochemical composition of these magmas suggests that deep to mid crustal fractionation of amphibole has occurred. However, this phase is typically an infrequent modal phenocryst phase in subduction zone eruptive deposits(1). Nevertheless, erupted material only represents a portion of the magmatism produced in subduction zone settings, with many opportunities for melts to stall on route to the surface. This discrepancy between whole rock geochemistry and petrological interpretation of arc magmas has lead many scientists to postulate that, at mid to deep crustal levels, there may be significant volumes of amphibole bearing lithologies. Amphibole instability at shallow levels can also contribute to its scarcity in eruptive deposits. This argument is strengthened by field and petrological evidence, including the widespread occurrence of amphibole-rich intrusive rocks in exhumed orogenicbelts formed during subduction zone activity, e.g. the Adamello batholith (2),as well as the presence of amphibole-rich xenoliths and xenocrysts preserved in arc lavas worldwide, e.g. in Indonesia, Antilles, and Central America. Thus, amphibole appears to play an integral role in subduction zone magmatism and identifying and constraining this role is central to understanding arc magma petrogenisis. Amphibole-rich melts or bodies in the deep to mid crust could be a significant hydrous reservoir for intra-crustal melts and fluids (1). In this preliminary study, we have carried out petrological and geochemical analyses of recent basaltic andesite and amphibole bearing crystalline igneous inclusions and xenocrysts from Merapi volcano in Java, Indonesia. The basaltic andesite geochemistry is consistent with amphibole fractionation and the crystalline inclusions are cogenetic to the Merapi magmatic system. These inclusions are likely to represent fractionation residues reflecting

  5. Shallow magma diversions during explosive maar-diatreme eruptions in mafic volcanic fields (United States)

    Le Corvec, N.; Muirhead, J.; White, J. D. L.


    Maar-diatremes are inverted conical structures formed by subterranean excavation and remobilization of country rocks during explosive volcanism and common in mafic volcanic fields. We focus on impacts of excavation and filling of maar-diatremes on the local state of stress, and its subsequent influence on underlying feeder dikes, which are critical for understanding the development of intrusive networks that feed surface eruptions. We address this issue using finite element models in COMSOL Multiphysics®. Inverted conical structures of varying sizes are excavated in a gravitationally loaded elastic half-space, and then progressively filled with volcaniclastic material, resulting in changes in the orientations and magnitudes of stresses generated within surrounding rocks and within the filling portion of the maar-diatreme. Our results show that rapid unloading during maar-diatreme excavation generates a horizontal compressive stress state beneath diatremes. These stresses allow magma to divert laterally as saucer-shaped sills and circumferential dikes at varying depths in the shallow feeder system, and produce intrusion geometries consistent with both field observations from exhumed volcanic fields and conceptual models of diatreme growth. Stresses generated in these models also provide an explanation for the evolving locations of fragmentation zones over the course of diatreme's filling. In particular, results from this study suggest that: (1) extensional stresses at the base of the diatreme fill favor magma ascent in the lower half of the structure, and possibly promote volatile exsolution and magma fragmentation; and (2) increased filling of diatremes creates a shallow compressive stress state that can inhibit magma ascent to the surface, promoting widespread intra-diatreme explosions, efficient mixing of host rock, and upward widening of the diatreme structure.

  6. A Tale of Two Olivines: Magma Ascent in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Smid, E. R.; McGee, L. E.; Smith, I. E.; Lindsay, J. M.


    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a nephelinitic to subalkali basaltic monogenetic field centered on the city of Auckland, New Zealand. Lavas are olivine-phyric, and the deposits of several volcanoes in the field contain olivine crystals with chrome spinel (Cr-spinel) inclusions. Microprobe analyses show at least two populations of olivine, categorised by their Mg# and their spinel inclusion compositions: the first has olivines that are euhedral, have compositions slightly less forsteritic than expected for whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusions with relatively low Cr2O3 contents of ~20%. These are interpreted as antecrysts inherited from the mantle source that yielded their host magma. The second population is characterised by olivines that are sub- to euhedral, are significantly more forsteritic than expected from their host whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusons with relatively high Cr2O3 contents of ~50%. These are interpreted as xenocrysts. The composition of these high Cr2O3 spinels very closely resembles the composition of spinels within olivines in dunite sampled from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite on the South Island of New Zealand. The northward extension of the Dun Mountain complex beneath the North Island is defined by the Junction Magnetic Anomaly, marking a crustal terrane boundary that underlies the Auckland Volcanic Field. These data indicate that the magmas that have risen to produce the volcanoes of the Auckland Volcanic Field have carried crystals from an underlying ultramafic crust as well as from their asthenospheric source. Euhedral olivine crystals which do not contain Cr-spinel are also present in AVF lavas and these are interpreted as true phenocrysts that crystallised directly from their host magmas. The lack of reaction textures at crystal margins suggests rapid ascent rates. A crustal origin for the xenocrysts not only has large implications for ascent rate modelling of olivines, but also for the crustal structure of the

  7. Potential Magma Chambers beneath the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan: Results from Magnetotelluric Survey and Monitoring (United States)

    Chen, C.


    Previous earthquakes analysis indicated existing seismicity anomaly beneath Tatun volcano, Taiwan, possibly caused by the fluid activity of the volcano. Helium isotope studies also indicated that over 60% of the fumarolic gases and vapors originated from deep mantle in the Tatun volcano area. The chemistry of the fumarolic gases and vapors and seismicity anomaly are important issues in view of possible magma chamber in the Tatun volcano, where is in the vicinity of metropolitan Taipei, only 15 km north of the capital city. In this study magnetotelluric (MT) soundings and monitoring were deployed to understand the geoelectric structures in the Tatun volcano as Electromagnetic methods are sensitive to conductivity contrasts and can be used as a supplementary tool to delineate reservoir boundaries. An anticline extending more than 10 km beneath the Chih-Shin-Shan and Da-You-Kan areas was recognized. Low resistivity at a shallow and highly porous layer 500m thick might indicate circulation of heated water. However, a high resistivity layer at depth between 2 and 6 km was detected. This layer could be associated with high micro-earthquakes zone. The characteristics of this layer produced by either the magma chamber or other geothermal activity were similar to that of some other active volcanic areas in the world. At 6 km underground was a dome structure of medium resistivity. This structure could be interpreted as a magma chamber in which the magma is possibly cooling down, as judged by its relatively high resistivity. The exact attributes of the magma chamber were not precisely determined from the limited MT soundings. At present, a joint monitors including seismic activity, ground deformation, volcanic gases, and changes in water levels and chemistry are conducted by universities and government agencies. When unusual activity is detected, a response team may do more ground surveys to better determine if an eruption is likely.

  8. The Chinese North Tianshan Orogen was a rear-arc (or back-arc) environment in the Late Carboniferous: constraint from the volcanic rocks in the Bogda Mountains (United States)

    Xie, W.


    The Tianshan Orogen is a key area for understanding the Paleozoic tectonics and long-lasting evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, considerable debate persists as to its tectonic setting during the late Paleozoic, with active subduction system and intraplate large igneous provinces as two dominant schools (Ma et al., 1997; Gu et al., 2000; Xiao et al., 2004; Han et al., 2010; Shu et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2011; Xia et al., 2012). With aims of providing constraints on this issue, petrology, mineralogy, geochronological and geochemistry for the Late Carboniferous volcanics from the Bogda Mountains have been carried out. We find two suits of high-Al basalt (HAB, 315-319 Ma) and a suit of submarine pillow basalt ( 311 Ma) in this region. Both of the two basalts belong to the tholeiitic magma (the tholeiitic index THI > 1) and contain low pre-eruptive magmatic H2O (coexisted with the Bogda HABs is I-type intermediate ignimbrites and rhyolite lavas. The rhyolites are formed by partial melting of a hydrated and juvenile arc crust and the ignimbrites are affected by magma mingling and feldspar fractionation (Xie et al., 2016c). The two basalts both have the MORB-like Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes and arc-like trace element compositions. We discuss that they may have been generated from a dry and depleted mantle source metasomatized by coexisted felsic volcanics were likely formed in a rear-arc or back-arc environment, probably related to southward subduction of the Paleo-Tianshan Ocean (Xie et al., 2016a, b, c).

  9. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Late Devonian arc volcanic rocks in southern Beishan orogen, NW China: Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic constraints (United States)

    Guo, Qian-Qian; Chung, Sun-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Li, Shan


    Late Devonian (ca. 370 Ma) volcanic rocks provide important information about the nature of magmatism during the tectonic transition between the Early and Late Paleozoic in the Beishan orogen, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. They are predominantly an andesitic-dacitic-rhyolitic assemblage, characterized by alkali contents ranging from slightly calcic to slightly alkaline. The rhyolitic rocks are generally ferroan, whereas the andesitic rocks are magnesian. These volcanic rocks exhibit similar trace element characteristics to those of continental arcs. Strongly negative εNd(t) values (- 2.8 to - 3.6) and high Sr isotopic compositions (initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7036-0.7108) suggest that they are mainly derived from an ancient crust. However, the positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 1.4 to + 16.4) support the role of juvenile components in their genesis, indicating the significant input of new mantle-derived magmas. These characteristics imply a hybrid derivation, from an ancient crustal source with the addition of juvenile materials during magma genesis, or perhaps heterogeneous contamination or hybridization during magma emplacement. Combined with the regional geology, our results indicate that the Late Devonian magmatism resulted from a southward retreat of the subduction zone, which records significant continental crustal growth in a transitional arc or an accretionary arc setting. The distinct geochemical compositions, especially the Nd-Hf isotope decoupling of the Dundunshan volcanic rocks, imply a significant change in the geodynamic setting in the Late Paleozoic.

  10. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, Luigina; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio


    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  11. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel


    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  12. Recurrence Rate and Magma Effusion Rate for the Latest Volcanism on Arsia Mons, Mars (United States)

    Richardson, Jacob A.; Wilson, James A.; Connor, Charles B.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Kiyosugi, Koji


    Magmatism and volcanism have evolved the Martian lithosphere, surface, and climate throughout the history of Mars. Constraining the rates of magma generation and timing of volcanism on the surface clarifies the ways in which magma and volcanic activity have shaped these Martian systems. The ages of lava flows on other planets are often estimated using impact crater counts, assuming that the number and size-distribution of impact craters per unit area reflect the time the lava flow has been on the surface and exposed to potential impacts. Here we show that impact crater age model uncertainty is reduced by adding stratigraphic information observed at locations where neighboring lavas abut each other, and demonstrate the significance of this reduction in age uncertainty for understanding the history of a volcanic field comprising 29 vents in the 110-kilometer-diameter caldera of Arsia Mons, Mars. Each vent within this caldera produced lava flows several to tens of kilometers in length; these vents are likely among the youngest on Mars, since no impact craters in their lava flows are larger than 1 kilometer in diameter. First, we modeled the age of each vent with impact crater counts performed on their corresponding lava flows and found very large age uncertainties for the ages of individual vents, often spanning the estimated age for the entire volcanic field. The age model derived from impact crater counts alone is broad and unimodal, with estimated peak activity in the field around 130Ma (megaannum, 1 million years). Next we applied our volcano event age model (VEAM), which uses a directed graph of stratigraphic relationships and random sampling of the impact crater age determinations to create alternative age models. Monte Carlo simulation was used to create 10,000 possible vent age sets. The recurrence rate of volcanism is calculated for each possible age set, and these rates are combined to calculate the median recurrence rate of all simulations. Applying this

  13. The Kinematics of Central American Fore-Arc Motion in Nicaragua: Geodetic, Geophysical and Geologic Study of Magma-Tectonic Interactions (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Saballos, A.; Mattioli, G. S.


    A long-standing paradigm in plate tectonics is that oblique convergence results in strain partitioning and the formation of migrating fore-arc terranes accommodated on margin-parallel strike-slip faults within or in close proximity to active volcanic arcs (e.g., the Sumatran fault). Some convergent margins, however, are segmented by margin-normal faults and margin-parallel shear is accommodated by motion on these faults and by vertical axis block rotation. Furthermore, geologic and geophysical observations of active and extinct margins where strain partitioning has occurred, indicate the emplacement of magmas within the shear zones or extensional step-overs. Characterizing the mechanism of accommodation is important for understanding short-term (decadal) seismogenesis, and long-term (millions of years) fore-arc migration, and the formation of continental lithosphere. We investigate the geometry and kinematics of Quaternary faulting and magmatism along the Nicaraguan convergent margin, where historical upper crustal earthquakes have been located on margin-normal, strike-slip faults within the fore arc and arc. Using new GPS time series, other geophysical and geologic data, we: 1) determine the location of the maximum gradient in forearc motion; 2) estimate displacement rates on margin-normal faults; and 3) constrain the geometric moment rate for the fault system. We find that: 1) forearc motion is 11 mm a-1; 2) deformation is accommodated within the active volcanic arc; and 3) that margin-normal faults can have rates of 10 mm a-1 in agreement with geologic estimates from paleoseismology. The minimum geometric moment rate for the margin-normal fault system is 2.62x107 m3 yr-1, whereas the geometric moment rate for historical (1931-2006) earthquakes is 1.01x107 m3/yr. The discrepancy between fore-arc migration and historical seismicity may be due to aseismic accommodation of fore-arc motion by magmatic intrusion along north-trending volcanic alignments within the

  14. Compositional variation through time and space in Quaternary magmas of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, Kenya (United States)

    Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.


    The Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, located in southern Kenya >100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley, has produced mafic, monogenetic eruptions throughout the Quaternary. The volcanic field is considered to be an off-rift manifestation of the East African Rift System, and is known for the significant compositional variability of its eruptive products, which range from nephelinites to basanites, alkali basalts, hawaiites, and orthopyroxene-normative subalkaline basalts [1]. Notably, erupted compositions vary systematically in time and space: Pleistocene volcanism, occurring in the northern Chyulu Hills, was characterized by highly silica-undersaturated magmas, whereas Holocene volcanism, restricted to the southern Chyulu Hills, is less silica-understaturated, consistent with a progressive decrease in depth and increase in degree of melting with time, from north to south [1]. Pronounced negative K anomalies, and enriched trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope signatures have been attributed to a metasomatized, amphibole-bearing, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source [2]. Seismic evidence for a partially molten zone in the SCLM beneath this region [3] may be consistent with such an interpretation. We have analyzed Chyulu Hills samples for Os, Hf and high precision Pb isotopes to further evaluate the magma sources and petrogenetic processes leading to systematic compositional variation in time and space. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and strong negative correlations of 206Pb/204Pb and highly incompatible trace element ratios with SiO2 are consistent with the progression from a deeper, HIMU-type source to a shallower, EM-type source. Os isotope systematics, however, suggest a more complex relationship; although all samples are more radiogenic than primitive mantle, the least radiogenic values (similar to primitive OIB) are found in magmas with intermediate SiO2, and those with lower or higher SiO2 are more radiogenic. This may be explained by interaction

  15. Seismological evidence for a sub-volcanic arc mantle wedge beneath the Denali volcanic gap, Alaska (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Pasyanos, M.E.


    Arc volcanism in Alaska is strongly correlated with the 100 km depth contour of the western Aluetian Wadati-Benioff zone. Above the eastern portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone however, there is a distinct lack of volcanism (the Denali volcanic gap). We observe high Poisson's ratio values (0.29-0.33) over the entire length of the Alaskan subduction zone mantle wedge based on regional variations of Pn and Sn velocities. High Poisson's ratios at this depth (40-70 km), adjacent to the subducting slab, are attributed to melting of mantle-wedge peridotites, caused by fluids liberated from the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. Observations of high values of Poisson's ratio, beneath the Denali volcanic gap suggest that the mantle wedge contains melted material that is unable to reach the surface. We suggest that its inability to migrate through the overlying crust is due to increased compression in the crust at the northern apex of the curved Denali fault.

  16. Metallogenic hydrothermal solution system of post volcanic magma in Xiangshan ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hengli; Shao Fei; Zou Maoqin


    This paper has systematically described uranium metallogenic characteristics of Xiangshan ore field.Sources of metallogenic materials are discussed in different temporal and spatial scale. Combining with background analysis of metallogenic tectonic-magmatic-geodynamics, formation and evolution of metallogenic hydrothermal solution system in Xiangshan volcanic basin are studied. Metallogenic hydrothermal solution system in Xiangshan ore field is considered as the objective product of systematic evolution of hydrothermal solution in post volcanic magma constrained by regional tectonic environment. In time scale, metallogenic hydrothermal solution system developed for about 50 Ma, but its active spaces varied in different time domains. So temporal and spatial distribution of uranium mineralization is constrained. Further exploration for the ore field is also suggested in this paper. (authors)

  17. Rare earth element mobility in arc-type volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschel, E.; Smith, I.E.M.


    Some samples from arc-type volcanic suites collected in northern New Zealand and southeastern Papua New Guinea show rare earth element (REE) and Y abundances which are enriched relative to the those typical of their respective associations. This enrichment appears to be the result of an alteration process which selectively mobilises the REE and re-precipitates them as REE-bearing minerals in veins and interstitial patches. The alteration is on a micron scale and is not detected in routine petrographic examination. It is emphasised that the pattern of REE mobility in young, fresh rocks is important to igneous geochemists who use REE abundances to constrain petrogenetic models and may also be important because it indicates the operation of a natural REE enrichment process which could operate in the formation of economic REE deposits. 3 refs., 5 figs

  18. Seismological Imaging of Melt Production Regions Beneath the Backarc Spreading Center and Volcanic Arc, Mariana Islands (United States)

    Wiens, Douglas; Pozgay, Sara; Barklage, Mitchell; Pyle, Moira; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko


    We image the seismic velocity and attenuation structure of the mantle melt production regions associated with the Mariana Backarc Spreading Center and Mariana Volcanic Arc using data from the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment. The passive component of this experiment consisted of 20 broadband seismographs deployed on the island chain and 58 ocean-bottom seismographs from June, 2003 until April, 2004. We obtained the 3D P and S wave velocity structure of the Mariana mantle wedge from a tomographic inversion of body wave arrivals from local earthquakes as well as P and S arrival times from large teleseismic earthquakes determined by multi-channel cross correlation. We also determine the 2-D attenuation structure of the mantle wedge using attenuation tomography based on local and regional earthquake spectra, and a broader-scale, lower resolution 3-D shear velocity structure from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocities using a two plane wave array analysis approach. We observe low velocity, high attenuation anomalies in the upper mantle beneath both the arc and backarc spreading center. These anomalies are separated by a higher velocity, lower attenuation region at shallow depths (< 80 km), implying distinct magma production regions for the arc and backarc in the uppermost mantle. The largest magnitude anomaly beneath the backarc spreading center is found at shallower depth (25-50 km) compared to the arc (50-100 km), consistent with melting depths estimated from the geochemistry of arc and backarc basalts (K. Kelley, pers. communication). The velocity and attenuation signature of the backarc spreading center is narrower than the corresponding anomaly found beneath the East Pacific Rise by the MELT experiment, perhaps implying a component of focused upwelling beneath the spreading center. The strong velocity and attenuation anomaly beneath the spreading center contrasts strongly with preliminary MT inversion results showing no conductivity anomaly in the

  19. Zircon crytallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Miff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ??? 60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction). ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  20. Zircon crystallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Tuff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ~60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction).

  1. Volcanic Cyclicities in the Pacific Northwest: Insights from the Marine Tephra Record from IODP Expedition 350, Izu Bonin Arc (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Jegen, M. D.; Corry-Saavedra, K.; Murayama, M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Kutterolf, S.; Vautravers, M. J.; Wang, K. L.


    While the influences of orbital cycles on the ocean-atmosphere system are well documented, it remains largely unknown whether Earth's interior processes are similarly connected to orbital cycles. Recent studies of cyclic deposition in ash fallout from arc volcanism suggest that global climate changes in the form of variable glacial and water load are inversely related to magma production and/or volcanic eruption rate. However, a rigorous test of this hypotheses requires a temporally precise record of past volcanism which spans multiple glacial cycles at high resolution. The marine ash record of explosive volcanism provides such records readily. Here we undertake a detailed chemical study of discrete and disperse tephra deposits in cores from IODP Holes U1437B and U1436A drilled near the Izu Bonin arc in the northwestern Pacific. These locations combine a high background sedimentation rate (>10 m/Ma) of biogenic carbonate and Asian-derived dust with frequent emplacement of tephra fallout from the nearby Izu Bonin and Japan arcs. δ18O analyses record thirteen climatic cycles in the carbonate mud of the uppermost 120 m of Hole U1437B and eleven cycles in the uppermost 70 m of Hole U1436C. Strikingly, the distribution of 134 primary ash layers in Hole U1437B seems to be synchronous with glacial cycles, with a distinct increase in eruption occurrences at either the transitions of glacial/interglacial or at the early interglacials. This is confirmed by first results of a frequency analysis of the ash-time series that indicate a dominance of a 100 ka cycle. The question, which remains to be answered, is whether deglaciation drives volcanism or volcanism drives deglaciation? We also investigate the distribution of `dispersed ash' in this sequence, which is not visible to the naked eye but is volumetrically significant and thus also critical in testing time-cause relationships between arc volcanism and glacial cycles. Major questions we address are: 1) do we see the same

  2. Volcano seismicity and ground deformation unveil the gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics of a volcanic eruption. (United States)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Maggio, Giuseppe; Pistolesi, Marco; Marchetti, Emanuele; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Poggi, Pasquale


    Effusive eruptions are explained as the mechanism by which volcanoes restore the equilibrium perturbed by magma rising in a chamber deep in the crust. Seismic, ground deformation and topographic measurements are compared with effusion rate during the 2007 Stromboli eruption, drawing an eruptive scenario that shifts our attention from the interior of the crust to the surface. The eruption is modelled as a gravity-driven drainage of magma stored in the volcanic edifice with a minor contribution of magma supplied at a steady rate from a deep reservoir. Here we show that the discharge rate can be predicted by the contraction of the volcano edifice and that the very-long-period seismicity migrates downwards, tracking the residual volume of magma in the shallow reservoir. Gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics explain the initially high discharge rates observed during eruptive crises and greatly influence our ability to predict the evolution of effusive eruptions.

  3. Gas measurements from the Costa Rica-Nicaragua volcanic segment suggest possible along-arc variations in volcanic gas chemistry (United States)

    Aiuppa, A.; Robidoux, P.; Tamburello, G.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.; Avard, G.; Bagnato, E.; De Moor, J. M.; Martínez, M.; Muñóz, A.


    Obtaining accurate estimates of the CO2 output from arc volcanism requires a precise understanding of the potential along-arc variations in volcanic gas chemistry, and ultimately of the magmatic gas signature of each individual arc segment. In an attempt to more fully constrain the magmatic gas signature of the Central America Volcanic Arc (CAVA), we present here the results of a volcanic gas survey performed during March and April 2013 at five degassing volcanoes within the Costa Rica-Nicaragua volcanic segment (CNVS). Observations of the volcanic gas plume made with a multicomponent gas analyzer system (Multi-GAS) have allowed characterization of the CO2/SO2-ratio signature of the plumes at Poás (0.30±0.06, mean ± SD), Rincón de la Vieja (27.0±15.3), and Turrialba (2.2±0.8) in Costa Rica, and at Telica (3.0±0.9) and San Cristóbal (4.2±1.3) in Nicaragua (all ratios on molar basis). By scaling these plume compositions to simultaneously measured SO2 fluxes, we estimate that the CO2 outputs at CNVS volcanoes range from low (25.5±11.0 tons/day at Poás) to moderate (918 to 1270 tons/day at Turrialba). These results add a new information to the still fragmentary volcanic CO2 output data set, and allow estimating the total CO2 output from the CNVS at 2835±1364 tons/day. Our novel results, with previously available information about gas emissions in Central America, are suggestive of distinct volcanic gas CO2/ST (= SO2 + H2S)-ratio signature for magmatic volatiles in Nicaragua (∼3) relative to Costa Rica (∼0.5-1.0). We also provide additional evidence for the earlier theory relating the CO2-richer signature of Nicaragua volcanism to increased contributions from slab-derived fluids, relative to more-MORB-like volcanism in Costa Rica. The sizeable along-arc variations in magmatic gas chemistry that the present study has suggested indicate that additional gas observations are urgently needed to more-precisely confine the volcanic CO2 from the CAVA, and from

  4. Quaternary volcanism near the Valley of Mexico: implications for subduction zone magmatism and the effects of crustal thickness variations on primitive magma compositions (United States)

    Wallace, Paul J.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    The Valley of Mexico and surrounding regions of Mexico and Morelos states in central Mexico contain more than 250 Quaternary eruptive vents in addition to the large, composite volcanoes of Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, and Nevado de Toluca. The eruptive vents include cinder and lava cones, shield volcanoes, and isolated andesitic and dacitic lava flows, and are most numerous in the Sierra Chichináutzin that forms the southern terminus of the Valley of Mexico. The Chichináutzin volcanic field (CVF) is part of the E-W-trending Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), a subduction-related volcanic arc that extends across Mexico. The crustal thickness beneath the CVF ( 50km) is the greatest of any region in the MVB and one of the greatest found in any arc worldwide. Lavas and scoriae erupted from vents in the CVF include alkaline basalts and calc-alkaline basaltic andesites, andesites, and dacites. Both alkaline and calc-alkaline groups contain primitive varieties that have whole rock Mg#, MgO, and Ni contents, and liquidus olivine compositions (<=Fo90) that are close to those expected of partial melts from mantle peridotite. Primitive varieties also show a wide range of incompatible trace element abundances (e.g. Ba 210-1080ppm Ce 25-100ppm Zr 130-280ppm). Data for primitive calc-alkaline rocks from both the CVF and other regions of the MVB to the west are consistent with magma generation in an underlying mantle wedge that is depleted in Ti, Zr, and Nb and enriched in large ion lithophile (K, Ba, Rb) and light rare earth (La, Ce) elements. Extents of partial melting estimated from Ti and Zr data are lower for primitive calc-alkaline magmas in the CVF than for those from the regions of the MVB to the west where the crust is thinner. The distinctive major element compositions (low CaO and Al2O3, high SiO2) of the primitive calc-alkaline magmas in the CVF indicate a more refractory mantle source beneath this region of thick crust. In contrast, primitive alkaline magmas from the

  5. Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.


    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain

  6. 129I in volcanic fluids: Testing for the presence of marine sediments in the Central American volcanic arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Glen; Fehn, Udo


    The long half-life and the geochemical behavior of the 129 I system suggest that this cosmogenic radioisotope can contribute significantly to the understanding of processes associated with subduction zones and volcanic arc systems. Because iodine is not incorporated into igneous rocks, the age-signal associated with 129 I permits the determination of the origin of volatiles within arc volcanic systems. We report here results of a study to test the application of 129 I in fluids collected from hotsprings, crater lakes, fumaroles and geothermal wells from the Central American volcanic arc. Both the Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua and the Miravalles geothermal field in Costa Rica show 129 I/I ratios consistent with magmatic contributions from subducted marine pelagic sediments (minimum iodine ages of 25-30 Ma). In addition, several wells provide iodine isotopic ratios indicative of an older end-member, presumably located in the shallow crust (minimum iodine age = 65 Ma)

  7. Fractionation, ascent, and extrusion of magma at the Santiaguito volcanic dome, Guatemala (United States)

    Scott, J.; Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.


    The silicic dome complex of Santiaguito, Guatemala has exhibited continuous low-level activity for nearly 90 years[1]. Despite its longevity, remarkably little is known about the magmatic plumbing system beneath Santiaguito. We present preliminary constraints on this system, based on petrological analyses of lava samples. Amphibole thermobarometry suggests magma evolves during slow ascent through a phenocryst fractionation zone - a complex of dikes and sills, extending from at least ~24 km to at most ~12 km beneath Santiaguito. Discontinuous plagioclase size distributions suggest this slow fractionation ends at depth, and degassing-induced crystallization of microlites begins. The texture and geochemistry of microlites is consistent with uninterrupted final ascent; there is no evidence of shallow magma storage beneath Santiaguito. The normative composition of matrix glass, and the morphology and volume of plagioclase microlites suggests ascending magma crosses the rigidification threshold within preserved, and ductile behaviour is replaced by dominantly brittle behaviour, previously referred to as "final melt quench". We suggest rigidification slows the ascent of magma and may create the conduit plug previously observed at Santiaguito[2]. This rigid mass of magma may begin to fracture almost immediately to form a semi-permeable plug, before extruding onto the surface as blocky lava. The extrusion rate may be reflected in the extent of matrix glass decomposition to crystalline silica and alkali feldspar. This preliminary picture of the plumbing system beneath Santiaguito may lead to a greater understanding of the behaviour of this enigmatic volcano, and of the danger it poses to the region. However, our findings raise many further questions about the dynamics within silicic dome-forming systems that need to be addressed if we are to work towards a broad and more universal understanding of similar systems worldwide and the hazards they represent. [1] Rose, W.I., 1972

  8. Origin of the ca. 50 Ma Linzizong shoshonitic volcanic rocks in the eastern Gangdese arc, southern Tibet (United States)

    Liu, An-Lin; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wang, Rui; Dai, Jin-Gen; Zheng, Yuan-Chuan; Zhang, Liang-Liang


    The origin of the Eocene shoshonitic rocks within the upper part of the extensive Linzizong volcanic succession (i.e., the Pana Formation) in the Gangdese arc, southern Tibet remains unclear, inhibiting the detailed investigations on the crust-mantle interaction and mantle dynamics that operate the generation of the coeval magmatic flare-up in the arc. We report mineral composition, zircon U-Pb age and zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Pana Formation volcanic rocks from Pangduo, eastern Gangdese arc in southern Tibet. The Pana volcanic rocks from Pangduo include basalts, basaltic andesites, and dacites. SIMS and LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Pangduo dacites were erupted at 50 ± 1 Ma, representing the volcanic equivalent of the coeval Gangdese Batholith that define a magmatic flare-up at 51 ± 1 Ma. The Pangduo volcanic rocks are exclusively shoshonitic, differing from typical subduction-related calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The basalts have positive whole-rock ƐNd(t) (+1.7) and ƐHf(t) (+3.8) with high Zr abundances (121-169 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (4.3-5.2), most likely derived from the partial melting of an enriched garnet-bearing lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subduction-related components with input from asthenosphere. Compared to the basalts, similar trace elemental patterns and decreased whole-rock ƐNd(t) (-3.5 to -3.3) and ƐHf(t) (-2.5 to -1.6) of the basaltic andesites can be attributed to the input of the ancient basement-derived material of the central Lhasa subterrane into the basaltic magmas. The coherent whole-rock Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7064-0.7069, ƐNd(t) = -6.0 to -5.2, ƐHf(t) = -5.6 to -5.0) and varying zircon ƐHf(t) (-6.0 to +4.1) of the dacites can be interpreted by the partial melting of a hybrid lower crust source (juvenile and ancient lower crust) with incorporation of basement-derived components. Calculations of zircon-Ti temperature and whole

  9. Driving magma to the surface: The 2011-2012 El Hierro Volcanic Eruption (United States)

    López, Carmen; Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Martí, Joan; del-Fresno, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Albert, Helena; Lamolda, Héctor


    We reanalyzed the seismic and deformation data corresponding to the preeruptive unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011. We considered new information about the internal structure of the island. We updated the seismic catalog to estimate the full evolution of the released seismic energy and demonstrate the importance of nonlocated earthquakes. Using seismic data and GPS displacements, we characterized the shear-tensile type of the predominant fracturing and modeled the strain and stress fields for different time periods. This enabled us to identify a prolonged first phase characterized by hydraulic tensile fracturing, which we interpret as being related to the emplacement of new magma below the volcanic edifice on El Hierro. This was followed by postinjection unidirectional migration, probably controlled by the stress field and the distribution of the structural discontinuities. We identified the effects of energetic magmatic pulses occurring a few days before the eruption that induced shear seismicity on preexisting faults within the volcano and raised the Coulomb stress over the whole crust. We suggest that these magmatic pulses reflect the crossing of the Moho discontinuity, as well as changes in the path geometry of the dyke migration toward the surface. The final phase involved magma ascent through a prefractured crust.

  10. Transition of neogene arc volcanism in central-western Hokkaido, viewed from K-Ar ages, style of volcanic activity, and bulk rock chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Wataru; Iwasaki, Miyuki; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)


    Spatial and temporal variations in late Cenozoic volcanism of southwestern Hokkaido at the northern end of NE-Japan arc have been clarified by 261 K-Ar and 76 FT ages including 49 newly determined K-Ar ages, volcanic stratigraphy, physical volcanology and whole-rock geochemistry. Arc volcanism characterized by rocks with low-Ti and Nb, and by across-arc increase in K{sub 2}O content in these rocks has continued at least since 12 Ma. Based on volcanic stratigraphy, physical volcanology and whole-rock geochemistry, volcanism after 12 Ma can be subdivided into 4 stages, 12-5, 5-1.7, and 1.7-0 Ma. The volcanism from 12 Ma to 5 Ma extended northward widely compared with distribution of Quaternary arc volcanism (1.7-0 Ma). This suggests that the arc trench junction between Kuril and NE-Japan arc's trenches was located about 100 km northward from the present position. Since around 5 Ma until 1.7 Ma, different type of volcanism under local extension field, characterized by a group of monogenetic volcanoes of alkali basalt and shield volcanoes of calc-alkaline andesite, had occurred at northern end of the volcanic region (Takikawa-Mashike region). During and after this volcanism, the northern edge of arc volcanism in the area has migrated southward. This suggests that the trench junction has migrated about 100 km southward since {approx}5 Ma. The quaternary arc volcanism (1.7-0 Ma) has been restricted at the southern part of the region. The volcanism since 12 Ma might be influenced by oblique subduction of Pacific plate beneath Kuril arc, resulting in the formation of local back arc basin at the junction and to southward migration of the trench junction. (author)

  11. Geophysical imaging of buried volcanic structures within a continental back-arc basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Stern, T.A.


    Hidden beneath the ~2 km thick low-velocity volcaniclastics on the western margin of the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand, are two structures that represent the early history of volcanic activity in a continental back-arc. These ~20×20 km structures, at Tokoroa and Mangakino, fo...

  12. Magma reservoirs and neutral buoyancy zones on Venus - Implications for the formation and evolution of volcanic landforms (United States)

    Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel


    The production of magma reservoirs and neutral buoyancy zones (NBZs) on Venus and the implications of their development for the formation and evolution of volcanic landforms are examined. The high atmospheric pressure on Venus reduces volatile exsolution and generally serves to inhibit the formation of NBZs and shallow magma reservoirs. For a range of common terrestrial magma-volatile contents, magma ascending and erupting near or below mean planetary radius (MPR) should not stall at shallow magma reservoirs; such eruptions are characterized by relatively high total volumes and effusion rates. For the same range of volatile contents at 2 km above MPR, about half of the cases result in the direct ascent of magma to the surface and half in the production of neutral buoyancy zones. NBZs and shallow magma reservoirs begin to appear as gas content increases and are nominally shallower on Venus than on earth. For a fixed volatile content, NBZs become deeper with increasing elevation: over the range of elevations treated in this study (-1 km to +4.4 km) depths differ by a factor of 2-4. Factors that may account for the low height of volcanoes on Venus are discussed.

  13. Geodynamic controls on the contamination of Cenozoic arc magmas in the southern Central Andes: Insights from the O and Hf isotopic composition of zircon (United States)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Dhuime, Bruno; Elliott, Tim; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Alonso, Ricardo; Hinton, Richard


    Subduction zones, such as the Andean convergent margin of South America, are sites of active continental growth and crustal recycling. The composition of arc magmas, and therefore new continental crust, reflects variable contributions from mantle, crustal and subducted reservoirs. Temporal (Ma) and spatial (km) variations in these contributions to southern Central Andean arc magmas are investigated in relation to the changing plate geometry and geodynamic setting of the southern Central Andes (28-32° S) during the Cenozoic. The in-situ analysis of O and Hf isotopes in zircon, from both intrusive (granitoids) and extrusive (basaltic andesites to rhyolites) Late Cretaceous - Late Miocene arc magmatic rocks, combined with high resolution U-Pb dating, demonstrates distinct across-arc variations. Mantle-like δ18O(zircon) values (+5.4‰ to +5.7‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and juvenile initial εHf(zircon) values (+8.3 (±0.8 (2σ)) to +10.0 (±0.9 (2σ))), combined with a lack of zircon inheritance suggests that the Late Cretaceous (∼73 Ma) to Eocene (∼39 Ma) granitoids emplaced in the Principal Cordillera of Chile formed from mantle-derived melts with very limited interaction with continental crustal material, therefore representing a sustained period of upper crustal growth. Late Eocene (∼36 Ma) to Early Miocene (∼17 Ma) volcanic arc rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera have 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+4.8‰ (±0.2 (2σ) to +5.8‰ (±0.5 (2σ))), but less radiogenic initial εHf(zircon) values (+1.0 (±1.1 (2σ)) to +4.0 (±0.6 (2σ))) providing evidence for mixing of mantle-derived melts with the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic basement (up to ∼20%). The assimilation of both Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Andean crust and a Grenville-aged basement is required to produce the higher than 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+5.5‰ (±0.6 (2σ) to +7.2‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and unradiogenic, initial εHf(zircon) values (-3.9 (±1.0 (2σ)) to +1.6 (±4.4 (2

  14. Geophysical Evidence for the Locations, Shapes and Sizes, and Internal Structures of Magma Chambers beneath Regions of Quaternary Volcanism (United States)

    Iyer, H. M.


    This paper is a review of seismic, gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques to detect and delineate magma chambers of a few cubic kilometres to several thousand cubic kilometres volume. A dramatic decrease in density and seismic velocity, and an increase in seismic attenuation and electrical conductivity occurs at the onset of partial melting in rocks. The geophysical techniques are based on detecting these differences in physical properties between solid and partially molten rock. Although seismic refraction techniques, with sophisticated instrumentation and analytical procedures, are routinely used for detailed studies of crustal structure in volcanic regions, their application for magma detection has been quite limited. In one study, in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., fan-shooting and time-term techniques have been used to detect an upper-crustal magma chamber. Attenuation and velocity changes in seismic waves from explosions and earthquakes diffracted around magma chambers are observed near some volcanoes in Kamchatka. Strong attenuation of shear waves from regional earthquakes, interpreted as a diffraction effect, has been used to model magma chambers in Alaska, Kamchatka, Iceland, and New Zealand. One of the most powerful techniques in modern seismology, the seismic reflection technique with vibrators, was used to confirm the existence of a strong reflector in the crust near Socorro, New Mexico, in the Rio Grande Rift. This reflector, discovered earlier from data from local earthquakes, is interpreted as a sill-like magma body. In the Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, mapping seismicity patterns in the upper crust has enabled the modelling of the complex magma conduits in the crust and upper mantle. On the other hand, in the Usu volcano, Japan, the magma conduits are delineated by zones of seismic quiescence. Three-dimensional modelling of laterally varying structures using teleseismic residuals is proving to be a very promising technique for detecting and

  15. Incremental assembly and prolonged consolidation of Cordilleran magma chambers--Evidence from the Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.


    Recent inference that Mesozoic Cordilleran plutons grew incrementally during >106 yr intervals, without the presence of voluminous eruptible magma at any stage, minimizes close associations with large ignimbrite calderas. Alternatively, Tertiary ignimbrites in the Rocky Mountains and elsewhere, with volumes of 1–5 × 103 km3, record multistage histories of magma accumulation, fractionation, and solidification in upper parts of large subvolcanic plutons that were sufficiently liquid to erupt. Individual calderas, up to 75 km across with 2–5 km subsidence, are direct evidence for shallow magma bodies comparable to the largest granitic plutons. As exemplified by the composite Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field (here summarized comprehensively for the first time), which is comparable in areal extent, magma composition, eruptive volume, and duration to continental-margin volcanism of the central Andes, nested calderas that erupted compositionally diverse tuffs document deep composite subsidence and rapid evolution in subvolcanic magma bodies. Spacing of Tertiary calderas at distances of tens to hundreds of kilometers is comparable to Mesozoic Cordilleran pluton spacing. Downwind ash in eastern Cordilleran sediments records large-scale explosive volcanism concurrent with Mesozoic batholith growth. Mineral fabrics and gradients indicate unified flow-age of many pluton interiors before complete solidification, and some plutons contain ring dikes or other textural evidence for roof subsidence. Geophysical data show that low-density upper-crustal rocks, inferred to be plutons, are 10 km or more thick beneath many calderas. Most ignimbrites are more evolved than associated plutons; evidence that the subcaldera chambers retained voluminous residua from fractionation. Initial incremental pluton growth in the upper crust was likely recorded by modest eruptions from central volcanoes; preparation for caldera-scale ignimbrite eruption involved recurrent magma input and

  16. Behavior of volatiles in arc volcanism : geochemical and petrologic evidence from active volcanoes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, J.C.M. de


    Large amounts of material are recycled along subduction zones by uprising magmas, of which volcanoes are the surface expression. This thesis focuses on the behavior of volatiles elements (S, Cl, H) during these recycling processes. The study area is the Indonesian arc system, which

  17. Across and along arc geochemical variations in altered volcanic rocks: Evidence from mineral chemistry of Jurassic lavas in northern Chile, and tectonic implications (United States)

    Rossel, Pablo; Oliveros, Verónica; Ducea, Mihai N.; Hernandez, Laura


    Postmagmatic processes mask the original whole-rock chemistry of most Mesozoic igneous rocks from the Andean arc and back-arc units preserved in Chile. Mineral assemblages corresponding to subgreenschist metamorphic facies and/or propylitic hydrothermal alteration are ubiquitous in volcanic and plutonic rocks, suggesting element mobility at macroscopic and microscopic scale. However, fresh primary phenocrysts of clinopyroxene and plagioclase do occur in some of the altered rocks. We use major and trace element chemistry of such mineral phases to infer the geochemical variations of four Jurassic arc and four back-arc units from northern Chile. Clinopyroxene belonging to rocks of the main arc and two units of the bark-arc are augites with low contents of HFSE and REE; they originated from melting of an asthenospheric mantle source. Clinopyroxenes from a third back-arc unit show typical OIB affinities, with high Ti and trace element contents and low Si. Trace elemental variations in clinopyroxenes from these arc and back-arc units suggest that olivine and clinopyroxene were the main fractionating phases during early stages of magma evolution. The last back-arc unit shows a broad spectrum of clinopyroxene compositions that includes depleted arc-like augite, high Al and high Sr-Ca diopside (adakite-like signature). The origin of these lavas is the result of melting of a mixture of depleted mantle plus Sr-rich sediments and subsequent high pressure fractionation of garnet. Thermobarometric calculations suggest that the Jurassic arc and back-arc magmatism had at least one crustal stagnation level where crystallization and fractionation took place, located at ca. ~ 8-15 km. The depth of this stagnation level is consistent with lower-middle crust boundary in extensional settings. Crystallization conditions calculated for high Al diopsides suggest a deeper stagnation level that is not consistent with a thinned back-arc continental crust. Thus minor garnet fractionation

  18. Earthquake swarms reveal submarine magma unrest induced by distant mega-earthquakes: Andaman Sea region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří


    Roč. 116, February (2016), s. 155-163 ISSN 1367-9120 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earthquake swarms * magma migration * submarine volcanic arc Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2016

  19. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari


    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  20. Numerical modeling perspectives on zircon crystallization and magma reservoir growth at the Laguna del Maule volcanic field, central Chile (United States)

    Andersen, N. L.; Dufek, J.; Singer, B. S.


    Magma reservoirs in the middle to upper crust are though to accumulate incrementally over 104 -105 years. Coupled crystallization ages and compositions of zircon are a potentially powerful tracer of reservoir growth and magma evolution. However, complex age distributions and disequilibrium trace element partitioning complicate the interpretation of the zircon record in terms of magmatic processes. In order to make quantitative predictions of the effects of magmatic processes that contribute reservoir growth and evolution—such as cooling and crystallization, magma recharge and mixing, and rejuvenation and remelting of cumulate-rich reservoir margins—we develop a model of zircon saturation and growth within a numerical framework of coupled thermal transfer, phase equilibrium, and magma dynamics. We apply this model to the Laguna del Maule volcanic field (LdM), located in central Chile. LdM has erupted at least 40 km3 of rhyolite from 36 vents distributed within a 250 km2 lake basin. Ongoing unrest demonstrates the large, silicic magma system beneath LdM remains active to this day. Zircon from rhyolite erupted between c. 23 and 1.8 ka produce a continuous distribution of 230Th-238U ages ranging from eruption to 40 ka, as well as less common crystal domains up to 165 ka and rare xenocrysts. Zircon trace element compositions fingerprint compositionally distinct reservoirs that grew within the larger magma system. Despite the dominantly continuous distributions of ages, many crystals are characterized by volumetrically substantial, trace element enriched domains consistent with rapid crystal growth. We utilize numerical simulations to assess the magmatic conditions required to catalyze these "blooms" of crystallization and the magma dynamics that contributed to the assembly of the LdM magma system.

  1. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.


    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  2. Structural control on arc volcanism: The Caviahue Copahue complex, Central to Patagonian Andes transition (38°S) (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Victor A.


    This paper describes the volcanostratigraphy, structure, and tectonic implications of an arc volcanic complex in an oblique subduction setting: the Caviahue caldera Copahue volcano (CAC) of the Andean margin. The CAC is located in a first-order morphotectonic transitional zone, between the low and narrow Patagonian and the high and broad Central Andes. The evolution of the CAC started at approximately 4-3 Ma with the opening of the 20 × 15 km Caviahue pull-apart caldera; Las Mellizas volcano formed inside the caldera and collapsed at approximately 2.6 Ma; and the Copahue volcano evolved in three stages: (1) 1.2-0.7 Ma formed the approximately 1 km thick andesitic edifice, (2) 0.7-0.01 Ma erupted andesitic-dacitic subglacial pillow lavas, and (3) 0.01-0 Ma erupted basaltic-andesites and pyroclastic flows from fissures, aligned cones, and summit craters. Magma ascent has occurred along planes perpendicular to the least principal horizontal stress, whereas hydrothermal activity and hot springs also occur along parallel planes. At a regional scale, Quaternary volcanism concentrates along the NE-trending, 90 km long Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, the longest of the southern volcanic zone, which is here interpreted as an inherited crustal-scale transfer zone from a Miocene rift basin. At a local scale within the CAC, effusions are controlled by local structures that formed at the intersection of regional fault systems. The Central to Patagonian Andes transition occurs at the Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, which decouples active deformation from the intra-arc strike-slip Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone to the south and the backarc Copahue-Antiñir thrust system.

  3. Bromine release during Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Appel, K.; Freundt, A.; Perez-Fernandez, W.; Wehrmann, H.


    Volcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) have produced at least 72 highly explosive eruptions within the last 200 ka. The eruption columns of all these “Plinian” eruptions reached well into the stratosphere such that their released volatiles may have influenced atmospheric chemistry and climate. While previous research has focussed on the sulfur and chlorine emissions during such large eruptions, we here present measurements of the heavy halogen bromine by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro-XRF microanalysis (SR-XRF) with typical detection limits at 0.3 ppm (in Fe rich standard basalt ML3B glass). Spot analyses of pre-eruptive glass inclusions trapped in minerals formed in magma reservoirs were compared with those in matrix glasses of the tephras, which represent the post-eruptive, degassed concentrations. The concentration difference between inclusions and matrix glasses, multiplied by erupted magma mass determined by extensive field mapping, yields estimates of the degassed mass of bromine. Br is probably hundreds of times more effective in destroying ozone than Cl, and can accumulate in the stratosphere over significant time scales. Melt inclusions representing deposits of 22 large eruptions along the CAVA have Br contents between 0.5 and 13 ppm. Br concentrations in matrix glasses are nearly constant at 0.4 to 1.5 ppm. However, Br concentrations and Cl/Br ratios vary along the CAVA. The highest values of Br contents (>8 ppm) and lowest Cl/Br ratios (170 to 600) in melt inclusions occur across central Nicaragua and southern El Salvador, and correlate with bulk-rock compositions of high Ba/La > 85 as well as low La/Yb discharged 700 kilotons of Br. On average, each of the remaining 21 CAVA eruptions studied have discharged c.100 kilotons of bromine. During the past 200 ka, CAVA volcanoes have emitted a cumulative mass of 3.2 Mt of Br through highly explosive eruptions. There are six periods in the past (c. 2ka, 6ka, 25ka, 40ka, 60ka, 75

  4. Recording the transition from flare-up to steady-state arc magmatism at the Purico-Chascon volcanic complex, northern Chile (United States)

    Burns, Dale H.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Tepley, Frank; Schmitt, Axel K.; Loewen, Matthew W.


    The long-term evolution of continental magmatic arcs is episodic, where a few transient events of high magmatic flux or flare-ups punctuate the low-flux magmatism or "steady state" that makes up most of the arc history. How this duality manifests in terms of differences in crustal architecture, magma dynamics and chemistry, and the time scale over which transitions occur is poorly known. Herein we use multiscale geochemical and isotopic characteristics coupled with geothermobarometry at the Purico-Chascon Volcanic Complex (PCVC) in the Central Andes to identify a transition from flare-up to steady state arc magmatism over ∼800 kyr during which significant changes in upper crustal magmatic dynamics are recorded. The PCVC is one of the youngest volcanic centers related to a 10-1 Ma ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. Activity at the PCVC initiated 0.98 ± 0.03 Ma with the eruption of a large 80-100 km3 crystal-rich dacite ignimbrite. High, restricted 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios between 0.7085 and 0.7090 in the bulk rock and plagioclase crystals from the Purico ignimbrite, combined with mineral chemistry and phase relationships indicate the dacite magma accumulated and evolved at relatively low temperatures around 800-850 °C in the upper crust at 4-8 km depth. Minor andesite pumice erupted late in the ignimbrite sequence records a second higher temperature (965 °C), higher pressure environment (17-20 km), but with similar restricted radiogenic bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091 to the dacites. The compositional and isotopic characteristics of the Purico ignimbrite implicate an extensive zone of upper crustal mixing, assimilation, storage and homogenization (MASH) between ∼30 and 4 km beneath the PCVC ∼1 Ma. The final eruptions at the PCVC engine". High magmatic fluxes during the flare-up would lead to elevated geothermal gradients and efficient crustal processing leading to a dominantly "crustal" magmatism feeding the

  5. The Origin of Silicic Arc Crust - Insights from the Northern Pacific Volcanic Arcs through Space and Time (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.


    The remarkable compositional similarities of andesitic crust at modern convergent margins and the continental crust has long evoked the hypothesis of similar origins. Key to understanding either genesis is understanding the mode of silica enrichment. Silicic crust cannot be directly extracted from the upper mantle. Hence, in modern arcs, numerous studies - observant of the pervasive and irrefutable evidence of melt mixing - proposed that arc andesites formed by mixing of mantle-derived basaltic melts and fusible silicic material from the overlying crust. Mass balance requires the amount of silicic crust in such hybrid andesites to be on the order to tens of percent, implying that their composition to be perceptibly influenced by the various crustal basements. In order to test this hypothesis, major and trace element compositions of mafic and silicic arc magmas with arc-typical low Ce/PbMexico) were combined with Pb isotope ratios. Pb isotope ratios are considered highly sensitive to crustal contamination, and hence should reflect the variable composition of the oceanic and continental basement on which these arcs are constructed. In particular, in thick-crust continental arcs where the basement is isotopically different from the mantle and crustal assimilation thought to be most prevalent, silicic magmas must be expected to be distinct from those of the associated mafic melts. However, in a given arc, the Pb isotope ratios are constant with increasing melt silica regardless of the nature of the basement. This observation argues against a melt origin of silicic melts from the crustal basement and suggest them to be controlled by the same slab flux as their co-eval mafic counterparts. This inference is validated by the spatial and temporal pattern of arc Pb isotope ratios along the Northern Pacific margins and throughout the 50 million years of Cenozoic evolution of the Izu Bonin Mariana arc/trench system that are can be related to with systematic, `real

  6. Albari granodiorite - a typical calcalkaline diapir of volcanic arc stage from the Arabian Shield (United States)

    Radain, Abdulaziz A.

    Granodiorite rocks of the Arabian Shield are generally considered to be collision-related granitoids. However, there are some granodiorites that were formed during the volcanic arc stage. Major and trace elements studies are carried out on Albari diapiric granodiorite to reveal its tectonic environment. This intrusive rock type is common in the Taif arc province (Mahd adh Dhahab quadrangle) of the Asir microplate near the border of the southeast dipping subduction zone that ended up with arc-arc collision (Asir-Hijaz microplates) along the now known Bir Umq suture zone. The granodiorite exhibits a calcalkaline trend on ternary AFM and K 2ONa 2OCaO diagrams. Tectonic discrimination diagrams using multicationic parameters (R1 = 4Sill(Na+K)2(Fe+Ti); R2 = 6Ca+2Mg+Al), SiO 2-trace elements (Nb, Y, Rb), and Y versus Nb and Rb versus (Y+Nb) indicate a destructive active plate margin or volcanic arc stage tectonic environment. Albari calcalkaline granodiorite might have been derived directly from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust or overlying mantle contaminated with variable amounts of intermediate (quartz diorite, diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) early and late volcanic arc-related plutonic country rocks.

  7. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina


    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  8. Evolution of silicic magmas in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center, Greece: a petrological cycle associated with caldera collapse (United States)

    Bachmann, Olivier; Deering, Chad D.; Ruprecht, Janina S.; Huber, Christian; Skopelitis, Alexandra; Schnyder, Cedric


    Multiple eruptions of silicic magma (dacite and rhyolites) occurred over the last ~3 My in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center (eastern Aegean sea). During this period, magmas have changed from hornblende-biotite-rich units with low eruption temperatures (≤750-800°C; Kefalos and Kos dacites and rhyolites) to hotter, pyroxene-bearing units (>800-850°C; Nisyros rhyodacites) and are transitioning back to cooler magmas (Yali rhyolites). New whole-rock compositions, mineral chemistry, and zircon Hf isotopes show that these three types of silicic magmas followed the same differentiation trend: they all evolved by crystal fractionation and minor crustal assimilation (AFC) from parents with intermediate compositions characterized by high Sr/Y and low Nb content, following a wet, high oxygen fugacity liquid line of descent typical of subduction zones. As the transition between the Kos-Kefalos and Nisyros-type magmas occurred immediately and abruptly after the major caldera collapse in the area (the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff; KPT), we suggest that the efficient emptying of the magma chamber during the KPT drew out most of the eruptible, volatile-charged magma and partly solidified the unerupted mush zone in the upper crust due to rapid unloading, decompression, and coincident crystallization. Subsequently, the system reestablished a shallow silicic production zone from more mafic parents, recharged from the mid to lower crust. The first silicic eruptions evolving from these parents after the caldera collapse (Nisyros units) were hotter (up to >100°C) than the caldera-forming event and erupted from reservoirs characterized by different mineral proportions (more plagioclase and less amphibole). We interpret such a change as a reflection of slightly drier conditions in the magmatic column after the caldera collapse due to the decompression event. With time, the upper crustal intermediate mush progressively transitioned into the cold-wet state that prevailed during the Kefalos

  9. Temporal and geochemical evolution of Miocene volcanism in the Andean back-arc between 36°S and 38°S and U-series analyses of young volcanic centers in the arc and back-arc, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    New 40Ar/39Ar, major and trace element, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data for the c. 24-7 Ma volcanic rocks from the Andean back-arc (35°S – 38°S) in the Mendoza and Neuquén (Argentina) regions shed light on the Miocene evolution of the back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone. Incipient shallowing......-Sr-Pb isotopic compositions. The arc-like component that dominates the geochemistry of the Palaoco rocks is absent in both the Early Miocene and the Pliocene-Pleistocene in the same area. Young volcanic Provinces in the main arc, retro-arc and back-arc are further investigated by U-series analyses which confirm...... the fluid-enriched nature of arc-related rocks (U-excess are found in most rocks) and the more OIB-like nature of the Payún Matrú complex (Th-exsess is observed in all rocks). The fluid addition to the mantle source is modeled revealing timescales of 10 – 100 ka for the fluid enrichment. For the back...

  10. Seismic activity around and under Krakatau volcano, Sunda Arc: constraints to the source region of island arc volcanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří


    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2002), s. 545-565 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/97/0898; GA AV ČR IAA3012002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : Krakatau * Sunda Strait seismicity * island arc volcanism * subduction * Wadati-Benioff zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2002

  11. Geological interpretation of volcanism and segmentation of the Mariana back-arc spreading center between 12.7°N and 18.3°N (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa O.; Chadwick, William W.; Hannington, Mark D.; Merle, Susan G.; Resing, Joseph A.; Baker, Edward T.; Butterfield, David A.; Walker, Sharon L.; Augustin, Nico


    The relationships between tectonic processes, magmatism, and hydrothermal venting along ˜600 km of the slow-spreading Mariana back-arc between 12.7°N and 18.3°N reveal a number of similarities and differences compared to slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Analysis of the volcanic geomorphology and structure highlights the complexity of the back-arc spreading center. Here, ridge segmentation is controlled by large-scale basement structures that appear to predate back-arc rifting. These structures also control the orientation of the chains of cross-arc volcanoes that characterize this region. Segment-scale faulting is oriented perpendicular to the spreading direction, allowing precise spreading directions to be determined. Four morphologically distinct segment types are identified: dominantly magmatic segments (Type I); magmatic segments currently undergoing tectonic extension (Type II); dominantly tectonic segments (Type III); and tectonic segments currently undergoing magmatic extension (Type IV). Variations in axial morphology (including eruption styles, neovolcanic eruption volumes, and faulting) reflect magma supply, which is locally enhanced by cross-arc volcanism associated with N-S compression along the 16.5°N and 17.0°N segments. In contrast, cross-arc seismicity is associated with N-S extension and increased faulting along the 14.5°N segment, with structures that are interpreted to be oceanic core complexes—the first with high-resolution bathymetry described in an active back-arc basin. Hydrothermal venting associated with recent magmatism has been discovered along all segment types.

  12. The 2007 Nazko, British Columbia, earthquake sequence: Injection of magma deep in the crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt (United States)

    Cassidy, J.F.; Balfour, N.; Hickson, C.; Kao, H.; White, Rickie; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Mazzotti, S.; Rogers, Gary C.; Al-Khoubbi, I.; Bird, A.L.; Esteban, L.; Kelman, M.; Hutchinson, J.; McCormack, D.


    On 9 October 2007, an unusual sequence of earthquakes began in central British Columbia about 20 km west of the Nazko cone, the most recent (circa 7200 yr) volcanic center in the Anahim volcanic belt. Within 25 hr, eight earthquakes of magnitude 2.3-2.9 occurred in a region where no earthquakes had previously been recorded. During the next three weeks, more than 800 microearthquakes were located (and many more detected), most at a depth of 25-31 km and within a radius of about 5 km. After about two months, almost all activity ceased. The clear P- and S-wave arrivals indicated that these were high-frequency (volcanic-tectonic) earthquakes and the b value of 1.9 that we calculated is anomalous for crustal earthquakes but consistent with volcanic-related events. Analysis of receiver functions at a station immediately above the seismicity indicated a Moho near 30 km depth. Precise relocation of the seismicity using a double-difference method suggested a horizontal migration at the rate of about 0:5 km=d, with almost all events within the lowermost crust. Neither harmonic tremor nor long-period events were observed; however, some spasmodic bursts were recorded and determined to be colocated with the earthquake hypocenters. These observations are all very similar to a deep earthquake sequence recorded beneath Lake Tahoe, California, in 2003-2004. Based on these remarkable similarities, we interpret the Nazko sequence as an indication of an injection of magma into the lower crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt. This magma injection fractures rock, producing high-frequency, volcanic-tectonic earthquakes and spasmodic bursts.

  13. Coeval Formation of Zircon Megacrysts and Host Magmas in the Eifel Volcanic Field (Germany) Based on High Spatial Resolution Petrochronology (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel; Klitzke, Malte; Gerdes, Axel; Ludwig, Thomas; Schäfer, Christof


    Zircon megacrysts (approx. 0.5-6 mm in diameter) from the Quaternary West and East Eifel volcanic fields, Germany, occur as euhedral crystals in porous K-spar rich plutonic ejecta clasts, and as partially resorbed xenocrysts in tephrite lava. Their relation to the host volcanic rocks has remained contentious because the dominantly basanitic to phonolitic magma compositions in the Eifel are typically zircon undersaturated. We carried out a detailed microanalytical study of zircon megacrysts from seven locations (Emmelberg and Rockeskyll in the West Eifel; Bellerberg, Laacher See, Mendig, Rieden, and Wehr in the East Eifel). Crystals were embedded in epoxy, sectioned to expose interiors through grinding with abrasives, diamond-polished, and mapped by optical microscopy, backscattered electron, and cathodoluminescence imaging. Subsequently, isotope-specific analysis using secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was carried out placing 100 correlated spots on 20 selected crystals. Concordant U-Th disequilibrium and U-Pb ages determined by SIMS are between ca. 430 ka (Rieden) and 170 ka (Mendig) and indicate that the megacryst zircons crystallized almost always briefly before eruption. A significant gap between zircon megacryst crystallization (ca. 230 ka) and eruption (ca. 45 ka) ages was only detected for the Emmelberg location. SIMS trace element abundances (e.g., rare earth elements) vary by orders-of-magnitude and correlate with domain boundaries visible in cathodoluminescence; trace element patterns match those reported for zircon from syenitic origins. Isotopic compositions are homogeneous within individual crystals, but show some heterogeneity between different crystals from the same locality. Average isotopic values (δ18O SMOW = +5.3±0.6 ‰ by SIMS; present-day ɛHf = +1.7±2.5 ‰ by LA-ICP-MS; 1 standard deviation), however, are consistent with source magmas being dominantly mantle

  14. First volcanic CO2 budget estimate for three actively degassing volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Robidoux, Philippe; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Conde, Vladimir; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Avard, Geoffroy; Muñoz, Angélica


    CO2 is a key chemical tracer for exploring volcanic degassing mechanisms of basaltic magmatic systems (1). The rate of CO2 release from sub-aerial volcanism is monitored via studies on volcanic plumes and fumaroles, but information is still sparse and incomplete for many regions of the globe, including the majority of the volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (2). Here, we use a combination of remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements of volcanic gas plumes to provide a first estimate of the CO2 output from three degassing volcanoes in Central America: Turrialba, in Costa Rica, and Telica and San Cristobal, in Nicaragua. During a field campaign in March-April 2013, we obtained (for the three volcanoes) a simultaneous record of SO2 fluxes (from the NOVAC network (3)) and CO2 vs. SO2 concentrations in the near-vent plumes (obtained via a temporary installed fully-automated Multi-GAS instrument (4)). The Multi-GAS time-series allowed to calculate the plume CO2/SO2 ratios for different intervals of time, showing relatively stable gas compositions. Distinct CO2 - SO2 - H2O proportions were observed at the three volcanoes, but still within the range of volcanic arc gas (5). The CO2/SO2 ratios were then multiplied by the SO2 flux in order to derive the CO2 output. At Turrialba, CO2/SO2 ratios fluctuated, between March 12 and 19, between 1.1 and 5.7, and the CO2flux was evaluated at ~1000-1350 t/d (6). At Telica, between March 23 and April 8, a somewhat higher CO2/SO2 ratio was observed (3.3 ± 1.0), although the CO2 flux was evaluated at only ~100-500 t/d (6). At San Cristobal, where observations were taken between April 11 and 15, the CO2/SO2 ratio ranged between 1.8 and 7.4, with a mean CO2 flux of 753 t/d. These measurements contribute refining the current estimates of the total CO2 output from the Central American Volcanic Arc (7). Symonds, R.B. et al., (2001). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 108, 303-341 Burton, M. R. et al. (2013). Reviews in

  15. Contrasting sodic and mildly potassic magma differentiation lineages at The Pleaides volcanic complex, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Kim, J.; Park, J. W.; Lee, J.; Kyle, P. R.; Lee, M. J.


    The magma evolution of The Pleiades, a Quaternary alkaline volcanic complex in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, is investigated using major and trace elements, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data. The volcanic rocks can be subdivided into two distinct magmatic lineages based on petrography and whole-rock compositions: (1) a sodic silica-undersaturated alkaline lineage with abundant kaersutite phenocrysts, and (2) a mildly-potassic and mildly-alkaline, nearly silica-saturated lineage containing olivine but not kaersutite. The basanite and trachybasalt of both lineages exhibit similar degrees of negative K anomalies, moderately steep rare earth element patterns, and elevated trace element ratios such as Ce/Pb (> 20) and Nb/U (> 38), suggesting their primary magmas were generated by low degree (≤3%) of partial melting of amphibole and garnet-bearing mantle sources. The sodic lineage is characterized by elevated 206Pb/204Pb (>19.5) ratios and narrow ranges of 87Sr/86Sr (0.70313-0.70327) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.51289-0.51290) ratios consistent with a significant HIMU component typical of Neogene volcanic rocks in Antarctica. The mafic rocks of the potassic lineage have isotopic compositions similar to those of the sodic lineage, however the evolved lavas in the lineage have higher 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.7035) and lower 143Nd/144Nd (< 0.51285) and 206Pb/204Pb (< 19.3) ratios than the mafic rocks, suggesting significant amounts of crustal contamination. The pressure-temperature paths estimated by clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometry are similar in each lineage. The mafic magmas were emplaced at Moho depths ( 1.2 GPa) and the evolved magmas pooled at middle-crustal depths ( 0.7 GPa). Mass-balance calculations based on whole-rock and mineral compositions show that kaersutite fractionation has played a major role in magma differentiation of the sodic lineage whereas the compositional variations of the potassic lineage can be ascribed to fractionation of a kaersutite-free mineral

  16. Miocene magmatism in the Bodie Hills volcanic field, California and Nevada: A long-lived eruptive center in the southern segment of the ancestral Cascades arc (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Vikre, Peter; Box, Stephen E.; Moring, Barry C.


    throughout the lifespan of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. However, kinematic data for veins and faults in mining districts suggest a change in the stress field from transtensional to extensional approximately coincident with the inferred cessation of subduction.Numerous hydrothermal systems were operative in the Bodie Hills during the Miocene. Several large systems caused alteration of volcaniclastic rocks in areas as large as 30 km2, but these altered rocks are mostly devoid of economic mineral concentrations. More structurally focused hydrothermal systems formed large epithermal Au-Ag vein deposits in the Bodie and Aurora mining districts. Economically important hydrothermal systems are temporally related to intermediate to silicic composition domes.Rock types, major and trace element compositions, petrographic characteristics, and volcanic features of the Bodie Hills volcanic field are similar to those of other large Miocene volcanic fields in the southern segment of the ancestral Cascade arc. Relative to other parts of the ancestral arc, especially north of Lake Tahoe in northeastern California, the scarcity of mafic rocks, relatively K-rich calc-alkaline compositions, and abundance of composite dome fields in the Bodie Hills may reflect thicker crust beneath the southern ancestral arc segment. Thicker crust may have inhibited direct ascent and eruption of mafic, mantle-derived magma, instead stalling its ascent in the lower or middle crust, thereby promoting differentiation to silicic compositions and development of porphyritic textures characteristic of the southern ancestral arc segment.

  17. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon. (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K; Troll, Valentin R


    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano's underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon's magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano's two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

  18. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013 (United States)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.


    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  19. Magma Diversity in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: the role of Mantle Heterogeneities, Slab-derived Fluxes and Crustal Contamination. (United States)

    Schaaf, P.; Valdez, G.; Siebe, C.; Carrasco, G.


    The Plio-Quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is related to subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates underneath the North American plate. Non-parallelism of the magmatic arc with respect to the trench can be explained by oblique subduction and changes of dip angle. In this contribution we compare geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of five TMVB stratovolcanoes (from east to west: Colima Volcano, Nevado de Toluca, Popocatepetl, La Malinche, and Pico de Orizaba) and associated cinder cones. Volcanic products range in stratovolcanoes from andesites (e.g. Colima, Popocatepetl) to rhyolites (e.g. Pico de Orizaba), and from basalts to andesites in the monogenetic cones. Concentrations of incompatible elements correlate positively with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios from east to west along the arc. 87Sr/86Sr, eNd, and 206Pb/204Pb range from 0.7034-0.7050, +6.9 to minus 1.8, and 18.57-18.78, respectively, displaying considerable differences. In the central TMVB, REE patterns of closely spaced high-Mg basaltic andesites differ substantially. This cannot be explained by fractional crystallization processes or differential partial melting of a homogeneous mantle source. Instead, it points towards small-scale mantle heterogeneities. LILE (e.g. Cs, Rb, Ba, Pb) and HFSE (e.g. Ta, Nb, Zr) display variations of orders in magnitude at different segments along the arc. These variations might correlate with amounts of slab-derived aqueous fluids and intensity of metasomatic reactions between the subducting lithosphere and the overlying mantle wedge. Isotopic ratios of mid-lower crustal xenoliths found in nearly all stratovolcano products reflect the nature of the underlying crust beneath the TMVB. Tertiary-Cretaceous plagiogranites (Colima), Cretaceous limestones (Popocatepetl), and Grenvillian quartzites (Pico de Orizaba)and their increasing radiogenic isotope ratios match well with the observed isotopic signatures of the stratovolcanoes. Moreover, elevated CO2 amounts in

  20. Regional and temporal variability of melts during a Cordilleran magma pulse: Age and chemical evolution of the jurassic arc, eastern mojave desert, California (United States)

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, David; Howard, Keith A.; Fox, Lydia; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Jacobson, C.E.


    Intrusive rock sequences in the central and eastern Mojave Desert segment of the Jurassic Cordilleran arc of the western United States record regional and temporal variations in magmas generated during the second prominent pulse of Mesozoic continental arc magmatism. U/Pb zircon ages provide temporal control for describing variations in rock and zircon geochemistry that reflect differences in magma source components. These source signatures are discernible through mixing and fractionation processes associated with magma ascent and emplacement. The oldest well-dated Jurassic rocks defining initiation of the Jurassic pulse are a 183 Ma monzodiorite and a 181 Ma ignimbrite. Early to Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks comprising the main stage of magmatism include two high-K calc-alkalic groups: to the north, the deformed 183–172 Ma Fort Irwin sequence and contemporaneous rocks in the Granite and Clipper Mountains, and to the south, the 167–164 Ma Bullion sequence. A Late Jurassic suite of shoshonitic, alkali-calcic intrusive rocks, the Bristol Mountains sequence, ranges in age from 164 to 161 Ma and was emplaced as the pulse began to wane. Whole-rock and zircon trace-element geochemistry defines a compositionally coherent Jurassic arc with regional and secular variations in melt compositions. The arc evolved through the magma pulse by progressively greater input of old cratonic crust and lithospheric mantle into the arc magma system, synchronous with progressive regional crustal thickening.

  1. Oxygen Isotopes in Intra-Back Arc Basalts from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (United States)

    Parks, B. H.; Wang, Z.; Saal, A. E.; Frey, F. A.; Blusztajn, J.


    The chemical compositions of volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) reflect complex and dynamic interactions among the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the mantle wedge, and the overlying continental crust. Oxygen isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts can be a useful means to identifying their relative contributions to the arc magmatism. In this study, we report high-precision oxygen-isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts in a set of intra-back arc basalts from the SVZ. The samples were collected from monogenetic cinder cones east of the volcanic front (35-39 degrees S), and have been geochemically well-characterized with major and trace element contents, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Compared to lavas from the volcanic front, these intra-back arc lavas have similar radiogenic isotope, and a more alkalic and primitive (higher MgO content) chemical composition. We determined the oxygen-isotope ratios using the CO2-laser-fluorination method set up at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University following the techniques reported in Wang et al (2011). The samples were analyzed with standards of Gore Mountain Garnet (5.77×0.12‰ 1σ; Valley et al., 1995) and Kilbourne Hole Olivine (5.23×0.07‰ 1σ; Sharp, 1990) in order to account for minor changes in the vacuum line during analyses. The obtained δ18OSMOW values of olivine phenocrysts from the intra-back arc basalts vary from 4.98×0.01 to 5.34×0.01‰. This range, surprisingly, is similar to the δ18O values of olivines from mantle peridotites (5.2×0.2‰). Preliminary results indicate significant correlations of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and trace element ratios of the basaltic matrix with the δ18O values of olivine phenocrysts, indicating at least three components involved in the formation of the arc volcanism. By comparing the δ18O with the variations of major and trace element contents (e.g., MgO, TiO2 and Ni), and trace element ratios (e.g. Ba/Nb), we evaluate the effects

  2. Geophysical techniques for detecting magmas and high-temperature fluids. Their application to the Onikobe-Narugo volcanic region and the southern Kii Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamori, Koichi; Umeda, Koji


    The effects of volcanism on the geological environments include a dynamic destruction and subsidence of basement rocks, caused by the intrusion and eruption of magma. To ensure the long-term stability of geological disposal system, a possibility of renewed volcanism at the site might be examined based on the geotectonic data of the deep underground using geophysical and geochemical approaches. This paper describes an overview of geophysical approaches for detecting magmas and/or high temperature fluids related to volcanism within the crust and uppermost mantle. Moreover, we present the images of the seismic velocity and electrical resistivity structure beneath the Onikobe-Narugo volcanic region and the southern Kii Peninsula, carried out in JNC's R and D program. (author)

  3. K-Ar geochronology and palaeomagnetism of volcanic rocks in the lesser Antilles island arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briden, J.C.; Rex, D.C.; Faller, A.M.; Tomblin, J.F.


    K-Ar age determinations on rocks and minerals from 95 locations in the Lesser Antilles. An age range of 38 - 10 million years was found for the outer arc (Limestone Caribbees) but less than 7.7 million years in the inner arc (Volcanic Caribbees). From Martinique southwards the two arcs are superimposed. These age ranges fit between discontinuities in sea floor spreading in the North Atlantic at about 38 and 9 million years and a causal connection between spreading change and relocation of arc volcanicity is suggested. Paleomagnetic directions at 108 localities in 10 islands fall into normal and reversed groups with 6 sites intermediate and 5 indeterminate. The mean dipole axis is within 2% of the present rotation axis. The data generally agrees with the established geomagnetic polarity time scale but there is some suggestion of a normal polarity event at about 1.18 million years. The paleomagnetic data suggest that in the past 10 million years the Lesser Antilles have not changed their latitude or geographical orientation and the geomagnetic field has averaged that of a central axial dipole. (author)

  4. Crystal reaming during the assembly, maturation, and waning of an eleven-million-year crustal magma cycle: thermobarometry of the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster (United States)

    Walker, Barry A.; Klemetti, Erik W.; Grunder, Anita L.; Dilles, John H.; Tepley, Frank J.; Giles, Denise


    Phenocryst assemblages of lavas from the long-lived Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster (AVC) have been probed to assess pressure and temperature conditions of pre-eruptive arc magmas. Andesite to dacite lavas of the AVC erupted throughout an 11-million-year, arc magmatic cycle in the central Andes in northern Chile. Phases targeted for thermobarometry include amphibole, plagioclase, pyroxenes, and Fe-Ti oxides. Overall, crystallization is documented over 1-7.5 kbar (~25 km) of pressure and ~680-1,110 °C of temperature. Pressure estimates range from ~1 to 5 kbar for amphiboles and from ~3 to 7.5 kbar for pyroxenes. Pyroxene temperatures are tightly clustered from ~1,000-1,100 °C, Fe-Ti oxide temperatures range from ~750-1,000 °C, and amphibole temperatures range from ~780-1,050 °C. Although slightly higher, these temperatures correspond well with previously published zircon temperatures ranging from ~670-900 °C. Two different Fe-Ti oxide thermometers (Andersen and Lindsley 1985; Ghiorso and Evans 2008) are compared and agree well. We also compare amphibole and amphibole-plagioclase thermobarometers (Ridolfi et al. 2010; Holland and Blundy 1994; Anderson and Smith 1995), the solutions from which do not agree well. In samples where we employ multiple thermometers, pyroxene temperature estimates are always highest, zircon temperature estimates are lowest, and Fe-Ti oxide and amphibole temperature estimates fall in between. Maximum Fe-Ti oxide and zircon temperatures are observed during the middle stage of AVC activity (~5-3 Ma), a time associated with increased eruption rates. Amphibole temperatures during this time are relatively restricted (~850-1,000 °C). The crystal record presented here offers a time-transgressive view of an evolving, multi-tiered subvolcanic reservoir. Some crystals in AVC lavas are likely to be true phenocrysts, but the diversity of crystallization temperatures and pressures recorded by phases in individual AVC lavas suggests erupting magma

  5. Carboniferous volcanic rocks associated with back-arc extension in the western Chinese Tianshan, NW China: Insight from temporal-spatial character, petrogenesis and tectonic significance (United States)

    Su, Wenbo; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Wan, Bo; Wang, Xiangsong; Bao, Zihe; Xiao, Wenjiao


    The Yili-Central Tianshan Block, as a Late Paleozoic major continental silver of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, holds a massive volume of Carboniferous volcanic rocks, occurring as subparallel magmatic belts. However, the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of these volcanic rocks remain enigmatic. This study compiled isotopic age data for mapping their temporal-spatial character, and conducted petrogenetic study of these magmatic belts, aiming to understand their tectonic implications. Our compiled dataset reveals four magmatic belts in the Yili-Central Tianshan Block, including the Keguqinshan-Tulasu belt and the Awulale belt in the north, and the Wusun Mountain belt and the Haerk-Nalati belt in the south. In addition, our new zircon U-Pb dating results define two significant Early Carboniferous eruptive events (ca. 355-350 Ma and 325 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain belt. Volcanic rocks of the early significant eruptive event (ca. 355-350 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain comprise basalt, trachy-andesite, andesite, dacite and rhyolite, which are similar to the typical rock assemblage of a continental arc. Their positive εNd(t) values (+0.3 to +1.5) and relatively high Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios suggest the derivation from a mantle source with additions of slab-derived components. The gabbroic dykes and rhyolites of the late volcanic event (ca. 325 Ma) form a bimodal rock association, and they show alkaline features, with relatively low Th/Yb and Th/Nb ratios, and higher positive εNd(t) values (εNd(t) = +3.3-+5.0). It is interpreted that the gabbroic dykes and rhyolites may have been derived from mantle and juvenile crustal sources, respectively. The isotopic and trace elemental variations with time elapse of the Wusun Mountain magmatic belt show an important clue for strengthening depletion of the magma sources. Considering the distinctive temporal-spatial character of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks, two separate subduction systems in the southern and northern margins of

  6. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.


    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  7. Formation of continental crust in a temporally linked arc magma system from 5 to 30 km depth: ~ 90 Ma plutonism in the Cascades Crystalline Core composite arc section (United States)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Miller, J. S.; Kent, A. J.; Miller, R. B.; Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.


    Continental crust has an andesitic bulk composition with a mafic lower crust and a granodioritic upper crust. The formation of stratified continental crust in general and the vertical extent of processes active in arc crustal columns leading to the differentiation of primitive, mantle-derived melts entering the lower crust are highly debated. To investigate where in the crustal column magma mixing, fractionation, assimilation and crystal growth occur and to what extent, we study the ~ 90 Ma magmatic flare-up event of the Cascades arc, a magma plumbing system from ~ 5 to 30 km depth. We focus on three intrusive complexes, emplaced at different depths during major regional shortening in an exceptionally thick crust (≥ 55 km1) but which are temporally related: the upper crustal Black Peak intrusion (1-3 kbar at 3.7 to 11 km; ~ 86.8 to 91.7 Ma2), the mid-crustal Mt. Stuart intrusion (3.5-4.0 kbar at 13 to 15 km; 90.8 and 96.3 Ma3) and the deep crustal Tenpeak intrusion (7 to 10 kbar at 25 to 37 km; 89.7 to 92.3 Ma4). These intrusive complexes are well characterized by geochronology showing that they have been constructed incrementally by multiple magma batches over their lifespans and thus allow the monitoring and comparison of geochemical parameters over time at different depths. We use a combination of whole rock major and trace element data and isotopes combined with detailed investigation of amphibole, which has been recognized to be important in the generation of calc-alkaline rocks in arcs to test the following hypotheses: (a) compositional bimodality is produced in the lower crust, whereas upper crustal levels are dominated by mixing to form intermediate compositions, or (b) differentiation occurs throughout the crustal column with different crystallizing phases and their compositions controlling the bulk chemistry. 1. Miller et al. 2009: GSA Special Paper 456, p. 125-149 2. Shea 2014: PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Anderson et al. 2012

  8. Volcanic-plutonic connections and metal fertility of highly evolved magma systems: A case study from the Herberton Sn-W-Mo Mineral Field, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Chang, Zhaoshan; Clarke, Gavin


    Understanding the connection between the highly evolved intrusive and extrusive systems is essential to explore the evolution of high silicic magma systems, which plays an important role in discussions of planetary differentiation, the growth of continents, crustal evolution, and the formation of highly evolved magma associated Sn-W-Mo mineral systems. To discern differences between "fertile" and "non-fertile" igneous rocks associated with Sn-W-Mo mineralization and reveal the genetic links between coeval intrusive and extrusive rocks, we integrate whole rock geochemistry, geochronology and Hf isotope signatures of igneous zircons from contemporaneous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the world-class Herberton Mineral Field of Queensland, Australia. The 310-300 Ma intrusive rocks and associated intra-plutonic W-Mo mineralization formed from relatively oxidized magmas after moderate degrees of crystal fractionation. The geochemical and isotopic features of the coeval volcanic succession are best reconciled utilizing the widely-accepted volcanic-plutonic connection model, whereby the volcanic rocks represent fractionated derivatives of the intrusive rocks. Older intrusions emplaced at 335-315 Ma formed from relatively low fO2 magmas that fractionated extensively to produce highly evolved granites that host Sn mineralization. Coeval volcanic rocks of this suite are compositionally less evolved than the intrusive rocks, thereby requiring a different model to link these plutonic-volcanic sequences. In this case, we propose that the most fractionated magmas were not lost to volcanism, but instead were effectively retained at the plutonic level, which allowed further localized build-up of volatiles and lithophile metals in the plutonic environment. This disconnection to the volcanism and degassing may be a crucial step for forming granite-hosted Sn mineralization. The transition between these two igneous regimes in Herberton region over a ∼30 m.y. period is attributed to

  9. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone (United States)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav


    A detailed spatio-temporal analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence (mb > 4.0) along the convergent margin of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system reveals an anomalously high concentration of events between 27° and 30.5°N, beneath a chain of seamounts between Tori-shima and Nishino-shima volcanoes. This seismicity is dominated by the 1985/1986 earthquake swarm represented in the Engdahl-van der Hilst-Buland database by 146 earthquakes in the body wave magnitude range 4.3-5.8 and focal depth range 1-100 km. The epicentral cluster of the swarm is elongated parallel to the volcanic chain. Available focal mechanisms are consistent with an extensional tectonic regime and reveal nodal planes with azimuths close to that of the epicentral cluster. Earthquakes of the 1985/1986 swarm occurred in seven time phases. Seismic activity migrated in space from one phase to the other. Earthquake foci belonging to individual phases of the swarm aligned in vertically disposed seismically active columns. The epicentral zones of the columns are located in the immediate vicinity of seamounts Suiyo and Mokuyo, recently reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency as volcanically active. The three observations-episodic character of earthquake occurrence, column-like vertically arranged seismicity pattern, and existence of volcanic seamounts at the seafloor above the earthquake foci-led us to interpret the 1985/1986 swarm as a consequence of subduction-related magmatic and/or fluid activity. A modification of the shallow earthquake swarm magmatic model of D. Hill fits earthquake foci distribution, tectonic stress orientation and fault plane solutions. The 1985/1986 deep-rooted earthquake swarm in the Izu-Bonin region represents an uncommon phenomenon of plate tectonics. The portion of the lithospheric wedge that was affected by the swarm should be composed of fractured rigid, brittle material so that the source of magma and/or fluids which might induce the swarm should be situated at a

  10. 238U-230Th radioactive disequilibria in the volcanic products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yuichi; Takahashi, Masaomi; Sato, Jun


    The timescale of magmatic processes of Izu arc volcanoes, Japan, was estimated by the 238 U- 230 Th disequilibria in the volcanic products from the volcanoes. The majority of the 230 Th/ 238 U activity ratios of the products were less than unity, being enriched in 238 U relative to 230 Th. The ( 230 Th/ 232 Th)-( 238 U/ 232 Th)diagram for younger Fuji and Izu-Oshima volcanoes formed a whole rock isochrons, and the ages were 1x10 4 and 2x10 4 years, respectively. The ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) - ( 238 U/ 232 Th) data set for younger Fuji volcano formed a cluster on the diagram, while those of Izu-Oshima formed another cluster apparently apart from each other, suggesting that the concentration of U and Th may possibly be un-uniform in the mantle beneath Izu arc. (author)

  11. U-Series disequilibria, magma petrogenesis and flux rates along the depleted Tonga-Kermadec Island Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.; Rogers, N.; Bartlett, J.; Smith, I.; Worthington, T.; Smith, I.; Worthington, T.


    The fluid contribution to the lava source has been calculated as -1 ppm Rb, 10 ppm Ba, 0.02 ppm U, 600 ppm K 0.2 ppm Pb and 30 ppm Sr. It has 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7035 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.5 and thus is inferred to be derived from dehydration of the subducting altered oceanic crust. U-Th isotope disequilibria reflect the time since fluid release from the subducting slab and a pseudo-isochron through the lowest ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) lavas constrains this to be ∼ 50 000 yr. Significantly, U-Th isotope data record similar timescales in the Lesser Antilles (∼40 000 yr, Turner et al., 1996) and in the Marianas (30 000 yr, Elliott et al., 1996) which provides encouragement that these data reflect some general aspect of the flux rates beneath island arcs. Large 226 Ra excesses have also been reported from Tonga-Kermadec (( 226 Ra/ 230 Th) = 1.5-3.0, Gill and Williams, 1990). Since 226 Ra will return to secular equilibrium with 230 Th (( 226 Ra/ 230 Th) = 1) within 7500 yr of Ra/Th fractionation the 238 U/ 230 Th and 226 Ra/ 230 Th disequilibria are clearly decoupled (see also Turner et al., 1996). This is an unexpected result and clearly the 226 Ra/ 230 Th disequilibria must have developed after the process responsible for the major U/Th fractionation. It is suggested that Th-Ra isotope disequilibria record the time since partial melting and thus indicate rapid channelled magma ascent. Olivine gabbro xenoliths from Raoul are interpreted as cumulates to their host lavas with which they form zero age U-Th isochrons indicating that minimal time was spent in magma chambers. The subduction signature is not observed in lavas from the back arc island of Niuafo'ou and thus does not penetrate as far 200 km beyond the arc front volcanoes. These were derived from partial melting of fertile peridotite at 130-160 km depth with melt rates around 2 x 10 -4 kg m -3 yr -1 , possibly due to volatiles released from the breakdown of phengite and lawsonite in the underlying slab at 200 km

  12. Effect of Mantle Wedge Hybridization by Sediment Melt on Geochemistry of Arc Magma and Arc Mantle Source - Insights from Laboratory Experiments at High Pressures and Temperatures (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.; Tsuno, K.; Nelson, J. M.


    Generation of arc magmas involves metasomatism of the mantle wedge by slab-derived H2O-rich fluids and/or melts and subsequent melting of the modified source. The chemistry of arc magmas and the residual mantle wedge are not only regulated by the chemistry of the slab input, but also by the phase relations of metasomatism or hybridization process in the wedge. The sediment-derived silica-rich fluids and hydrous partial melts create orthopyroxene-rich zones in the mantle wedge, due to reaction of mantle olivine with silica in the fluid/melt [1,2]. Geochemical evidence for such a reaction comes from pyroxenitic lithologies coexisting with peridotite in supra-subduction zones. In this study, we have simulated the partial melting of a parcel of mantle wedge modified by bulk addition of sediment-derived melt with variable H2O contents to investigate the major and trace element chemistry of the magmas and the residues formed by this process. Experiments at 2-3 GPa and 1150-1300 °C were conducted on mixtures of 25% sediment-derived melt and 75% lherzolite, with bulk H2O contents varying from 2 to 6 wt.%. Partial reactive crystallization of the rhyolitic slab-derived melt and partial melting of the mixed source produced a range of melt compositions from ultra-K basanites to basaltic andesites, in equilibrium with an orthopyroxene ± phlogopite ± clinopyroxene ± garnet bearing residue, depending on P and bulk H2O content. Model calculations using partition coefficients (from literature) of trace elements between experimental minerals and silicate melt suggest that the geochemical signatures of the slab-derived melt, such as low Ce/Pb and depletion in Nb and Ta (characteristic slab signatures) are not erased from the resulting melt owing to reactive crystallization. The residual mineral assemblage is also found to be similar to the supra-subduction zone lithologies, such as those found in Dabie Shan (China) and Sanbagawa Belt (Japan). In this presentation, we will also

  13. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.


    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  14. The structure environment, rock-magma system, mineral-forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral-forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan


    The Volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt-the Mid-Cz Volcano in the Southeast of China mainly formed around 120 ∼ 130 Ma and 90 ∼ 100 Ma Which is in harmony with the two rock magma activities of k within the region. The rock-magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks (trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt). The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin (early period) ad tension rift valley basin (laster period). The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral-forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos. Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts

  15. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire


    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  16. Challenging dyke ascent models using novel laboratory experiments: Implications for reinterpreting evidence of magma ascent and volcanism (United States)

    Kavanagh, Janine L.; Burns, Alec J.; Hilmi Hazim, Suraya; Wood, Elliot P.; Martin, Simon A.; Hignett, Sam; Dennis, David J. C.


    Volcanic eruptions are fed by plumbing systems that transport magma from its source to the surface, mostly fed by dykes. Here we present laboratory experiments that model dyke ascent to eruption using a tank filled with a crust analogue (gelatine, which is transparent and elastic) that is injected from below by a magma analogue (dyed water). This novel experimental setup allows, for the first time, the simultaneous measurement of fluid flow, sub-surface and surface deformation during dyke ascent. During injection, a penny-shaped fluid-filled crack is formed, intrudes, and traverses the gelatine slab vertically to then erupt at the surface. Polarised light shows the internal stress evolution as the dyke ascends, and an overhead laser scanner measures the surface elevation change in the lead-up to dyke eruption. Fluorescent passive-tracer particles that are illuminated by a laser sheet are monitored, and the intruding fluid's flow dynamics and gelatine's sub-surface strain evolution is measured using particle image velocimetry and digital image correlation, respectively. We identify 4 previously undescribed stages of dyke ascent. Stage 1, early dyke growth: the initial dyke grows from the source, and two fluid jets circulate as the penny-shaped crack is formed. Stage 2, pseudo-steady dyke growth: characterised by the development of a rapidly uprising, central, single pseudo-steady fluid jet, as the dyke grows equally in length and width, and the fluid down-wells at the dyke margin. Sub-surface host strain is localised at the head region and the tail of the dyke is largely static. Stage 3, pre-eruption unsteady dyke growth: an instability in the fluid flow appears as the central fluid jet meanders, the dyke tip accelerates towards the surface and the tail thins. Surface deformation is only detected in the immediate lead-up to eruption and is characterised by an overall topographic increase, with axis-symmetric topographic highs developed above the dyke tip. Stage 4 is

  17. Diverse Eruptions at Approximately 2,200 Years B.P. on the Great Rift, Idaho: Inferences for Magma Dynamics Along Volcanic Rift Zones (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. E. Kobs; Borg, C.; Mallonee, H. C.; Purcell, S.; Neish, C.; Garry, W. B.; Haberle, C. W.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.


    Compositionally and morphologically diverse lava flows erupted on the Great Rift of Idaho approximately 2.2 ka (kilo-annum, 1000 years ago) during a volcanic "flare-up" of activity following an approximately 2 ky (kiloyear, 1000 years) hiatus in eruptions. Volcanism at Craters of the Moon (COTM), Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields around this time included primitive and evolved compositions, separated over 75 kilometers along the approximately 85 kilometers-long rift, with striking variability in lava flow emplacement mechanisms and surface morphologies. Although the temporal associations may be coincidental, the system provides a planetary analog to better understand magma dynamics along rift systems, including that associated with lunar floor-fractured craters. This study aims to help bridge the knowledge gap between ancient rift volcanism evident on the Moon and other terrestrial planets, and active rift volcanism, e.g., at Hawai'i and Iceland.

  18. Structural, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies on Magmatic Dyke Swarms of the South Shetland Islands Volcanic Arc, West Antarctica - Revealing the Geodynamic History (United States)

    Kraus, S.; Miller, H.


    Between 2000 and 2002 areas of up to 100,000 m2 have been mapped at several locations of the South Shetland Islands, mainly on King George and Livingston Islands. A structural analysis of the dykes and the host rocks was undertaken, and about 250 dykes were sampled for geochemical studies. On Livingston Island six different strike directions were identified, yielding a reliable relative time sequence as deduced from field-relationships. Geochemically, these dykes can be separated into five different groups, correlating with the different strike directions, one of those groups comprising two directions. Analysis of the structural data shows, that at least on Livingston Island only minor changes of the tensional situation occurred. Geochemical data reveal that all dykes of the South Shetland Islands belong to a calc-alkaline, arc-related suite, ranging from primitive basalts to highly differentiated rhyolites. Interpretation of Sr isotopic data of the dykes proves difficult, as there are indications for sea-water induced Sr-alteration. Nd isotopic analysis yield better results, revealing a three-stage development from the oldest dykes (ɛ Nd -0.2 to 0.6) on Livingston Island towards a second, younger group (ɛ Nd 2.8 to 4.2, also Livingston), terminating with a third one (ɛ Nd 5.2 to 7.6), which includes the youngest dykes on Livingston and all dykes on King George and also Penguin Island. Either two mantle sources were involved, or the amount of crustal contamination changed considerately with time. It may have been high during initial arc volcanism, because of a still unstretched crust, then decreasing continually with progressing volcanism. In any case, the pattern reflects a chronological sequence corresponding with other authors' hypothesis of a migrating arc volcanism from SW to NE, i.e. from Livingston (older dykes) towards King George Island (younger dykes). Pb isotopic data, plottet together with MORB- and sediment-samples dredged from the Drake Passage

  19. Magmatic dyke swarms of the south shetland islands volcanic arc, west-antarctica - tracers of geodynamic history (United States)

    Kraus, St.; Miller, H.


    Magmatic dykes are essential components of volcanic arcs, following joint systems and fracture zones. This work aims to reconstruct the deformational and intrusive history of the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula by combining structural information with the geochemistry, isotopy and age of the dykes. On the South Shetland Islands volcanic activity began about 130 Ma ago. From Mid to Late Eocene (49-34 Ma) the northern Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America underwent extensional tectonics, which led to sea-floor spreading in the Drake Passage 28 Ma ago. Subsequent slab-rollback caused arc-extension and the opening of the Bransfield Rift as a backarc-basin between 4 and 1.3 Ma ago. Very slow subduction (1mm/a) at the South Shetland trench continues until the present day. Several changes of subduction direction caused crucial variations regarding the tectonic regime in the overlying South Shetland block, being the reason for the shifting strike of the dykes. Several dyke systems were mapped in areas of up to 100000m2, with the outcrop situation being good enough to observe plenty of relative age relationships. ICP-MS geochemical analysis on 132 dykes shows, as expected, that the majority of them correspond to a typical subduction-related calcalcalic suite, ranging from basalts to rhyolites. Nevertheless, some dykes show shoshonitic characteristics and are maybe related to an early stage extensional crustal regime. This is supported by the relative ages observed in the field, indicating, that these dykes belong to the oldest ones outcropping in the investigated area. In one case, the geochemical behaviour of the dyke corresponds clearly to adacitic conditions, being a hint on partially molten subducted oceanic crust. In several areas (e.g. Potter Peninsula, King George Island, and Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island) a strong correlation between chemism and strike of the dykes - and therefore the tectonic regime at the time of intrusion - is observed. Ce

  20. Magma intrusion near Volcan Tancítaro: Evidence from seismic analysis (United States)

    Pinzón, Juan I.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco J.; Rowe, Charlotte A.


    Between May and June 2006, an earthquake swarm occurred near Volcan Tancítaro in Mexico, which was recorded by a temporary seismic deployment known as the MARS network. We located ∼1000 events from this seismic swarm. Previous earthquake swarms in the area were reported in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. We relocate and analyze the evolution and properties of the 2006 earthquake swarm, employing a waveform cross-correlation-based phase repicking technique. Hypocenters from 911 events were located and divided into eighteen families having a correlation coefficient at or above 0.75. 90% of the earthquakes provide at least sixteen phase picks. We used the single-event location code Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Accelerometer Network to improve hypocenters based on the correlation-adjusted phase arrival times. We relocated 121 earthquakes, which show clearly two clusters, between 9-10 km and 3-4 km depth respectively. The average location error estimates are rate of activity within the first 15 days; a b-value of 1.47; a jug-shaped hypocenter distribution; a shoaling rate of ∼5 km/month within the deeper cluster, and a composite focal mechanism solution indicating largely reverse faulting. These features of the swarm suggest a magmatic source elevating the crustal strain beneath Volcan Tancítaro.

  1. Volcanic stratigraphy and evidence of magma mixing in the Quaternary Payún Matrú volcano, andean backarc in western Argentina Estratigrafía volcánica y evidencia de mezcla de magmas en el volcán Payún Matrú del Cuaternario, en el retroarco andino de Argentina occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene R Hernando


    Full Text Available The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field is located in the Payenia Basaltic Province of the recent back-arc of western Argentina (35°S-38°S. This province is younger than 5 Ma, and most of its volcanic activity took place since 2 Ma. The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field contains two composite volcanoes, Payún Matrú and Payún Liso, and two basaltic fields in an E-W oriented zone, located east and west of the Payún Matrú volcano. Payún Matrú is the largest volcano of this volcanic field, and consists of a shield-shaped edifice with a circular summit caldera of 8 km in diameter. The composition of both composite volcanoes is alkaline and predominantly trachytic, having also minor intermediate lavas. The basaltic fields consist of basalts and trachybasalts, with clinopyroxene and abundant olivine as phenocrysts and also in the groundmass. Textures indicating mixing and mingling processes, such as dusty plagioclases along with clear ones, biotite replaced by anhydrous minerals and two groundmasses with a fluid-fluid relationship, are common in the early pre-caldera stage of Payún Matrú and some post-caldera lavas. The latest post-caldera lavas are trachytic, with clean sanidine phenocrysts without disequilibrium textures. A remarkable characteristic of the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field is the fact that the Payún Matrú caldera is surrounded by basaltic fields at its base, while no basalts were erupted in the caldera region. We propose that the absence of basaltic lavas in the Payún Matrú volcano is due to the presence of a magmatic chamber below it, and that the mafic magmas rising from deeper levels were unable to erupt without interaction with more evolved melts. Intermediate hybrid magmas produced as a consequence of magma mixing and mingling between basaltic and trachytic magmas, are present in the early and mid-history of Payún Matrú volcano. We present here new information about the Quaternary Payún Matrú Volcanic Field derived from field

  2. Continuous magma recharge at Mt. Etna during the 2011-2013 period controls the style of volcanic activity and compositions of erupted lavas (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Calcagno, Rosario; Garozzo, Ileana; Giuffrida, Marisa; Nicotra, Eugenio


    Volcanic rocks erupted during the January 2011 - April 2013 paroxysmal sequence at Mt. Etna volcano have been investigated through in situ microanalysis of mineral phases and whole rock geochemistry. These products have been also considered within the framework of the post-2001 record, evidencing that magmas feeding the 2011-2013 paroxysmal activity inherited deep signature comparable to that of the 2007-2009 volcanic rocks for what concerns their trace element concentration. Analysis performed on plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, which are sensitive to differentiation processes, show respectively fluctuations of the An, Mg# and Fo contents during the considered period. Also major and trace elements measured on the whole rock provide evidence of the evolutionary degree variations through time. Simulations by MELTS at fixed chemical-physical parameters allowed the definition of feeding system dynamics controlling the geochemical variability of magmas during the 2011-2013 period. Specifically, compositional changes have been interpreted as due to superimposition of fractional crystallization and mixing in variable proportions with more basic magma ascending from intermediate to shallower levels of the plumbing system. Composition of the recharging end-member is compatible with that of the most basic magmas emitted during the 2007 and the early paroxysmal eruptions of 2012. Analysis of the erupted volumes of magma combined with its petrologic evolution through time support the idea that large volumes of magma are continuously intruded and stored in the intermediate plumbing system after major recharging phases in the deepest levels of it. Transient recharge from the intermediate to the shallow levels is then responsible for the paroxysmal eruptions.

  3. Variable slab and subarc mantle signatures within dying arc setting-clues from the volcanology and geochemistry of Quaternary volcanic rocks from Armenia. (United States)

    Savov, I. P.; Luhr, J.; D'Antonio, M.; Connor, C.; Karakhanian, A.; Ghukasyan, Y.; Djrbashian, R.


    Armenian volcanoes occur within the active continental collision zone involving the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The volcanism is hosted by a chain of pull-apart basins, cumulatively forming an arc across Armenia and extending into Turkey and Iran. We collected fresh volcanic rocks from >100 volcanoes in proximity to the large calc-alkaline strato-volcano Mt.Ararat (Turkey) and the sub-alkaline shield-volcano Mt.Aragats (Armenia).The samples are trachybasalt-andesites o dacites (Aragats Volcanic Plateau) and trachybasalts to rhyolites (Arteni Volcanic Complex, Gegham Plateau and Lake Sevan regions).The major and trace element systematics of the Armenian volcanics reveal mixed arc-like and OIB-like signatures may accompany the transition from subduction to collision (Miocene-recent). Relative to N-MORB our samples show enrichments of fluid mobile elements,Th,U,LILE and LREE,and depletions of HREE and Hf, Nb, Ta and Zr.The lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7041 to 0.7051) compared to any known crustal material in the region, the regional mantle 144Nd/143Nd isotope ratios [0.5128-0.5129] and the absence of crustal xenoliths cause us to conclude that crustal assimilation did not play a significant role in the magmagenesis.We will report large mineral chemistry dataset and detailed textural observations revealing no significant mineral zoning.Based on mineral rim and groundmass chemistries and using variety of hygrothermometers, we calculated melt H2O contents ranging from 1.9 to 4.5 wt% and also elevated eruption temperatures [range= 1030- 1060°C].This calculations are in agreement with the generally anhydrous nature of the mineral assemblages [Pl+Opx+Cpx+Ol+TiMt] and with the ionprobe study of volatile contents in olivine hosted melt inclusions [H2O = 0.5-2.8 wt%; CO2 = 10-371 ppm; F= 1865-2905 ppm, S= 225-5122 ppm;Cl= 650-1013 ppm]. Although other mechanisms such as delamination and localized extension related to strike slip faulting might also contribute to magma

  4. Magma replenishment and volcanic unrest inferred from the analysis of VT micro-seismicity and seismic velocity changes at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (United States)

    Brenguier, F.; Rivemale, E.; Clarke, D. S.; Schmid, A.; Got, J.; Battaglia, J.; Taisne, B.; Staudacher, T.; Peltier, A.; Shapiro, N. M.; Tait, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Di Muro, A.


    Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF) is among the most active basaltic volcanoes worldwide with more than one eruption per year on average. Also, PdF is densely instrumented with short-period and broad-band seismometers as well as with GPS receivers. Continuous seismic waveforms are available from 1999. Piton de la Fournaise volcano has a moderate inter-eruptive seismic activity with an average of five detected Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes per day with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.5. These earthquakes are shallow and located about 2.5 kilometers beneath the edifice surface. Volcanic unrest is captured on average a few weeks before eruptions by measurements of increased VT seismicity rate, inflation of the edifice summit, and decreased seismic velocities from correlations of seismic noise. Eruptions are usually preceded by seismic swarms of VT earthquakes. Recently, almost 50 % of seismic swarms were not followed by eruptions. Within this work, we aim to gather results from different groups of the UnderVolc research project in order to better understand the processes of deep magma transfer, volcanic unrest, and pre-eruptive magma transport initiation. Among our results, we show that the period 1999-2003 was characterized by a long-term increase of VT seismicity rate coupled with a long-term decrease of seismic velocities. These observations could indicate a long-term replenishment of the magma storage area. The relocation of ten years of inter-eruptive micro-seismicity shows a narrow (~300 m long) sub-vertical fault zone thus indicating a conduit rather than an extended magma reservoir as the shallow magma feeder system. Also, we focus on the processes of short-term volcanic unrest and prove that magma intrusions within the edifice leading to eruptions activate specific VT earthquakes that are distinct from magma intrusions that do not lead to eruptions. We thus propose that, among the different pathways of magma transport within the edifice, only one will

  5. Geodynamic control of the chemical composition of Tertiary continental arc magmas of Ecuador?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaradia, M.; Fontbote, L


    Whereas an abundant literature has been produced on the Tertiary magmatism of the Central Andes, no comparable studies exist for the Tertiary continental magmatism of the Northern Andes in general and of Ecuador in particular. In this contribution we present the first extensive data on lead and strontium isotopes of Paleocene to Pliocene magmatic rocks of Ecuador together with their major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry. The main interest of carrying out a geochemical and isotopic investigation on the magmatism of Ecuador is that, different from the Central Andes, Ecuador consists of several accreted terranes both of continental and oceanic affinity. The fragmented nature of the recently assembled crust of Ecuador, composed of lithologies such as Paleozoic schists, Triassic anatexites, and Jurassic metabasalts, could have variably affected the chemistry of the Ecuadorian magmas (au)

  6. 238U-230Th-226Ra systematics applied to the active oceanic volcanism. Constraints on the duration and processes of magmas formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claude-Ivana, Ch.


    The development of a new precise analytical technique for measuring radioactive disequilibria by TIMS has enabled to put constraints on both the extend and time scale of incompatible element fractionation during magma formation in oceanic islands. Three different settings have been studied: the Grande Comore volcanoes (Comores archipelago), Tenerife and Lanzarote volcanism (Canary islands) and four islands within the Azores: Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Faial islands. The Comores and Canaries archipelagoes are both lying on an old thick oceanic lithosphere. The detailed case in Grande Comore shows evidence for a process of interaction of the Comore plume with the underlying lithosphere. In the Canaries, the lithosphere also contributes to lava formation either during the differentiation (in Tenerife) or during mantle melting (in Lanzarote). Within the Azores, U-series measurements reveal large geochemical and isotopic variations between the different islands that we interpret as reflecting heterogeneities in the Azore plume. In particular, the U-Th fractionation in Sao Miguel volcanics is though to result from melting of an hydrous sediment-bearing mantle. The magma transit times have been found to be very short (1000 yr) in all the basaltic series. This very rapid migration of the melts is an evidence for the absence of large magma chamber and for processes of fracturing during melt transports. However, this model does not apply in the case of the very evolved volcanic series in Tenerife island (Canaries) where transit times of c.a. 100000 yr indicate the presence of a large magmatic reservoir. (author)

  7. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.


    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  8. Diagenesis in tephra-rich sediments from the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc: Pore fluid constraints (United States)

    Murray, Natalie A.; McManus, James; Palmer, Martin R.; Haley, Brian; Manners, Hayley


    We present sediment pore fluid and sediment solid phase results obtained during IODP Expedition 340 from seven sites located within the Grenada Basin of the southern Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc region. These sites are generally characterized as being low in organic carbon content and rich in calcium carbonate and volcanogenic material. In addition to the typical reactions related to organic matter diagenesis, pore fluid chemistry indicates that the diagenetic reactions fall within two broad categories; (1) reactions related to chemical exchange with volcanogenic material and (2) reactions related to carbonate dissolution, precipitation, or recrystallization. For locations dominated by reaction with volcanogenic material, these sites exhibit increases in dissolved Ca with coeval decreases in Mg. We interpret this behavior as being driven by sediment-water exchange reactions from the alteration of volcanic material that is dispersed throughout the sediment package, which likely result in formation of Mg-rich secondary authigenic clays. In contrast to this behavior, sediment sequences that exhibit decreases in Ca, Mg, Mn, and Sr with depth suggest that carbonate precipitation is an active diagenetic process affecting solute distributions. The distributions of pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr reflect these competitive diagenetic reactions between volcanic material and carbonate, which are inferred by the major cation distributions. From one site where we have solid phase 87Sr/86Sr (site U1396), the carbonate fraction is found to be generally consistent with the contemporaneous seawater isotope values. However, the 87Sr/86Sr of the non-carbonate fraction ranges from 0.7074 to 0.7052, and these values likely represent a mixture of local arc volcanic sources and trans-Atlantic eolian sources. Even at this site where there is clear evidence for diagenesis of volcanogenic material, carbonate diagenesis appears to buffer pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr from the larger changes that might be

  9. Deep long-period earthquakes west of the volcanic arc in Oregon: evidence of serpentine dehydration in the fore-arc mantle wedge (United States)

    Vidale, John E.; Schmidt, David A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Moran, Seth C.; Creager, Kenneth C.; Houston, Heidi


    Here we report on deep long-period earthquakes (DLPs) newly observed in four places in western Oregon. The DLPs are noteworthy for their location within the subduction fore arc: 40–80 km west of the volcanic arc, well above the slab, and near the Moho. These “offset DLPs” occur near the top of the inferred stagnant mantle wedge, which is likely to be serpentinized and cold. The lack of fore-arc DLPs elsewhere along the arc suggests that localized heating may be dehydrating the serpentinized mantle wedge at these latitudes and causing DLPs by dehydration embrittlement. Higher heat flow in this region could be introduced by anomalously hot mantle, associated with the western migration of volcanism across the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, entrained in the corner flow proximal to the mantle wedge. Alternatively, fluids rising from the subducting slab through the mantle wedge may be the source of offset DLPs. As far as we know, these are among the first DLPs to be observed in the fore arc of a subduction-zone system.

  10. Growth of the lower continental crust via the relamination of arc magma (United States)

    He, Yumei; Zheng, Tianyu; Ai, Yinshuang; Hou, Guangbing; Chen, Qi-Fu


    How does continental crust transition from basaltic mantle-derived magmas into an andesitic composition? The relamination hypothesis has been presented as an alternative dynamical mechanism to classical delamination theory to explain new crust generation and has been supported by petrological and geochemical studies as well as by thermomechanical numerical modeling. However, direct evidence of this process from detailed seismic velocity structures is lacking. Here, we imaged the three-dimensional (3D) velocity structures of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the geologically stable Ordos terrane of the North China Craton (NCC). We identify a region of continental crust that exhibits extreme growth using teleseismic data and an imaging technique that models the Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking profiles. Our results show an approximately 400 × 400 km2 wide growth zone that underlies the primitive crust at depths of 30-50 km and exhibits a gradual increase of velocity with depth. The upper layer of the growth zone has a shear wave velocity of 3.6-3.9 km/s (Vp = 6.2-6.8 km/s), indicating felsic material, and the lower layer has a shear wave velocity of 4.1-4.3 km/s (Vp = 7.2-7.5 km/s), which corresponds to mafic material. We suggest that this vertical evolution of the layered structure could be created by relamination and that the keel structure formed by relamination may be the root of the supernormal stability of the ancient Ordos terrane.

  11. Crustal growth of the Izu-Ogasawara arc estimated from structural characteristics of Oligocene arc (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.


    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out seismic surveys using a multichannel reflection system and ocean bottom seismographs, and we have clarified crustal structures of whole Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Marina (IBM) arc since 2002. These refection images and velocity structures suggest that the crustal evolution in the intra-oceanic island arc accompanies with much interaction of materials between crust and mantle. Slow mantle velocity identified beneath the thick arc crusts suggests that dense crustal materials transformed into the mantle. On the other hand, high velocity lower crust can be seen around the bottom of the crust beneath the rifted region, and it suggests that underplating of mafic materials occurs there. Average crustal production rate of the entire arc is larger than expected one and approximately 200 km3/km/Ma. The production rate of basaltic magmas corresponds to that of oceanic ridge. Repeated crustal differentiation is indispensable to produce much light materials like continental materials, however, the real process cannot still be resolved yet. We, therefore, submitted drilling proposals to obtain in-situ middle crust with P-wave velocity of 6 km/s. In the growth history of the IBM arc, it is known by many papers that boninitic volcanisms preceded current bimodal volcanisms based on basaltic magmas. The current volcanisms accompanied with basaltic magmas have been occurred since Oligocene age, however, the tectonic differences to develop crustal architecture between Oligocene and present are not understood yet. We obtained new refraction/reflection data along an arc strike of N-S in fore-arc region. Then, we estimate crustal structure with severe change of the crustal thickness from refraction data, which are similar to that along the volcanic front. Interval for location of the thick arc crust along N-S is very similar to that along the volcanic front. The refection image indicates that the basement of the fore-arc

  12. Magma differentiation fractionates Mo isotope ratios: Evidence from the Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean Arc) (United States)

    Voegelin, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Greber, Nicolas D.; von Niederhäusern, Brigitte; Nägler, Thomas F.


    We investigated high temperature Mo isotope fractionation in a hydrous supra-subduction volcano-plutonic system (Kos, Aegean Arc, Greece) in order to address the debate on the δ98/95Mo variability of the continental crust. In this igneous system, where differentiation is interpreted to be dominated by fractional crystallization, bulk rock data from olivine basalt to dacite show δ98/95Mo ratios increasing from + 0.3 to + 0.6‰ along with Mo concentrations increasing from 0.8 to 4.1 μg g- 1. Data for hornblende and biotite mineral separates reveal the extraction of light Mo into crystallizing silicates, with minimum partition coefficients between hornblende-silicate melt and biotite-silicate melt of 0.6 and 0.4 δ98/95Mo, respectively.

  13. Garnet pyroxenite from Nilgiri Block, southern India: Vestiges of a Neoarchean volcanic arc (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Santosh, M.; Sajeev, K.


    Southern peninsular India preserves records of Late Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic continental building and cratonization. A transect from the Paleoarchean Dharwar Craton to the Neoarchean arc magmatic complex in the Nilgiri Block across the intervening Moyar Suture Zone reveals an arc-accretionary complex composed of banded iron formation (BIF), amphibolite, metatuff, garnet-kyanite schist, metagabbro, pyroxenite and charnockite. Here we investigate the petrology, geochronology and petrogenesis of the pyroxenite and garnet-clinopyroxenite. The pyroxenite is mainly composed of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with local domains/pockets enriched in a clinopyroxene-garnet assemblage. Thermobarometric calculations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-rich domains formed at 900-1000 °C, 1-1.2 GPa whereas the garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich domains record higher pressure of about 1.8-2 GPa at similar temperature conditions (900-1000 °C). Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating show weighted mean 207Pb-206Pb age of 2532 ± 22 Ma, with metamorphic overgrowth at 2520 ± 27 Ma and 2478 ± 27 Ma. We propose a tectonic model involving decoupling and break-off of the oceanic plate along the southern flanks of the Dharwar Craton, which initiated oceanic plate subduction. Slab melting eventually built the Nilgiri volcanic arc on top of the over-riding plate along the flanks of the Dharwar Craton. Our study supports an active plate tectonic regime at the end of the Archean Era, aiding in the growth of paleo-continents and their assembly into stable cratons.

  14. Assessment of the atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.


    The dominant global impact of volcanic activity is likely to be related to the effects of volcanic gases on the Earth's atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions from individual volcanic arc eruptions are likely to cause increases in the stratospheric optical depth that result in surface landmass temperature decline of 2 to 3 K for less than a decade. Trachytic and intermediate magmas are much more effective in this regard than high-silica magmas, and may also lead to extensive ozone depletion due to effect of halogens and magmatic water. Given the assumed relationship between arc volcanism and subduction rate, and the relatively small variation in global spreading rates in the geologic record, it is unlikely that the rates of arc volcanism have varied greatly during the Cenozoic. Hotspot related basaltic fissure eruptions in the subaerial environment have a higher mass yield of sulfur, but lofting of the valcanic aerosol to levels above the tropopause is required for a climate impact. High-latitude events, such as the Laki 1783 eruption can easily penetrate the tropopause and enter the stratosphere, but formation of a stratospheric volcanic aerosol form low-latitude effusive basaltic eruptions is problematical, due to the elevated low-latitude tropopause. Due to the high sulfur content of hotspot-derived basaltic magmas, their very high mass eruption rates and the episodic behavior, hotspots must be regarded as potentially major modifiers of Earth's climate through the action of their volcanic volatiles on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere.

  15. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex from the giant Yanbei tin deposit, South China: Implication for multiple magma sources, tin mineralization, and geodynamic setting (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Lai, Pan-Chen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Wei


    The giant Yanbei tin ore deposit is the largest porphyry-type tin deposit in South China. The orebodies are hosted by the granite porphyry in the central part of the Yanbei volcanic basin in southern Jiangxi Province. The Yanbei volcanic-intrusive complex mainly consists of dacitic-rhyolitic volcanic rocks, granite, granite porphyry and diabase dikes. In previous papers, the granite porphyry was considered as subvolcanic rocks, which came from the same single magma chamber with the volcanic rocks. In this study, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, as well as whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of different magmatic units in the Yanbei complex are reported. Geochronologic results show that various magmatic units have different formation ages. The dacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 143 ± 1 Ma, and the granite porphyry has the emplacement age of 138 ± 1 Ma. Diabase dikes which represented the final stage of magmatism, yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 128 ± 1 Ma. Distinctive whole rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions suggest that these magmatic units were derived from different magma sources. The volcanic rocks were mainly derived from the partial melting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks without additions of mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry has an A-type geochemical affinity, and was derived from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crustal source with involvement of a subordinate mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry is also a typical stanniferous granite with high F (4070-6090 ppm) and Sn (7-39 ppm) contents. It underwent strongly crystal fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar, and accessory minerals (like apatite, Fe-Ti oxides), which may contribute to the tin mineralization. The diabase was derived by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle which had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. The change of magmatic sources reflected an increasing extensional tectonic environment, perhaps induced by slab

  16. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.


    The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Natural tracers for identifying the origin of the thermal fluids emerging along the Aegean Volcanic arc (Greece): Evidence of Arc-Type Magmatic Water (ATMW) participation (United States)

    Dotsika, E.; Poutoukis, D.; Michelot, J. L.; Raco, B.


    The Aegean volcanic arc is the result of a lithosphere subduction process during the Quaternary time. Starting from the Soussaki area, from west to east, the arc proceeds through the islands of Egina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, the Columbus Bank, Kos and Nisyros. Volcano-tectonic activities are still pronounced at Santorini and Nisyros in form of seismic activity, craters of hydrothermal explosions, hot fumaroles and thermal springs. A significant number of cold water springs emerge in the vicinity of hot waters on these islands. Chemical and isotopic analyses were applied on water and fumaroles samples collected in different areas of the volcanic arc in order to attempt the assessment of these fluids. Stable isotopes of water and carbon have been used to evaluate the origin of cold and thermal water and CO 2. Chemical solute concentrations and isotopic contents of waters show that the fluids emerging in Egina, Soussaki, Methana and Kos areas represent geothermal systems in their waning stage, while the fluids from Milos, Santorini and Nisyros proceed from active geothermal systems. The δ 2H-δ 18O-Cl - relationships suggest that the parent hydrothermal liquids of Nisyros and Milos are produced through mixing of seawater and Arc-Type Magmatic Water (ATMW), with negligible to nil contribution of local ground waters and with very high participation of the magmatic component, which is close to 70% in both sites. A very high magmatic contribution to the deep geothermal system could occur at Santorini as well, perhaps with a percentage similar to Nisyros and Milos, but it cannot be calculated because of steam condensation heavily affecting the fumarolic fluids of Nea Kameni before the surface discharge. The parent hydrothermal liquid at Methana originates through mixing of local groundwaters, seawater and ATMW, with a magmatic participation close to 19%. All in all, the contribution of ATMW is higher in the central-eastern part of the Aegean volcanic arc than in the

  18. Location of silicic caldera formation in arc settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Gwyneth R; Mahood, Gail A [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, 450 Serra, Mall, Building 320, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States)


    Silicic calderas are the surface expressions of silicic magma chambers, and thus their study may yield information about what tectonic and crustal features favor the generation of evolved magma. The goal of this study is to determine whether silicic calderas in arc settings are preferentially located behind the volcanic front. After a global analysis of young, arc-related calderas, we find that silicic calderas at continental margins do form over a wide area behind the front, as compared to other types of arc volcanoes.

  19. Growth and mass wasting of volcanic centers in the northern South Sandwich arc, South Atlantic, revealed by new multibeam mapping


    Leat, Philip T.; Tate, Alex J.; Tappin, David R.; Day, Simon J.; Owen, Matthew J.


    New multibeam (swath) bathymetric sonar data acquired using an EM120 system on the RRS James Clark Ross, supplemented by sub-bottom profiling, reveals the underwater morphology of a not, vert, similar 12,000 km2 area in the northern part of the mainly submarine South Sandwich volcanic arc. The new data extend between 55° 45′S and 57° 20′S and include Protector Shoal and the areas around Zavodovski, Visokoi and the Candlemas islands groups. Each of these areas is a discrete volcanic center. T...

  20. Sediment-peridotite interactions in a thermal gradient: mineralogic and geochemical effects and the "sedimentary signature" of arc magmas (United States)

    Woodland, Alan; Girnis, Andrei; Bulatov, Vadim; Brey, Gerhard; Höfer, Heidi; Gerdes, Axel


    Strong thermal and chemical gradients are characteristic of the slab-mantle interface in subduction zones where relatively cold sediments become juxtaposed with hotter peridotite of the mantle wedge. The formation of arc magmas is directly related to mass transfer processes under these conditions. We have undertaken a series of experiments to simulate interactions and mass transfer at the slab-mantle interface. In addition to having juxtaposed sediment and peridotite layers, the experiments were performed under different thermal gradients. The sediment had a composition similar to GLOSS (1) and also served as the source of H2O, CO2 and a large selection of trace elements. The peridotite was a depleted garnet harzburgite formed from a mixture of natural hand-picked olivine, opx and garnet. Graphite was added to this mixture to establish a redox gradient between the two layers. Experiments were performed at 7.5-10 GPa to simulate the processes during deep subduction. The thermal gradient was achieved by displacing the sample capsule (Re-lined Pt) from the center of the pressure cell. The gradient was monitored with separate thermocouples at each end of the capsule and by subsequent opx-garnet thermometry across the sample. Maximum temperatures varied from 1400˚ -900˚ C and gradients ranged from 200˚ -800˚ C. Thus, in some experiments melting occurred in the sediment layer and in others this layer remained subsolidus, only devolatilizing. Major and trace elements were transported both in the direction of melt percolation to the hot zone, as well as down temperature. This leads to the development of zones with discrete phase assemblages. Olivine in the peridotite layer becomes converted to orthopyroxene, which is due to Si addition, but also migration of Mg and Fe towards the sediment. In the coldest part of a sample, the sediment is converted into an eclogitic cpx + garnet assemblage. A thin zone depleted in almost all trace elements is formed in peridotite

  1. Insights into the Early to Late Oligocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc Magmatic History from Volcanic Minerals and Glass within Volcaniclastic Sediments of IODP Site U1438 and DSDP Site 296 (United States)

    Samajpati, E.; Hickey-Vargas, R.


    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a remnant of the early Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc, separated by arc rifting and seafloor spreading. We examine and compare volcanic materials from two sites where the transition from IBM arc building to rifting is well sampled: DSDP Site 296 on the northern KPR crest, and recent IODP Site U1438 in the adjacent Amami-Sankaku basin to the west. The purpose of the study is to understand the origin and depositional regime of volcaniclastic sediments during the arc rifting stage. Site 1438 sedimentary Unit II and the upper part of Unit III (300 and 453 mbsf) correlate in time with sedimentary Units 1G and 2 of DSDP Site 296 (160 and 300 mbsf). The upper part of Site U1438 Unit III and Site 296 Unit 2 consist of early to late Oligocene coarse volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. These are overlain by late Oligocene nannofossil chalks with volcanic sand and ash-rich layers at Site 296 Unit 1G, and tuffaceous silt, sand, siltstone and sandstone at Site 1438 Unit II. The chemical composition of volcanic glass shards, pyroxenes with melt inclusions and amphiboles separated from volcaniclastic sediments were analyzed by EPMA and LA-ICPMS. Glasses are found at Site 296 only, range from medium-K basalt to rhyolite and have trace element patterns typical of arc volcanics. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are found as detrital grains in sediments from both sites. Mg-numbers range from 58 to 94. Interestingly, the alumina content of pyroxene grain populations from both sites increase and then decrease with decreasing Mg-number. This probably reflects control of Al contents in magma and pyroxene by suppressed plagioclase saturation, which apparently was a consistent feature of KPR volcanoes. Melt-inclusions within the pyroxenes are typically small (30-50 microns) and have similar chemical compositions within one grain. The melt inclusions range from basalt to rhyolite with moderate alkali content. Amphibole is more prevalent in late Oligocene

  2. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles) (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc


    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (meta-andesite. This metamorphism forms cleavage plans thanks to a pressure-solution mechanism. Mineralogical transformations associated with these cleavage planes have an impact on petrophysical properties. The solid phase density and porosity decrease. An anisotropy of permeability develops due to cleavage plans. Thermodynamics modelling based on the rock chemical composition and petrography observations emphasizes a steady-state mineral assemblage between 1.5 - 2 kbar and 280 - 320˚ C. This is consistent with an in situ measured volcanic arc conductive geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  3. Historical volcanic eruptions in the Canary Islands, tephra composition, and insights into the crystal cargo of basaltic magmas (United States)

    Longpre, M. A.; Muller, J.; Beaudry, P.; Andronikides, A.; Felpeto, A.


    Since the 16th century, at least 13 volcanic eruptions have occurred in the Canary Islands that formed monogenetic cinder cones and lava flow fields: 2 on Lanzarote, 4 on Tenerife, 6 on La Palma, and 1 on the submarine flank of El Hierro. Here we present a comprehensive new dataset of tephra composition for all 13 eruptions, comprising major and trace element data for bulk rocks and matrix glasses, as well as vesicularity and crystallinity measurements. In addition, we compile available volcanological and petrological information for specific eruptions, including estimates of lava flow area and volume. All lapilli samples show a vesicularity of 40-50 vol% and a vesicle-free crystallinity (crystals ≥ 250 µm) of 5-15 vol%. Modal mineralogy varies significantly between samples, typically consisting of olivine ± clinopyroxene ± Fe-Ti oxide ± plagioclase ± amphibole in different proportions. All but 2 tephras have basanite-tephrite bulk rock compositions. Lapilli from vents of the AD 1730-1736 Timanfaya eruption, Lanzarote, largely are basaltic, whereas the AD 1798 Chahorra eruption, Tenerife, produced phonotephrite tephra. These results are in agreement with published bulk lava flow data. Unsurprisingly, glass compositions are more evolved than bulk rocks and MgOglass is weakly positively correlated to MgObulk (MgOglass = 0.30*MgObulk + 2.11, R2 = 0.54). Both bulk rocks and glasses show strikingly similar multi-element diagram patterns, with strong enrichment relative to the bulk-silicate Earth and marked positive Nb and Ta and negative Pb anomalies — typical for ocean island basalts. Glass/bulk rock elemental ratios reveal systematic differences between samples that relate to their mineralogy; for example, Lanzarote tephras that lack significant clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxide crystals have higher Scglass/Scbulk and Vglass/Vbulk than Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro samples that typically contain these minerals. Among all elements, K and P display the greatest

  4. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012–2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (United States)

    D’Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana


    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km3 of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area. PMID:26279090

  5. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012-2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera. (United States)

    D'Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana


    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km(3) of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area.

  6. Subaerial records of large-scale explosive volcanism and tsunami along an oceanic arc, Tonga, SW Pacific (United States)

    Cronin, S. J.; Smith, I. E.


    We present a new chronology of major terrestrial eruptions and tsunami events for the central Tongan Arc. The active Tonga-Kermadec oceanic arc extends 2500 km northward of New Zealand and hosts many tens of submarine volcanoes with around a dozen forming islands. Despite its obious volcanic setting, the impacts of explosive volcanism and volcano-tectonic related tsunami are an often overlooked in archaeological and paleo-botanical histories, mainly due the lack of good Holocene subaerial exposures. The inhabited small uplifted coral platform islands east of the volcanic arc in Tonga collectively cover only gods flying overhead with baskets of ash, and an analysis of the high-level wind distribution patterns, lake and wetland sites were investigated along the Tongan chain. In most cases former lagoon basins lifted above sea-level by a combination of tectonic rise and the lowering of mean sea levels by around 2 m since the Mid-Holocene form closed lake or swampy depressions. Coring reveaed between 6 and 20 mineral layers at each site, withn humic sediment or peat. Over thirty new radiocarbon dates were collected to develop a chronology for the sequences and the mineral layers were examined mineralogically and geochemically. These sites reveal mainly tephra fall layers of particles.

  7. Trace-element and isotopic constraints on the source of magmas in the active volcano and Mariana island arcs, Western Pacific (United States)

    Stern, Robert James; Ito, Emi


    Analytical results of the relative and absolute abundance of LIL-incompatible trace elements (K, Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba) and isotopic compositions ( {18O}/{16O}, {87Sr}/{86Sr}, and {143Nd}/{144Nd}) are summarized for fresh samples from active and dormant volcanoes of the Volcano and Mariana island arcs. The presence of thickened oceanic crust ( T ˜ 15-20 km) beneath the arc indicates that while hybridization processes resulting in the modification of primitive magmas by anatectic mixing at shallow crustal levels cannot be neglected, the extent and effects of these processes on this arc's magmas are minimized. All components of the subducted plate disappear at the trench. This observation is used to reconstruct the composition of the crust in the Wadati-Benioff zone by estimating proportions of various lithologies in the crust of the subducted plate coupled with analyses from DSDP sites. Over 90% of the mass of the subducted crust consists of basaltic Layers II and III. Sediments and seamounts, containing the bulk of the incompatible elements, make up the rest. Bulk Western Pacific seafloor has {87Sr}/{86Sr} ˜ 0.7032 , δ 18O ˜ +7.2 , K/Rb ˜ 510, K/Ba ˜ 46, and K/Cs ˜ 13,500. Consideration of trace-element data and combined δ 18O - {87Sr}/{86Sr} systematics limits the participation of sediments in magmagenesis to less than 1%, in accord with the earlier results of Pb-isotopic studies. Combined {143Nd}/{144Nd} - {87Sr}/{86Sr} data indicate little, if any, involvement of altered basaltic seafloor in magmagenesis. Perhaps more important than mean isotopic and LIL-element ratios is the restricted range for lavas from along over 1000 km of this arc. Mixtures of mantle with either the subducted crust or derivative fluids should result in strong heterogeneities in the sources of individual volcanoes along the arc. Such heterogeneities would be due to: (1) gross variations of crustal materials supplied to the subduction zone; and (2) lesser efficiency of mixing processes

  8. Contrasting estimates on the depth of magma storage zones in volcanic systems from mineral barometry and phase equilibrium experiments: a case study from Mount Merapi, Indonesia (United States)

    Erdmann, Saskia; Martel, Caroline


    Mount Merapi, located in central Java, erupts on average every 5-10 years by discharging block-and-ash flows that pose local, but spatially restricted hazards. In 2010, however, the volcano erupted with a force that has been unprecedented in over 100 years. Its proximity to the metropolis of Yogyakarta with a population of >4 million makes short- and long-term eruption forecasting a task of vital importance. Critical to the appraisal of the volcano's hazard potential are tight constraints on its upper-crustal magma plumbing system and particularly on the location of its pre-eruptive reservoir. Previous petrological studies have estimated on the basis of amphibole and clinopyroxene barometry that the main magma storage zone below Merapi is located at depths of >10-15 km, while geophysical surveys have inferred significant magma storage zones at depths of ~5.5-9 km. We have carried out phase equilibrium experiments on basaltic andesite erupted in 2010, which indicate that the main pre-eruptive reservoir is located at a depth of ~7-8 km (~200 MPa). Our results thus corroborate the findings of earlier geophysical surveys and highlight the extreme uncertainty of mineral-based pressure estimates for volcanic magma systems. We point out that the commonly employed amphibole barometric calibrations of Ridolfi et al. (2010) and Ridolfi & Renzulli (2012) calculate low crystallization pressure for amphibole crystallized from felsic melt and high crystallization pressure for amphibole crystallized from mafic melt, and that the calculated pressure is thus largely unrelated to true values. Commonly employed clinopyroxene barometers (e.g., those of Nimis 1999; Putirka 2008) are also of limited use for estimating the location of crustal magma reservoirs, because the methods have large standard errors and are extremely temperature-sensitive. As a result, the calculated crystallization pressures inevitably indicate crystallization over a large range of depths, often from deep- to

  9. Magma injection into a long-lived reservoir to explain geodetically measured uplift: Application to the 2007-2014 unrest episode at Laguna del Maule volcanic field, Chile. (United States)

    Le Mével, Hélène; Gregg, Patricia M; Feigl, Kurt L


    Moving beyond the widely used kinematic models for the deformation sources, we present a new dynamic model to describe the process of injecting magma into an existing magma reservoir. To validate this model, we derive an analytical solution and compare its results to those calculated using the Finite Element Method. A Newtonian fluid characterized by its viscosity, density, and overpressure (relative to the lithostatic value) flows through a vertical conduit, intruding into a reservoir embedded in an elastic domain, leading to an increase in reservoir pressure and time-dependent surface deformation. We apply our injection model to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from the ongoing unrest episode at Laguna del Maule (Chile) volcanic field that started in 2007. Using a grid search optimization, we minimize the misfit to the InSAR displacement data and vary the three parameters governing the analytical solution: the characteristic timescale τ P for magma propagation, the maximum injection pressure, and the inflection time when the acceleration switches from positive to negative. For a spheroid with semimajor axis a = 6200 m, semiminor axis c = 100 m, located at a depth of 4.5 km in a purely elastic half-space, the best fit to the InSAR displacement data occurs for τ P =9.5 years and an injection pressure rising up to 11.5 MPa for 2 years. The volume flow rate increased to 1.2 m 3 /s for 2 years and then decreased to 0.7 m 3 /s in 2014. In 7.3 years, at least 187 × 10 6 m 3 of magma was injected.

  10. Evidence for Slab Melt Contributions to the Mexican Volcanic Belt and Other Young Hot Slab Arcs from Lu-Hf Isotopes (United States)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Cai, Y. M.; Langmuir, C. H.; Lagatta, A.; Straub, S. M.; Gomez-Tuena, A.; Martin Del Pozzo, A.


    Despite major advances in delineating the processes that govern magma generation at convergent margins, the problem persists of distinguishing slab, mantle wedge, and crustal contributions. A corrollary question is whether there is significant melting of subducted ocean crust. Especially in thick crust regions, the importance of crustal versus mantle contributions to lavas represents a long-standing fundamental issue in arc magma geochemistry. We show that frontal arc magmas from the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt (CMVB), including the large andesitic stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, display negligible crustal contamination, and contain substantial contributions from melting of subducted Pacific ocean crust. Despite ca. 50 km thick continental crust, the CMVB erupts near primitive lavas including "high-Nb" alkaline basalts that show negligible "subduction signatures" in their trace element patterns. These "high-Nb" basalts define the regional mantle wedge composition in isotope-trace element space. The "normal" calcalkaline lavas form a negative correlation between Hf isotopes and Lu/Hf. One endmember is like the high Nb basalts representing the regional mantle wedge. The other endmember has higher Hf isotopes (approaching values of Pacific MORB) and very low Lu/Hf of less than 0.04 (e.g. compared to typical values of ca. 0.2 in Pacific MORB). The low Lu/Hf values require low degree partial melting of a source rich in garnet. The high Hf isotopes require a depleted mantle source with isotopes like Pacific MORB. Together the Lu-Hf data indicate a substantial component derived from melting of eclogitic Pacific ocean crust. A key feature of the data is that the stratovolcano lavas showing the largest slab melt signature also show the highest Hf isotope ratios and thus are more "depleted mantle-like" than the regional mantle wedge. Thus, the integrated data allow us to clearly distinguish between mantle and crustal sources in the CMVB and point to

  11. Lead isotopic compositions of South Sandwich Island volcanic rocks and their bearing on magmagenesis in intra-oceanic island arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, B.


    Pb isotope ratios have been measured in 12 volcanic rocks from the South Sandwich Islands. The results are reported. In 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb correlation diagrams, the South Sandwich data plot distinctly above the fields for ocean ridge basalts, and yield trends showing apparent mixing with a sedimentary end member similar to South Atlantic pelagic sediments as reported by Chow and Patterson (1962) and this study. Armstrong and Cooper (1971) have likewise shown that volcanics from the Lesser Antilles show mixing trends with North Atlantic sediments in Pb isotope correlation diagrams. The North Atlantic sediments have distinctly higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios compared to the South Atlantic sediments. The parallel relationships between sediments and volcanic island arc rocks of the North and South Atlantic provide strong evidence for a component of Pb from subducted sediments in the lavas of the west Atlantic basin. In contrast to these data, lavas from the Mariana Arc in the western Pacific show little or no component of Pb from pelagic sediments. The reason for the different behaviors in the two settings is speculative. (author)

  12. Sr- and Nd- isotope variations along the Pleistocene San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain, N. Chile: Tracking the influence of the upper crustal Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Le Roux, Petrus; de Silva, Shanaka; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Kojima, Shoji; González-Maurel, Osvaldo; Morata, Diego; Polanco, Edmundo; Martínez, Paula


    Subduction-related magmas that erupted in the Central Andes during the past 10 Ma are strongly affected by crustal assimilation as revealed by an increase in 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios with time that in turn are correlated with increased crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny. However, contamination is not uniform and can be strongly influenced locally by crustal composition, structure and thermal condition. This appears to be the case along the NW-SE San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC) in northern Chile, which straddles the boundary of a major zone of partial melt, the Altiplano_Puna Magma Body (APMB). Herein we report 40Ar/39Ar ages, compositional and isotope data on lavas from the SPLVC that track the influence of this zone of partial melting on erupted lavas with geochronological and geochemical data. Ages reported here indicate that SPLVC has evolved in the last 2 M.y., similar to other volcanoes of the Western Cordillera (e.g. Lascar, Uturuncu, Putana). 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase systematically along the chain from a minimum value of 0.7057 in San Pedro dacites to a maximum of 0.7093-0.7095 for the Toconce and Cerro de Leon dacites in the SE. These changes are interpreted to reflect the increasing interaction of SPLVC parental magmas with partial melt within the APMB eastwards across the chain. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio and an antithetic trend in 143Nd/144Nd is therefore a proxy for the contribution of melt from the APMB beneath this volcanic chain. Similar 87Sr/86Sr increases and 143Nd/144Nd decreases are observed in other transects crossing the boundary of the APMB. Such trends can be recognized from NW to SE between Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, and Uturuncu volcanoes, and from Lascar volcano to the N-S-trending Putana-Sairecabur-Licancabur volcanic chain to the north. We interpret these isotopic trends as reflecting different degrees of interaction of mafic parental melts with the APMB. High 87Sr/86Sr, and low 143Nd/144Nd reveal zones where the APMB is

  13. Evidence of magma recharge at Colli Albani (Italy), the volcanic district at the gates of Rome, from geodesy and gas geochemistry (United States)

    Trasatti, E.; Marra, F.; Polcari, M.; Etiope, G.; Ciotoli, G.; Darrah, T.; Tedesco, D.; Stramondo, S.; Florindo, F.; Ventura, G.


    Colli Albani (Italy) is an alkali-potassic volcanic district located about 20 km SE of Rome (3 M inhabitants) and lastly erupted 36 ka ago. Since the modern volcanic activity at Colli Albani seems not particularly intense, scientists have interpreted this volcano to be quiescent. Therefore, unlike other Italian volcanoes, the area has not undergone extensive monitoring. However, a seismic swarm during 1989-1990 has been related to a local uplift of ca. 30 cm since the 1950's along a line crossing the western side of the volcano, giving rise to a debate about its possible interpretation in terms of unrest. Furthermore, recent geological investigations indicate a coupling of eruption history, uplift history, and changes in the regional stress field, pointing to the conclusion that Colli Albani is in unrest. Here, we investigate the deformation processes and the gas geochemistry (He, CO2 and their isotopic ratios). From the analysis of about 20 years of InSAR data (1992-2010), we retrieve a puzzling deformation field at Colli Albani, consisting of long-term, constant rate, uplift of its western and southern flanks, and by coeval intra-caldera subsidence. This deformation setting cannot be related to a single cause, but reflects the interaction between different and spatially independent dynamic processes. Furthermore, we obtain information on the nature of the sources from the isotopic composition of the discharging CO2 and helium, showing that the Colli Albani dynamics are the result of decoupling between magma intrusion along pre-existing tectonic faults and caldera subsidence. In order to design a comprehensive geophysical model inclusive of all the above reported peculiarities, we consider potential sources related to magma/fluid migration or accumulation processes at depth through the main tectonic structures active at CA, by means of a numerical model. In summary, we demonstrate that despite the present-day phase of caldera deflation, the magmatic system at

  14. Chemical Evidence for Vertical Transport from Magma Chambers to the Surface During Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanic Eruptions (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.


    Many mid-ocean ridge eruptions show significant internal chemical heterogeneity; in general, the amount of chemical heterogeneity within eruptions scales with erupted volume. These variations reflect magmatic processes occurring in magma reservoirs prior to or possibly during eruption. For example, systematic variations in Mg# with along-axis distance in the early 90’s Aldo-Kihi (S. EPR near 17.5°S), 1996 N. Gorda, 1993 Co-Axial (Juan de Fuca Ridge), and 1991-2 and 2005-6 9°50’N EPR eruptions is unlikely to be related to fractionation during emplacement, and rather reflects variations in sub-axial magma reservoirs prior to eruption. Such variations are inconsistent with well-mixed sub-axial reservoirs and, in some cases, require relatively long-lived, systematic variations in reservoir temperatures along axis. Chemical heterogeneity within the Aldo-Kihi eruption preserves spatial variations in mantle-derived isotopic and trace element ratios with implications for the temporal and spatial scales of magma injections to the crust and along-axis mixing within shallow reservoirs. These spatial variations are difficult to reconcile with significant (> ~1 km) along-axis magma transport, as are striking correlations of chemical compositions with surface geological discontinuities or seismically imaged sub-axial magma chamber reflectors in the S. Hump (S. EPR), 9°50’N EPR, N. Gorda and 1975-1984 Krafla (N. Iceland) eruptive units. Rather, spatial correlations between surface lava compositions and sub-axial magma chamber properties or long-lived axial morphology suggest that most of the erupted magma was transported nearly vertically from the underlying reservoirs to the surface during these eruptions. In the case of the Krafla eruption, coincident deformation suggests a component of lateral melt migration at depth, despite chemical evidence for vertical transport of erupted lava from more than one chemical reservoir. In addition, along-ridge movement of earthquake

  15. Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea) (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.


    The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189

  16. Magmatically Greedy Reararc Volcanoes of the N. Tofua Segment of the Tonga Arc (United States)

    Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.; Arculus, R. J.; Lupton, J. E.


    Volcanism along the northernmost Tofua Arc is enigmatic because edifices of the arc's volcanic front are mostly, magmatically relatively anemic, despite the very high convergence rate of the Pacific Plate with this section of Tonga Arc. However, just westward of the arc front, in terrain generally thought of as part of the adjacent NE Lau Backarc Basin, lie a series of very active volcanoes and volcanic features, including the large submarine caldera Niuatahi (aka volcano 'O'), a large composite dacite lava flow terrain not obviously associated with any particular volcanic edifice, and the Mata volcano group, a series of 9 small elongate volcanoes in an extensional basin at the extreme NE corner of the Lau Basin. These three volcanic terrains do not sit on arc-perpendicular cross chains. Collectively, these volcanic features appear to be receiving a large proportion of the magma flux from the sub-Tonga/Lau mantle wedge, in effect 'stealing' this magma flux from the arc front. A second occurrence of such magma 'capture' from the arc front occurs in an area just to the south, on southernmost portion of the Fonualei Spreading Center. Erupted compositions at these 'magmatically greedy' volcanoes are consistent with high slab-derived fluid input into the wedge (particularly trace element abundances and volatile contents, e.g., see Lupton abstract this session). It is unclear how long-lived a feature this is, but the very presence of such hyperactive and areally-dispersed volcanism behind the arc front implies these volcanoes are not in fact part of any focused spreading/rifting in the Lau Backarc Basin, and should be thought of as 'reararc volcanoes'. Possible tectonic factors contributing to this unusually productive reararc environment are the high rate of convergence, the cold slab, the highly disorganized extension in the adjacent backarc, and the tear in the subducting plate just north of the Tofua Arc.

  17. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.


    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  18. The role of changing geodynamics in the progressive contamination of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene arc magmas in the southern Central Andes (United States)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Hinton, Richard; EIMF


    The tectonic and geodynamic setting of the southern Central Andean convergent margin changed significantly between the Late Cretaceous and the Late Miocene, influencing magmatic activity and its geochemical composition. Here we investigate how these changes, which include changing slab-dip angle and convergence angles and rates, have influenced the contamination of the arc magmas with crustal material. Whole rock geochemical data for a suite of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene arc rocks from the Pampean flat-slab segment (29-31 °S) of the southern Central Andes is presented alongside petrographic observations and high resolution age dating. In-situ U-Pb dating of magmatic zircon, combined with Ar-Ar dating of plagioclase, has led to an improved regional stratigraphy and provides an accurate temporal constraint for the geochemical data. A generally higher content of incompatible trace elements (e.g. Nb/Zr ratios from 0.019 to 0.083 and Nb/Yb from 1.5 to 16.4) is observed between the Late Cretaceous ( 72 Ma), when the southern Central Andean margin is suggested to have been in extension, and the Miocene when the thickness of the continental crust increased and the angle of the subducting Nazca plate shallowed. Trace and rare earth element compositions obtained for the Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene arc magmatic rocks from the Principal Cordillera of Chile, combined with a lack of zircon inheritance, suggest limited assimilation of the overlying continental crust by arc magmas derived from the mantle wedge. A general increase in incompatible, fluid-mobile/immobile (e.g., Ba/Nb) and fluid-immobile/immobile (e.g., Nb/Zr) trace element ratios is attributed to the influence of the subducting slab on the melt source region and/or the influx of asthenospheric mantle. The Late Oligocene ( 26 Ma) to Early Miocene ( 17 Ma), and Late Miocene ( 6 Ma) arc magmatic rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera show evidence for the bulk assimilation of the Permian-Triassic (P

  19. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji


    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  20. On the conditions of magma mixing and its bearing on andesite production in the crust. (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Andujar, Joan; Arbaret, Laurent


    Mixing between magmas is thought to affect a variety of processes, from the growth of continental crust to the triggering of volcanic eruptions, but its thermophysical viability remains unclear. Here, by using high-pressure mixing experiments and thermal calculations, we show that hybridization during single-intrusive events requires injection of high proportions of the replenishing magma during short periods, producing magmas with 55-58 wt% SiO2 when the mafic end-member is basaltic. High strain rates and gas-rich conditions may produce more felsic hybrids. The incremental growth of crustal reservoirs limits the production of hybrids to the waning stage of pluton assembly and to small portions of it. Large-scale mixing appears to be more efficient at lower crustal conditions, but requires higher proportions of mafic melt, producing more mafic hybrids than in shallow reservoirs. Altogether, our results show that hybrid arc magmas correspond to periods of enhanced magma production at depth.

  1. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, Lang; Bowring, Samuel; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.


    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the

  2. Geothermal Potential of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs, with Ranking of Individual Volcanic Centers for their Potential to Host Electricity-Grade Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Stelling, Pete [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); Melosh, Glenn [GEODE, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)


    This project brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal play fairway analysis by developing statistics for the occurrence of geothermal reservoirs and their geoscience context worldwide in order to rank U.S. prospects. The focus of the work was to develop play fairways for the Cascade and Aleutian arcs to rank the individual volcanic centers in these arcs by their potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems. The Fairway models were developed by describing key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes 74 volcanic centers world-wide with current power production. To our knowledge, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic systems to date that will be made public.

  3. Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem: Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frezzotti, M.L.; Zavon, V.; Peccerillo, A.; Nikogosian, I.


    Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy Proceedings of workshop Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem. Napoli, Italy, September 2002, p. 71-73

  4. Sphene and zircon in the Highland Range volcanic sequence (Miocene, southern Nevada, USA): Elemental partitioning, phase relations, and influence on evolution of silicic magma (United States)

    Colombini, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Gualda, G.A.R.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, J.S.


    Sphene is prominent in Miocene plutonic rocks ranging from diorite to granite in southern Nevada, USA, but it is restricted to rhyolites in coeval volcanic sequences. In the Highland Range volcanic sequence, sphene appears as a phenocryst only in the most evolved rocks (72-77 mass% SiO2; matrix glass 77-78 mass% SiO2). Zr-in-sphene temperatures of crystallization are mostly restricted to 715 and 755??C, in contrast to zircon (710-920??C, Ti-in-zircon thermometry). Sphene rim/glass Kds for rare earth elements are extremely high (La 120, Sm 1200, Gd 1300, Lu 240). Rare earth elements, especially the middle REE (MREE), decrease from centers to rims of sphene phenocrysts along with Zr, demonstrating the effect of progressive sphene fractionation. Whole rocks and glasses have MREE-depleted, U-shaped REE patterns as a consequence of sphene fractionation. Within the co-genetic, sphene-rich Searchlight pluton, only evolved leucogranites show comparable MREE depletion. These results indicate that sphene saturation in intruded and extruded magmas occurred only in highly evolved melts: abundant sphene in less silicic plutonic rocks represents a late-stage 'bloom' in fractionated interstitial melt. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Pre-eruptive conditions of the ~31 ka rhyolitic magma of Tlaloc volcano, Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range, Central Mexico (United States)

    Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Rueda, H.; Gardner, J.


    Tlaloc volcano is located at the northern tip of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range in Central Mexico. This Pleistocene to Recent volcanic range consists from north to south of Tlaloc-Telapón-Teyotl-Iztaccíhuatl-and- Popocatépetl volcanoes. While andesitic to barely dacitic volcanism dominates the southern part of the range (i.e. Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl); dacitic and rare rhyolithic volcanism (i.e. Telapón, Tlaloc) dominates the northern end. The known locus of rhyolitic magmatism took place at Tlaloc volcano with a Plinian-Subplinian eruption that occurred 31 ka ago. The eruption emplaced the so-called multilayered fallout and pumiceous pyroclastic flows (~2 km3 DRE). The deposit consists of 95% vol. of juvenile particles (pumice + crystals) and minor altered lithics 5% vol. The mineral association of the pumice fragments (74-76 % wt. SiO2) consists of quartz + plagioclase + sanidine + biotite and rare oxides set in a glassy groundmass with voids. Melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts suggest that prior to the eruption the rhyolitic contain ~7% of H2O and Nevado de Toluca volcano (~6 km) some 50 km to the southwest.

  6. Aleutian tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series I: The mafic phenocrysts (United States)

    Kay, S. Mahlburg; Kay, Robert W.


    Diagnostic mafic silicate assemblages in a continuous spectrum of Aleutian volcanic rocks provide evidence for contrasts in magmatic processes in the Aleutian arc crust. Tectonic segmentation of the arc exerts a primary control on the variable mixing, fractional crystallization and possible assimilation undergone by the magmas. End members of the continuum are termed calc-alkaline (CA) and tholeiitic (TH). CA volcanic rocks (e.g., Buldir and Moffett volcanoes) have low FeO/MgO ratios and contain compositionally diverse phenocryst populations, indicating magma mixing. Their Ni and Cr-rich magnesian olivine and clinopyroxene come from mantle-derived mafic olivine basalts that have mixed with more fractionated magmas at mid-to lower-crustal levels immediately preceding eruption. High-Al amphibole is associated with the mafic end member. In contrast, TH lavas (e.g., Okmok and Westdahl volcanoes) have high FeO/MgO ratios and contain little evidence for mixing. Evolved lavas represent advanced stages of low pressure crystallization from a basaltic magma. These lavas contain groundmass olivine (FO 40 50) and lack Ca-poor pyroxene. Aleutian volcanic rocks with intermediate FeO/MgO ratios are termed transitional tholeiitic (TTH) and calc-alkaline (TCA). TCA magmas are common (e.g., Moffett, Adagdak, Great Sitkin, and Kasatochi volcanoes) and have resulted from mixing of high-Al basalt with more evolved magmas. They contain amphibole (high and low-Al) or orthopyroxene or both and are similar to the Japanese hypersthene-series. TTH magmas (e.g., Okmok and Westdahl) contain orthopyroxene or pigeonite or both, and show some indication of upper crustal mixing. They are mineralogically similar to the Japanese pigeonite-series. High-Al basalt lacks Mg-rich mafic phases and is a derivative magma produced by high pressure fractionation of an olivine tholeiite. The low pressure mineral assemblage of high-Al basalt results from crystallization at higher crustal levels.

  7. A New Sulfur and Carbon Degassing Inventory for the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc: The Importance of Accurate Time-Series Data Sets and Possible Tectonic Processes Responsible for Temporal Variations in Arc-Scale Volatile Emissions (United States)

    de Moor, J. M.; Kern, C.; Avard, G.; Muller, C.; Aiuppa, A.; Saballos, A.; Ibarra, M.; LaFemina, P.; Protti, M.; Fischer, T. P.


    This work presents a new database of SO2 and CO2 fluxes from the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc (SCAVA) for the period 2015-2016. We report ˜300 SO2 flux measurements from 10 volcanoes and gas ratios from 11 volcanoes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua representing the most extensive available assessment of this ˜500 km arc segment. The SO2 flux from SCAVA is estimated at 6,240 ± 1,150 T/d, about a factor of three higher than previous estimations (1972-2013). We attribute this increase in part to our more complete assessment of the arc. Another consideration in interpreting the difference is the context of increased volcanic activity, as there were more eruptions in 2015-2016 than in any period since ˜1980. A potential explanation for increased degassing and volcanic activity is a change in crustal stress regime (from compression to extension, opening volcanic conduits) following two large (Mw > 7) earthquakes in the region in 2012. The CO2 flux from the arc is estimated at 22,500 ± 4,900 T/d, which is equal to or greater than estimates of C input into the SCAVA subduction zone. Time-series data sets for arc degassing need to be improved in temporal and spatial coverage to robustly constrain volatile budgets and tectonic controls. Arc volatile budgets are strongly influenced by short-lived degassing events and arc systems likely display significant short-term variations in volatile output, calling for expansion of nascent geochemical monitoring networks to achieve spatial and temporal coverage similar to traditional geophysical networks.

  8. A new sulfur and carbon degassing inventory for the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc: The importance of accurate time-series datasets and possible tectonic processes responsible for temporal variations in arc-scale volatile emissions (United States)

    de Moor, Maarten; Kern, Christoph; Avard, Geoffroy; Muller, Cyril; Aiuppa, Sandro; Saballos, Armando; Ibarra, Martha; LaFemina, Peter; Protti, Mario; Fischer, Tobias


    This work presents a new database of SO2 and CO2 fluxes from the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc (SCAVA) for the period 2015–2016. We report ∼300 SO2 flux measurements from 10 volcanoes and gas ratios from 11 volcanoes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua representing the most extensive available assessment of this ∼500 km arc segment. The SO2 flux from SCAVA is estimated at 6,240 ± 1,150 T/d, about a factor of three higher than previous estimations (1972–2013). We attribute this increase in part to our more complete assessment of the arc. Another consideration in interpreting the difference is the context of increased volcanic activity, as there were more eruptions in 2015–2016 than in any period since ∼1980. A potential explanation for increased degassing and volcanic activity is a change in crustal stress regime (from compression to extension, opening volcanic conduits) following two large (Mw > 7) earthquakes in the region in 2012. The CO2 flux from the arc is estimated at 22,500 ± 4,900 T/d, which is equal to or greater than estimates of C input into the SCAVA subduction zone. Time‐series data sets for arc degassing need to be improved in temporal and spatial coverage to robustly constrain volatile budgets and tectonic controls. Arc volatile budgets are strongly influenced by short‐lived degassing events and arc systems likely display significant short‐term variations in volatile output, calling for expansion of nascent geochemical monitoring networks to achieve spatial and temporal coverage similar to traditional geophysical networks.

  9. The crustal thickness and lithospheric structure of active and inactive volcanic arc terrains in Fiji and Tonga (United States)

    Chen, J.; Wiens, D.; Wei, S. S.; Zha, Y.; Julià, J.; Cai, C.; Chen, Y. J.


    In order to investigate the crustal thickness and lithospheric structure beneath active and inactive volcanic arcs in Fiji and Tonga, we analyzed receiver functions from teleseismic P waves as well as Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes and ambient noise. The data were recorded by stations from three previous temporary seismic arrays deployed on the islands during 1993-1995, 2001-2002, and 2009-2010. Receiver functions were calculated with an iterative deconvolution in the time domain. We used an H-k stacking method to get preliminary Moho depth estimates under the island arcs, after assuming constant seismic average crustal P velocity. We also determined the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station from a 1-D combined inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves from ambient noise cross correlation at 8s - 20s and teleseismic surface waves at 20s-90s. The joint inversion models reveal that the Moho beneath the main islands of the Fiji plateau is 26-31 km deep, whereas the crust under the outer islands - including the Lau Ridge - is generally thinner, with Moho depths of 21-23.5 km. The thinnest crust (16 km) is found beneath Moala Island located between the Fiji Platform and the Lau Ridge. Crustal thickness beneath several Tonga islands is about 18-20 km. A relatively high velocity lithosphere (Vs of 4.4 - 4.5 km/s) extends to only about 60 km depth beneath the outer Fiji Islands and Lau Ridge, but to depths of 90 km underneath the main islands of the Fiji Plateau. The much thicker crust and lithosphere of the Fiji plateau relative to the Lau Ridge and Tonga Arc reflects its much longer geological history of arc crust building, going back to the early Miocene.

  10. The geochemical characteristics of basaltic and acidic volcanics around the Myojin depression in the Izu arc, Japan (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Tamaki, K.; Kato, Y.; Machida, S.


    Around the Myojin Depression, westside of the Myojin-sho caldera in the Izu arc, seamounts are circular distributed and hydrothermal activity with sulfide deposition are found from the Baiyonneise Caldera, one of seamounts at the northern side. Some knoll chains distribute in the eastside of the Myojin Depression, and connect between these knolls. This circulator distribution of seamounts and connected knoll chains considered to the dykes are similar to the geographical features of the Kuroko Depositions in the Hokuroku Region, Northwest Japan (Tanahashi et al., 2008). Hydrothermal activities are also found from the other rifts (Urabe and Kusakabe 1990). Based on these observations, the cruise KT09-12 by R/V Tansei-Maru, Ocean Research Institute (ORI), University of Tokyo, investigated in the Myojin Rift. During the cruise, basaltic to dacitic volcanic rocks and some acidic plutonic rocks were recovered by dredge system. Herein, we present petrographical and chemical analyses of these rock samples with sample dredged by the cruise MW9507 by R/V MOANA WAVE, and consider the association with hydrothermal activities and depositions. Dredges during the cruise KT09-12 were obtained at the Daini-Beiyonneise Knoll at the northern side, Daisan-Beiyonneise Knoll at the southern side, and the Dragonborn Hill, small knoll chains, at the southeastern side of the depression. Many volcanic rocks are basalt, and recovered mainly from the Dragonborn Hill. Andesite and dacite was recovered from the Daini- and the Daini-Bayonneise Knoll. Tonalites were recovered from the Daisan-Bayonneise Knoll. Basalts from the Dragonborn Hill show less than 50% of SiO2 and more than 6 wt% and 0.88 wt% of MgO and TiO2 content. Basalts from the rift zone show depleted in the volcanic front (VF) side and enriched in the reararc (RA) side. The Dragonborn Hill is distributed near the VF, and basalts show depleted geochemical characteristics. However, these characteristics are different from the basalts

  11. The 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb dating of young rhyolites in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic complex, Eastern Aegean Arc, Greece: Age discordance due to excess 40Ar in biotite (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Schoene, B.; Schnyder, C.; Spikings, R.


    High-precision dating of Quaternary silicic magmas in the active Kos-Nisyros volcanic center (Aegean Arc, Greece) by both 40Ar/39Ar on biotite and U/Pb on zircon reveals a complex geochronological story. U/Pb ID-TIMS multi and single-grain zircon analyses from 3 different units (Agios Mammas and Zini domes, Kefalos Serie pyroclasts) range in age from 0.3 to 0.5 to 10-20 Ma. The youngest dates provide the maximum eruption age, while the oldest zircons indicate inheritance from local continental crust (Miocene and older). Step-heating 40Ar/39Ar experiments on 1-3 crystals of fresh biotite yielded highly disturbed Ar-release patterns with plateau ages typically older than most U/Pb ages. These old plateau ages are probably not a consequence of inheritance from xenocrystic biotites because Ar diffuses extremely fast at magmatic temperatures and ratios are reset within a few days. On the basis of (1) elevated and/or imprecise 40Ar/36Ar ratios, (2) shapes of the Ar release spectra, and (3) a high mantle 3He flux in the Kos-Nisyros area, we suggest that biotite crystals retained some mantle 40Ar that led to the observed, anomalously old ages. In contrast, sanidine crystals from the only sanidine-bearing unit in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center (the caldera-forming Kos Plateau Tuff) do not appear to store any excess 40Ar relative to atmospheric composition. The eastern edge of the Aegean Arc is tectonically complex, undergoing rapid extension and located close to a major structural boundary. In such regions, which are characterized by high fluxes of mantle volatiles, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on biotite can lead to erroneous results due to the presence of excess 40Ar and should be checked either against 40Ar/39Ar sanidine or U/Pb zircon ages.

  12. Magma-derived CO2 emissions in the Tengchong volcanic field, SE Tibet: Implications for deep carbon cycle at intra-continent subduction zone (United States)

    Zhang, Maoliang; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank


    Active volcanoes at oceanic subduction zone have long been regard as important pathways for deep carbon degassed from Earth's interior, whereas those at continental subduction zone remain poorly constrained. Large-scale active volcanoes, together with significant modern hydrothermal activities, are widely distributed in the Tengchong volcanic field (TVF) on convergent boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. They provide an important opportunity for studying deep carbon cycle at the ongoing intra-continent subduction zone. Soil microseepage survey based on accumulation chamber method reveals an average soil CO2 flux of ca. 280 g m-2 d-1 in wet season for the Rehai geothermal park (RGP). Combined with average soil CO2 flux in dry season (ca. 875 g m-2 d-1), total soil CO2 output of the RGP and adjacent region (ca. 3 km2) would be about 6.30 × 105 t a-1. Additionally, we conclude that total flux of outgassing CO2 from the TVF would range in (4.48-7.05) × 106 t a-1, if CO2 fluxes from hot springs and soil in literature are taken into account. Both hot spring and soil gases from the TVF exhibit enrichment in CO2 (>85%) and remarkable contribution from mantle components, as indicated by their elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.85-5.30 RA) and δ13C-CO2 values (-9.00‰ to -2.07‰). He-C isotope coupling model suggests involvement of recycled organic metasediments and limestones from subducted Indian continental lithosphere in formation of the enriched mantle wedge (EMW), which has been recognized as source region of the TVF parental magmas. Contamination by crustal limestone is the first-order control on variations in He-CO2 systematics of volatiles released by the EMW-derived melts. Depleted mantle and recycled crustal materials from subducted Indian continental lithosphere contribute about 45-85% of the total carbon inventory, while the rest carbon (about 15-55%) is accounted by limestones in continental crust. As indicated by origin and evolution of the TVF

  13. Adakite-like and Normal Arc Magmas: Distinct Fractionation Paths in the East Serbian Segment of the Balkan-Carpathian Arc


    Kolb, M.; Von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Heinrich, C. A.; Fowler, S. J.; Cvetković, V.


    New age and whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic data are used to assess petrogenetic and regional geodynamic processes associated with Late Cretaceous subvolcanic intrusions within the sparsely studied Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC) and Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (RKZ) of eastern Serbia. The TMC and RKZ form part of the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie (ABTS) magmatic belt, a Cu-Au mineralized calc-alkaline magmatic arc related to closure of the Tethys Ocean that extends through Romania, Se...

  14. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo


    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  15. 230Th/234U activity ratio in the products from Izu-Bonin island-arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Sato, J.


    Magma genesis at subduction zone is generally inferred to be induced by the partial melting of the mantle wedge by the addition of fluid derived from the subducting slab. Uranium-series disequilibria in the volcanic products are a useful tracer to understand various magma processes. Young island-arc volcanic rocks showed the characteristic feature of excess 234 U over 230 Th. Observation was carried out on the radioactive disequilibrium between 234 U and 230 Th in the volcanic products from Asama volcano and Izu-Mariana island-arc volcanoes. Thorium and Uranium in the volcanic rock samples were separated by anion-exchange resin and purified by TEVA·Spec. and UTEVA·Spec. resins, respectively. Purified Th and U were electrodeposited onto a stainless steel planchet for α-ray counting. U-234 and 230 Th in volcanic rock samples were determined by isotope dilution method coupled with α-ray spectrometry. 230 Th/ 234 U activity ratio in the volcanic products from Asama volcano and Izu-Bonin island-arc volcanoes were in radioactive disequilibrium, enriched in 234 U relative to 230 Th, which is often observed for volcanic products from young island-arc volcanic products. (author)

  16. Reassessment of the origin of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite, New Zealand : Nd-isotopic and geochemical evolution of magma suites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivell, W.J.; McCulloch, M.T.


    Magmatic suites with contrasting isotopic and geochemical compositions, sequentially emplaced in different tectonic regimes, comprise the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt (DMOB), New Zealand. At D'Urville Island, the northernmost exposure of the DMOB, earliest erupted (stage 1) pillow basalts ε Nd (T) = +6.3 to +7.5, and are incompatible element enriched, like basalts from geochemically anomalous ridge segments. Overlying stage 2 basalts (sheeted flows) show a narrow range of ε Nd (T) = +8.3 + or -0.2, with chemical characteristics of depleted backarc basin basalts. These rocks are intruded by mafic to silicic stage 3 magmas, which have high uniform initial 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios (ε Nd (T) = +9.3 + or -0.2) over a wide range of 147 Sm/ 144 Nd values (yielding a precise Early Permian Nd-isotope age of 278 ± 4 Ma (MSWD = 0.48)). Stage 3 magmas show pronounced subduction-related geochemical signatures similar to island arc tholeiites (IAT) from immature arcs. They are closely analogous to some (boninite)-IAT magmas which characterise 'infant arc' eruptive activity in forearc basins of present-day Western Pacific island arc systems. A wide variety of stage 3 magma compositions, ranging from near-primary basaltic dikes (Mg = 74) to extremely fractionated silicic plagiogranites with uniformly very depleted isotopic ratios, is consistent with slow spreading rates which gave rise to polybaric, closed-system fractionation of magmas and periodic chamber abandonment. Some stage 3 rocks with SiO 2 levels in the andesite range have low-TiO 2 contents and high Mg, and may be fractionated equivalents of boninites. High ε Nd (T) values of stage 3 magmas indicate a lack of subducted sediment with inherited crustal residence signatures, and reflect the extent of supra-subduction zone (SSZ) mantle wedge depletion. DMOB stage 3 magmas may represent foreac magmatism that was the precursor to normal subduction-related volcanism established by c. 265 Ma in the Brook Street Arc and derived

  17. The roles of fractional crystallization, magma mixing, crystal mush remobilization and volatile-melt interactions in the genesis of a young basalt-peralkaline rhyolite suite, the greater Olkaria volcanic complex, Kenya Rift valley (United States)

    Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.E.; Fitton, J.G.; Rogers, N.W.; Nejbert, K.; Tindle, A.G.; Marshall, A.S.


    The Greater Olkaria Volcanic Complex is a young (???20 ka) multi-centred lava and dome field dominated by the eruption of peralkaline rhyolites. Basaltic and trachytic magmas have been erupted peripherally to the complex and also form, with mugearites and benmoreites, an extensive suite of magmatic inclusions in the rhyolites. The eruptive rocks commonly represent mixed magmas and the magmatic inclusions are themselves two-, three- or four-component mixes. All rock types may carry xenocrysts of alkali feldspar, and less commonly plagioclase, derived from magma mixing and by remobilization of crystal mushes and/or plutonic rocks. Xenoliths in the range gabbro-syenite are common in the lavas and magmatic inclusions, the more salic varieties sometimes containing silicic glass representing partial melts and ranging in composition from anorthite ?? corundum- to acmite-normative. The peralkaline varieties are broadly similar, in major element terms, to the eruptive peralkaline rhyolites. The basalt-trachyte suite formed by a combination of fractional crystallization, magma mixing and resorption of earlier-formed crystals. Matrix glass in metaluminous trachytes has a peralkaline rhyolitic composition, indicating that the eruptive rhyolites may have formed by fractional crystallization of trachyte. Anomalous trace element enrichments (e.g. ??? 2000 ppm Y in a benmoreite) and negative Ce anomalies may have resulted from various Na- and K-enriched fluids evolving from melts of intermediate composition and either being lost from the system or enriched in other parts of the reservoirs. A small group of nepheline-normative, usually peralkaline, magmatic inclusions was formed by fluid transfer between peralkaline rhyolitic and benmoreitic magmas. The plumbing system of the complex consists of several independent reservoirs and conduits, repeatedly recharged by batches of mafic magma, with ubiquitous magma mixing. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  18. Investigation of volcanic gas analyses and magma outgassing from Erta' Ale lava lake, Afar, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T.M.


    The analyses of 18 volcanic gas samples collected over a two-hour period at 1075/sup 0/C from Erta' Ale lava lake in December 1971 and of 18 samples taken over a half-hour period at 1125 to 1135/sup 0/C in 1974 display moderately to intensely variable compositions. These variations result from imposed modifications caused by (1) atmospheric contamination and oxidation, (2) condensation and re-evaporation of water during collection, (3) analytical errors, and (4) chemical reactions between the erupted gases and a steel lead-in tube. Detailed examinations of the analyses indicate the erupted gases were at chemical equilibrium before collection. This condition was partially destroyed by the imposed modifications. High-temperature reaction equilibria were more completely preserved in the 1974 samples. Numerical procedures based on thermodynamic calculations have been used to restore each analysis to a composition representative of the erupted gases. These procedures have also been used to restore the anhydrous mean compositions reported for two series of collections taken at the lava lake in January 1973.

  19. {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra systematics applied to the active oceanic volcanism. Constraints on the duration and processes of magmas formation; Systematique {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra appliquee au volcanisme actif oceanique. Contraintes sur la duree et les processus de formation des magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claude-Ivana, Ch


    The development of a new precise analytical technique for measuring radioactive disequilibria by TIMS has enabled to put constraints on both the extend and time scale of incompatible element fractionation during magma formation in oceanic islands. Three different settings have been studied: the Grande Comore volcanoes (Comores archipelago), Tenerife and Lanzarote volcanism (Canary islands) and four islands within the Azores: Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Faial islands. The Comores and Canaries archipelagoes are both lying on an old thick oceanic lithosphere. The detailed case in Grande Comore shows evidence for a process of interaction of the Comore plume with the underlying lithosphere. In the Canaries, the lithosphere also contributes to lava formation either during the differentiation (in Tenerife) or during mantle melting (in Lanzarote). Within the Azores, U-series measurements reveal large geochemical and isotopic variations between the different islands that we interpret as reflecting heterogeneities in the Azore plume. In particular, the U-Th fractionation in Sao Miguel volcanics is though to result from melting of an hydrous sediment-bearing mantle. The magma transit times have been found to be very short (1000 yr) in all the basaltic series. This very rapid migration of the melts is an evidence for the absence of large magma chamber and for processes of fracturing during melt transports. However, this model does not apply in the case of the very evolved volcanic series in Tenerife island (Canaries) where transit times of c.a. 100000 yr indicate the presence of a large magmatic reservoir. (author)

  20. Exploring Links Between Global Climate and Explosive Arc Volcanism in Tephra-Rich Quaternary Sediments: A Pilot Study from IODP Expedition 350 Site 1437B, Izu Bonin Rear-Arc Region (United States)

    Corry-Saavedra, K.; Straub, S. M.; Bolge, L.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Woodhead, J. D.


    Fallout tephra in marine sediment provide an excellent archive of explosive arc volcanism that can be directly related to the other parameters of climate change, such as ice volume data, IRD (ice-rafted debris) input, etc. Current studies are based on 'discrete' tephra beds, which are produced by major eruptions and visible with the naked eye. Yet the more common, but less explosive arc eruptions that are more continuous through time produce 'disperse' tephra, which is concealed by the non-volcanic host sediment and invisible to the eye. The proportion of disperse tephra in marine sediments is known to be significant and may be critical in elucidating potential synchronicity between arc volcanism and glacial cycles. We conducted a pilot study in young sediments of IODP Hole 1437B drilled at 31°47.3911'N and 139°01.5788'E at the rear-arc of the Izu Bonin volcanic arc. By means of δ18O (Vautravers, in revision), eleven climatic cycles are recorded in uppermost 120 meter of carbonate mud that is interspersed by cm-thick tephra fallout layers. We selected six tephra layers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.16 million years in age, and sampled those vertically, starting from carbonate mud below the basal contact throughout the typical gradational top into the carbonate mud above. From each tephra bed, volcanic particles (>125 micrometer) were handpicked. All other samples were powdered and leached in buffered acetic acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to remove the carbonate and authigenous fraction, respectively. Major and trace element abundances (except for SiO2) from all samples were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods. Strong binary mixing trends are revealed between the pure tephra end member, and detrital sediment component. The tephra is derived from the Izu Bonin volcanic front and rear-arc, while the sediment component is presumably transported by ocean surface currents from the East China Sea. Our data show that mixing proportions change systematically with

  1. The Meaning of "Magma" (United States)

    Bartley, J. M.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.


    Magma is a fundamental constituent of the Earth, and its properties, origin, evolution, and significance bear on issues ranging from volcanic hazards to planetary evolution. Unfortunately, published usages indicate that the term "magma" means distinctly different things to different people and this can lead to miscommunication among Earth scientists and between scientists and the public. Erupting lava clearly is magma; the question is whether partially molten rock imaged at depth and too crystal-rich to flow should also be called magma. At crystal fractions > 50%, flow can only occur via crystal deformation and solution-reprecipitation. As the solid fraction increases to 90% or more, the material becomes a welded crystal framework with melt in dispersed pores and/or along grain boundaries. Seismic images commonly describe such volumes of a few % melt as magma, yet the rheological differences between melt-rich and melt-poor materials make it vital not to confuse a large rock volume that contains a small melt fraction with melt-rich material. To ensure this, we suggest that "magma" be reserved for melt-rich materials that undergo bulk fluid flow on timescales consonant with volcanic eruptions. Other terms should be used for more crystal-rich and largely immobile partially molten rock (e.g., "crystal mush," "rigid sponge"). The distinction is imprecise but useful. For the press, the public, and even earth scientists who do not study magmatic systems, "magma" conjures up flowing lava; reports of a large "magma" body that contains a few percent melt can engender the mistaken perception of a vast amount of eruptible magma. For researchers, physical processes like crystal settling are commonly invoked to account for features in plutonic rocks, but many such processes are only possible in melt-rich materials.

  2. Rapid heterogeneous assembly of multiple magma reservoirs prior to Yellowstone supereruptions. (United States)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Bindeman, Ilya N; Stern, Richard A; D'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Schaltegger, Urs


    Large-volume caldera-forming eruptions of silicic magmas are an important feature of continental volcanism. The timescales and mechanisms of assembly of the magma reservoirs that feed such eruptions as well as the durations and physical conditions of upper-crustal storage remain highly debated topics in volcanology. Here we explore a comprehensive data set of isotopic (O, Hf) and chemical proxies in precisely U-Pb dated zircon crystals from all caldera-forming eruptions of Yellowstone supervolcano. Analysed zircons record rapid assembly of multiple magma reservoirs by repeated injections of isotopically heterogeneous magma batches and short pre-eruption storage times of 10(3) to 10(4) years. Decoupled oxygen-hafnium isotope systematics suggest a complex source for these magmas involving variable amounts of differentiated mantle-derived melt, Archean crust and hydrothermally altered shallow-crustal rocks. These data demonstrate that complex magma reservoirs with multiple sub-chambers are a common feature of rift- and hotspot related supervolcanoes. The short duration of reservoir assembly documents rapid crustal remelting and two to three orders of magnitude higher magma production rates beneath Yellowstone compared to continental arc volcanoes. The short pre-eruption storage times further suggest that the detection of voluminous reservoirs of eruptible magma beneath active supervolcanoes may only be possible prior to an impending eruption.

  3. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution. (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela


    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  4. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela


    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  5. Sr-Pb-Nd isotopic evidence that both MORB and OIB sources contribute to oceanic island arc magmas in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.B.


    Twenty-eight new Pb, 20 Sr, and 9 Nd isotopic compositions are presented for 32 rocks and one galena from Fiji and the South Fiji (back-arc) Basin. The Fijian rocks range in age from 35 to 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and low 206 Pb/ 204 Pb). Nearly constant 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, and an OIB source component lying within the conventional Sr-Nd-Pb mantle array. In later calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series rocks, these same trace element and isotopic ratios are more like those of OIB. The change was not accompanied by an increase in 207 Pb/ 204 Pb or Cs/K, indeed, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb is closer to the mantle array in these later series. Consequently, the change indicates a greater contribution from OIB sources, rather than from recycled ocean crust. These interpretations require that both MORB and OIB sources coexist in the uppermost mantle above subducted lithosphere. (orig./WB)

  6. Geochemistry and Geochronology of Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania: Implication for Magma Evolution, Duration of Volcanic Activity and Age of the Ngorongoro N-R Geomagnetic Polarity Transition (United States)

    Mollel, G. F.; Swisher, C. C.; Feigenson, M. D.; Carr, M. J.


    40Ar/39Ar dates on volcanic rocks from the Ngorongoro Crater (NC) in northern Tanzania indicate that NC activity was very short in duration lasting approximately 120 ka. Laser incremental heating experiments on lava from the bottom and top of the NC crater-wall section gave ages of 2.08 +/- 0.04 and 1.96 +/- 0.02 Ma respectively. Lavas from the same section show a change in magnetic polarity from normal (N) at the lower part to reverse (R) polarity at the upper part (Grommé et al. 1970). The new ages are about 400 ka younger than previously estimated by K-Ar technique. These new ages suggest correlation of the NC N-R polarity transition to the 2.1 Ma (N-R) Reunion-Matuyama boundary (Cande and Kent, 1995), instead of the Gauss-Matuyama boundary as proposed by Grommé et al. (1970). 87Sr/86Sr measurements on lavas from the NC section vary widely from 0.70801 in the trachydacite at the base to 0.70405 in the basaltic lava near the top. The lower part of the section is more radiogenic varying from 0.70592 to 0.70801 whereas the upper part is constrained to 0.70405 to 0.70450. The more radiogenic lower part is likely to have interacted with crustal rocks. Two possible contaminants are the Tanzanian Archean Craton to the west and the late Proterozoic Mozambican belt in the east. The crater-wall section is composed of trachydacite at the bottom that becomes trachyandesite in mid-section. The top section is mainly basaltic. Major and trace elements show an inverted geochemical signature that is typical of stratified magma chambers characterized by a silicic top and basaltic bottom. Olivine basalt at the upper part of the section has the highest Mg# (56.60) and in general the upper section is more mafic than the lower section as inferred from Mg#. The upper part of the section is high in TiO2, MgO, FeOT, and CaO wt% whereas SiO2 and K2O wt% are higher in lower part of the section. No significant variations are observed in N2O, Al2O3, P2O5 and MnO wt% up-section. Highly

  7. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.


    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant

  8. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.


    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  9. Origin of dioritic magma and its contribution to porphyry Cu-Au mineralization at Pulang in the Yidun arc, eastern Tibet (United States)

    Cao, Kang; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Xu, Ji-Feng; Fu, Bin; Li, Wei-Kai; Sun, Mao-Yu


    The giant Pulang porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the Yidun arc, eastern Tibet, formed due to westward subduction of the Garze-Litang oceanic plate in the Late Triassic. The deposit is hosted in an intrusive complex comprising primarily coarse-grained quartz diorite and cored quartz monzonite. Here, we investigate a suite of simultaneous (216.6 ± 1.9 Ma) diorite porphyries within the complex. The diorite porphyries are geochemically similar to mafic magmatic enclaves (MME) hosted in coarse-grained quartz diorite, and both are characterized by low SiO2 (59.4-63.0 wt%) and high total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.0-9.2 wt%), K2O (3.5-6.4 wt%), MgO (3.2-5.5 wt%), and compatible trace element (e.g., Cr = 72-149 ppm) concentrations. They are enriched in large-ion lithophile and light rare earth elements (LILE and LREE, respectively), but depleted in high field-strength and heavy rare earth elements (HFSE and HREE, respectively), and yield variably high (La/Yb)N ratios (17-126, average 65) with weak to negligible Eu anomalies. Furthermore, they yield low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7054-0.7067), weakly negative εNd(t) (-2.8 to -0.8) values, and variable zircon εHf(t) (-5.4 to +0.8) and δ18O (6.0‰-6.7‰) values. These geochemical features indicate that the diorite porphyry and MME formed through crustal assimilation of a magma produced during low-degree partial melting of metasomatized phlogopite-rich subcontinental lithospheric mantle. In contrast, the coarse-grained quartz diorite and quartz monzonite have relatively high concentrations of SiO2 (61.1-65.3 wt%), K2O (4.1-5.4 wt%), and total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.1-8.1 wt%), and low concentrations of MgO (generally Y ratios (50-63) that indicate an adakitic affinity, and are enriched in LILE, depleted in HFSE, and yield lower (La/Yb)N values (13-20, average 17) than the diorite porphyry and MME. They yield low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7046-0.7066), negative εNd(t) (-3.3 to -1.7) values, and zircon εHf(t) and δ18O values of -2.9 to

  10. Geochemistry of the Bonin Fore-arc Volcanic Sequence: Results from IODP Expedition 352 (United States)

    Godard, M.; Ryan, J. G.; Shervais, J. W.; Whattam, S. A.; Sakuyama, T.; Kirchenbaur, M.; Li, H.; Nelson, W. R.; Prytulak, J.; Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.


    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana intraoceanic arc system, in the western Pacific, results from ~52 My of subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. Four sites were drilled south of the Bonin Islands during IODP Expedition 352 and 1.22 km of igneous basement was cored upslope to the west of the trough. These stratigraphically controlled igneous suites allow study of the earliest stages of arc development from seafloor spreading to convergence. We present the preliminary results of a detailed major and trace element (ICPMS) study on 128 igneous rocks drilled during Expedition 352. Mainly basalts and basaltic andesites were recovered at the two deeper water sites (U1440 and U1441) and boninites at the two westernmost sites (U1439 and U1442). Sites U1440 and U1441 basaltic suites are trace element depleted (e.g. Yb 4-6 x PM); they have fractionated REE patterns (LREE/HREE = 0.2-0.4 x C1-chondrites) compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts. They have compositions overlapping that of previously sampled Fore-Arc Basalts (FAB) series. They are characterized also by an increase in LILE contents relative to neighboring elements up-section (e.g. Rb/La ranging from <1 to 3-7 x PM at Site U1440) suggesting a progressive contamination of their source by fluids. This process in turn may have favored melting and efficient melt extraction from the source and thus its extreme depletion. Boninites are depleted in moderately incompatible elements with a decrease in their contents up-section (e.g. Yb = ~6.2 to 2.8 x C1-chondrite at Site U1439). These changes in trace element contents are associated with the development of a positive Zr-Hf anomaly relative to neighboring elements and a strong increase in LILE (e.g., Zr/Sm=~1 to 2.6 x PM and Rb/La=1-2 to 10-18). The progressive upward depletion of boninitic lavas could reveal the incorporation of harzburgitic residues from FAB generation into their mantle source.

  11. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.


    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  12. Evidence of Arc Magma Genesis in a Paleo-Mantle Wedge, the Higashi-Akaishi Peridotite, Japan (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Guild, M. R.; Grove, T. L.; Carlson, R. W.


    Located in the Sanbagawa subduction-related high-pressure metamorphic belt in SW Japan on the island of Shikoku, the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body is composed of dunite, lherzolite and garnet clinopyroxenite, interfingered in one locality with quartz-rich eclogite. Previous work indicates the P-T history of the peridotite includes rapid prograde metamorphism with peak temperatures of 700-810°C and pressures of 2.9-3.8 GPa [1] at ~88-89 Ma followed by rapid exhumation at >2.5 cm/yr [2,3]. Major and trace element and isotopic data from samples within the Higashi-akaishi peridotite presented here and in another recent study [4] provide a record of subduction zone melting processes in a paleo-mantle wedge. Ultramafic samples range from 40-52 wt.% SiO2, 1-11 wt.% Al2O3 and 21-45 wt.% MgO with olivine and clinopyroxene Mg#'s as high as 0.93. The quartz-rich eclogite contains 62 wt.% SiO2, 6 wt.% MgO and 13 wt.% Al2O3 with trace element concentrations that are enriched relative to the ultramafic samples. 87Sr/86Sr (.703237-.704288), 143Nd/144Nd (ɛNd=+2 to +6) and Pb isotopic compositions are within the range of previously studied Japanese arc rocks. We interpret the pyroxenites as shallowly crystallized cumulates with varying amounts of trapped hydrous melt and the harzburgites as residues of melting. The peak P-T conditions of these rocks are similar to the solidus conditions of H2O-saturated fertile mantle near the base of the mantle wedge [5,6]. The presence of garnet porphyroblasts that enclose primary euhedral chlorite together with the chemical evidence, suggest these samples are associated with mantle melting in the presence of H2O. Major element modeling suggests the quartz-rich eclogite composition can be reproduced through mixing melts of subducted sediment with wet peridotite melts in the mantle wedge. Thus the Higashi-aikashi rock suite provides an in-situ record of the beginnings of hydrous melting and the mechanisms of metasomatism in the mantle wedge

  13. Immature intra-oceanic arc-type volcanism on the Izanagi Plate revealed by the geochemistry of the Daimaruyama greenstones in the Hiroo Complex, southern Hidaka Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan (United States)

    Yamasaki, Toru; Nanayama, Futoshi


    results. Clinopyroxene trace element compositions indicate substantial enrichment of Ba in the magma, reflecting the participation of shallow subduction components such as aqueous fluids. Geochemical investigations reveal that the Daimaruyama greenstones were probably submarine volcanic rocks that formed as a result of the subduction of the Izanagi Plate within the Thalassa Ocean (the Thalassa Ocean was the eastern realm of Panthalassa, and represents the proto-Pacific Ocean) after the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian; 125-101 Ma), and they were eventually accreted onto the Paleo-Kuril arc-trench system at 57-48 Ma to form an allochthonous block as part of the mélange facies of the Hiroo Complex on the landward slope of the trench.

  14. The effect of deformation after backarc spreading between the rear arc and current volcanic front in Shikoku Basin obtained by seismic reflection survey (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Tamura, Y.


    Detailed crustal structure information of a back-arc basin must be obtained to elucidate the mechanism of its opening. Especially, the Shikoku Basin, which occupies the northern part of the Philippine Sea Plate between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc, is an important area to understand the evolution of the back-arc basins as a part of the growth process of the Philippine Sea. Especially, the crustal structure oft the east side of Shikoku Basin is complicated by colliding to the Izu Peninsula Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has been carried out many multi-channel seismic reflection surveys since 2004 in Izu-Bonin region. Kodaira et al. (2008) reported the results of a refraction seismic survey along a north-south profile within paleoarc in the rear arc (i.e., the Nishi-shichito ridge) about 150 km west of current volcanic front. According to their results, the variation relationship of crustal thickness between the rear arc and volcanic front is suggested the evidence of rifting from current volcanic arc. There is the en-echelon arrangement is located in the eastern side of Shikoku Basin from current arc to rear arc, and it is known to activate after ceased spreading at 15 Ma (Okino et al., 1994) of Shikoku Basin by geologic sampling of Ishizuka et al. (2003). Our MCS results are also recognized the recent lateral fault zone is located in east side of Shikoku Basin. We carried out high density grid multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey using tuned airgun in order to obtain the relationship between the lateral faults and en-echelon arrangement in KR08-04 cruise. We identified the deformation of sediments in Shikoku Basin after activity of Kanbun seamount at 8 Ma in MCS profile. It is estimated to activate a part of the eastern side of Shikoku Basin after construction of en-echelon arrangement and termination of Shikoku Basin spreading. Based on analyses of magnetic and gravity anomalies, Yamazaki and Yuasa (1998

  15. The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits (United States)

    Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.


    Magmatic fluids, both vapour and hypersaline liquid, are a primary source of many components in hydrothermal ore deposits formed in volcanic arcs. These components, including metals and their ligands, become concentrated in magmas in various ways from various sources, including subducted oceanic crust. Leaching of rocks also contributes components to the hydrothermal fluid—a process enhanced where acid magmatic vapours are absorbed by deeply circulating meteoric waters. Advances in understanding the hydrothermal systems that formed these ore deposits have come from the study of their active equivalents, represented at the surface by hot springs and volcanic fumaroles.

  16. Bacterial Community Sstructure and Novel Species of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Sediments from a Seamount in the Mariana Volcanic Arc (United States)

    PAN, H.; LIU, J.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, T.; Wu, L. F.


    Seamounts are unique ecosystems where undersea mountains rise abruptly from the sea floor and interact dynamically with underwater currents, creating peculiar biological habitats with various microbial community structures. Certain bacteria associated with seamounts form conspicuous extracellular iron oxide structures, including encrusted stalks, flattened bifurcating tubes, and filamentous sheaths. To extend knowledge of seamount microorganisms we performed a systematic analysis of the population composition and occurrence of live magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in sediments of a seamount in the Mariana volcanic arc. Proteobacteria dominated at 13 stations, and were the second in abundance to members of the Firmicutes at a deep station on a steep slope facing the Yap-Mariana trench. We found MTB that synthesize intracellular iron-oxide nanocrystals in biogenic sediments at all 14 stations, at seawater depths ranging from 238 to 2023 m. A novel flagellar apparatus, and the most complex yet reported, was observed in magnetotactic cocci; it comprises one or two bundles of 19 flagella arranged in a 3:4:5:4:3 array. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 16 novel species of MTB specific to this seamount. The geographic properties at the various stations on the seamount appear to be important in shaping the microbial community structure.

  17. Using rocks to reveal the inner workings of magma chambers below volcanoes in Alaska’s National Parks (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Bacon, Charles R.


    Alaska is one of the most vigorously volcanic regions on the planet, and Alaska’s national parks are home to many of the state’s most active volcanoes. These pose both local and more distant hazards in the form of lava and pyroclastic flows, lahars (mudflows), ash clouds, and ash fall. Alaska’s volcanoes lie along the arc of the Aleutian-Alaskan subduction zone, caused as the oceanic Pacific plate moves northward and dips below the North American plate. These volcanoes form as water-rich fluid from the down-going Pacific plate is released, lowering the melting temperature of rock in the overlying mantle and enabling it to partially melt. The melted rock (magma) migrates upward, collecting at the base of the approximately 25 mile (40 km) thick crust, occasionally ascending into the shallow crust, and sometimes erupting at the earth’s surface.During volcanic unrest, scientists use geophysical signals to remotely visualize volcanic processes, such as movement of magma in the upper crust. In addition, erupted volcanic rocks, which are quenched samples of magmas, can tell us about subsurface magma characteris-tics, history, and the processes that drive eruptions. The chemical compositions of and the minerals present in the erupted magmas can reveal conditions under which these magmas were stored in crustal “chambers”. Studies of the products of recent eruptions of Novarupta (1912), Aniakchak (1931), Trident (1953-74), and Redoubt (2009) volcanoes reveal the depths and temperatures of magma storage, and tell of complex interactions between magmas of different compositions. One goal of volcanology is to determine the processes that drive or trigger eruptions. Information recorded in the rocks tells us about these processes. Here, we demonstrate how geologists gain these insights through case studies from four recent eruptions of volcanoes in Alaska national parks.

  18. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)? (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean–François; Geneste, Jean-Michel


    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey. PMID:26745626

  19. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)? (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean-François; Geneste, Jean-Michel


    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey.

  20. Pliocene granodioritic knoll with continental crust affinities discovered in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: Syntectonic granitic crust formation during back-arc rifting (United States)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Chang, Qing; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Shukuno, Hiroshi; Hirahara, Yuka; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arima, Makoto; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki


    A widely held hypothesis is that modern continental crust of an intermediate (i.e. andesitic) bulk composition forms at intra-oceanic arcs through subduction zone magmatism. However, there is a critical paradox in this hypothesis: to date, the dominant granitic rocks discovered in these arcs are tonalite, rocks that are significantly depleted in incompatible (i.e. magma-preferred) elements and do not geochemically and petrographically represent those of the continents. Here we describe the discovery of a submarine knoll, the Daisan-West Sumisu Knoll, situated in the rear-arc region of the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Remotely-operated vehicle surveys reveal that this knoll is made up entirely of a 2.6 million year old porphyritic to equigranular granodiorite intrusion with a geochemical signature typical of continental crust. We present a model of granodiorite magma formation that involves partial remelting of enriched mafic rear-arc crust during the initial phase of back-arc rifting, which is supported by the preservation of relic cores inherited from initial rear-arc source rocks within magmatic zircon crystals. The strong extensional tectonic regime at the time of intrusion may have allowed the granodioritic magma to be emplaced at an extremely shallow level, with later erosion of sediment and volcanic covers exposing the internal plutonic body. These findings suggest that rear-arc regions could be the potential sites of continental crust formation in intra-oceanic convergent margins.

  1. Layered hydrothermal barite-sulfide mound field, East Diamante Caldera, Mariana volcanic arc (United States)

    Hein, James R.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Koski, Randolph A.; Ditchburn, Robert G.; Mizell, Kira; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Stern, Robert J.; Conrad, Tracey; Ishizuka, Osamu; Leybourne, Matthew I.


    East Diamante is a submarine volcano in the southern Mariana arc that is host to a complex caldera ~5 × 10 km (elongated ENE-WSW) that is breached along its northern and southwestern sectors. A large field of barite-sulfide mounds was discovered in June 2009 and revisited in July 2010 with the R/V Natsushima, using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin. The mound field occurs on the northeast flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in the central caldera, near an active black smoker vent field. A 40Ar/39Ar age of 20,000 ± 4000 years was obtained from a dacite sample. The mound field is aligned along a series of fractures and extends for more than 180 m east-west and >120 m north-south. Individual mounds are typically 1 to 3 m tall and 0.5 to 2 m wide, with lengths from about 3 to 8 m. The mounds are dominated by barite + sphalerite layers with the margins of each layer composed of barite with disseminated sulfides. Rare, inactive spires and chimneys sit atop some mounds and also occur as clusters away from the mounds. Iron and Mn oxides are currently forming small (caldera, mineralization resulted from focused flow along small segments of linear fractures rather than from a point source, typical of hydrothermal chimney fields. Based on the mineral assemblage, the maximum fluid temperatures were ~260°C, near the boiling point for the water depths of the mound field (367–406 m). Lateral fluid flow within the mounds precipitated interstitial sphalerite, silica, and Pb minerals within a network of barite with disseminated sulfides; silica was the final phase to precipitate. The current low-temperature precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides and silica may represent rejuvenation of the system.

  2. Enrichments of the mantle sources beneath the Southern Volcanic Zone (Andes) by fluids and melts derived from abraded upper continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Søager, Nina; Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup


    Mafic basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) exhibit a northward increase in crustal components in primitive arc magmas from the Central through the Transitional and Northern SVZ segments. New elemental and Sr–Nd-high-precision Pb isotope data from the Quat......Mafic basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) exhibit a northward increase in crustal components in primitive arc magmas from the Central through the Transitional and Northern SVZ segments. New elemental and Sr–Nd-high-precision Pb isotope data from...... mantle by means of subduction erosion in response to the northward increasingly strong coupling of the converging plates. Both types of enrichment had the same Pb isotope composition in the TSVZ with no significant component derived from the subducting oceanic crust. Pb–Sr–Nd isotopes indicate a major...

  3. The global chemical systematics of arc front stratovolcanoes: Evaluating the role of crustal processes (United States)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.


    Petrogenetic models for convergent margins should be consistent with the global systematics of convergent margin volcanic compositions. A newly developed tool for compiling and screening data from the GEOROC database was used to generate a global dataset of whole rock chemical analyses from arc front stratovolcano samples. Data from 227 volcanoes within 31 volcanic arc segments were first averaged by volcano and then by arc to explore global systematics. Three different methods of data normalization produce consistent results that persist across a wide range of Mg# [Mg# =Mg / (Mg +Fe) ]. Remarkably coherent systematics are present among major and trace element concentrations and ratios, with the exception of three arcs influenced by mantle plumes and Peru/N. Chile, which is built on exceptionally thick crust. Chemical parameters also correlate with the thickness of the overlying arc crust. In addition to previously established correlations of Na6.0 with Ca6.0 and crustal thickness, correlations are observed among major elements, trace elements, and trace element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Dy/Yb, Zr/Sm, Zr/Ti). Positive correlations include "fluid mobile," "high field strength," and "large ion lithophile" element groups, with concentrations that vary by a factor of five in all groups. Incompatible element enrichments also correlate well with crustal thickness, with the greatest enrichment found at arcs with the thickest crust. Intra-crustal processes, however, do not reproduce the global variations. High pressure fractionation produces intermediate magmas enriched in aluminum, but such magmas are rare. Furthermore, differences among magma compositions at various volcanic arcs persist from primitive to evolved compositions, which is inconsistent with the possibility that global variations are produced by crystal fractionation at any pressure. Linear relationships among elements appear to be consistent with mixing between depleted primary magma and an enriched contaminant

  4. Post-Eocene volcanics of the Abazar district, Qazvin, Iran: Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic evolution (United States)

    Asiabanha, A.; Bardintzeff, J. M.; Kananian, A.; Rahimi, G.


    The style of volcanism of post-Eocene volcanism in the Alborz zone of northern Iran is different to that of Eocene volcanism (Karaj Formation). Indeed, the volcanic succession of the Abazar district, located in a narrow volcanic strip within the Alborz magmatic assemblage, is characterized by distinct mineralogical and chemical compositions linked to a complex magmatic evolution. The succession was produced by explosive eruptions followed by effusive eruptions. Two main volcanic events are recognized: (1) a thin rhyolitic ignimbritic sheet underlain by a thicker lithic breccia, and (2) lava flows including shoshonite, latite, and andesite that overlie the first event across a reddish soil horizon. Plagioclase in shoshonite (An 48-92) shows normal zoning, whereas plagioclase in latite and andesite (An 48-75) has a similar composition but shows reverse and oscillatory zoning. QUILF temperature calculations for shoshonites and andesites yield temperatures of 1035 °C and 1029 °C, respectively. The geothermometers proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010) and Holland and Blundy (1994) yield temperatures of 960 °C and 944 °C for latitic lava, respectively. The samples of volcanic rock show a typical geochemical signature of the continental arc regime, but the andesites clearly differ from the shoshonites, the latites and the rhyolites. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these rocks are explained by the following petrogenesis: (1) intrusion of a hot, mantle-depth mafic (shoshonitic) magma, which differentiated in the magma chamber to produce a latitic and then a rhyolitic liquid; (2) rhyolitic ignimbritic eruptions from the top of the magma chamber, following by shoshonitic and then latitic extrusions; (3) magma mingling between the latitic and andesitic magmas, as indicated by the occurrence of andesite clasts within the latite; and (4) andesitic effusions. The youngest volcanic events in the Alborz zone show a close chemical relationship with continental arc

  5. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Early Jurassic Yeba Formation volcanic rocks in southern Tibet: Initiation of back-arc rifting and crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane (United States)

    Wei, Youqing; Zhao, Zhidan; Niu, Yaoling; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Wang, Qing; Hou, Zengqian; Mo, Xuanxue; Wei, Jiuchuan


    Understanding the geological history of the Lhasa Terrane prior to the India-Asia collision ( 55 ± 10 Ma) is essential for improved models of syn-collisional and post-collisional processes in the southern Lhasa Terrane. The Miocene ( 18-10 Ma) adakitic magmatism with economically significant porphyry-type mineralization has been interpreted as resulting from partial melting of the Jurassic juvenile crust, but how this juvenile crust was accreted remains poorly known. For this reason, we carried out a detailed study on the volcanic rocks of the Yeba Formation (YF) with the results offering insights into the ways in which the juvenile crust may be accreted in the southern Lhasa Terrane in the Jurassic. The YF volcanic rocks are compositionally bimodal, comprising basalt/basaltic andesite and dacite/rhyolite dated at 183-174 Ma. All these rocks have an arc-like signature with enriched large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Ba and U) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti). They also have depleted whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, pointing to significant mantle isotopic contributions. Modeling results of trace elements and isotopes are most consistent with the basalts being derived from a mantle source metasomatized by varying enrichment of subduction components. The silicic volcanic rocks show the characteristics of transitional I-S type granites, and are best interpreted as resulting from re-melting of a mixed source of juvenile amphibole-rich lower crust with reworked crustal materials resembling metagraywackes. Importantly, our results indicate northward Neo-Tethyan seafloor subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane with the YF volcanism being caused by the initiation of back-arc rifting. The back-arc setting is a likely site for juvenile crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane.

  6. Evaluating Complex Magma Mixing via Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA in the Papagayo Tuff, Northern Costa Rica: Processes that Form Continental Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Alvarado


    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, research has revealed the importance of magma mixing as a trigger for volcanic eruptions, as well as its role in creating the diversity of magma compositions in arcs. Sensitive isotopic and microchemical techniques can reveal subtle evidence of magma mixing in igneous rocks, but more robust statistical techniques for bulk chemical data can help evaluate complex mixing relationships. Polytopic vector analysis (PVA is a multivariate technique that can be used to evaluate suites of samples that are produced by mixing of two or more magma batches. The Papagayo Tuff of the Miocene-Pleistocene Bagaces Formation in northern Costa Rica is associated with a segment of the Central American Volcanic Arc. While this segment of the arc is located on oceanic plateau, recent (<8 Ma ignimbrites bear the chemical signatures of upper continental crust, marking the transition from oceanic to continental crust. The Papagayo Tuff contains banded pumice fragments consistent with one or more episodes of mixing/mingling to produce a single volcanic deposit. The PVA solution for the sample set is consistent with observations from bulk chemistry, microchemistry and petrographic data from the rocks. However, without PVA, the unequivocal identification of the three end-member solution would not have been possible.

  7. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.


    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  8. Short lived radionuclides in gases and magmas: contribution to the study of degassing and of the dynamics of magmatic reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, P.J.


    Crystallization and magma degassing at Stromboli (Italy) and Merapi (Indonesia) volcanoes are studied through 230 Th- 226 Ra- 210 Pb and 210 Pb- 210 Bi- 210 Po disequilibria in lavas and gases. An attempt to date crystallization by internal isochrones in ( 226 Ra)/Ba - ( 230 Th)/Ba and ( 210 Pb)/Pb - ( 226 Ra)/Pb diagrams reveals the complex evolution of these arc magmas. Several models (instantaneous but non simultaneous crystallization of the different mineral phases; continuous crystallization) are proposed to explain the lack of simple isochrones. The influence of other magmatic processes (assimilation, magma reinjection, degassing...) is discussed. The role played by radon loss from magmas (controlled by the ex solution of major gas species) on 210 Pb- 226 Ra disequilibria in lavas is examined through a model of dynamic degassing. At Stromboli, the magma reservoir has reached a steady-state and is rapidly renewed, thus explaining (Pb/Ra) ratios close to 1. At Merapi, the evolution of the reservoir is controlled by a succession of low dynamics degassing periods ( 2 analyses in the volcanic plume. The contribution of Etna as a source of atmospheric pollution is estimated during periods of contrasted volcanic activity and is compared to the volcanic emissions worldwide. (author)

  9. The geochemistry of lithium-bearing geothermal water, Taupo Volcanic Zone, and shallow fluid processes in a very active silicic volcanic arc (United States)

    Dean, A. S.; Hoskin, P. W.; Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X.; Boseley, C.


    The Li abundances and isotopic systematics of Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal fluids preserves a record of processes occurring within shallow portions of geothermal reservoirs as well as deeper portions of the arc crust. Understanding Li cycling and isotopic fractionation in TVZ geothermal systems contributes to a more refined understanding of physicochemical processes affecting New Zealand's geothermal resources. A comprehensive dataset of 73 samples was compiled, with samples collected from geothermal surface features (springs, spouters, geysers, etc.) and electric-power industry production wells, collectively representing18 geothermal fields across the breadth and width the TVZ. No comparable dataset of fluid analyses exists. Ion chromatography, AAS, and quadrupole ICP-MS analyses were done for Li, Cl-, SiO2, SO42- K, Na, Ca, Mg, B, Sr and Pb concentrations. Lithium abundance in geothermal fluids from the TVZ have a dataset-wide average of 5.9 mg/L and range 4 μg/L to 29 mg/L. The Li abundance and Li/Cl ratios for geothermal water and steam condensates vary systematically as a result of boiling, mixing, and water/rock reaction. Lithium abundance and Li/Cl ratios are, therefore, indicators of shallow (above 2.5 km) and locally variable reservoir processes. δ7Li analysis of 63 samples was performed at the University of Maryland, College Park. Data quality was controlled by measurement of L-SVEC as a calibration standard and by multiple analysis of selected samples. The average δ7Li value for TVZ geothermal fluids is -0.8%. Most δ7Li values for geothermal water fall within a small range of about -3% to+2% indicating similar processes are causing similar isotopic fractionation throughout the region. Considered together, Li aundances and δ7Li values, in combination with numerical models, indicate possible evolution pathways and water/rock reactions in TVZ geothermal systems. Models based on rocks and surface water analysis indicate that Li cycles and

  10. A dearth of intermediate melts at subduction zone volcanoes and the petrogenesis of arc andesites. (United States)

    Reubi, Olivier; Blundy, Jon


    Andesites represent a large proportion of the magmas erupted at continental arc volcanoes and are regarded as a major component in the formation of continental crust. Andesite petrogenesis is therefore fundamental in terms of both volcanic hazard and differentiation of the Earth. Andesites typically contain a significant proportion of crystals showing disequilibrium petrographic characteristics indicative of mixing or mingling between silicic and mafic magmas, which fuels a long-standing debate regarding the significance of these processes in andesite petrogenesis and ultimately questions the abundance of true liquids with andesitic composition. Central to this debate is the distinction between liquids (or melts) and magmas, mixtures of liquids with crystals, which may or may not be co-genetic. With this distinction comes the realization that bulk-rock chemical analyses of petrologically complex andesites can lead to a blurred picture of the fundamental processes behind arc magmatism. Here we present an alternative view of andesite petrogenesis, based on a review of quenched glassy melt inclusions trapped in phenocrysts, whole-rock chemistry, and high-pressure and high-temperature experiments. We argue that true liquids of intermediate composition (59 to 66 wt% SiO(2)) are far less common in the sub-volcanic reservoirs of arc volcanoes than is suggested by the abundance of erupted magma within this compositional range. Effective mingling within upper crustal magmatic reservoirs obscures a compositional bimodality of melts ascending from the lower crust, and masks the fundamental role of silicic melts (>/=66 wt% SiO(2)) beneath intermediate arc volcanoes. This alternative view resolves several puzzling aspects of arc volcanism and provides important clues to the integration of plutonic and volcanic records.

  11. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century. (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren


    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  12. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayari, M.; Sharifi, M.


    Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermo barometry (Sayari and Sharifi, 2014). Microprobe analyses show that plagioclases in the Eocene basaltic rocks are labradorite-bytownite (An85-58Ab15-41) and clinopyroxenes are augite (En41-49Di29-38Fs17-26). The compositions of the clinopyroxenes indicate a tholeiitic affinity for the magma. After plotting the cpx thermobarometry results on a P-T diagram, and applying a linear regression, an equation of P-T describing the physical conditions of the ascending magma was obtained.

  13. No effect of H2O degassing on the oxidation state of hydrous rhyolite magmas: a comparison of pre- and post-eruptive Fe2+ concentrations in six obsidian samples from the Mexican and Cascade arcs (United States)

    Waters, L.; Lange, R. A.


    The extent to which degassing affects the oxidation state of arc magmas is widely debated. Several researchers have examined how degassing of mixed H-C-O-S-Cl fluids may change the Fe3+/FeT ratio of magmas, and it has been proposed that degassing may induce either oxidation or reduction depending on the initial oxidation state. A commonly proposed oxidation reaction is related to H2O degassing: H2O (melt) + 2FeO (melt) = H2 (fluid) + Fe2O3 (melt). Another mechanism by which H2O degassing can affect the iron redox state is if dissolved water affects the activity of ferrous and/or ferric iron in the melt. Although Moore et al. (1995) presented experiments showing no evidence of an affect of dissolved water on the activity of the ferric-ferrous ratio in silicate melts, other experimental results (e.g., Baker and Rutherford, 1996; Gaillard et al., 2001; 2003) indicate that there may be such an effect in rhyolite liquids. It has long been understood that rhyolites, owing to their low total iron concentrations, are more sensitive than other magma types to degassing-induced change in redox state. Therefore, a rigorous test of whether H2O degassing affects the redox state of arc magmas is best evaluated on rhyolites. In this study, a comparison is made between the pre-eruptive (pre-degassing) Fe2+ concentrations in six, phenocryst-poor (volatiles, as indicated by the low loss on ignition values (LOI ≤ 0.7 wt%). In order to test how much oxidation of ferrous iron occurred as a consequence of that degassing, we measured the ferrous iron concentration in the bulk samples by titration, using the Wilson (1960) method, which was successfully tested again three USGS and one Canadian Geological Survey standards. Our results indicate no detectable change within analytical error between pre- and post-eruptive FeO concentrations, with an average deviation of 0.09 wt% and a maximum deviation of 0.15 wt%. Our results show that H2O degassing has no effect on the redox state of

  14. Geologic Map of the Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada: Anatomy of Miocene Cascade Arc Magmatism in the Western Great Basin (United States)

    John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.; Blakely, R. J.; Box, S.; Fleck, R. J.; Vikre, P. G.; Rytuba, J. J.; Moring, B. C.


    The Bodie Hills Volcanic Field (BHVF) is a >700 km2, long-lived (~9 Ma) but episodic, Miocene eruptive center in the southern part of the ancestral Cascade magmatic arc. A 1:50,000-scale geologic map based on extensive new mapping, combined with 40Ar/39Ar dates, geochemical data, and detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, defines late Miocene magmatic and hydrothermal evolution of the BHVF and contrasts the subduction-related BHVF with the overlying, post-subduction, bimodal Plio-Pleistocene Aurora Volcanic Field (AVF). Important features of the BHVF include: Eruptions occurred during 3 major eruptive stages: dominantly trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~14.7 to 12.9 Ma), mixed silicic trachyandesite, dacite, and rhyolite (~11.3 to 9.6 Ma), and dominantly silicic trachyandesite to dacite domes (~9.2 to 8.0 Ma). Small rhyolite domes were emplaced at ~6 Ma. Trachyandesitic stratovolcanoes with extensive debris flow aprons form the outer part of BHVF, whereas silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite domes are more centrally located. Geophysical data suggest that many BHVF volcanoes have shallow plutonic roots that extend to depths ≥1-2 km below the surface, and much of the Bodie Hills may be underlain by low density plutons presumably related to BHVF volcanism. BHVF rocks contain ~50 to 78% SiO2 (though few rocks have Bodie Hills at ~10 Ma, but the composition and eruptive style of volcanism continued unchanged for 2 Ma. However, kinematic data for veins and faults in mining districts suggest a change in the stress field from transtensional to extensional approximately coincident with cessation of subduction. The Bodie Hills are flanked to the east, north, and west by sedimentary basins that began to form in the late Miocene (locally >11 Ma). Fine to coarse sedimentary deposits within the BHVF include stream deposits in channels that cut across the hills and were partly filled by ~9.4 Ma Eureka Valley Tuff erupted 20 km to the northwest. Shallow dips and preservation of

  15. Temporal and spatial variations in provenance of Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments: Implications for Aegean and Aeolian arc volcanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Djuly, T.; de Graaf, S.; Sakes, A.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Davies, G.R.; Vroon, P.Z.


    The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) is the last remnant of the Tethys Ocean that has been subducted to the north since the Jurassic. Subduction has led to the formation of multiple island arcs in the EMS region where the Aeolian and Aegean arcs are currently active. The EMS is surrounded by

  16. A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean Plate motion: Implications for slip along the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    DeMets, Charles

    Velocities from 153 continuously-operating GPS sites on the Caribbean, North American, and Pacific plates are combined with 61 newly estimated Pacific-Cocos seafloor spreading rates and additional marine geophysical data to derive a new estimate of present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion. A comparison of the predicted Cocos-Caribbean direction to slip directions of numerous shallow-thrust subduction earthquakes from the Middle America trench between Costa Rica and Guatemala shows the slip directions to be deflected 10° clockwise from the plate convergence direction, supporting the hypothesis that frequent dextral strike-slip earthquakes along the Central American volcanic arc result from partitioning of oblique Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence. Linear velocity analysis for forearc locations in Nicaragua and Guatemala predicts 14±2 mm yr-1 of northwestward trench-parallel slip of the forearc relative to the Caribbean plate, possibly decreasing in magnitude in El Salvador and Guatemala, where extension east of the volcanic arc complicates the tectonic setting.

  17. Bimodal volcanism in northeast Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Genetic links with Cretaceous subduction of the mid-Atlantic ridge Caribbean spur (United States)

    Jolly, Wayne T.; Lidiak, Edward G.; Dickin, Alan P.


    Bimodal extrusive volcanic rocks in the northeast Greater Antilles Arc consist of two interlayered suites, including (1) a predominantly basaltic suite, dominated by island arc basalts with small proportions of andesite, and (2) a silicic suite, similar in composition to small volume intrusive veins of oceanic plagiogranite commonly recognized in oceanic crustal sequences. The basaltic suite is geochemically characterized by variable enrichment in the more incompatible elements and negative chondrite-normalized HFSE anomalies. Trace element melting and mixing models indicate the magnitude of the subducted sediment component in Antilles arc basalts is highly variable and decreases dramatically from east to west along the arc. In the Virgin Islands, the sediment component ranges between 4% during the Cenomanian-Campanian interval. The silicic suite, consisting predominantly of rhyolites, is characterized by depleted Al 2O 3 (average Virgin Islands on the east, rhyolites comprise up to 80% of Lower Albian strata (112 to 105 Ma), and about 20% in post-Albian strata (105 to 100 Ma). Farther west, in Puerto Rico, more limited proportions (Atlantic Ridge, which was located approximately midway between North and South America until Campanian times. Within this hypothetical setting the centrally positioned Virgin Islands terrain remained approximately fixed above the subducting ridge as the Antilles arc platform swept northeastward into the slot between the Americas. Accordingly, heat flow in the Virgin Islands was elevated throughout the Cretaceous, giving rise to widespread crustal melting, whereas the subducted sediment flux was limited. Conversely, toward the west in central Puerto Rico, which was consistently more remote from the subducting ridge, heat flow was relatively low and produced limited crustal melting, while the sediment flux was comparatively elevated.

  18. Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site 1438, Amami Sankaku Basin: Implications for Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc Initiation (United States)

    Hickey-Vargas, R.; Ishizuka, O.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Bizimis, M.; Savov, I. P.; McCarthy, A. J.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.


    IODP Expedition 351 drilled 150 m of volcanic basement overlain by 1461 m of sedimentary material at Site 1438 in the Amami Sankaku basin, just west of the Kyushu Palau Ridge, the locus of IBM arc initiation. Age interpretations based on biostratigraphy (Arculus et al., Nat. Geosci., in-press) determined that the age of the basement section is between 64 and 51 Ma, encompassing the age of the earliest volcanic products of the IBM arc. The Site 1438 volcanic basement consists of multiple flows of aphyric microcrystalline to finely crystalline basalts containing plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare olivine pseudomorphs. New XRF major and ICPMS trace element data confirm findings of shipboard analysis that the basalts are moderately differentiated (6-14 % MgO; Mg# = 51-83; 73-490 ppm Cr and 58-350 ppm Ni) with downcore variations related to flow units. Ti/V and Ti/Sc ratios are 16-27 and 75-152, respectively, with lowest values at the base of the core. One prominent characteristic of the basalts is their depletion of immobile highly incompatible elements compared with MORB. Basalts have MORB-normalized La/Nd of 0.5 to 0.9, and most have Th/La 3 and primitive mantle normalized La/Yb > 1. Our results suggest that mantle melting at the onset of subduction involved exceptionally depleted sources. Enrichment over time may be related to increasing subduction inputs and/or other processes, such as entrainment of fertile asthenosphere during extension of the overriding plate.

  19. Degassing of different magma batches as the main controlling factor for fumarolic fluid chemistry at the Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex (Argentina-Chile) in 2010-2015 (United States)

    Tassi, Franco; Aguilera, Felipe; Benavente, Oscar; Paonita, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Agusto, Mariano; Gutierrez, Francisco; Capaccioni, Bruno; Vaselli, Orlando; Caselli, Alberto


    This study presents the first geochemical data of gas discharges collected during five sampling campaigns (February 2010 to March 2015), from the NNE-oriented Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex (PPAVC), located in the Transitional Southern Volcanic Zone (TSVZ) at the border between Argentina and Chile. In 2012, the acidic gas species of the low temperature (up to 102 °C) fumaroles from the Peteroa summit showed a huge increase (SO2>CO2) with respect to the 2010-2011 period, whereas the typical hydrothermal compounds (CH4 and light hydrocarbons) decreased. Such a dramatic compositional change was apparently indicating a pulse of magmatic fluids. By contrast, the temporal evolution of the δ18O-H2O, δD-H2O, R/Ra and 13C-CO2 values suggested an enhanced fluid contribution from a shallow source. In 2014-2015, the dominant hydrothermal signature characterizing the 2010-2011 fumaroles was almost completely restored. The temporary decoupling of the chemical and isotopic parameters can only be reconciled by admitting the occurrence of a double source of magmatic fluids: a basaltic batch, controlling the fumarolic chemistry in 2010-2011 and 2014-2015, and a small, shallower dacitic batch, likely affected by a significant crustal contamination, whose contribution to the fumarolic fluid emissions achieved its maximum in 2012. It cannot be ruled out that the phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptions (VEI ≤2) that have affected Peteroa volcano from January 2010 to July 2011 have played a significant role for the modification of the deep feeding source of the fumarolic gases. The disturbance created by the volcanic events and the related seismic activity (MW<3), possibly related to the devastating Maule earthquake occurred on February 27 2010, could have activated a silent dacitic magma batch that in 2012 imposed over that of basaltic composition. Although this scenario provides a reliable explanation for the peculiar compositional changes that affected the Peteroa

  20. Contribution to the study of the behavior of K, U and Th in magma evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheminee, J.L.


    The behavior of K, U and Th in lava at different space and time levels was studied by geodynamic methods. Examples of well-defined volcanic series bond up with characteristic magmatic processes were chosen for this purpose. Various cases were studied, corresponding to either general or particular problems and distributed over three of the large structural domains of the earth's crust: oceanic zone (oceanic islands, Afar rift); insular volcanic arcs (Japan, the lesser Antilles); Continental zone (mediterranean volcanism, basalts and associated derivatives). K, U and Th averages are given for certain of the commonest types of lava found on the earth's surface. Certain hypotheses on the genesis of magmas are confirmed or invalidated and a structural model is proposed for the sub-Afar layers [fr

  1. The Surtsey Magma Series. (United States)

    Schipper, C Ian; Jakobsson, Sveinn P; White, James D L; Michael Palin, J; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim


    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50(th) anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption's four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume.

  2. Caldera resurgence driven by magma viscosity contrasts. (United States)

    Galetto, Federico; Acocella, Valerio; Caricchi, Luca


    Calderas are impressive volcanic depressions commonly produced by major eruptions. Equally impressive is the uplift of the caldera floor that may follow, dubbed caldera resurgence, resulting from magma accumulation and accompanied by minor eruptions. Why magma accumulates, driving resurgence instead of feeding large eruptions, is one of the least understood processes in volcanology. Here we use thermal and experimental models to define the conditions promoting resurgence. Thermal modelling suggests that a magma reservoir develops a growing transition zone with relatively low viscosity contrast with respect to any newly injected magma. Experiments show that this viscosity contrast provides a rheological barrier, impeding the propagation through dikes of the new injected magma, which stagnates and promotes resurgence. In explaining resurgence and its related features, we provide the theoretical background to account for the transition from magma eruption to accumulation, which is essential not only to develop resurgence, but also large magma reservoirs.

  3. The Alboran volcanic arc archipelago isolated the Mediterranean during the Messinian salinity crisis forming the land bridge for biota dispersal across the western Mediterranean (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemeyer, Ingo


    The Mediterranean Sea desiccation during isolation from the world oceans created the well-known Messinian salinity crisis but also landbridges that permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The hypotheses for the cause chocking the Mediterranean have typically sought to explain geological features, particularly the giant salt deposits, but the implications of the faunal changes occurring around that time remain inadequately integrated by current geological models. We present wide-angle seismic data that constrain for the first time the 16-18 km thick crust structure of a volcanic arc formed mostly between 10 to 6 Ma across the eastern region of the Alboran basin. The crustal structure supports that the arc created an archipelago forming a land bridge across the basin that largely isolated the Mediterranean. After the cessation of volcanic activity, the archipelago progressively submerged by thermal subsidence and accompanying sediment loading, having emerged islands that persisted into the Pleistocene time and shallow straits forming sills during the early Pliocene. The presence of an archipelago in the eastern region of the basin may explain a number of puzzling observations previously inexplicable by the proposed barriers closing the Gibraltar arc west of Alboran. The progressive volcanic build up of the archipelago together with the closure of the Betic and Rifean marine corridors would explain the initial isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma and the exchange of terrestrial biota since 6.2 Ma, i.e. before desiccation, which diversified radiating from SE Iberia and the opposite segment of the eastern Rif. In addition, an eastern barrier agrees with the continuous Messinian-age open marine sediments drilled at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, which may have been the refuge of typical Mediterranean taxa that rapidly repopulated the Mediterranean in the

  4. Mush Column Magma Chambers (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  5. Nd and Sr isotopes and K-Ar ages of the Ulreungdo alkali volcanic rocks in the East Sea, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Kyuhan; Jang Sunkyung; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Keisuke


    Temporal geochemical and isotopical variations in the Ulreundgo alkali volcanic rocks provide important constraints on the origin and evolution of the volcanic rocks in relation to backarc basin tectonism. We determined the K-Ar ages, major and trace element contents, and Nd and Sr isotopic rations of the alkali volcanic rocks. The activities of Ulreungdo volcanoes can be divided, on the basis of radiometric ages and field occurrences, into five stages, though their activities range from 1.4 Ma to 0.01 Ma with short volcanic hiatus (ca. 0.05-0.3 Ma). The Nd-Sr isotopic data for Ulreungdo volcanic rocks enable us to conclude that: (1) the source materials of Ulreungdo volcanics are isotopically heterogeneous in composition, which is explained by the mixing of mantle derived magma and continental crustal source rocks. There is no systematic isotopic variations with eruption stages. Particularly, some volcanic rocks of stage 2 and 3 have extremely wide initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic variations ranging from 0.7038 to 0.7092, which are influenced by seawater alterations; (2) the Ulreungdo volcanic rocks show EMI characteristic, while volcanic rocks from the Jejudo, Yeong-il and Jeon-gok areas have slightly depleted mantle source characteristics; (3) the trachyandesite of the latest eruption stage was originated from the mantle source materials which differ from other stages. A schematic isotopic evolution model for alkali basaltic magma is presented in the Ulreungdo volcanic island of the backarc basin of Japanese island arc system. (author)

  6. Volcanic deformation in the Andes (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.


    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  7. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions. (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria


    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  8. S-wave attenuation structure beneath the northern Izu-Bonin arc (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi


    To understand temperature structure or magma distribution in the crust and uppermost mantle, it is essential to know their attenuation structure. This study estimated the 3-D S-wave attenuation structure in the crust and uppermost mantle at the northern Izu-Bonin arc, taking into account the apparent attenuation due to multiple forward scattering. In the uppermost mantle, two areas of high seismic attenuation (high Q -1) imaged beneath the volcanic front were mostly colocated with low-velocity anomalies. This coincidence suggests that these high- Q -1 areas in low-velocity zones are the most likely candidates for high-temperature regions beneath volcanoes. The distribution of random inhomogeneities indicated the presence of three anomalies beneath the volcanic front: Two were in high- Q -1 areas but the third was in a moderate- Q -1 area, indicating a low correlation between random inhomogeneities and Q -1. All three anomalies of random inhomogeneities were rich in short-wavelength spectra. The most probable interpretation of such spectra is the presence of volcanic rock, which would be related to accumulated magma intrusion during episodes of volcanic activity. Therefore, the different distributions of Q -1 and random inhomogeneities imply that the positions of hot regions in the uppermost mantle beneath this arc have changed temporally; therefore, they may provide important constraints on the evolutionary processes of arc crust and volcanoes.

  9. Kinematic variables and water transport control the formation and location of arc volcanoes. (United States)

    Grove, T L; Till, C B; Lev, E; Chatterjee, N; Médard, E


    The processes that give rise to arc magmas at convergent plate margins have long been a subject of scientific research and debate. A consensus has developed that the mantle wedge overlying the subducting slab and fluids and/or melts from the subducting slab itself are involved in the melting process. However, the role of kinematic variables such as slab dip and convergence rate in the formation of arc magmas is still unclear. The depth to the top of the subducting slab beneath volcanic arcs, usually approximately 110 +/- 20 km, was previously thought to be constant among arcs. Recent studies revealed that the depth of intermediate-depth earthquakes underneath volcanic arcs, presumably marking the slab-wedge interface, varies systematically between approximately 60 and 173 km and correlates with slab dip and convergence rate. Water-rich magmas (over 4-6 wt% H(2)O) are found in subduction zones with very different subduction parameters, including those with a shallow-dipping slab (north Japan), or steeply dipping slab (Marianas). Here we propose a simple model to address how kinematic parameters of plate subduction relate to the location of mantle melting at subduction zones. We demonstrate that the location of arc volcanoes is controlled by a combination of conditions: melting in the wedge is induced at the overlap of regions in the wedge that are hotter than the melting curve (solidus) of vapour-saturated peridotite and regions where hydrous minerals both in the wedge and in the subducting slab break down. These two limits for melt generation, when combined with the kinematic parameters of slab dip and convergence rate, provide independent constraints on the thermal structure of the wedge and accurately predict the location of mantle wedge melting and the position of arc volcanoes.

  10. Diversity and Petrogenesis of Bonin Rear-Arc (United States)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.; Gill, J.


    The Izu Bonin subduction zone has a history of abundant rhyolite production that is relevant to the development of intermediate to silicic middle crust. This study presents major and trace elemental compositions (via electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) of unaltered volcanic glass and phenocrysts from select medium- to high-K tephra intervals from IODP Site 1437 (Expedition 350, Izu Bonin Rear Arc). These data provide a time-resolved record of regional explosive magmatism ( 4.4Ma to present). Tephra from Site 1437 is basaltic to rhyolitic glass with accompanying phenocrysts, including hornblende. Glass compositions form a medium-K magmatic series with LREE enrichment (LaN/YbN = 2.5-6) whose trace element ratios and isotopic compositions are distinct from magmas with similar SiO2 contents in the main Izu Bonin volcanic front. Other workers have shown progressive enrichment in K and other trace element ratios moving from volcanic front westwards through the extensional region to the western seamounts in the rear arc. The <4.4 Ma rear-arc rhyolites from Site 1437 show pronounced negative Eu anomalies, high LaN/SmN (2-3.5), Ba/La <25 and Th of 1.5-4 ppm. These rhyolites show the highest variability for a given SiO2 content among all rear-arc magmas (rhyolites have 1.5-3.5 wt% K2O, Zr/Y of 1-8, LaN of 5-9 ppm) consistent with variability in literature reports of other rhyolite samples dredged from surrounding seamounts. Rhyolites have been dredged from several nearby seamounts with other high-K rhyolites dredged as close as nearby Meireki Seamount ( 3.8 Ma) and further afield in the Genroku seamount chain ( 1.88 Ma), which we compare to Site 1437 rhyolites. An extremely low-K rhyolite sill (13.6 Ma) was drilled lower in the section at Site U1437, suggesting that the mechanism for producing rhyolites in the Western Seamounts region changed over time. Rhyolites are either produced by differentiation of mafic magmas, by melting of pre-existing arc crust (as hypothesized in

  11. Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al


    Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.

  12. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization (United States)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi


    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  13. Geochronology and petrology of OIB-type lavas from the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru


    In Mexican Volcanic Belt, typical continental margin arc volcanic activities have occurred accompanying the subduction of Rivera Plate and Cocos Plate into North American Plate. It has been known by recent geochemical research that the oceanic island type magma which does not show the characteristic chemical composition of subduction zone has extruded. In order to investigate the relation of the development of volcanic belt in continental margin are with the change of wide area tectonics, and to impose important limit on magma formation models, it is important to know the state of production of oceanic island type magma in continental margin arc and the age of its activities. In this report, the results of the K-Ar age measurement for the oceanic island type lava produced in the middle of Mexican Volcanic Belt are shown, and the geochemical features of those samples are clarified. The state of production and the petrography of oceanic island type igneous rock samples are explained. The K-Ar age measurement experiment and the results are reported. The chemical composition of oceanic island type lava determined by photon activation process and fluorescent X-ray analysis is shown. (K.I.)

  14. LA-ICP-MS Pb-U Dating of Young Zircons from the Kos-Nisyros Volcanic Centre, SE Aegean Arc (Greece) (United States)

    Guillong, M.; Von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Bachmann, O.


    Zircon Pb-U dating has become a key technique for answering many important questions in geosciences. This paper describes a new LA-ICP-MS approach. We show, using previously dated samples of a large quaternary rhyolitic eruption in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre (the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff), that the precision of our LA-ICP-MS method is as good as via SHRIMP, while ID-TIMS measurements confirm the accuracy. Gradational age distribution over >140 ka of the Kos zircons and the near-absence of inherited cores indicate near-continuous crystallisation in a growing magma reservoir with little input from wall rocks. Previously undated silicic eruptions from Nisyros volcano (Lower Pumice, Nikia Flow, Upper Pumice), which are stratigraphically constrained to have happened after the Kos Plateau Tuff, are dated to be younger than respectively 124 ± 35 ka, 111 ± 42 ka and 70 ± 24 ka. Samples younger than 1 Ma were corrected for initial thorium disequilibrium using a new formula that also accounts for disequilibrium in 230Th decay. Guillong, M. et al., 2014, JAAS, 29, p. 963-967; doi: 10.1039/c4ja00009a.

  15. Isotopic feature and uranium dating of the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Volcanic rocks from the northern and middle Okinawa Trough were dated by uranium-series dating method. Differential fractions using magnetic procedure were designed to separate samples. New report on the ages and isotopic data of rocks in the northern trough (especially black pumice) was discussed. Based on the uranium dates and Sr-Nd isotopic ratio, magmatic evolution process of the Okinawa Trough was noted. Firstly, there have been wide silicic volcanic activities in the Okinawa Trough from late Pleistocene to present, and the volcanic rocks can be divided into three subgroups. Secondly, magma generally came from PREMA source area under the Okinawa Trough. Magmatic evolution in the northern trough was similar to the middle, but different to the south. Finally, volcanic activities indicated that opening of the southern Okinawa Trough did not happen due to the collision between Luson Arc and Eurasian Plate until the early Pleistocene.

  16. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano. (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi


    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures.

  17. Lunar magma transport phenomena (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.


    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  18. Petrologic evolution of Miocene-Pliocene mafic volcanism in the Kangal and Gürün basins (Sivas-Malatya), central east Anatolia: Evidence for Miocene anorogenic magmas contaminated by continental crust (United States)

    Kocaarslan, Ayça; Ersoy, E. Yalçın


    This study discusses the geochemical features of the Early-Middle Miocene and Pliocene basaltic (SiO2 = 46-52; MgO = 6-10 wt%) to andesitic (SiO2 = 59; MgO = 4 wt%) rocks exposed in the Gürün and Kangal basins (Sivas, eastern part of central Anatolia), respectively. The basaltic rocks are characterized by alkaline to tholeiitic affinities, while the more evolved andesitic samples show calc-alkaline affinity. Trace element variations reveal that they can be evaluated in three sub-groups, each represented by different contents of trace elements for given Nb contents. Primary magmas of each groups were likely produced by different degrees of partial melting ( 1-2, 2-3, 7-10% respectively) from a common mantle source, subsequently underwent different degrees of fractionation and crustal contamination. Derivation from a common mantle source of the primitive magmas of each group is supported by similar Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios. Increasing degrees of partial melting seem to be responsible for the alkaline to tholeiitic variation among the basaltic samples, while higher degrees of crustal contamination (AFC) resulted in calc-alkaline affinity of the more evolved samples. Most primitive Pliocene samples show intra-plate (anorogenic) geochemical features, while the more evolved Miocene calc-alkaline samples resemble geochemically subduction-related (orogenic) magmatic rocks. However, on the basis of detailed geochemical models, we propose that the calc-alkaline affinity among the Miocene samples can also be gained by crustal contamination of their primary magmas which were also anorogenic in character. If this is true, overall, the Miocene and Pliocene basaltic to andesitic rocks in the Gürün and Kangal basins appear to may have formed by variable degrees of partial melting of a common anorogenic mantle that had not been subject to subduction-related metasomatism. This is an alternative approach to the general view assuming the Early-Middle Miocene magmatic activity

  19. Volcanic sequence in Late Triassic – Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic rocks from Galeana, NE Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Gómez, E.M.; Velasco-Tapia, F.; Ramírez-Fernández, J.A.; Jenchen, U.; Rodríguez-Saavedra, P.; Rodríguez-Díaz, A.A.; Iriondo, A.


    In northeastern Mexico, volcanic rocks interbedded with Late Triassic–Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic strata have been linked to magmatic arcs developed in the Pangea western margin during its initial phase of fragmentation. This work provides new petrographic and geochemical data for volcanism included in the El Alamar and Minas Viejas formations outcropping in the Galeana region. Andesitic dykes and sills (n= 10) in the El Alamar redbeds show SiO2= 47.5–59.1% and MgO= 1.2–4.2%, as well as a geochemical affinity to island arc magmas. This work represents the first report of this tectonic setting in the region. Geological and petrographic evidence suggest that this arc system likely developed after ~220 and before ~193Ma. Trachy-andesitic and rhyodacitic domes (n= 20) associated with the Minas Viejas gypsum-carbonates sequence show SiO2= 61.8–82.7% and MgO= 0.1–4.0% with a tectonic affinity to continental arc. A rhyodacite sample from this region has been dated by U-Pb in zircon, yielding an age of 149.4 ± 1.2Ma (n= 21), being the youngest age related to this arc. Finally, we propose a threestep model to explain the tectonic evolution from Late Triassic island arc to Jurassic continental arc system in the northeastern Mexico.

  20. Volcanic sequence in Late Triassic – Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic rocks from Galeana, NE Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Gómez, E.M.; Velasco-Tapia, F.; Ramírez-Fernández, J.A.; Jenchen, U.; Rodríguez-Saavedra, P.; Rodríguez-Díaz, A.A.; Iriondo, A.


    In northeastern Mexico, volcanic rocks interbedded with Late Triassic–Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic strata have been linked to magmatic arcs developed in the Pangea western margin during its initial phase of fragmentation. This work provides new petrographic and geochemical data for volcanism included in the El Alamar and Minas Viejas formations outcropping in the Galeana region. Andesitic dykes and sills (n= 10) in the El Alamar redbeds show SiO2= 47.5–59.1% and MgO= 1.2–4.2%, as well as a geochemical affinity to island arc magmas. This work represents the first report of this tectonic setting in the region. Geological and petrographic evidence suggest that this arc system likely developed after ~220 and before ~193Ma. Trachy-andesitic and rhyodacitic domes (n= 20) associated with the Minas Viejas gypsum-carbonates sequence show SiO2= 61.8–82.7% and MgO= 0.1–4.0% with a tectonic affinity to continental arc. A rhyodacite sample from this region has been dated by U-Pb in zircon, yielding an age of 149.4 ± 1.2Ma (n= 21), being the youngest age related to this arc. Finally, we propose a threestep model to explain the tectonic evolution from Late Triassic island arc to Jurassic continental arc system in the northeastern Mexico.

  1. Volcanic geology and geochemistry of Motuhora (Whale Island), Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.M.; Cole, J.W.; Vroon, P.Z.


    Motuhora (Whale Island) lies c. 11 km offshore from Whakatane in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, and comprises tuffaceous marine sediments of the Camp Bay and Motuhora Formations separated by lavas, volcanic breccias, and slope-wash deposits of the Whale Volcanics. Whale Volcanics can be divided into East Dome, Central Dome Complex, and Pa Hill Dome. East Dome is a flow banded, chaotically jointed dacite that is probably extrusive. Central Dome comprises lava flows, and extensive volcanic breccias and tuffs which thicken into a local depression to the north of the central high, suggesting rapid growth and erosion of the dome. Pa Hill Dome is largely intrusive into Camp Bay Formation, although blocks of Pa Hill dacite in an upper slope-wash cobble bed suggest it was partially extrusive. The lavas are porphyritic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite with subordinate clinopyroxene and amphibole (particularly in Pa Hill Dome), and rare biotite. Rounded or broken and embayed quartz crystals are found in the Central Dome Complex and Pa Hill domes. Magmatic xenoliths are common in all lavas. Chemically the lavas are medium-K, calc-alkaline andesites and dacites, and show relative LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion typical of arc volcanics. Isotopically, samples tend to have more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic Nd than volcanics from neighbouring White Island. It is likely that Motuhora lavas were formed by a multi-stage process involving partial melting of N-MORB-type mantle that had been fluxed by fluids rich in incompatible elements derived from the dehydrating downgoing slab and followed by crystal fractionation of the magma. As the magma rose through the lower continental crust it was contaminated, probably by Torlesse metasediment. Petrographic textures and mineral chemistry indicate that magma mixing, while in an upper crustal magma chamber, is the norm for Motuhora lavas. (author). 69 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Observations and modelling of inflation in the Lazufre volcanic region, South America (United States)

    Pearse, J.; Lundgren, P.


    The Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) is an active volcanic arc in the central Andes, extending through Peru, southwestern Bolivia, Chile, and northwestern Argentina [De Silva, 1989; De Silva and Francis, 1991]. The CVZ includes a number of collapsed calderas, remnants of catastrophic eruptions, which are now thought to be inactive. However, recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations [Pritchard and Simons, 2004] show surface deformation occurring at some of these large ancient volcanic regions, indicating that magma chambers are slowly inflating beneath the surface. The mechanisms responsible for the initiation and growth of large midcrustal magma chambers remains poorly understood, and InSAR provides an opportunity for us to observe volcanic systems in remote regions that are otherwise difficult to monitor and observe. The Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre ("Lazufre" [Pritchard and Simons, 2002]) volcanic area is one such complex showing recent deformation, with average surface uplift rates of approximately 2.5 cm/year [Froger et al., 2007; Ruch et al, 2008]. We have processed InSAR data from ERS-1/2 and Envisat in the Lazufre volcanic area, including both ascending and descending satellite tracks. Time series analysis of the data shows steady uplift beginning in about 2000, continuing into 2010. We use boundary-element elastic models to invert for the depth and shape of the magmatic source responsible for the surface deformation. Given data from both ascending and descending tracks, we are able to resolve the ambiguity between the source depth and size, and constrain the geometry of the inflating magma source. Finite element modelling allows us to understand the effect of viscoelasticity on the development of the magma chamber.

  3. Numerical modeling of magma-tectonic interactions at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Wauthier, C.


    Pacaya Volcano is composed of several volcanic cones located along the southern rim of the Amatitlan caldera, approximately 25 km south of Guatemala City. It is a basaltic volcano located in the Central American Volcanic Arc. The shallow magma plumbing system at Pacaya likely includes at least three magma reservoirs: a very shallow ( 0.2-0.4 km depth) reservoir located below and possibly within the MacKenney cone, a 4 km deep reservoir located northwest of the summit, and a shallow dike-like conduit below the summit which fed the recent flank eruptions. Pacaya's western flank is slipping in a stick-slip fashion, and the instability seems associated with larger volume eruptions. Flank instability phases indeed occurred in 2010 and 2014 in coincidence with major intrusive and eruptive phases, suggesting a positive feedback between the flank motion and major intrusions. Simple analytical models are insufficient to fit the geodetic observations and model the flank processes and their mechanical interactions with the magmatic system. Here, numerical modeling approaches are used to characterize the 2014 flank deformation episode and magma-tectonic interactions.

  4. El Chichón Volcano (Chiapas Volcanic Belt, Mexico) Transitional Calc-Alkaline to Adakitic-Like Magmatism: Petrologic and Tectonic Implications


    Ignacio San José, Cristina de; Castiñeiras García, Pedro; Márquez González, Álvaro; Oyarzun, Roberto; Lillo Ramos, F. Javier; López Ruiz-Labranderas, Iván


    The rocks of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) display a series of geochemical and mineralogical features that make them a special case within the NW-trending Chiapas volcanic belt. The rocks are transitional between normal arc and adakitic-like trends. They are anhydrite-rich, and were derived from a water-rich, highly oxidized sulfur-rich magma, thus very much resembling adakitic magmas (e.g., the 1991 Pinatubo eruption). We propose that these rocks we...

  5. The systematics of lithium abundances in young volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.G.; Langmuir, C.H.


    Lithium is a moderately incompatible trace element in magmatic systems. High precision analyses for lithium conducted on well characterized suites of MORB and ocean island basalts suggest a bulk distribution coefficient of 0.25-0.35 and behavior which is similar to Yb during low pressure fractionation and V during melting, as long as garnet is not an important residual phase. Data for peridotites and basalts suggest a mantle lithium content of about 1.9 ppm and show that significant concentrations of lithium reside in olivine and orthopyroxene, resulting in unusual inter-mineral partitioning of Li and complex relationships between lithium and other incompatible trace elements. The lithium abundances of arc basalts are similar to those of MORB, but their Li/Yb ratios are considerably higher. The high Li/Yb suggests the addition of a Li-rich component to arc sources; relatively low Yb abundances are consistent with the derivation of some arc magmas by larger extents of melting or from a more depleted source than MORB. Although Li is enriched at arcs, K is enriched more, leading to elevated K/Li ratios in arc volcanics. The high K/Li and relatively low La/Yb of primitive arc basalts requires either incorporation of altered ocean crust into arc magma sources, or selective removal of K and Li from subducted sediments. Bulk incorporation of sediments alone does not explain the Li systematics. Data from primitive MORB indicate a relatively low (3-4 ppm) Li content for new oceanic crust. Thus, the Li flux from the ocean crust is probably 11 g/yr, and the oceanic crust may not be an important net source in the oceanic budget of lithium. (author)

  6. Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids (United States)

    Martin, Hervé


    Both geochemical and experimental petrological research indicate that Archaean continental crust was generated by partial melting of an Archaean tholeiite transformed into a garnet-bearing amphibolite or eclogite. The geodynamic context of tholeiite melting is the subject of controversy. It is assumed to be either (1) subduction (melting of a hot subducting slab), or (2) hot spot (melting of underplated basalts). These hypotheses are considered in the light of modern adakite genesis. Adakites are intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks, andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (basaltic members are lacking). They have trondhjemitic affinities (high-Na 2O contents and K 2O/Na 2O˜0.5) and their Mg no. (0.5), Ni (20-40 ppm) and Cr (30-50 ppm) contents are higher than in typical calc-alkaline magmas. Sr contents are high (>300 ppm, until 2000 ppm) and REE show strongly fractionated patterns with very low heavy REE (HREE) contents (Yb≤1.8 ppm, Y≤18 ppm). Consequently, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios are typical and discriminating features of adakitic magmas, indicative of melting of a mafic source where garnet and/or hornblende are residual phases. Adakitic magmas are only found in subduction zone environments, exclusively where the subduction and/or the subducted slab are young (subducted and where the adakitic character of the lavas correlates well with the young age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere. In typical subduction zones, the subducted lithosphere is older than 20 Ma, it is cool and the geothermal gradient along the Benioff plane is low such that the oceanic crust dehydrates before it reaches the solidus temperature of hydrated tholeiite. Consequently, the basaltic slab cannot melt. The released large ion lithophile element (LILE)-rich fluids rise up into the mantle wedge, inducing both its metasomatism and partial melting. Afterwards, the residue is made up of olivine+clinopyroxene+orthopyroxene, such that the partial melts are HREE-rich (low La/Yb and Sr

  7. Multivariate statistical tools for the radiometric features of volcanic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Marrale, M.; Micciche, S.; Lanzo, G.; Rizzo, S.


    The Aeolian Islands represents a Quaternary volcanic arc related to the subduction of the Ionian plate beneath the Calabrian Arc. The geochemical variability of the islands has led to a broad spectrum of magma rocks. Volcanic products from calc-alkaline (CA) to calc-alkaline high in potassium (HKCA) are present throughout the Archipelago, but products belonging to shoshonitic (SHO) and potassium (KS) series characterize the southern portion of Lipari, Vulcano and Stromboli. Tectonics also plays an important role in the process of the islands differentiation. In this work, we want to review and cross-analyze the data on Lipari, Stromboli and Vulcano, collected in measurement and sampling campaigns over the last years. Chemical data were obtained by X-ray fluorescence. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with germanium detectors was used to measure primordial radionuclide activities. The activity of primordial radionuclides in the volcanic products of these three islands is strongly dependent on their chemism. The highest contents are found in more differentiated products (rhyolites). The CA products have lower concentrations, while the HKCA and Shoshonitic product concentrations are in between. Calculated dose rates have been correlated with the petrochemical features in order to gain further insight in evolution and differentiation of volcanic products. Ratio matching technique and multivariate statistical analyses, such as Principal Component Analysis and Minimum Spanning Tree, have been applied as an additional tool helpful to better describe the lithological affinities of the samples. (Author)

  8. Along and Across Arc Variation of the Central Andes by Single Crystal Trace Element Analaysis (United States)

    Michelfelder, G.; Sundell, T.; Wilder, A.; Salings, E. E.


    Along arc and across arc geochemical variations at continental volcanic arcs are influenced by a number of factors including the composition and thickness of the continental crust, mantle heterogeneity, and fluids from the subducted slab. Whole rock geochemical trends along and across the arc front of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) have been suggested to be primarily influenced by the composition and thickness of the crust. In the CVZ, Pb isotopic domains relate volcanic rock compositions to the crustal basement and systematically varies with crustal age. It has been shown repeatedly that incompatible trace element trends and trace element ratios can be used to infer systematic geochemical changes. However, there is no rule linking magmatic process or chemical heterogeneity/ homogeneity as a result of large crustal magma storage reservoirs such as MASH zones to the observed variation. Here we present a combination of whole rock major- and trace element data, isotopic data and in situ single crystal data from plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine for six stratovolcanoes along the arc front and in the back arc of the CVZ. We compare geochemical trends at the whole and single crystal scale. These volcanoes include lava flows and domes from Cerro Uturuncu in the back-arc, Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, San Pedro-San Pablo, Lascar, and Lazufre from the arc front. On an arc-wide scale, whole rock samples of silicic lavas from these six composite volcanoes display systematically higher K2O, LILE, REE and HFSE contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios with increasing distance from the arc-front. In contrast, the lavas have systematically lower Na2O, Sr, and Ba contents; LILE/HFSE ratios; 143Nd/144Nd ratios; and more negative Eu anomalies. Silicic magmas along the arc-front reflecting melting of young, mafic composition source rocks with the continental crust becoming increasingly older and more felsic toward the east. These trends are paralleled in the trace element compositions of plagioclase

  9. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo


    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  10. Evidence for seismogenic fracture of silicic magma. (United States)

    Tuffen, Hugh; Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter R


    It has long been assumed that seismogenic faulting is confined to cool, brittle rocks, with a temperature upper limit of approximately 600 degrees C (ref. 1). This thinking underpins our understanding of volcanic earthquakes, which are assumed to occur in cold rocks surrounding moving magma. However, the recent discovery of abundant brittle-ductile fault textures in silicic lavas has led to the counter-intuitive hypothesis that seismic events may be triggered by fracture and faulting within the erupting magma itself. This hypothesis is supported by recent observations of growing lava domes, where microearthquake swarms have coincided with the emplacement of gouge-covered lava spines, leading to models of seismogenic stick-slip along shallow shear zones in the magma. But can fracturing or faulting in high-temperature, eruptible magma really generate measurable seismic events? Here we deform high-temperature silica-rich magmas under simulated volcanic conditions in order to test the hypothesis that high-temperature magma fracture is seismogenic. The acoustic emissions recorded during experiments show that seismogenic rupture may occur in both crystal-rich and crystal-free silicic magmas at eruptive temperatures, extending the range of known conditions for seismogenic faulting.

  11. The Riscos Bayos Ignimbrites of the Caviahue-Copahue volcanic caldera complex, southern Andes, Argentina (United States)

    Colvin, A.; Merrill, M.; Demoor, M.; Goss, A.; Varekamp, J. C.


    The Caviahue-Copahue volcanic complex (38 S, 70 W) is located on the eastern margin of the active arc in the southern Andes, Argentina. Volcán Copahue, an active stratovolcano which hosts an active hydrothermal system, sits on the southwestern rim of the elliptical Caviahue megacaldera (17 x 15 km). The caldera wall sequences are up to 0.6 km thick and consist of lavas with 51 -69 percent SiO2 and 0.2 - 5 percent MgO as well as breccias, dikes, sills, domes and minor ignimbrites. Andesitic lava flows also occur within the caldera, and are overlain by a chaotic complex of silicic lava and intracaldera pyroclastic flow deposits. The eastern wall sequence is capped by several extracaldera ignimbrites (Riscos Bayos formation) of about 50 m maximum thickness which extend 30 km east-southeast of the caldera. Young back-arc alkali basalt scoria cones occur east of the Caviahue-Copahue volcanic complex. The eruption of the Riscos Bayos formation at about 1.1 Ma (12 km cubed) may be related to the Caviahue caldera formation, though the Riscos Bayos account for only about 7 percent of the caldera volume. The Riscos Bayos consists of three lithic-bearing flow units: a grey basal flow, a tan middle flow and a bright-white, highly indurated uppermost flow. The basal unit consists of white and grey pumice fragments, black scoria clasts, black obsidian clasts (which give it the grey color), and accidental volcanic lithics set in a matrix of ash and crystals. The middle unit is composed of large mauve pumice fragments and accidental lithics set in a fine tan ash groundmass. The uppermost unit is composed of small pink and white pumice fragments set in a matrix of fine white ash. These pumices carry quartz and biotite crystals, whereas the lower two units are orthopyroxene-bearing trachy-dacites. The Caviahue-Copahue magmas all bear arc signatures, but possibly some magma mixing between the andesitic arc magmas and basaltic back-arc magmas may have occurred. The evolved top layer

  12. Why does the Size of the Laacher See Magma Chamber and its Caldera Size not go together? - New Findings with regard to Active Tectonics in the East Eifel Volcanic Field (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Berberich, Gabriele


    . 2002). Our research findings suggest that due to the slow movement rates of active tectonic faults, an estimated 18 km³ magma chamber within the brittle fracture section of the earth's crust beneath the Laacher See (v. d. Bogaard & Schmincke 1984) cannot be confirmed yet. Another discrepancy is given by a comparison of modeling of caldera evolution (Acocella 2007) with the Laacher See Caldera formation. The Laacher See caldera has a volume of 0.5 km³ with regard to the pre-eruptive surface (Viereck & v.d. Bogaard 1986). According to v. d. Bogaard & Schmincke (1984) a volume of 6.3 km³ dry rock equivalent of lava and basic rock was erupted. This magnitude is contradictory to the calculated 0.5 km³ volume of the Laacher See caldera. A volume compensation of approx. 6 km³ which could have prevented a further subsidence of the magma chamber cannot be a scientific possible explanation. This hypothesis is strengthened by performed sonar recordings of the post-eruptive Laacher See sediment layers which do not show any displacements that might indicate a doming caused by magma. Estimations of the erupted tephra volume provided the basis for the calculation of the size of the Laacher See magma chamber (v.d. Bogaard 1983), but there is no statistical significant data set with regard to spatial distribution of the erupted tephra amount. Our findings show an overestimation of the tephra thickness in published isopach maps of the Westerwald. Therefore, an order of magnitude smaller magma chamber stretched over a longer vertical crustal section can help to better match the given tectonic movement rates and the size of the caldera. To estimate the future development of the East Eifel volcanic field, a good knowledge of the active tectonics is an absolute prerequisite. Along the "Laacher See Strike-slip Fault", an area of intensive micro-seismicity and a new seismically active zone with local magnitudes up to 4 has developed over the last 40 years (Hinzen 2003). In the last

  13. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin


    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  14. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben


    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  15. Crustal Seismicity and Geomorphic Observations of the Chiripa-Haciendas Fault System: The Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver of Western Costa Rica (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Araya, M. C.


    It has recently been shown that contemporary northwest motion of the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica reflects a tectonic sliver that includes much of the upper-plate arc, referred to as the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver (GVAS). Here we characterize historical seismicity and geomorphic expressions of faults that define the northeastern margin of the GVAS. Several crustal earthquakes and their aftershocks provide constraints on the geometry and/or kinematics of the fault system. These include the Armenia earthquake of July 12, 2011, the Bijagua earthquake of January 27, 2002, the Tilarán earthquake of April 13, 1973 and two much older events. We summarize these earthquakes in the context of recent fault mapping and focal mechanism solutions, and suggest that most of the deformation can be explained by slip on steeply dipping NW-striking fault planes accommodating dextral slip. Streams that cross the major fault traces we have mapped also show deflections consistent with dextral slip. These include map-view apparent offsets of 6.5 km for the Haciendas River, 1.0 km for the Orosi River and 0.6 km for the Pizote River. Although preservation is poor, we document stream terrace risers that reveal truncations and/or offsets consistent with dextral slip. Additional constraints on the fault system are apparent as it is traced into Lake Nicaragua. Previous workers have shown that earthquake clusters accommodate a combination of dextral slip on NW-strike faults and sinistral slip NE-strike faults, the latter described as part of a system of bookshelf fault blocks. Whether the northeastern margin of the GVAS under Lake Nicaragua is a single fault strand or an array of bookshelf blocks remains an open question. An equally important gap in our understanding is the kinematic link of the fault system to the east where the GVAS originates. Our results set the stage for expanded studies that will be essential to understanding the relative contributions of Cocos Ridge collision and

  16. Empirical constraints on partitioning of platinum group elements between Cr-spinel and primitive terrestrial magmas (United States)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Kamenetsky, Vadim; Campbell, Ian; Park, Gyuseung; Hanski, Eero; Pushkarev, Evgeny


    Recent experimental studies and in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis on natural Cr-spinel have shown that Rh and IPGEs (Ir-group platinum group elements: Ru, Ir, Os) are enriched in the lattice of Cr-spinel. However, the factors controlling the partitioning behaviour of these elements are not well constrained. In this study, we report the Rh, IPGE, and trace element contents in primitive Cr-spinel, measured by LA-ICP-MS, from nine volcanic suites covering various tectonic settings including island arc picrites, boninites, large igneous province picrites and mid-ocean ridge basalts. The aim is to understand the factors controlling the enrichment of Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels, to estimate empirical partition coefficients between Cr-spinel and silicate melts, and to investigate the role of Cr-spinel fractional crystallization on the PGE geochemistry of primitive magmas during the early stages of fractional crystallization. There are systematic differences in trace elements, Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels from arc-related magmas (Arc Group Cr-spinel), intraplate magmas (Intraplate Group Cr-spinel), and mid-ocean ridge magmas (MORB Group Cr-spinel). Arc Group Cr-spinels are systematically enriched in Sc, Co and Mn and depleted in Ni compared to the MORB Group Cr-spinels. Intraplate Group Cr-spinels are distinguished from the Arc Group Cr-spinels by their high Ni contents. Both the Arc and Intraplate Group Cr-spinels have total Rh and IPGE contents of 22-689 ppb whereas the MORB Group Cr-spinels are depleted in Rh and IPGE (total time-resolved spectra of LA-ICP-MS data for Cr-spinels mostly show constant count rates for trace element and Rh and IPGEs, suggesting homogeneous distribution of these elements in Cr-spinels. The PGE spikes observed in several Cr-spinels were interpreted to be PGE-bearing mineral inclusions and excluded from calculating the PGE contents of the Cr-spinels. On primitive mantle normalized diagrams the Arc Group Cr-spinels are characterized by a fractionated

  17. Carboniferous continental arc in the Hegenshan accretionary belt: Constrains from plutonic complex in central Inner Mongolia (United States)

    Wei, Ruihua; Gao, Yongfeng; Xu, Shengchuan; Santosh, M.; Xin, Houtian; Zhang, Zhenmin; Li, Weilong; Liu, Yafang


    The architecture and tectonic evolution of the Hegenshan accretionary belt in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) remains debated. Here we present an integrated study of zircon U-Pb isotopic ages, whole rock major-trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data from the Hegenshan volcanic-plutonic belt in central Inner Mongolia. Field observations and zircon U-Pb ages allow us to divide the intrusive complex into an early phase at 329-306 Ma and a late phase at 304 to 299 Ma. The intrusive bodies belong to two magma series: calc-alkaline rocks with I-type affinity and A-type granites. The early intrusions are composed of granodiorite, monzogranite and porphyritic granite, and the late calc-alkaline intrusions include gabbro though diorite to granodiorite. The calc-alkaline intrusive rocks exhibit a well-defined compositional trend from gabbro to granite, reflecting continuous fractional crystallization. These rocks show obvious enrichment in LILEs and LREEs and relative depletion of HFSEs, typical of subduction-related magma. They also exhibit isotopic characteristics of mantle-derived magmas such as low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7029-0.7053), positive ɛNd(t) values (0.06-4.76) and low radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions ((206Pb/204Pb)I = 17.907-19.198, (207Pb/204Pb)I = 15.474-15.555, (208Pb/204Pb)I = 37.408-38.893). The marked consistency in geochemical and isotopic compositions between the intrusive rocks and the coeval Baoligaomiao volcanic rocks define a Carboniferous continental arc. Together with available regional data, we infer that this east-west trending continental arc was generated by northward subduction of the Hegenshan ocean during Carboniferous. The late alkali-feldspar granites and the high-Si rhyolites of the Baoligaomiao volcanic succession show similar geochemical compositions with high SiO2 and variable total alkali contents, and low TiO2, MgO and CaO. These rocks are characterized by unusually low Sr and Ba, and high abundances of Zr, Th, Nb, HREEs

  18. The South Tibetan Tadpole Zone: Ongoing density sorting at the Moho beneath the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone (and beneath volcanic arcs?) (United States)

    Kelemen, Peter; Hacker, Bradley


    at less than 700°C (e.g. Jackson 02). We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al 92, 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al 05; Monsalve et al 08) to develop the hypothesis that there is rapid growth of garnet at 80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust, causing increased rock densities. Dense eclogites founder into the mantle, while relatively buoyant lithologies accumulate in thickening lower crust. Mantle return flow plus radioactive heating in thick, felsic crust maintains high temperature, facilitating formation of hybrid magmas and pyroxenites. The crustal volume grows at 760 cubic m/yr/m of strike length. Moho-depth earthquakes may be due to localized deformation and thermal runaway in weak layers and along the margins of dense, foundering diapirs (e.g., Larsen & Yuen 97; Braeck & Podladchikov 07; Kelemen & Hirth 07; Lister et al 08; Kufner et al 16). A similar process may take place at some convergent margins, where forearc crust is thrust beneath hot, magmatic arc crust, leading to extensive, Moho-depth density sorting and hybrid crust-mantle magmatism in Arc Tadpole Zones.

  19. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo


    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  20. Volcanic sulfur degassing and the role of sulfides in controlling volcanic metal emissions (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Liu, E.


    Volcanoes emit prodigious quantities of sulfur and metals, their behaviour inextricably linked through pre-eruptive sulfide systematics and through degassing and speciation in the volcanic plume. Fundamental differences exist in the metal output of ocean island versus arc volcanoes, with volcanoes in Hawaii and Iceland outgassing large fluxes of gaseous and particulate chalcophiles; and arc volcanoes' plumes, in contrast, enriched in Zn, Cu, Tl and Pb. Metals and metalloids partition into a magmatic vapor phase from silicate melt at crustal pressures. Their abundance in magmatic vapor is influenced strongly by sulfide saturation and by the composition of the magmatic vapor phase, particularly with respect to chloride. These factors are highly dependent on tectonic setting. Metal outgassing is controlled by magma water content and redox: deep saturation in vapor and minimal sulfide in arc basalts yields metal-rich vapor; shallow degassing and resorption of sulfides feeds the metal content of volcanic gas in ocean islands. We present a detailed study of the sulfide systematics of the products of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun basaltic fissure eruption (Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland) to illustrate the interplay between late water and sulfur outgassing; sulfide saturation and breakdown; and metal partitioning into a vapor phase. Sulfide globules, representing quenched droplets of an immiscible sulfide liquid, are preserved within erupted tephra. Sulfide globules in rapidly quenched tephra are preserved within both matrix glass and as inclusions in crystals. The stereologically-corrected 3D size distribution of sulfide globules ranges from importance in supplying sulfur and metals to the atmosphere during eruption.

  1. Magma storage constrains by compositional zoning of plagioclase from dacites of the caldera forming eruptions of Vetrovoy Isthmus and Lvinaya Past’ Bay (Iturup Island, Kurile Islands) (United States)

    Maksimovich, I. A.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Kotov, A. A.; Timina, T. Yu; Shevko, A. V.


    The Vetrovoy Isthmus and the Lvinaya Past’ Bay on the Iturup island (Kuril island arc) are the results of large Plinian eruptions of compositionally similar dacitic magmas. This study is devoted to a comparative analysis of the storage and crystallization conditions for magma reservoirs, which were a source of large-scale explosive eruptions. The plagioclase is most informative mineral in studying of the melt evolution. The studied plagioclases possess a complex zoning patterns, which are not typical for silicic rocks in island-arc systems. It was shown that increase of Ca in the plagioclase up to unusually high An95 is related to increase of H2O pressure in both volcanic magma chambers. The study revealed that minerals of the Vetrovoy Isthmus and Lvinaya Past’ crystallized from compositionally similar melts. Despite the compositional similarity of the melts, the phenocryst assemblage of the Lvinaya Past’ differs from the Vetrovoy Isthmus by the presence of the amphibole, which indicates that the pressure in the magmatic chamber exceeded 1-2 kbar at a 4-6 wt. % of H2O in the melt. The rocks of the Vetrovoy Isthmus do not contain amphibole phenocrysts, but melt and fluid inclusions assemblages in plagioclase demonstrate that the magma degassed in the course of evolution. This is an indication that the pressure did not exceed significantly 1-2 kbar.

  2. Petrology, geochemistry and radiometric ages of high silica Adakitic Domes of Neogene continental arc, south of Quchan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, H.; Sadeghian, M.; Khanalizadeh, A.; Tanha, A.


    Neogene high silica adakitic domes of south Quchan, cropped out in the northern part of the Quchan-Esfarayen Cenozoic magmatic arc (north of Sabzevar ophiolitic and metamorphic belt). In this volcanic belt, magmatic activities has been started since Eocene (about 40 Ma ago) and continued to Plio-Pleistocene (about 2 Ma ago). The ages of volcanic rocks range from Eocene to Plio-Pleistocene from south (in adjacent to the Sabzevar ophiolitic belt) to north (in south of Quchan) respectively. Northern part of this high silica adakitic arc is composed of pyroclastic units and several domes contain trachyandesites, trachytes, dacites and rhyodacites (2-12 Ma ago) which are usually overlain an olivine basaltic- basaltic basement of Eocene to Lower Miocene (19-20 Ma ago). Existence of Eocene volcanic enclaves and gneissic, siltstone, marl and pellitic enclaves, appearance and disappearance of some mineral phases, corrosions and chemical dis equilibriums of some phenocrysts and sieve textures are some evidences of magmatic contamination. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio ranges from 0.7041 to 0.7057 confirms this contamination. A clear positive anomaly in LREE and LILE and a negative anomaly in HREE found in the rocks of Neogene domes. Negative anomalies in HFSE (e.g. P, Nb, Ti) which is the indicator of arc settings, also found in these rocks. Calc-alkaline nature, continental arc subduction setting, presence of an eclogitic or garnet-amphibolitic source rock (resulted from metamorphism of Sabzevar subducted oceanic crust as a source of magma generation), high silica adakitic nature of magmatism and the role of fractional crystallization, assimilation and magmatic contamination in the genesis and evolution of magma in these domes, indicated by the geochemical evidences. These adakitic magmas were the latest melts resulted from partial melting of young and hot Sabzevar Neotethyan subducted oceanic crust and its overlaying mantle wedge, which have been emplaced and manifested in the form of

  3. Adakite-like volcanism of Ecuador: lower crust magmatic evolution and recycling (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Müntener, Othmar; Beate, Bernardo; Fontignie, Denis


    In the Northern Andes of Ecuador, a broad Quaternary volcanic arc with significant across-arc geochemical changes sits upon continental crust consisting of accreted oceanic and continental terranes. Quaternary volcanic centers occur, from west to east, along the Western Cordillera (frontal arc), in the Inter-Andean Depression and along the Eastern Cordillera (main arc), and in the Sub-Andean Zone (back-arc). The adakite-like signatures of the frontal and main arc volcanoes have been interpreted either as the result of slab melting plus subsequent slab melt-mantle interactions or of lower crustal melting, fractional crystallization, and assimilation processes. In this paper, we present petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data on dominantly andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks as well as crustal xenolith and cumulate samples from five volcanic centers (Pululagua, Pichincha, Ilalo, Chacana, Sumaco) forming a NW-SE transect at about 0° latitude and encompassing the frontal (Pululagua, Pichincha), main (Ilalo, Chacana), and back-arc (Sumaco) chains. All rocks display typical subduction-related geochemical signatures, such as Nb and Ta negative anomalies and LILE enrichment. They show a relative depletion of fluid-mobile elements and a general increase in incompatible elements from the front to the back-arc suggesting derivation from progressively lower degrees of partial melting of the mantle wedge induced by decreasing amounts of fluids released from the slab. We observe widespread petrographic evidence of interaction of primary melts with mafic xenoliths as well as with clinopyroxene- and/or amphibole-bearing cumulates and of magma mixing at all frontal and main arc volcanic centers. Within each volcanic center, rocks display correlations between evolution indices and radiogenic isotopes, although absolute variations of radiogenic isotopes are small and their values are overall rather primitive (e.g., ɛNd = +1.5 to +6, 87Sr/86Sr = 0

  4. Tracing crustal contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia (United States)

    Jolis, E. M.; Troll, V.; Deegan, F.; Blythe, L.; Harris, C.; Freda, C.; Hilton, D.; Chadwick, J.; Van Helden, M.


    Arc magmas typically display chemical and petrographic characteristics indicative of crustal input. Crustal contamination can take place either in the mantle source region or as magma traverses the upper crust (e.g. [1]). While source contamination is generally considered the dominant process (e.g. [2]), late-stage crustal contamination has been recognised at volcanic arcs too (e.g. [3]). In light of this, we aim to test the extent of upper crustal versus source contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda arc, which, due its variable upper crustal structure, is an exemplary natural laboratory. We present a detailed geochemical study of 7 volcanoes along a traverse from Anak-Krakatau in the Sunda strait through Java and Bali, to characterise the impact of the overlying crust on arc magma composition. Using rock and mineral elemental geochemistry, radiogenic (Sr, Nd and Pb) and, stable (O) isotopes, we show a correlation between upper crustal composition and the degree of upper crustal contamination. We find an increase in 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O values, and a decrease in 143Nd/144Nd values from Krakatau towards Merapi, indicating substantial crustal input from the thick continental basement present. Volcanoes to the east of Merapi and the Progo-Muria fault transition zone, where the upper crust is thinner, in turn, show considerably less crustal input in their isotopic signatures, indicating a stronger influence of the mantle source. Our new data represent a systematic and high-resolution arc-wide sampling effort that allows us to distinguish the effects of the upper crust on the compositional spectrum of individual volcanic systems along the Sunda arc. [1] Davidson, J.P, Hora, J.M, Garrison, J.M & Dungan, M.A 2005. Crustal Forensics in Arc Magmas. J. Geotherm. Res. 140, 157-170; [2] Debaille, V., Doucelance, R., Weis, D., & Schiano, P. 2005. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70,723-741; [3] Gasparon, M., Hilton, D.R., & Varne, R. 1994. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 15-22.

  5. Understanding the rheology of two and three-phase magmas (United States)

    Coats, R.; Cai, B.; Kendrick, J. E.; Wallace, P. A.; Hornby, A. J.; Miwa, T.; von Aulock, F. W.; Ashworth, J. D.; Godinho, J.; Atwood, R. C.; Lee, P. D.; Lavallée, Y.


    The rheology of magma plays a fundamental role in determining the style of a volcanic eruption, be it explosive or effusive. Understanding how magmas respond to changes in stress/ strain conditions may help to enhance eruption forecast models. The presence of crystals and bubbles in magmas alter the viscosity of suspensions and favor a non-Newtonian response. Thus, with the aim of grasping the rheological behavior of volcanic materials, uniaxial compressive tests were performed on natural and synthetic samples. A suite of variably porous (10-32 vol.%), highly crystalline ( 50 vol.%) dacite from the 1991-95 eruption of Mt Unzen, Japan, was selected as the natural material, while synthetic samples were sintered with desired porosities (Diamond Light Source. Unexpectedly, these observations suggest that fractures nucleate in crystals due to crystal interactions, before propagating through the interstitial melt. This ongoing study promises to uncover the way crystal-bearing magmas flow or fail, necessary to constrain magmatic processes and volcanic hazards.

  6. The Upper- to Middle-Crustal Section of the Alisitos Oceanic Arc, (Baja, Mexico): an Analog of the Izu-Bonin-Marianas (IBM) Arc (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Busby, C.; DeBari, S. M.; Morris, R.; Andrews, G. D.; Brown, S. R.; Schmitt, A. K.


    The Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos arc in Baja California is an outstanding field analog for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc, because it is structurally intact, unmetamorphosed, and has superior three-dimensional exposures of an upper- to middle-crustal section through an extensional oceanic arc. Previous work1, done in the pre-digital era, used geologic mapping to define two phases of arc evolution, with normal faulting in both phases: (1) extensional oceanic arc, with silicic calderas, and (2) oceanic arc rifting, with widespread diking and dominantly mafic effusions. Our new geochemical data match the extensional zone immediately behind the Izu arc front, and is different from the arc front and rear arc, consistent with geologic relations. Our study is developing a 3D oceanic arc crustal model, with geologic maps draped on Google Earth images, and GPS-located outcrop information linked to new geochemical, geochronological and petrographic data, with the goal of detailing the relationships between plutonic, hypabyssal, and volcanic rocks. This model will be used by scientists as a reference model for past (IBM-1, 2, 3) and proposed IBM (IBM-4) drilling activities. New single-crystal zircon analysis by TIMS supports the interpretation, based on batch SIMS analysis of chemically-abraded zircon1, that the entire upper-middle crustal section accumulated in about 1.5 Myr. Like the IBM, volcanic zircons are very sparse, but zircon chemistry on the plutonic rocks shows trace element compositions that overlap to those measured in IBM volcanic zircons by A. Schmitt (unpublished data). Zircons have U-Pb ages up to 20 Myr older than the eruptive age, suggesting remelting of older parts of the arc, similar to that proposed for IBM (using different evidence). Like IBM, some very old zircons are also present, indicating the presence of old crustal fragments, or sediments derived from them, in the basement. However, our geochemical data show that the magmas are

  7. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in magmas (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Su, Yanqing; Parmigiani, Andrea


    Understanding the complex non-linear physics that governs volcanic eruptions is contingent on our ability to characterize the dynamics of bubbles and its effect on the ascending magma. The exsolution and migration of bubbles has also a great impact on the heat and mass transport in and out of magma bodies stored at shallow depths in the crust. Multiphase systems like magmas are by definition heterogeneous at small scales. Although mixture theory or homogenization methods are convenient to represent multiphase systems as a homogeneous equivalent media, these approaches do not inform us on possible feedbacks at the pore-scale and can be significantly misleading. In this presentation, we discuss the development and application of bubble-scale multiphase flow modeling to address the following questions : How do bubbles impact heat and mass transport in magma chambers ? How efficient are chemical exchanges between the melt and bubbles during magma decompression? What is the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the deformation of bubbles while the magma is sheared? Addressing these questions requires powerful numerical methods that accurately model the balance between viscous, capillary and pressure stresses. We discuss how these bubble-scale models can provide important constraints on the dynamics of magmas stored at shallow depth or ascending to the surface during an eruption.

  8. How does the architecture of a fault system controls magma upward migration through the crust? (United States)

    Iturrieta, P. C.; Cembrano, J. M.; Stanton-Yonge, A.; Hurtado, D.


    The orientation and relative disposition of adjacent faults locally disrupt the regional stress field, thus enhancing magma flow through previous or newly created favorable conduits. Moreover, the brittle-plastic transition (BPT), due to its stronger rheology, governs the average state of stress of shallower portions of the fault system. Furthermore, the BPT may coincide with the location of transient magma reservoirs, from which dikes can propagate upwards into the upper crust, shaping the inner structure of the volcanic arc. In this work, we examine the stress distribution in strike-slip duplexes with variable geometry, along with the critical fluid overpressure ratio (CFOP), which is the minimum value required for individual faults to fracture in tension. We also determine the stress state disruption of the fault system when a dike is emplaced, to answer open questions such as: what is the nature of favorable pathways for magma to migrate? what is the architecture influence on the feedback between fault system kinematics and magma injection? To this end, we present a 3D coupled hydro-mechanical finite element model of the continental lithosphere, where faults are represented as continuum volumes with an elastic-plastic rheology. Magma flow upon fracturing is modeled through non-linear Stoke's flow, coupling solid and fluid equilibrium. A non-linear sensitivity analysis is performed in function of tectonic, rheology and geometry inputs, to assess which are the first-order factors that governs the nature of dike emplacement. Results show that the CFOP is heterogeneously distributed in the fault system, and within individual fault segments. Minimum values are displayed near fault intersections, where local kinematics superimpose on regional tectonic loading. Furthermore, when magma is transported through a fault segment, the CFOP is now minimized in faults with non-favorable orientations. This suggests that these faults act as transient pathways for magma to

  9. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States (United States)



    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  10. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Zircons from the IODP Site U1437 in the Rear of the Izu-Bonin Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Schmitt, A. K.; Busby, C. J.; Brown, S. R.


    Zircons recovered from International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 350 Site U1437 (31°47.390'N, 139°01.580'E) in the Izu-Bonin arc were analyzed by SIMS to constrain their age (U/Pb geochronology) and geochemistry (trace elements, δ18O); LA-ICP-MS ɛHf analyses are pending. Seven intervals were dated successfully: six tuffs and lapilli-tuffs between 680.99 and 1722.46 m below sea floor (mbsf) and a single peperitic rhyolitic intrusion at 1388.86 - 1390.07 mbsf. Thirty-two intervals which underwent mineral separation lacked zircon, or yielded zircon much older than age expectations for U1437. Geochronology results from separated zircons confirm and extend the shipboard age model to 1360.77 mbsf where Late Miocene (Tortonian) submarine volcanic rocks (11.3 ±0.7 Ma; n = 17) were sampled. In-situ measurement of zircons associated with magnetite crystals in the rhyolite intrusion yield an age of 13.6 ±1.7 Ma (n = 9). Zircon U contents are low (typically <300 ppm), with trace element ratios characteristic of oceanic lithosphere and near-mantle δ18O values (4-6 ‰). Individual Miocene zircon crystals are difficult to distinguish by age alone from those in the drilling mud (sepiolite) used during Expedition 350; the sepiolite is quarried by IMV Nevada in the Amargosa Valley. Our analysis of thirty-three zircons from the sepiolite finds that they have a broad and varied age distribution (2 - 2033 Ma) with a prominent peak at 12-14 Ma, bimodal δ18O values (peaks at 5-5.5 and 6.5-7.5 ‰), and dominantly continental trace element signatures. Three zircons from U1437 are tentatively identified as sepiolite-derived, but a single Eocene grain (51.7 ±2.4 Ma) recovered from 1722.46 mbsf has an age unlike those in the sepiolite, and potentially is genuinely xenocrystic. The majority of U1437 zircons thus crystallized from evolved melts lacking continental characteristics, although thermal and compositional conditions conducive for zircon crystallization appear to have

  11. Radioactive equilibria and disequilibria of U-series nuclides in the products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Y.; Sato, J. [Meiji Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Takahashi, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Radiation Safety Research Center


    Activity ratios among {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra in the products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan, were observed in order to estimate the time scale of magmatic processes and the magma generation for Izu arc volcanism. Activity ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the basaltic and andesitic products from Izu arc volcanoes were greater than unity, being enriched in {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra relative to {sup 230}Th. The {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th activity ratio versus {sup 238}U/{sup 230}Th activity ratio diagram for these products showed positive correlation, suggesting that the {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra disequilibria occurred during the magma genesis by the additions of U- and Ra-rich fluids derived from the subducting slab by dehydration to the mantle wedge. The {sup 230}Th-{sup 226226}Ra radioactive disequilibria observed in the basaltic and andesitic products imply a short period of time (<8000 years) between the magma genesis and the eruption. The majority of rhyolitic products was considered to be almost in equilibrium of {sup 238}U={sup 230}Th={sup 226}Ra. The observation that {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra for the rhyolite are in radioactive equilibrium suggested that the rhyolitic magma from Izu arc was generated in the partial melting of the earth crust heated by the basaltic magma of high temperature. (orig.)

  12. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain; Vulcanismo cuaternario de la Isla Decepcion (Antartida): una signatura relacionada con la subduccion de la Fosa de las Shetland del Sur en el dominio de tras-arco de la Cuenca de Bransfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.


    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  13. Geochemistry of the late Holocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic field, Kamchatka: Quantitative modelling of subduction-related open magmatic systems (United States)

    Portnyagin, Maxim; Duggen, Svend; Hauff, Folkmar; Mironov, Nikita; Bindeman, Ilya; Thirlwall, Matthew; Hoernle, Kaj


    compositions at different eruption or replenishment rates. Intermediate rocks, including high-K, high-Mg basalts, are formed by mixing of the evolved and primitive magmas. Evolution of Tolbachik magmas is associated with large fractionation between incompatible trace elements (e.g., Rb/Ba, La/Nb, Ba/Th) and is strongly controlled by the relative difference in partitioning between crystal and liquid phases. The Tolbachik volcanic field shows that open-system scenarios provide more plausible and precise descriptions of long-lived arc magmatic systems than simpler, but often geologically unrealistic, closed-system models.

  14. The subduction erosion and mantle source region contamination model of Andean arc magmatism: Isotopic evidence from igneous rocks of central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Charles R


    Continental crust may be incorporated in mantle-derived Andean magmas as these magmas rise through the crust (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), or alternatively, crust may be tectonically transported into the mantle by subduction of trench sediments and subduction erosion of the continental margin, and then added into the mantle source region of Andean magmas (Stern, 1991). Since the mantle has relatively low Sr, Nd, and Pb concentrations compared to continental crust, differences in the isotopic compositions of magmas erupted in different region of the Andes may be produced by relatively small differences in the amount of subducted crust added to the mantle source region of these magmas. By comparison, significantly larger amounts of crust must be assimilated by mantle-derived magmas to produce isotopic differences of similar magnitude. Therefore, constraining the process by which continental crust is incorporated in Andean magmas has important implications for understanding the chemical cycling that takes place in the Andean subduction-related magma factory. Isotopic data suggest the incorporation of a greater proportion of crust in Andean magmas erupted at the northern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile compared to those erupted in the southern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of south central Chile (SSVZ) (Stern et al., 1984; Futa and Stern, 1988; Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988). The NSVZ occurs just south of the current locus of the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. The southward migration of the locus of subduction of this ridge has resulted in decreasing subduction angle below the NSVZ, the eastward migration of the volcanic front of the Andean arc, and an increase in the crustal thickness below the arc. These factors together have caused changes, since the middle Miocene, in the isotopic composition of Andean igneous rocks of central Chile. The data indicate a close chronologic relation between the southward migrations of the locus

  15. Nd and Sr isotopes and K-Ar ages of the Ulreungdo alkali volcanic rocks in the East Sea, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Kyuhan; Jang Sunkyung [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Keisuke


    Temporal geochemical and isotopical variations in the Ulreundgo alkali volcanic rocks provide important constraints on the origin and evolution of the volcanic rocks in relation to backarc basin tectonism. We determined the K-Ar ages, major and trace element contents, and Nd and Sr isotopic rations of the alkali volcanic rocks. The activities of Ulreungdo volcanoes can be divided, on the basis of radiometric ages and field occurrences, into five stages, though their activities range from 1.4 Ma to 0.01 Ma with short volcanic hiatus (ca. 0.05-0.3 Ma). The Nd-Sr isotopic data for Ulreungdo volcanic rocks enable us to conclude that: (1) the source materials of Ulreungdo volcanics are isotopically heterogeneous in composition, which is explained by the mixing of mantle derived magma and continental crustal source rocks. There is no systematic isotopic variations with eruption stages. Particularly, some volcanic rocks of stage 2 and 3 have extremely wide initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic variations ranging from 0.7038 to 0.7092, which are influenced by seawater alterations; (2) the Ulreungdo volcanic rocks show EMI characteristic, while volcanic rocks from the Jejudo, Yeong-il and Jeon-gok areas have slightly depleted mantle source characteristics; (3) the trachyandesite of the latest eruption stage was originated from the mantle source materials which differ from other stages. A schematic isotopic evolution model for alkali basaltic magma is presented in the Ulreungdo volcanic island of the backarc basin of Japanese island arc system. (author)

  16. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and petrology of neogene rocks in the Deschutes Basin, Central Oregon: a record of continental-margin volcanism and its influence on fluvial sedimentation in an arc-adjacent basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.


    Neogene rocks of the Deschutes basin include the middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and Simtustus Formation, and late Miocene to early Pliocene Deschutes Formation. Assignment of Prineville chemical-type flows to the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group is based on correlation of these lavas from their type area through the Deschutes basin and onto the Columbia Plateau, where they have been previously mapped as Grande Ronde Basalt. Simtustus Formation is a newly defined unit intercalated with and conformable upon these basalts, and is unconformably overlain by Deschutes Formation. Burial of mature topography by middle Miocene basalts raised local base levels and initiated aggradation by low-gradient streams within the basin represented by the tuffaceous sandstones and mudstones of the Simtustus Formation. These sediments are enriched in pyroclastic constituents relative to contemporaneous Western Cascades volcanics, reflecting preferential incorporation of easily eroded and more widespread pyroclastic debris in distal sedimentary sequences compared to epiclastic contributions from lavas. The abundance of basalts, combined with the paucity of hydrous minerals and FeO and TiO 2 enrichment in intermediate lavas, characterizes early High Cascade volcanics as atypical for convergent-margin arcs. These petrologic characteristics are consistent with high-level fractionation in an extensional regime. Extension culminated in the development of an intra-arc graben, which ended Deschutes Formation deposition by structurally isolating the basin from the High Cascade source area

  17. Volcanism on Io (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard


    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Io, 1610 to 1995: Galileo to Galileo: 1. Io, 1610-1979; 2. Between Voyager and Galileo: 1979-95; 3. Galileo at Io; Part II. Planetary Volcanism: Evolution and Composition: 4. Io and Earth: formation, evolution, and interior structure; 5. Magmas and volatiles; Part III. Observing and Modeling Volcanic Activity: 6. Observations: thermal remote sensing of volcanic activity; 7. Models of effusive eruption processes; 8. Thermal evolution of volcanic eruptions; Part IV. Galileo at Io: the Volcanic Bestiary: 9. The view from Galileo; 10. The lava lake at Pele; 11. Pillan and Tvashtar: lava fountains and flows; 12. Prometheus and Amirani: Effusive activity and insulated flows; 13. Loki Patera: Io's powerhouse; 14. Other volcanoes and eruptions; Part V. Volcanism on Io: The Global View: 15. Geomorphology: paterae, shields, flows and mountains; 16. Volcanic plumes; 17. Hot spots; Part VI. Io after Galileo: 18. Volcanism on Io: a post-Galileo view; 19. The future of Io observations; Appendix 1; Appendix 2; References; Index.

  18. Slab melting beneath the Cascades Arc driven by dehydration of altered oceanic peridotite (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina J; Wallace, Paul J.; Hauri, E.H.; Wada, I.; Clynne, Michael A.


    Water is returned to Earth’s interior at subduction zones. However, the processes and pathways by which water leaves the subducting plate and causes melting beneath volcanic arcs are complex; the source of the water—subducting sediment, altered oceanic crust, or hydrated mantle in the downgoing plate—is debated; and the role of slab temperature is unclear. Here we analyse the hydrogen-isotope and trace-element signature of melt inclusions in ash samples from the Cascade Arc, where young, hot lithosphere subducts. Comparing these data with published analyses, we find that fluids in the Cascade magmas are sourced from deeper parts of the subducting slab—hydrated mantle peridotite in the slab interior—compared with fluids in magmas from the Marianas Arc, where older, colder lithosphere subducts. We use geodynamic modelling to show that, in the hotter subduction zone, the upper crust of the subducting slab rapidly dehydrates at shallow depths. With continued subduction, fluids released from the deeper plate interior migrate into the dehydrated parts, causing those to melt. These melts in turn migrate into the overlying mantle wedge, where they trigger further melting. Our results provide a physical model to explain melting of the subducted plate and mass transfer from the slab to the mantle beneath arcs where relatively young oceanic lithosphere is subducted.

  19. Plate flexure and volcanism: Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni alkalic province, New Ireland Basin, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Lindley, I. D.


    Late Cenozoic Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni (TLTF) alkaline volcanism, New Ireland Basin, PNG, is associated with extensional cracks along the crests of flexed ridges developed on the New Ireland Microplate (New name). The tectonic alignment of the TLTF volcanic arc is essentially perpendicular to the flexed ridges, suggesting that fractures parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal compression facilitated the rapid ascent of alkaline magmas from the mantle region, perhaps 60-70 km depth. The mainly Pliocene to Pleistocene volcanoes were localized at the intersection of ridge-parallel Kabang structures and arc-parallel Niffin structures, suggesting that the Kabang-Niffin structural intersections underlying each of the TLTF island groups provided a well developed, clustered network of open conduits which tapped the mantle source region. Periodic post-Miocene locking and unlocking along the strike-slip Kilinailau Fault (New name) are thought to have functioned as a valve, turning on (Pliocene) and then turning off (Pleistocene) volcanic activity, respectively. Partial locking of the Kilinailau Fault during the Pliocene resulted in the accumulation of intraplate stresses within the New Ireland Microplate, and caused plate flexure and ridge development, plate-cracking along ridge crests and the development of arc-parallel regional fractures parallel to the direction of maximum compression. Unlocking of the Kilinailau Fault in the Pleistocene resulted in the release of intraplate stresses in the New Ireland Microplate and a cessation of volcanic activity across most of the TLTF arc. The style and scale of plate flexure and cracking, accompanied by within-plate alkaline volcanism from equally spaced ridge-top eruptive centers confined to a narrow, linear volcanic arc are unknown from any other tectonic province.

  20. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes. (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Kathy; Humphreys, Madeleine


    Explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by exsolution of H2O-rich vapour from silicic magma. Eruption dynamics involve a complex interplay between nucleation and growth of vapour bubbles and crystallization, generating highly nonlinear variation in the physical properties of magma as it ascends beneath a volcano. This makes explosive volcanism difficult to model and, ultimately, to predict. A key unknown is the temperature variation in magma rising through the sub-volcanic system, as it loses gas and crystallizes en route. Thermodynamic modelling of magma that degasses, but does not crystallize, indicates that both cooling and heating are possible. Hitherto it has not been possible to evaluate such alternatives because of the difficulty of tracking temperature variations in moving magma several kilometres below the surface. Here we extend recent work on glassy melt inclusions trapped in plagioclase crystals to develop a method for tracking pressure-temperature-crystallinity paths in magma beneath two active andesite volcanoes. We use dissolved H2O in melt inclusions to constrain the pressure of H2O at the time an inclusion became sealed, incompatible trace element concentrations to calculate the corresponding magma crystallinity and plagioclase-melt geothermometry to determine the temperature. These data are allied to ilmenite-magnetite geothermometry to show that the temperature of ascending magma increases by up to 100 degrees C, owing to the release of latent heat of crystallization. This heating can account for several common textural features of andesitic magmas, which might otherwise be erroneously attributed to pre-eruptive magma mixing.

  1. Modeling the Daly Gap: The Influence of Latent Heat Production in Controlling Magma Extraction and Eruption (United States)

    Nelson, B. K.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.


    A century-old issue in volcanology is the origin of the gap in chemical compositions observed in magmatic series on ocean islands and arcs - the "Daly Gap". If the gap forms during differentiation from a mafic parent, models that predict the dynamics of magma extraction as a function of chemical composition must simulate a process that results in volumetrically biased, bimodal compositions of erupted magmas. The probability of magma extraction is controlled by magma dynamical processes, which have a complex response to magmatic heat evolution. Heat loss from the magmatic system is far from a simple, monotonic function of time. It is modified by the crystallization sequence, chamber margin heat flux, and is buffered by latent heat production. We use chemical and thermal calculations of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995) as input to the physical model of QUANTUM (Dufek & Bachmann, 2010) to predict crystallinity windows of most probable magma extraction. We modeled two case studies: volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) of Campi Flegrei, Italy. Both preserve a basanitic to phonolitic lineage and have comparable total alkali concentrations; however, CI has high and Tenerife has low K2O/Na2O. Modeled thermal histories of differentiation for the two sequences contrast strongly. In Tenerife, the rate of latent heat production is almost always greater than sensible heat production, with spikes in the ratio of latent to sensible heats of up to 40 associated with the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides at near 50% crystallization. This punctuated heat production must cause magma temperature change to stall or slow in time. The extended time spent at ≈50% crystallinity, associated with dynamical processes that enhance melt extraction near 50% crystallinity, suggests the magma composition at this interval should be common. In Tenerife, the modeled composition coincides with that of the first peak in the bimodal frequency-composition distribution. In our

  2. Zircons reveal magma fluxes in the Earth's crust. (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs


    Magma fluxes regulate the planetary thermal budget, the growth of continents and the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, and play a part in the genesis and size of magmatic ore deposits. However, because a large fraction of the magma produced on the Earth does not erupt at the surface, determinations of magma fluxes are rare and this compromises our ability to establish a link between global heat transfer and large-scale geological processes. Here we show that age distributions of zircons, a mineral often present in crustal magmatic rocks, in combination with thermal modelling, provide an accurate means of retrieving magma fluxes. The characteristics of zircon age populations vary significantly and systematically as a function of the flux and total volume of magma accumulated in the Earth's crust. Our approach produces results that are consistent with independent determinations of magma fluxes and volumes of magmatic systems. Analysis of existing age population data sets using our method suggests that porphyry-type deposits, plutons and large eruptions each require magma input over different timescales at different characteristic average fluxes. We anticipate that more extensive and complete magma flux data sets will serve to clarify the control that the global heat flux exerts on the frequency of geological events such as volcanic eruptions, and to determine the main factors controlling the distribution of resources on our planet.

  3. Magma-poor vs. magma-rich continental rifting and breakup in the Labrador Sea (United States)

    Gouiza, M.; Paton, D.


    Magma-poor and magma-rich rifted margins show distinct structural and stratigraphic geometries during the rift to breakup period. In magma-poor margins, crustal stretching is accommodated mainly by brittle faulting and the formation of wide rift basins shaped by numerous graben and half-graben structures. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion are often preceded by a localised phase of (hyper-) extension where the upper mantle is embrittled, serpentinized, and exhumed to the surface. In magma-rich margins, the rift basin is narrow and extension is accompanied by a large magmatic supply. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion is preceded by the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust juxtaposing and underplating a moderately thinned continental crust. Both magma-poor and magma-rich rifting occur in response to lithospheric extension but the driving forces and processes are believed to be different. In the former extension is assumed to be driven by plate boundary forces, while in the latter extension is supposed to be controlled by sublithospheric mantle dynamics. However, this view fails in explaining observations from many Atlantic conjugate margins where magma-poor and magma-rich segments alternate in a relatively abrupt fashion. This is the case of the Labrador margin where the northern segment shows major magmatic supply during most of the syn-rift phase which culminate in the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust in the transitional domain along with high density bodies underplating the thinned continental crust; while the southern segment is characterized mainly by brittle extension, mantle seprentinization and exhumation prior to continental breakup. In this work, we use seismic and potential field data to describe the crustal and structural architectures of the Labrador margin, and investigate the tectonic and mechanical processes of rifting that may have controlled the magmatic supply in the different segments of the margin.

  4. Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California Cascades (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Champion, Duane E.; Grove, Timothy L.


    Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake volcano in the southern Cascades arc exhibited widespread and compositionally diverse magmatism ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Nine well-characterized eruptions have taken place at this very large rear-arc volcano since 5,200 years ago, an eruptive frequency greater than nearly all other Cascade volcanoes. The lavas are widely distributed, scattered over an area of ~300 km2 across the >2,000-km2 volcano. The eruptions are radiocarbon dated and the ages are also constrained by paleomagnetic data that provide strong evidence that the volcanic activity occurred in three distinct episodes at ~1 ka, ~3 ka, and ~5 ka. The ~1-ka final episode produced a variety of compositions including west- and north-flank mafic flows interspersed in time with fissure rhyolites erupted tangential to the volcano’s central caldera, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flow at the volcano, the ~950-yr-old compositionally zoned Glass Mountain flow. At ~3 ka, a north-flank basalt eruption was followed by an andesite eruption 27 km farther south that contains quenched basalt inclusions. The ~5-ka episode produced two caldera-focused dacitic eruptions. Quenched magmatic inclusions record evidence of intrusions that did not independently reach the surface. The inclusions are present in five andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic host lavas, and were erupted in each of the three episodes. Compositional and mineralogic evidence from mafic lavas and inclusions indicate that both tholeiitic (dry) and calcalkaline (wet) parental magmas were present. Petrologic evidence records the operation of complex, multi-stage processes including fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing. Experimental evidence suggests that magmas were stored at 3 to 6 km depth prior to eruption, and that both wet and dry parental magmas were involved in generating the more silicic magmas. The broad distribution of eruptive events and the relative

  5. Shallow magma diversions during explosive diatreme-forming eruptions. (United States)

    Le Corvec, Nicolas; Muirhead, James D; White, James D L


    The diversion of magma is an important mechanism that may lead to the relocation of a volcanic vent. Magma diversion is known to occur during explosive volcanic eruptions generating subterranean excavation and remobilization of country and volcanic rocks. However, feedbacks between explosive crater formation and intrusion processes have not been considered previously, despite their importance for understanding evolving hazards during volcanic eruptions. Here, we apply numerical modeling to test the impacts of excavation and subsequent infilling of diatreme structures on stress states and intrusion geometries during the formation of maar-diatreme complexes. Explosive excavation and infilling of diatremes affects local stress states which inhibits magma ascent and drives lateral diversion at various depths, which are expected to promote intra-diatreme explosions, host rock mixing, and vent migration. Our models demonstrate novel mechanisms explaining the generation of saucer-shaped sills, linked with magma diversion and enhanced intra-diatreme explosive fragmentation during maar-diatreme volcanism. Similar mechanisms will occur at other volcanic vents producing crater-forming eruptions.

  6. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.


    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  7. Magma viscosity estimation based on analysis of erupted products. Potential assessment for large-scale pyroclastic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shingo


    After the formulation of guidelines for volcanic hazards in site evaluation for nuclear installations (e.g. JEAG4625-2009), it is required to establish appropriate methods to assess potential of large-scale pyroclastic eruptions at long-dormant volcanoes, which is one of the most hazardous volcanic phenomena on the safety of the installations. In considering the volcanic dormancy, magma eruptability is an important concept. The magma eruptability is dominantly controlled by magma viscosity, which can be estimated from petrological analysis of erupted materials. Therefore, viscosity estimation of magmas erupted in past eruptions should provide important information to assess future activities at hazardous volcanoes. In order to show the importance of magma viscosity in the concept of magma eruptability, this report overviews dike propagation processes from a magma chamber and nature of magma viscosity. Magma viscosity at pre-eruptive conditions of magma chambers were compiled based on previous petrological studies on past eruptions in Japan. There are only 16 examples of eruptions at 9 volcanoes satisfying data requirement for magma viscosity estimation. Estimated magma viscosities range from 10 2 to 10 7 Pa·s for basaltic to rhyolitic magmas. Most of examples fall below dike propagation limit of magma viscosity (ca. 10 6 Pa·s) estimated based on a dike propagation model. Highly viscous magmas (ca. 10 7 Pa·s) than the dike propagation limit are considered to lose eruptability which is the ability to form dikes and initiate eruptions. However, in some cases, small precursory eruptions of less viscous magmas commonly occurred just before climactic eruptions of the highly viscous magmas, suggesting that the precursory dike propagation by the less viscous magmas induced the following eruptions of highly viscous magmas (ca. 10 7 Pa·s). (author)

  8. Crystallization Conditions at Cascade and Other Arc Volcanoes: The Role of Recharge, and Ultimate, Proximal and Immediate Causes of Eruption (United States)

    Putirka, K. D.


    A number of hypotheses have been offered to explain why volcanoes erupt. These include magma mixing, mafic recharge, or partial crystallization, any of which can drive parts or all of a system to vapor saturation, and so add to a magma's buoyancy. Age dates indicate long pre-eruption storage times for felsic magmas erupted at arcs, indicating that mafic recharge magmas, which can reinvigorate such systems, is a possible eruption trigger. However, plutonic systems reveal numerous recharge events that have no obvious ties to eruption (Coint et al. 2013; Putirka et al. 2014). And crystallization conditions at some arc systems support the implicit view, that recharge might be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for eruption. At several Cascade volcanoes, Cpx and Amp crystals record coolings of 100-300oC. The Cpx grains derive exclusively from mafic enclaves, while Amp grains derive from both host and enclave materials. These considerable coolings call for a time lag following recharge, and indicate that vapor saturation is a proximal, although not necessarily an immediate cause of eruption. But we cannot discount recharge altogether. At the Cascades and at other arcs, Cpx crystalizes throughout the middle and upper crust, mostly from the surface down to 15 km. And high Fo olivine grains provide evidence for very hot magmas that intrude the upper mantle and lower crust, and possibly the middle crust, if hydrous. Volcanic pathways thus clearly extend into the middle crust, and at times, well below the Moho. It is unclear to what extent these deep pathways are hydraulically connected to the surface, or the role of deep-seated processes in initiating or sustaining eruptions. Progress in understanding these pathways, and triggering mechanisms, requires our differentiating "ultimate", "proximal" and "immediate" causes, and determining which of various magmatic processes provide necessary or sufficient conditions for eruption.

  9. The mechanics of shallow magma reservoir outgassing (United States)

    Parmigiani, A.; Degruyter, W.; Leclaire, S.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.


    Magma degassing fundamentally controls the Earth's volatile cycles. The large amount of gas expelled into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions (i.e., volcanic outgassing) is the most obvious display of magmatic volatile release. However, owing to the large intrusive:extrusive ratio, and considering the paucity of volatiles left in intrusive rocks after final solidification, volcanic outgassing likely constitutes only a small fraction of the overall mass of magmatic volatiles released to the Earth's surface. Therefore, as most magmas stall on their way to the surface, outgassing of uneruptible, crystal-rich magma storage regions will play a dominant role in closing the balance of volatile element cycling between the mantle and the surface. We use a numerical approach to study the migration of a magmatic volatile phase (MVP) in crystal-rich magma bodies ("mush zones") at the pore scale. Our results suggest that buoyancy-driven outgassing is efficient over crystal volume fractions between 0.4 and 0.7 (for mm-sized crystals). We parameterize our pore-scale results for MVP migration in a thermomechanical magma reservoir model to study outgassing under dynamical conditions where cooling controls the evolution of the proportion of crystal, gas, and melt phases and to investigate the role of the reservoir size and the temperature-dependent viscoelastic response of the crust on outgassing efficiency. We find that buoyancy-driven outgassing allows for a maximum of 40-50% volatiles to leave the reservoir over the 0.4-0.7 crystal volume fractions, implying that a significant amount of outgassing must occur at high crystal content (>0.7) through veining and/or capillary fracturing.

  10. Constraints on the source of Cu in a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system, Brothers volcano, Kermadec island arc (United States)

    Keith, Manuel; Haase, Karsten M.; Klemd, Reiner; Smith, Daniel J.; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Bach, Wolfgang


    Most magmatic-hydrothermal Cu deposits are genetically linked to arc magmas. However, most continental or oceanic arc magmas are barren, and hence new methods have to be developed to distinguish between barren and mineralised arc systems. Source composition, melting conditions, the timing of S saturation and an initial chalcophile element-enrichment represent important parameters that control the potential of a subduction setting to host an economically valuable deposit. Brothers volcano in the Kermadec island arc is one of the best-studied examples of arc-related submarine magmatic-hydrothermal activity. This study, for the first time, compares the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Brothers seafloor massive sulphides and the associated dacitic to rhyolitic lavas that host the hydrothermal system. Incompatible trace element ratios, such as La/Sm and Ce/Pb, indicate that the basaltic melts from L'Esperance volcano may represent a parental analogue to the more evolved Brothers lavas. Copper-rich magmatic sulphides (Cu > 2 wt%) identified in fresh volcanic glass and phenocryst phases, such as clinopyroxene, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide suggest that the surrounding lavas that host the Brothers hydrothermal system represent a potential Cu source for the sulphide ores at the seafloor. Thermodynamic calculations reveal that the Brothers melts reached volatile saturation during their evolution. Melt inclusion data and the occurrence of sulphides along vesicle margins indicate that an exsolving volatile phase extracted Cu from the silicate melt and probably contributed it to the overlying hydrothermal system. Hence, the formation of the Cu-rich seafloor massive sulphides (up to 35.6 wt%) is probably due to the contribution of Cu from a bimodal source including wall rock leaching and magmatic degassing, in a mineralisation style that is hybrid between Cyprus-type volcanic-hosted massive sulphide and subaerial epithermal-porphyry deposits.

  11. Friction in volcanic environments (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan


    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  12. The origin of high-Mg magmas in Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, Cascade Arc (California): higher and lower than mantle oxygen isotope signatures attributed to current and past subduction (United States)

    Martin, E.; Bindeman, I.; Grove, T. L.


    We report the oxygen isotope composition of olivine and orthopyroxene phenocrysts in lavas from the main magma types at Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake Volcanoes: primitive high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT), basaltic andesites (BA), primitive magnesian andesites (PMA), and dacites. The most primitive HAOT (MgO > 9 wt%) from Mt. Shasta has olivine δ18O (δ18OOl) values of 5.9-6.1‰, which are about 1‰ higher than those observed in olivine from normal mantle-derived magmas. In contrast, HAOT lavas from Medicine Lake have δ18OOl values ranging from 4.7 to 5.5‰, which are similar to or lower than values for olivine in equilibrium with mantle-derived magmas. Other magma types from both volcanoes show intermediate δ18OOl values. The oxygen isotope composition of the most magnesian lavas cannot be explained by crustal contamination and the trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts precludes a pyroxenitic mantle source. Therefore, the high and variable δ18OOl signature of the most magnesian samples studied (HAOT and BA) comes from the peridotitic mantle wedge itself. As HAOT magma is generated by anhydrous adiabatic partial melting of the shallow mantle, its 1.4‰ range in δ18OOl reflects a heterogeneous composition of the shallow mantle source that has been influenced by subduction fluids and/or melts sometime in the past. Magmas generated in the mantle wedge by flux melting due to modern subduction fluids, as exemplified by BA and probably PMA, display more homogeneous composition with only 0.5‰ variation. The high-δ18O values observed in magnesian lavas, and principally in the HAOT, are difficult to explain by a single-stage flux-melting process in the mantle wedge above the modern subduction zone and require a mantle source enriched in 18O. It is here explained by flow of older, pre-enriched portions of the mantle through the slab window beneath the South Cascades.

  13. Geochemical constraints on the link between volcanism and plutonism at the Yunshan caldera complex, SE China (United States)

    Yan, Lili; He, Zhenyu; Beier, Christoph; Klemd, Reiner


    The Yunshan caldera complex is part of a larger scale, ca. 2000-km-long volcanic-plutonic complex belt in the coastal region of SE China. The volcanic rocks in the caldera complex are characterized by high-silica peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites associated with an intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite pluton. In this study, we present zircon U-Pb, Hf and stable O isotopes along with geochemical data of both volcanic and plutonic rocks to evaluate the potential petrogenetic link between volcanism and plutonism in the Yunshan caldera complex. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of both volcanic and plutonic rocks yields almost identical ages ranging from 95.6 to 93.1 Ma. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites show negative anomalies of Sr, P, Ti and Ba and to a lesser extent negative Nb and Ta anomalies, along with positive Rb anomalies and `seagull-like' rare earth element (REE) patterns with negative Eu anomalies and low (La/Yb)N ratios. The intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite displays minor negative Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti anomalies and a positive Ba anomaly with REE patterns characterized by relatively high (La/Yb)N ratios and lack significant Eu anomalies. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites and the porphyritic quartz monzonite exhibit consistent ɛ Nd( t) of - 3.7 to - 2.2 and display zircon ɛ Hf( t) values of - 2.1 to 3.7. They further have similar, mantle-like, zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18OVSMOW mainly = 4.63 to 5.76‰). We interpret these observations to be in agreement with a crystal mush model in which the parental magma of the volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Yunshan caldera complex was likely produced by interaction of asthenosphere melts with subduction-influenced enriched mantle wedge. The peralkaline rhyolites are interpreted to represent the most differentiated magma that has subsequently experienced significant fluid-melt interactions, whereas the porphyritic quartz monzonite may be representative of the

  14. K-U-Th systematics of terrestrial igneous rocks for planetological comparisons: volcanic rocks of the Earth oceanic island arc and Venus surface material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, O.V.


    Principles of the formation o data base for 339 samples of oceanic island arc (OIA) igneous rocks of the Earth available in literature are described as well as of the formation of fresh rock sample, characteristics of this sample, and K-U-Th-systematics of the fresh igneous rocks of Earth OIA. Results of comparison of the Venus measured rocks and Earth OIA rocks by K, U, Th

  15. Magmas with slab fluid and decompression melting signatures coexisting in the Gulf of Fonseca: Evidence from Isla El Tigre volcano (Honduras, Central America) (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Renzulli, Alberto; Agostini, Samuele; Lucidi, Roberto


    Isla El Tigre volcano is located in the Gulf of Fonseca (Honduras) along the Central America volcanic front, where a significant change in the strike of the volcanic chain is observed. The studied samples of this poorly investigated volcano are mainly subalkaline basic to intermediate lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) and subordinate subalkaline/alkaline transitional basalts, both having the typical mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. On the basis of petrographic and geochemical features, two groups of rocks have been distinguished. Lavas from the main volcanic edifice are highly porphyritic and hy-qz normative, and have lower MgO contents ( 5 wt.%), are ol-hy normative and show lower HFSE depletions relative to LILE and LREE, with lower Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios. This suggests that mantle-derived magmas were not produced by the same process throughout the activity of the volcano. The bulk rock geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70373-0.70382), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51298-0.51301), 206Pb/204Pb (18.55-18.58), 207Pb/204Pb (15.54-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.23-38.26) isotopic data of Isla El Tigre compared with the other volcanoes of the Gulf of Fonseca and all available literature data for Central America suggests that this stratovolcano was mainly built by mantle-derived melts driven by slab-derived fluid-flux melting, while magmas erupted through its parasitic cones have a clear signature of decompression melting with minor slab contribution. The coexistence of these two different mantle melting generation processes is likely related to the complex geodynamic setting of the Gulf of Fonseca, where the volcanic front changes direction by ca. 30° and two fundamental tectonic structures of the Chortis continental block, mainly the N-S Honduras Depression and the NE-SW Guayape Fault Zone, cross each other.

  16. A submarine andesite-rhyodacite lineage of arc affinity hosting hydrothermal mineralisation, Pual Ridge, Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, R.A.; Waters, J.C.; Parr, J.M.; Carr, G.R.; Whitford, D.J.


    Pual Ridge, host to the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, is a composite edifice formed by recent submarine eruptions, with a continuous suite of consanguineous andesite, dacite and rhyodacite (58 to 74% SiO 2 , mg 41 to 17). The lavas are vesicular, hyaline, and aphyric to sparsely porphyritic. Dacites dominate the PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the ridge crest. The Pual Ridge volcanic suite is subalkalic, with a calcic character, bordering on calcalkaline (Fig. 1). It falls just within the medium-K field, and has geochemical characteristics (K/Rb ∼500, K/Ba∼40, mild enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) ((La/Sm) N ∼1.7, (La/Yb) N ∼2.1) which fall into the spectrum of modern arc volcanic rock suites on New Britain to the south. By contrast, the basalts from the central Manus back-arc spreading zone are very low-K. When major and trace element data are plotted against silica contents in Harker diagrams, gently curved trends extend from andesite to rhyodacite. The trends can be interpreted in terms of low-pressure fractionation of the observed (albeit rare) phenocryst assemblage (plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene, magnetite), with progressive enrichment of incompatible elements such as K, Ba, Zr and the REE. Basaltic andesites (mg 42-45) from features adjacent to Pual Ridge exhibit Ti and P contents falling below this fractionation trend, but trend towards a possible parent magma from which Pual Ridge andesites were derived by extraction of an olivine-dominated assemblage. Moderately potassic picritic basalts (mg 56) representing the potential parent magmas also occur on edifices east of Pual Ridge. Like the Pual lavas, these have low Nb (1-2 ppm) consistent with an arc affinity

  17. Suprasubduction volcanic rocks of the Char ophiolite belt, East Kazakhstan: new geochemical and first geochronological data (United States)

    Safonova, Inna; Simonov, Vladimir; Seltmann, Reimar; Yamamoto, Shinji; Xiao, Wenjiao


    The Char ophiolite belt is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a world largest accretionary orogen, which has evolved during more than 800 Ma. The Char belt formed during Kazakhstan - Siberia collision. It has been known for hosting fragments of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust, MORB, OPB and OIB, of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Safonova et al., 2012). The Char is surrounded by two Paleozoic island-arc terranes: Zharma-Saur in the west and Rudny Altai in the east, however, until recent times, no island-arc units have been found within it. We were the first to find island-arc units as tectonic sheets occurring adjacent to those consisting of oceanic rocks. In places, island-arc andesites cut oceanic basalts. The Char volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of a probable suprasubduction origin are basalt, microgabbro, dolerite, andesite, tonalite and dacite. The mafic to andesitic volcanics possessing low TiO2 (0.85 wt.%av.) and show MgO vs. major elements crystallization trends suggesting two magma series: tholeiitic and calc-alkaline. The tholeiitic varieties are less enriched in incompatible elements then the calc-alkaline ones. Two samples are high-Mg and low-Ti andesibasalts similar to boninites. The rocks possess moderately LREE enriched rare-earth element patterns and are characterized by negative Nb anomalies present on the multi-element spectra (Nb/Lapm = 0.14-0.47; Nb/Thpm = 0.7-1.6).The distribution of rare-earth elements (La/Smn = 0.8-2.3, Gd/Ybn = 0.7-1.9) and the results of geochemical modeling in the Nb-Yb system suggest high degrees of melting of a depleted harzburgite-bearing mantle source at spinel facies depths. Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and opaque minerals also affected the final composition of the volcanic rocks. Clinopyroxene monomineral thermometry indicates crystallization of melts at 1020-1180°C. Melt inclusion composition based numerical calculations show that primary melts were derived at 1350

  18. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of late Cretaceous Caribbean and Colombian volcanism (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John; Marriner, Giselle F.; Nivia, Alvaro; Klaver, Gerard Th.; Saunders, Andrew D.


    Late Cretaceous mafic volcanic sequences in Western Colombia and in the southern Caribbean have a striking coherence in their chemistry and compositional range which suggests they are part of the same magmatic province. The chemical characteristics of the majority of the mafic lavas are totally unlike those of island arc or marginal basin basalts, so the sequences cannot represent accreted arc terranes. On the other hand their trace element characteristics closely resemble those of Icelandic/Reykjanes Ridge basalts that represent an oceanic plateau formed by extensive decompression melting of an uprising deep mantle plume. The occurrence of komatiites on Gorgona and high-MgO picritic lavas in S.E. Colombia and on Curaçao, representing high temperature melts of the plume tail, confirms this analogy. Likewise, late stage rhyolites within the Colombian mafic volcanics may well be the equivalent of the extensive silicic magmas on Iceland and at Galapagos, possibly formed by remelting of the deep parts of the overthickened basaltic crust above the plume head. These volcanics, plus others around the Caribbean, including the floor of the Central Caribbean, probably all represent part of an oceanic plateau that formed rapidly at the Galapagos hotspot at 88 Ma, and that was too hot and buoyant to subduct beneath the margin of S. America as it migrated westwards with the opening of the South Atlantic, and so was imbricated along the continental margin. Minor arc-like volcanics, tonalites and hornblende leucogabbro veins may represent the products of subduction-flip of normal ocean crust against the buoyant plateau, or hydrous melts developed during imbrication/obduction.

  19. The crustal magma storage system of Volcán Quizapu, Chile, and the effects of magma mixing on magma diversity (United States)

    Bergantz, George W.; Cooper, Kari M.; Hildreth, Edward; Ruprecht, Phillipp


    Crystal zoning as well as temperature and pressure estimates from phenocryst phase equilibria are used to constrain the architecture of the intermediate-sized magmatic system (some tens of km3) of Volcán Quizapu, Chile, and to document the textural and compositional effects of magma mixing. In contrast to most arc magma systems, where multiple episodes of open-system behavior obscure the evidence of major magma chamber events (e.g. melt extraction, magma mixing), the Quizapu magma system shows limited petrographic complexity in two large historical eruptions (1846–1847 and 1932) that have contrasting eruptive styles. Quizapu magmas and peripheral mafic magmas exhibit a simple binary mixing relationship. At the mafic end, basaltic andesite to andesite recharge magmas complement the record from peripheral cones and show the same limited range of compositions. The silicic end-member composition is almost identical in both eruptions of Quizapu. The effusive 1846–1847 eruption records significant mixing between the mafic and silicic end-members, resulting in hybridized andesites and mingled dacites. These two compositionally simple eruptions at Volcán Quizapu present a rare opportunity to isolate particular aspects of magma evolution—formation of homogeneous dacite magma and late-stage magma mixing—from other magma chamber processes. Crystal zoning, trace element compositions, and crystal-size distributions provide evidence for spatial separation of the mafic and silicic magmas. Dacite-derived plagioclase phenocrysts (i.e. An25–40) show a narrow range in composition and limited zonation, suggesting growth from a compositionally restricted melt. Dacite-derived amphibole phenocrysts show similar restricted compositions and furthermore constrain, together with more mafic amphibole phenocrysts, the architecture of the magmatic system at Volcán Quizapu to be compositionally and thermally zoned, in which an andesitic mush is overlain by a homogeneous dacitic

  20. Geochemical evidence for waning magmatism and polycyclic volcanism at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, F.V.; Crowe, B.M.


    This paper reports that petrologic and geochemical studies of basaltic rocks in the Yucca Mountain region are currently focused on understanding the evolution of volcanism in the Crater Flat volcanic field and the mechanisms of polycyclic volcanic field and the mechanisms of polycyclic volcanism at the Lathrop Wells volcanic center, the youngest center in the Crater Flat volcanic field. Geochemical and petrologic data indicate that the magma chambers which supplied the volcanic centers at Crater Flat became situated at greater crustal depths as the field evolved. Deep magma chambers may be related to a waning magma flux that was unable to sustain upper crustal magma conduits and chambers. Geochemical data from the Lathrop Wells volcanic center indicate that eruptive units identified from field and geomorphic relationships are geochemically distinct. The geochemical variations cannot be explained by fractional crystallization of a single magma batch, indicating that several magma batches were involved in the formation of the Lathrop Wells center. Considering the low magma flux in the Yucca Mountain region in the Quaternary, the probability of several magma batches erupting essentially simultaneously at Lathrop Wells is considered remote

  1. Shear thinning behaviors in magmas (United States)

    Vetere, F. P.; Cassetta, M.; Perugini, D.


    Studies on magma rheology are of fundamental importance to understanding magmatic processes from depth to surface. Since viscosity is one of the most important parameter controlling eruption mechanisms, as well as lava flow emplacement, a comprehensive knowledge on the evolution of magma viscosities during crystallization is required. We present new viscosity data on partly crystalized basalt, andesite and analogue lavas comparable to those erupted on Mercury's northern volcanic plains. High-temperature viscosity measurements were performed using a rotational Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the PVRG labs, in Perugia (Italy) ( The relative proportion of phases in each experimental run were determined by image analysis on BS-SEM images at different magnifications; phases are glasses, clinopyroxene, spinel, plagioclase for the basalt, plagioclase and spinel for the andesite and pure enstatite and clinopyroxenes, for the analogue Mercury's composition. Glass and crystalline fractions determined by image analysis well correlate with compositions of residual melts. In order to constrain the viscosity (η) variations as a function of crystallinity, shear rate (γ) was varied from 0.1 to 5 s-1. Viscosity vs. time at constant temperature shows a typical S-shape curve. In particular, for basaltic composition η vary from 3.1-3.8 Pa s [log η] at 1493 K and crystallinity of 19 area % as γ vary from 1.0 to 0.1 s-1; the andesite viscosity evolution is 3.2 and 3.7 Pa s [log η] as γ varies from 1 to 0.1 at 1493 K and crystal content of 17 area %; finally, Mercury's analogue composition was investigated at different temperature ranging from 1533 to 1502 K (Vetere et al., 2017). Results, for γ = 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 s-1, show viscosity variation between 2.7-4.0, 2.5-3.4 and 2.0-3.0 [log η inPa s] respectively while crystallinity vary from 9 to 27 (area %). As viscosity decreases as shear rate increases, these data points to a shear thinning behaviour

  2. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn


    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  3. Petrologic perspectives on tectonic evolution of a nascent basin (Okinawa Trough) behind Ryukyu Arc:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa


    Okinawa Trough is a back-arc, initial marginal sea basin, located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. The formation and evolution of the Okinawa Trough is intimately related to the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Miocene. The tectonic evolution of the trough is similar to other active back-arcs, such as the Mariana Trough and southern Lau Basin, all of which are experiencing the initial rifting and subsequent spreading process. This study reviews all petrologic and geochemical data of mafic volcanic lavas from the Okinawa Trough, Ryukyu Arc, and Philippine Sea Plate, combined with geophysical data to indicate the relationship between the subduction sources (input) and arc or back-arc magmas (output) in the Philippine Sea Plate-Ryukyu Arc-Okinawa Trough system (PROS). The results obtained showed that several components were variably involved in the petrogenesis of the Oki-nawa Trough lavas:sub-continental lithospheric mantle underlying the Eurasian Plate, Indian mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle, and Pacific MORB-type mantle. The addition of shallow aqueous fluids and deep hydrous melts from subducted components with the characteristics of Indian MORB-type mantle into the mantle source of lavas variably modifies the primitive mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu and sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Okinawa Trough. In the northeastern end of the trough and arc, instead of Indian MORB-type mantle, Pacific MORB-type mantle dominates the magma source. Along the strike of the Ryukyu Arc and Okinawa Trough, the systematic variations in trace element ratios and isotopic compositions reflect the first-order effect of variable subduction input on the magma source. In general, petrologic data, combined with geophysical data, imply that the Okinawa Trough is experiencing the“seafloor spreading”process in the southwest segment,“rift propagation”process in the middle seg-ment, and

  4. Crystallization of oxidized, moderately hydrous arc basalt at mid-to-lower crustal pressures (United States)

    Blatter, D. L.; Sisson, T. W.; Hankins, W. B.


    Decades of experimental work show that dry, reduced, subalkaline basalts differentiate to produce tholeiitic (high Fe/Mg) daughter liquids, however the influences of H2O and oxidation on differentiation paths are not well established. Accordingly, we performed crystallization experiments on a relatively magnesian basalt (8.7 wt% MgO) typical of mafic lavas erupted in the Cascades magmatic arc near Mount Rainier, Washington. Starting material was synthesized with 3 wt% H2O and run in 2.54 cm piston-cylinder vessels at 900, 700, and 400 MPa and 1200 to 925 degrees C. Samples were contained in Au75Pd25 capsules pre-saturated with Fe by reaction with magnetite at controlled fO2. Oxygen fugacity was controlled during high-pressure syntheses by the double capsule method using Re-ReO2 plus H2O-CO2 vapor in the outer capsule, mixed to match the expected fH2O of the vapor-undersaturated sample. Crystallization was similar at all pressures with a high temperature interval consisting of augite + olivine + orthopyroxene + Cr-spinel (in decreasing abundance). With decreasing temperature, plagioclase crystallizes, FeTi-oxides replace spinel, olivine dissolves, and finally amphibole appears. Liquids at 900 MPa track along Miyashiro's (1974) tholeiitic vs. calc-alkaline boundary, whereas those at 700 and 400 MPa become calc-alkaline by ~57 wt% SiO2 and greater. Although these evolved liquids are similar in most respects to common calc-alkaline andesites, they differ in having low-CaO due to early and abundant crystallization of augite prior to plagioclase, with the result that they become peraluminous (ASI: Al/(Na+K+Ca)>1) by ~55 wt% SiO2, similar to liquids reported in other studies of the high-pressure crystallization of hydrous basalts (Müntener and Ulmer, 2006 and references therein). A compilation of >7000 analyses of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada batholith shows that ASI in arc magmas increases continuously and linearly with SiO2 from

  5. Timing of maturation of a Neoproterozoic oceanic arc during Pan-African Orogeny: the Asmlil complex (Anti-Atlas, South Morocco) (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara


    Many intra-oceanic paleo-arcs are exposed in the Pan-African belt surrounding the West African Craton. In the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, remnants of Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone (IOSZ) are preserved in few erosional windows moulded along the Anti-Atlas Major fault. These complexes highlight a Neoproterozoic paleo-suture made of 760 My back-arc ophiolites thrusted to the south onto a dismembered band of oceanic arc relics. The Asmlil arc complex, located in the southern part of the Bou Azzer inlier, is made of (i) 755 to 745 My- intermediate banded gneiss interpreted as metavolcanic products of a juvenile oceanic arc. This latter has been intruded by (ii) medium-grained hornblende-gabbro and dioritic magmas, in turn intruded by (iii) medium- to coarse grained hornblenditic-granodioritic decametric intrusions under sub-magmatic HT conditions. Hornblende-gabbros are made of garnet + amphibole/cpx relics + epidote + rutile paragenesis. Calculated pseudosections yielded P ~ 11-12 kbar for T ranging between 600 and 720°C for garnet growth. Measured Zr-in-rutile thermometer gave slightly higher temperature ranging between 710-790°C. On the field, garnet-rich leucocratic veinlets suggest that moderate partial melting of the mafic rock or localized dehydration reactions took place under garnet-granulite conditions (>800°C for hydrated chemical system). New geochronological data on garnet-bearing leucogabbros constrain their emplacement at 700 ±7 My (U-Pb zircon with low Th/U volcanic to subvolcanic massifs. Second event occurred around 700 My and results from mafic products intruding previous arc. A last event also dated at 660-650 My in the Sirwa window marks the emplacement of hot hornblenditic arc-magmas into older arc massifs during the tectonic extrusion of the arc section. This late event is also related to intense melt production at different level of the arc contributing to differentiation of the whole arc complex. We thus interpreted the Asmlil complex as the final


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova


    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  7. Volcanic Metal Emissions and Implications for Geochemical Cycling and Mineralization (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.


    Volcanoes emit substantial fluxes of metals to the atmosphere in volcanic gas plumes in the form of aerosol, adsorbed onto silicate particles and even in some cases as gases.. A huge database of metal emissions has been built over the preceding decades, which shows that volcanoes emit highly volatile metals into the atmosphere, such as As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Re, Se, Tl, among others. Understanding the cycling of metals through the Solid Earth system has importance for tackling a wide range of Earth Science problems, e.g. (1) the environmental impacts of metal emissions; (2) the sulfur and metal emissions of volcanic eruptions; (3) the behavior of metals during subduction and slab devolatilization; (4) the influence of redox on metal behavior in subduction zones; (5) the partitioning of metals between magmatic vapor, brines and melts; and (6) the relationships between volcanism and ore deposit formation. It is clear, when comparing the metal composition and flux in the gases and aerosols emitted from volcanoes, that they vary with tectonic setting. These differences allow insights into how the magmatic vapor was generated and how it interacted with melts and sulfides during magma differentiation and decompression. Hotspot volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii; volcanoes in Iceland) outgas a metal suite that mirrors the sulfide liquid-silicate melt partitioning behaviors reconstructed from experiments (as far as they are known), suggesting that the aqueous fluids (that will later be outgassed from the volcano) receive metals directly from oxidation of sulfide liquids during degassing and ascent of magmas towards the surface. At arc volcanoes, the gaseous fluxes of metals are typically much higher; and there are greater enrichments in elements that partition strongly into vapor or brine from silicate melts such as Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, W. We collate and present data on volcanic metal emissions from volcanoes worldwide and review the implications of the data array for metal cycling

  8. Earthquake-induced static stress change on magma pathway in promoting the 2012 Copahue eruption (United States)

    Bonali, F. L.


    It was studied how tectonic earthquake-induced static stress changes could have contributed to favouring the 22 December 2012 major eruption at Copahue volcano, Chile. Numerical modelling indicates that the vertical N60°E-striking magma pathway below Copahue was affected by a normal stress reduction induced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010. A sensitivity analysis suggests that N-, NE- and E-striking vertical planes are affected by normal stress decrease (maximum at the NE-striking plane), and that also a possible inclined N60°E plane is affected by this reduction. Copahue did not have any magmatic event since 2000. Seismic signals of awakening started in April 2012 and the first volcanic event occurred on July 2012. Thus, it is here suggested a possible earthquake-induced feedback effect on the crust below the volcanic arc up to at least 3 years after a large subduction earthquake, favouring new eruptions.

  9. Crustal inheritance and arc magmatism: Magnetotelluric constraints from the Washington Cascades on top-down control (United States)

    Bedrosian, P.; Peacock, J.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Schultz, A.; Hill, G.


    Worldwide, arc volcanism occurs along relatively narrow magmatic arcs, the locations of which are considered to mark the onset of dehydration reactions within the subducting slab. This `bottom-up' approach, in which the location of arc volcanism reflects where fluids and melt are generated, explains first-order differences in trench-to-arc distance and is consistent with known variations in the thermal structure and geometry of subducting slabs. At a finer scale, arc segmentation, magmatic gaps, and anomalous forearc and backarc magmatism are also frequently interpreted in terms of variations in slab geometry, composition, or thermal structure.The role of inherited crustal structure in controlling faulting and deformation is well documented; less well examined is the role of crustal structure in controlling magmatism. While the source distribution of melt and subduction fluids is critical to determining the location of arc magmatism, we argue that crustal structure provides `top-down' control on patterns or seismicity and deformation as well as the channeling and ascent of arc magmas. We present evidence within the Washington Cascades based upon correlation between a new three-dimensional resistivity model, potential-field data, seismicity, and Quaternary volcanism. We image a mid-Tertiary batholith, intruded within an Eocene crustal suture zone, and extending throughout much of the crustal column. This and neighboring plutons are interpreted to channel crustal fluids and melt along their margins within steeply dipping zones of marine to transitional metasedimentary rock. Mount St. Helens is interpreted to be fed by fluids and melt generated further east at greater slab depths, migrating laterally (underplating?) beneath the Spirit Lake batholith, and ascending through metasedimentary rocks within the brittle crust. At a regional scale, we argue that this concealed suture zone controls present-day deformation and seismicity as well as the distribution of forearc

  10. Late Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous genesis of A-type magmas in Avalonia of northern Nova Scotia: repeated partial melting of anhydrous lower crust in contrasting tectonic environments (United States)

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Collins, William J.


    Avalonian rocks in northern mainland Nova Scotia are characterized by voluminous 640-600 Ma calc-alkalic to tholeiitic mafic to felsic magmas produced in a volcanic arc. However, after the cessation of arc activity, repeated episodes of felsic magmatism between ca. 580 Ma and 350 Ma are dominated by A-type geochemical characteristics. Sm-Nd isotopic data, combined with zircon saturation temperature estimates, indicate that these magmas were formed by high temperature (800-1050 °C) melting of the same anhydrous crustal source. Regional tectonic considerations indicate that A-type felsic magmatism was produced (1) at 580 Ma in a San Andreas-type strike slip setting, (2) at 495 Ma as Avalonia rifted off Gondwana, (3) at 465 and 455 in an ensialic island arc environment and (4) at 360-350 Ma during post-collisional, intra-continental strike-slip activity as Avalonia was translated dextrally along the Laurentian margin. These results attest to the importance of crustal source, rather than tectonic setting, in the generation of these A-type magmas and are an example of how additional insights are provided by comparing the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of igneous suites of different ages within the same terrane. They also suggest that the shallow crustal rocks in northern mainland Nova Scotia were not significantly detached from their lower crustal source between ca. 620 Ma and 350 Ma, a time interval that includes the separation of Avalonia from Gondwana, its drift and accretion to Laurentia as well as post-accretionary strike-slip displacement.

  11. Origin of the {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibrium in magmas from subduction zones: the Arenal example; Origine du desequilibre {sup 238}U-{sup 230}TH dans les magmas des zones de subduction: exemple de l`Arenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, B [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)


    The existence in some volcanic products of strong excess of {sup 238}U with respect to {sup 230}Th is one of the characteristics of volcanic arc magmas. These excesses are generally attributed to fluid additions inside mantellic sources before magma segregation, differentiation and eruption. These fluids should be linked to the dehydration of the subducted rocks. These hypotheses are essentially based on correlations between {sup 10}Be, {sup 87}Sr anomalies, Ba/La ratios and on the distribution of volcanic centers with respect to the subduction zone. Recent studies suggest an evolution of the composition of volcanic sources in Central America from a depleted mantle type (MORB) in the North (Nicaragua) to a less transformed enriched type (OIB) in the South (Costa Rica). The Arenal volcano belongs to a transition zone between these two types. The preliminary study of trace elements and {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibria in recent volcanic products (1968-1993) indicates a more complex situation. At least two different mantle sources were successively involved characterized by different Th/La and La/Yb ratios and very different to the OIB type. Also most lavas are in equilibrium with {sup 238}U/{sup 232}Th ratios of about 1.2 to 1.3. However, in eruptive cycle, some lavas are characterized by a strong {sup 238}U excess with respect to {sup 230}Th with cannot be linked to the sources, even when modified by fluids in depth. These results are interpreted in terms of heterogeneities of mantle sources and low depths late interactions with hydrothermal fluids during eruptions. Abstract only. (J.S.). 2 refs.

  12. Origin of the {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibrium in magmas from subduction zones: the Arenal example; Origine du desequilibre {sup 238}U-{sup 230}TH dans les magmas des zones de subduction: exemple de l`Arenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, B. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)


    The existence in some volcanic products of strong excess of {sup 238}U with respect to {sup 230}Th is one of the characteristics of volcanic arc magmas. These excesses are generally attributed to fluid additions inside mantellic sources before magma segregation, differentiation and eruption. These fluids should be linked to the dehydration of the subducted rocks. These hypotheses are essentially based on correlations between {sup 10}Be, {sup 87}Sr anomalies, Ba/La ratios and on the distribution of volcanic centers with respect to the subduction zone. Recent studies suggest an evolution of the composition of volcanic sources in Central America from a depleted mantle type (MORB) in the North (Nicaragua) to a less transformed enriched type (OIB) in the South (Costa Rica). The Arenal volcano belongs to a transition zone between these two types. The preliminary study of trace elements and {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibria in recent volcanic products (1968-1993) indicates a more complex situation. At least two different mantle sources were successively involved characterized by different Th/La and La/Yb ratios and very different to the OIB type. Also most lavas are in equilibrium with {sup 238}U/{sup 232}Th ratios of about 1.2 to 1.3. However, in eruptive cycle, some lavas are characterized by a strong {sup 238}U excess with respect to {sup 230}Th with cannot be linked to the sources, even when modified by fluids in depth. These results are interpreted in terms of heterogeneities of mantle sources and low depths late interactions with hydrothermal fluids during eruptions. Abstract only. (J.S.). 2 refs.

  13. From source to surface: Tracking magmatic boron and chlorine input into the geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Bégué, Florence; Deering, Chad D.; Gravley, Darren M.; Chambefort, Isabelle; Kennedy, Ben M.


    The magmatic contribution into geothermal fluids in the central Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, has been attributed to either andesitic, 'arc-type' fluids, or rhyolitic, 'rift-type' fluids to explain the compositional diversity of discharge waters. However, this model relies on outdated assumptions related to geochemical trends associated with the magma at depth of typical arc to back-arc settings. Current tectonic models have shown that the TVZ is situated within a rifting arc and hosts magmatic systems dominated by distinct rhyolite types, that are likely to have evolved under different conditions than the subordinate andesites. Therefore, a new appraisal of the existing models is required to further understand the origin of the spatial compositional diversity observed in the geothermal fluids and its relationship to the structural setting. Here, we use volatile concentrations (i.e. H2O, Cl, B) from rhyolitic and andesitic mineral-hosted melt inclusions to evaluate the magmatic contribution to the TVZ geothermal systems. The andesite and two different types of rhyolites (R1 and R2) are each distinct in Cl/H2O and B/Cl, which will affect volatile solubility and phase separation (vapor vs. hydrosaline liquid) of the exsolved volatile phase. Ultimately, these key differences in the magmatic volatile constituents will play a significant role in governing the concentration of Cl discharged into geothermal systems. We estimate bulk fluid compositions (B and Cl) in equilibrium with the different melt types to show the potential contribution of 'parent' fluids to the geothermal systems throughout the TVZ. The results of this analysis show that the variability in fluid compositions partly reflects degassing from previously unaccounted for distinct magma source compositions. We suggest the geothermal systems that appear to have an 'arc-type' andesitic fluid contribution are actually derived from a rhyolite melt in equilibrium with a highly crystalline andesite

  14. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.


    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

  15. Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region (United States)

    Eichelberger, John; Gordeev, Evgenii; Izbekov, Pavel; Kasahara, Minoru; Lees, Jonathan

    The Kamchatka Peninsula and contiguous North Pacific Rim is among the most active regions in the world. Kamchatka itself contains 29 active volcanoes, 4 now in a state of semi-continuous eruption, and I has experienced 14 magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes since accurate recording began in 1962. At its heart is the uniquely acute subduction cusp where the Kamchatka and Aleutian Arcs and Emperor Seamount Chain meet. Volcanism and Subduction covers coupled magmatism and tectonics in this spectacular region, where the torn North Pacific slab dives into hot mantle. Senior Russian and American authors grapple with the dynamics of the cusp with perspectives from the west and east of it, respectively, while careful tephrostratigraphy yields a remarkably precise record of behavior of storied volcanoes such as Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch. Towards the south, Japanese researchers elucidate subduction earthquake processes with unprecedented geodetic resolution. Looking eastward, new insights on caldera formation, monitoring, and magma ascent are presented for the Aleutians. This is one of the first books of its kind printed in the English language. Students and scientists beginning research in the region will find in this book a useful context and introduction to the region's scientific leaders. Others who wish to apply lessons learned in the North Pacific to their areas of interest will find the volume a valuable reference.

  16. A 150-ka-long record for the volcano-tectonic deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin


    The Anatolian Block represents one of the most outstanding examples of intra-plate deformation related to continental collision. Deformation related to the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent toward north gives rise to widespread and intense arc volcanism in the Central Anatolia. All the usual studies on dating the volcano-tectonic deformation of the region are performed entirely on volcanic events of the geological record resulted in eruptions. However, without volcanic eruption, magma migration and related fluid pressurization also generate crustal deformation. In the current study has been funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with the project no. 115Y497, we focused on fracture systems and their carbonate veins around the Ihlara Valley (Cappadocia) surrounded by well-known volcanic centers with latest activities of the southern Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. We dated 37 samples using the Uranium-series technique and analyzed their isotope systematics from fissure veins, which are thought to be controlled by the young volcanism in the region. Our detailed fracture analyses in the field show that there is a regional dilatation as a result of a NW-SE striking extension which is consistent with the results of recent GPS studies. The Uranium-series results indicate that fracture development and associated carbonate vein deposition occurred in the last 150 ka. Carbon and oxygen isotope systematics have almost remained unchanged in the studied time interval. Although veins in the region were precipitated from fluids primarily of meteoric origin, fluids originating from water-rock interaction also contribute for the deposition of carbonate veins. The age distribution indicates that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 different period at about 4.7, 34, 44, 52, 83, 91, 149 ka BP. Four of these periods (4.7, 34, 91, 149 ka BP) correspond to the volcanic activities suggested in the previous studies. The three crustal

  17. Implications of magma transfer between multiple reservoirs on eruption cycling. (United States)

    Elsworth, Derek; Mattioli, Glen; Taron, Joshua; Voight, Barry; Herd, Richard


    Volcanic eruptions are episodic despite being supplied by melt at a nearly constant rate. We used histories of magma efflux and surface deformation to geodetically image magma transfer within the deep crustal plumbing of the Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat, West Indies. For three cycles of effusion followed by discrete pauses, supply of the system from the deep crust and mantle was continuous. During periods of reinitiated high surface efflux, magma rose quickly and synchronously from a deflating mid-crustal reservoir (at about 12 kilometers) augmented from depth. During repose, the lower reservoir refilled from the deep supply, with only minor discharge transiting the upper chamber to surface. These observations are consistent with a model involving the continuous supply of magma from the deep crust and mantle into a voluminous and compliant mid-crustal reservoir, episodically valved below a shallow reservoir (at about 6 kilometers).

  18. Jurassic ash-flow sheets, calderas, and related intrusions of the Cordilleran volcanic arc in southeastern Arizona: implications for regional tectonics and ore deposits (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.


    Volcanologic, petrologic, and paleomagnetic studies of widespread Jurassic ash-flow sheets in the Huachuca-southern Dragoon Mountains area have led to identification of four large source calderas and associated comagnetic intracaldera intrusions. Stratigraphic, facies, and contact features of the caldera-related tuffs also provide constraints on the locations, lateral displacements, and very existence for some major northwest-trending faults and inferred regional thrusts in southeastern Arizona. Silicic alkalic compositions of the Jurassic caldera-related, ash-flow tuffs; bimodal associated mafic magmatism; and interstratified coarse sedimentary deposits provide evidence for synvolcanic extension and rifting within the Cordilleran magmatic arc. Gold-copper mineralization is associated with subvolcanic intrusions at several of the Jurassic calderas. -from Authors

  19. Backprojection of volcanic tremor (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.


    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  20. Magma chamber interaction giving rise to asymmetric oscillations (United States)

    Walwer, D.; Ghil, M.; Calais, E.


    Geodetic time series at four volcanoes (Okmok, Akutan, Shishaldin, and Réunion) are processed using Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) and reveal sawtooth-shaped oscillations ; the latter are characterized by short intervals of fast inflations followed by longer intervals of slower deflations. At Okmok and Akutan, the oscillations are first damped and then accentuated. At Okmok, the increase in amplitude of the oscillations is followed by an eruption. We first show that the dynamics of these four volcanoes bears similarities with that of a simple nonlinear, dissipative oscillator, indicating that the inflation-deflation episodes are relaxation oscillations. These observations imply that ab initio dynamical models of magma chambers should possess an asymmetric oscillatory regime. Next, based on the work of Whitehead and Helfrich [1991], we show that a model of two magma chambers — connected by a cylindrical conduit in which the magma viscosity depends on temperature — gives rise to asymmetric overpressure oscillations in the magma reservoirs. These oscillations lead to surface deformations that are consistent with those observed at the four volcanoes in this study. This relaxation oscillation regime occurs only when the vertical temperature gradient in the host rock between the two magma chambers is large enough and when the magma flux entering the volcanic system is sufficiently high. The magma being supplied by a deeper source region, the input flux depends on the pressure difference between the source and the deepest reservoir. When this difference is not sufficiently high, the magma flux exponentially decreases, leading to damped oscillations as observed at Akutan and Okmok. The combination of observational and modeling results clearly supports the role of relaxation oscillations in the dynamics of volcanic systems.

  1. Magma Expansion and Fragmentation in a Propagating Dike (Invited) (United States)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Taisne, B.


    The influence of magma expansion due to volatile exsolution and gas dilation on dike propagation is studied using a new numerical code. Many natural magmas contain sufficient amounts of volatiles for fragmentation to occur well below Earth's surface. Magma fragmentation has been studied for volcanic flows through open conduits but it should also occur within dikes that rise towards Earth's surface. We consider the flow of a volatile-rich magma in a hydraulic fracture. The mixture of melt and gas is treated as a compressible viscous fluid below the fragmentation level and as a gas phase carrying melt droplets above it. A numerical code solves for elastic deformation of host rocks, the flow of the magmatic mixture and fracturing at the dike tip. With volatile-free magma, a dike fed at a constant rate in a uniform medium adopts a constant shape and width and rises at a constant velocity. With volatiles involved, magma expands and hence the volume flux of magma increases. With no fragmentation, this enhanced flux leads to acceleration of the dike. Simple scaling laws allow accurate predictions of dike width and ascent rate for a wide range of conditions. With fragmentation, dike behavior is markedly different. Due to the sharp drop of head loss that occurs in gas-rich fragmented material, large internal overpressures develop below the tip and induce swelling of the nose region, leading to deceleration of the dike. Thus, the paradoxical result is that, with no viscous impediment on magma flow and a large buoyancy force, the dike stalls. This process may account for some of the tuffisite veins and intrusions that are found in and around magma conduits, notably in the Unzen drillhole, Japan. We apply these results to the two-month long period of volcanic unrest that preceded the May 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens. An initial phase of rapid earthquake migration from the 7-8 km deep reservoir to shallow levels was followed by very slow progression of magma within the

  2. The petrologic evolution and pre-eruptive conditions of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachmann, Olivier


    The Kos Plateau Tuff is a large (>60 km3) and young (160 k.y.) calc-alkaline, high-SiO2 rhyolitic ignimbrite from the active Kos-Nisyros volcanic center in the Aegean arc (Greece). Combined textural, petrological and geochemical information suggest that (1) the system evolved dominantly by crystal fractionation from (mostly unerupted) more mafic parents, (2) the magma chamber grew over ≥ 250 000 years at shallow depth (˜1.5-2.5 kb) and was stored as a H2O-rich crystalline mush close to its solidus (˜670-750°C), (3) the eruption occurred after a reheating event triggered by the intrusion of hydrous mafic magma at the base of the rhyolitic mush. Rare banded pumices indicate that the mafic magma only mingled with a trivial portion of resident crystal-rich rhyolite; most of the mush was remobilized following partial melting of quartz and feldspars induced by advection of heat and volatiles from the underplated, hotter mafic influx.

  3. Io: Loki Patera as a Magma Sea (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Veeder, Glenn J.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Castillo, Julie C.


    We develop a physical model for Loki Patera as a magma sea. We calculate the total volume of magma moving through the Loki Patera volcanic system every resurfacing cycle (approx.540 days) and the resulting variation in thermal emission. The rate of magma solidification at times reaches 3 x 10(exp 6) kg per second, with a total solidified volume averaging 100 cu km per year. A simulation of gas physical chemistry evolution yields the crust porosity profile and the timescale when it will become dense enough to founder in a manner consistent with observations. The Loki Patera surface temperature distribution shows that different areas are at different life cycle stages. On a regional scale, however, there can be coordinated activity, indicated by the wave of thermal change which progresses from Loki Patera's SW quadrant toward the NE at a rate of approx.1 km per day. Using the observed surface temperature distribution, we test several mechanisms for resurfacing Loki Patera, finding that resurfacing with lava flows is not realistic. Only the crustal foundering process is consistent with observations. These tests also discovered that sinking crust has a 'heat deficit' which promotes the solidification of additional magma onto the sinking plate ("bulking up"). In the limiting case, the mass of sinking material can increase to a mass of approx.3 times that of the foundering plate. With all this solid matter sinking, there is a compensating upward motion in the liquid magma. This can be in excess of 2 m per year. In this manner, solid-liquid convection is occurring in the sea.

  4. Rapid uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (Chile) measured by satellite radar interferometry (United States)

    Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Singer, B. S.; Pesicek, J. D.; Thurber, C. H.; Jicha, B. R.; Lara, L. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Williams-Jones, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Keranen, K. M.


    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone extends over 500 square kilometers and comprises more than 130 individual vents. As described by Hildreth et al. (2010), the history has been defined from sixty-eight Ar/Ar and K-Ar dates. Silicic eruptions have occurred throughout the past 3.7 Ma, including welded ignimbrite associated with caldera formation at 950 ka, small rhyolitic eruptions between 336 and 38 ka, and a culminating ring of 36 post-glacial rhyodacite and rhyolite coulees and domes that encircle the lake. Dating of five post-glacial flows implies that these silicic eruptions occurred within the last 25 kyr. Field relations indicate that initial eruptions comprised modest volumes of mafic rhyodacite magma that were followed by larger volumes of high silica rhyolite. The post-glacial flare-up of silicic magmatism from vents distributed around the lake, is unprecedented in the history of this volcanic field. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), Fournier et al. (2010) measured uplift at a rate of more than 180 mm/year between 2007 and 2008 in a round pattern centered on the west side of LdM. More recent InSAR observations suggest that rapid uplift has continued from 2008 through early 2011. In contrast, Fournier et al. found no measurable deformation in an interferogram spanning 2003 through 2004. In this study, we model the deformation field using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT), as described by Feigl and Thurber (2009). Two different models fit the data. The first model assumes a sill at ~5 km depth has been inflating at a rate of more than 20 million cubic meters per year since 2007. The second model assumes that the water level in the lake dropped at a rate of 20 m/yr from January 2007 through February 2010, thus reducing the load on an elastic simulation of the crust. The rate of intrusion inferred from InSAR is an order of magnitude higher than the average rate derived from well-dated arc

  5. Tube pumices as strain markers of the ductile-brittle transition during magma fragmentation (United States)

    Martí, J.; Soriano, C.; Dingwell, D. B.


    Magma fragmentation-the process by which relatively slow-moving magma transforms into a violent gas flow carrying fragments of magma-is the defining feature of explosive volcanism. Yet of all the processes involved in explosively erupting systems, fragmentation is possibly the least understood. Several theoretical and laboratory studies on magma degassing and fragmentation have produced a general picture of the sequence of events leading to the fragmentation of silicic magma. But there remains a debate over whether magma fragmentation is a consequence of the textural evolution of magma to a foamed state where disintegration of walls separating bubbles becomes inevitable due to a foam-collapse criterion, or whether magma is fragmented purely by stresses that exceed its tensile strength. Here we show that tube pumice-where extreme bubble elongation is observed-is a well-preserved magmatic `strain marker' of the stress state immediately before and during fragmentation. Structural elements in the pumice record the evolution of the magma's mechanical response from viscous behaviour (foaming and foam elongation) through the plastic or viscoelastic stage, and finally to brittle behaviour. These observations directly support the hypothesis that fragmentation occurs when magma undergoes a ductile-brittle transition and stresses exceed the magma's tensile strength.

  6. Plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange, central Japan: Fragments of middle to lower crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc? (United States)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ito, Hisatoshi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji


    A Paleogene accretionary complex, the Mineoka-Setogawa Belt, is distributed around the Izu Collision Zone, central Japan. Plutonic rocks of gabbro, diorite and tonalite compositions are included as fragments and dykes in an ophiolitic mélange in this belt. Zircon U-Pb dating of the plutonic rocks indicates that they were formed at ca. 35 Ma simultaneously. These ages are consistent with Eocene-Oligocene tholeiite and calc-alkaline arc magmatism in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc and exclude several previous models for the origin of the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic rocks. The geochemical characteristics of these plutonic rocks are similar to those of the Eocene-Oligocene IBM tholeiite and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks as well as to the accreted middle crust of the IBM Arc, the Tanzawa Plutonic Complex. Moreover, their lithology is consistent with those of the middle and lower crust of the IBM Arc estimated from the seismic velocity structure. These lines of evidence strongly indicate that the plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange are fragments of the middle to lower crust of the IBM Arc. Additionally, the presence of the Mineoka-Setogawa intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks supports the hypothesis that intermediate magma can form continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs.

  7. Zircon U-Pb chronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the Volcanic Rocks in the Elashan area, NW China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Wei, J.; Shi, W.; Li, P.; Chen, M.; Zhao, X.


    Elashan area is located in the intersection of the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) and the West Qinling Orogenic (WQOB). We present petrology, zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions from the andesite and felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolite and rhyolitic tuffs) in Elashan group volcanic rock. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data indicate that the volcanic rocks are emplaced at 250 247 Ma. The volcanic rocks have high -K and aluminum - peraluminous characteristics, A/CNK = 1.07 1.82, δ ranges from 1.56 2.95, the main body is calc-alkaline rock. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in some high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti), while having a flat heavy REE (HREEs) pattern. The ∑REE values of 178.68 to 298.11 ppm, average 230.50 ppm. The LREE/HREE values of 4.39 to 11.78 ppm, average 6.77 ppm. REE fractionation is obvious, REE distribution curve was right smooth, and have slightly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.44-0.80, average 0.60), which as similar to the island arc volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.71028-0.71232, ɛNd(t) values of -6.7 to -7.6, with T2DM-Nd ranging from 1561 to 1640 Ma. Pb isotopic composition (206 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 18.055 18.330, (207 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 15.586 15.618, (208 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 37.677 38.332. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes indicates that Elashan group volcanic magma derived mainly from the lower crust. Elashan group volcanic rocks is the productive East Kunlun block and West Qinling block collision, which makes the thicken crust caused partial melting in the study area. The source rocks is probably from metamorphic sandstone of Bayankala. But with Y-Nb and Rb-(Y+Nb), R1-R2 and Rb/10-Hf-Ta*3 diagrams showing that intermediate-acid rocks mainly formed in volcanic arc-collision environment, probably the collision event is short , therefore rocks retain the original island

  8. Conditions of deep magma chamber beneath Fuji volcano estimated from high- P experiments (United States)

    Asano, K.; Takahashi, E.; Hamada, M.; Ushioda, M.; Suzuki, T.


    Fuji volcano, the largest in volume and eruption rate in Japan, is located at the center of Honshu, where North America, Eurasia and Philippine Sea plates meets. Because of the significance of Fuji volcano both in tectonic settings and potential volcanic hazard (particularly after the M9 earthquake in 2011), precise knowledge on its magma feeding system is essentially important. Composition of magma erupted from Fuji volcano in the last 100ky is predominantly basalt (SiO2=50-52wt%, FeO/MgO=1.5-3.0). Total lack of silica-rich magma (basaltic andesite and andesite) which are always present in other nearby volcanoes (e.g., Hakone, Izu-Oshima, see Fig.1) is an important petrologic feature of Fuji volcano. Purpose of this study is to constrain the depth of magma chamber of Fuji volcano and explain its silica-nonenrichment trend. High pressure melting experiments were carried out using two IHPVs at the Magma Factory, Tokyo Institute of Technology (SMC-5000 and SMC-8600, Tomiya et al., 2010). Basalt scoria Tr-1 which represents the final ejecta of Hoei eruption in AD1707, was adopted as a starting material. At 4kbar, temperature conditions were 1050, 1100 and 1150C, and H2O contents were 1.3, 2.7 and 4.7 wt.%, respectively. At 7kbar, temperature conditions were 1075, 1100 and 1125C, and H2O contents were 1.0, 1.1, 3.6 and 6.3wt.%, respectively. The fO2 was controlled at NNO buffer. At 4kbar, crystallization sequence at 3 wt% H2O is magnetite, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and finally orthopyroxene. At 7 kbar, and ~3 wt% H2O, the three minerals (opx, cpx, pl) appears simultaneously near the liquidus. Compositional trend of melt at 4 kbar and 7 kbar are shown with arrows in Fig.1. Because of the dominant crystallization of silica-rich opx at 7 kbar, composition of melt stays in the range SiO2=50-52wt% as predicted by Fujii (2007). Absence of silica-rich rocks in Fuji volcano may be explained by the tectonic setting of the volcano. Because Fuji volcano locates on the plate

  9. Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Aleutian Arc: Mantle Melt Generation and Migration beneath Okmok Caldera (United States)

    Zelenak, G.; Key, K.; Bennington, N. L.; Bedrosian, P.


    Understanding the factors controlling the release of volatiles from the downgoing slab, the subsequent generation of melt in the overlying mantle wedge, the migration of melt to the crust, and its evolution and emplacement within the crust are important for advancing our understanding of arc magmatism and crustal genesis. Because melt and aqueous fluids are a few orders of magnitude more electrically conductive than unmelted peridotite, the conductivity-mapping magnetotelluric (MT) method is well-suited to imaging fluids and melt beneath arc volcanoes. Here we present conductivity results from an amphibious MT profile crossing Okmok volcano in the central Aleutian arc. The Aleutian arc is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America, making it an ideal location for studying arc magnetism. Okmok volcano, located on the northeastern portion of Umnak Island, is among the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian chain. In addition to two caldera-forming events in the Holocene, numerous eruptions in the past century indicate a robust magmatic supply. Previous coarse resolution seismic studies have inferred a crustal magma reservoir. In order to investigate the role fluids play in melting the mantle wedge, how melts ascend through the corner flow regime of the mantle wedge, how melt migrates and is stored within the upper mantle and crust, and how this impacts explosive caldera forming eruptions, we carried out an amphibious geophysical survey across the arc in June-July 2015. Twenty-nine onshore MT stations and 10 offshore stations were collected in a 3D array covering Okmok, and 43 additional offshore MT stations completed a 300 km amphibious profile starting at the trench, crossing the forearc, arc and backarc. Thirteen onshore passive seismic stations were also installed and will remain in place for one year to supplement the twelve permanent stations on the island. Data collected by this project will be used to map seismic velocity and electrical

  10. Association of Sub-continental and Asthenosphere related Volcanism in NW Iran,Implication forMantle thermal perturbation induced by slab break off and collision event (United States)

    Jahangiri, A.


    Cenozoic magmatic rocks occur extensively in the north of the Zagros suture zone and constitute a significant component of the continental crust in this segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. They range in age from Eocene to quaternary. Miocene to Plio-Quaternary volcanism with post-collisional related significant is covered vast areas in NW Iran. These volcanic rocks can be divided into three different sub-groups on the basis of their mineralogy, geochemistry and magma sources including: 1. alkaline leucite-bearing mafic rocks, which are characterized with high ratios of K2O/Na2O, high content LILE and low HFS elements like Ti, Nb and Ta. They are display fractionated REE patterns and based on different discrimination diagrams show similarity with subduction related magmas. 2- Olivine basalt to trachy-basaltic samples which shows similarity to within plate basalts with high content of TiO2, Nb, Ta and fractionated REE pattern. However, compared with a global average of OIB, they are display slightly higher LIL elements and lower HFS elements concentrations, features that resemble to the arc magmas and suggest that the source of the magmas may have been contaminated by slab-derived fluids. These rocks have simple mineralogical composition with plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine. 3- Dominant dacitic volcanic rocks with adakitic geochemical characteristics such as highly fractionate REE pattern and high Sr/Y ratio. Generation of adakitic magmas can be related to increased temperatures in the subduction zone due to mantle upwelling and slab tearing. Subsequent asthenospheric upwelling could be caused direct melting of sub-continental mantle to produce the alkaline magmas, with high contents of K2O, MgO and volatile rich phase's potassic magmas that led to crystallization of leucite, phlogopite, apatite and olivine in studied samples. Rupture of the continental lithosphere by strike-slip-related transtensional deformation might have caused decompression

  11. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin


    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmas

  12. Seismic Tremors and Three-Dimensional Magma Wagging (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Bercovici, D.


    Seismic tremor is a feature shared by many silicic volcanoes and is a precursor of volcanic eruption. Many of the characteristics of tremors, including their frequency band from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz, are common for volcanoes with very different geophysical and geochemical properties. The ubiquitous characteristics of tremor imply that it results from some generation mechanism that is common to all volcanoes, instead of being unique to each volcano. Here we present new analysis on the magma-wagging mechanism that has been proposed to generate tremor. The model is based on the suggestion given by previous work (Jellinek & Bercovici 2011; Bercovici 2013) that the magma column is surrounded by a compressible, bubble-rich foam annulus while rising inside the volcanic conduit, and that the lateral oscillation of the magma inside the annulus causes observable tremor. Unlike the previous two-dimensional wagging model where the displacement of the magma column is restricted to one vertical plane, the three-dimensional model we employ allows the magma column to bend in different directions and has angular motion as well. Our preliminary results show that, without damping from viscous deformation of the magma column, the system retains angular momentum and develops elliptical motion (i.e., the horizontal displacement traces an ellipse). In this ''inviscid'' limit, the magma column can also develop instabilities with higher frequencies than what is found in the original two-dimensional model. Lateral motion can also be out of phase for various depths in the magma column leading to a coiled wagging motion. For the viscous-magma model, we predict a similar damping rate for the uncoiled magma column as in the two-dimensional model, and faster damping for the coiled magma column. The higher damping thus requires the existence of a forcing mechanism to sustain the oscillation, for example the gas-driven Bernoulli effect proposed by Bercovici et al (2013). Finally, using our new 3

  13. Is there a geochemical link between volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains caldera? (United States)

    Memeti, V.; Davidson, J.


    Results from separate volcanic and plutonic studies have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding the origins and thus links between volcanic and plutonic systems in continental arcs and the magmatic processes and time scales responsible for their compositional variations. Some have suggested that there is a geochemical and geochronological disconnect between volcanic and plutonic rocks and hence have questioned the existence of magma mush columns beneath active volcanoes. Investigating contemporary volcanic and plutonic rocks that are spatially connected is thus critical in exploring these issues. The ca. 36 Ma Organ Mountains caldera in New Mexico, USA, represents such a system exposing contemporaneous volcanic and plutonic rocks juxtaposed at the surface due to tilting during extensional tectonics along the Rio Grande Rift. Detailed geologic and structural mapping [1] and 40Ar/39Ar ages of both volcanics and plutons [2] demonstrate the spatial and temporal connection of both rock types with active magmatism over >2.5 myr. Three caldera-forming ignimbrites erupted within 600 kyr [2] from this system with a total erupted volume of 500-1,000 km3 as well as less voluminous pre- and post-caldera trachyte and andesite lavas. The ignimbrite sequence ranges from a crystal-poor, high-SiO2 rhyolite at the base to a more crystal-rich, low-SiO2 rhyolite at the top. Compositional zoning with quartz-monzonite at the base grading to syenite and alaskite at the top is also found in the Organ Needle pluton, the main intrusion, which is interpreted to be the source for the ignimbrites [1]. Other contemporaneous and slightly younger plutons have dioritic to leucogranitic compositions. We examined both volcanic and plutonic rocks with petrography and their textural variations with color cathodoluminescence, and used whole rock element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry to constrain magma compositions and origins. Electron microprobe analyses on feldspars have been completed to

  14. Collision-induced post-plateau volcanism: Evidence from a seamount on Ontong Java Plateau (United States)

    Hanyu, Takeshi; Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Shimizu, Kenji; Ishizuka, Osamu; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing; Senda, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hirahara, Yuka; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Goto, Kosuke T.; Ishikawa, Akira


    Many seamounts on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) occur near the Stewart Arch, a topographic high that extends parallel to the North Solomon Trench along the southern margins of the plateau. Despite the thick sediment cover, several volcanic cones with strong acoustic reflection were discovered on the submarine flank of the Nuugurigia Seamount. From such volcanic cones, basalts were successfully sampled by dredging. Radiometric dating of basalts and ferromanganese encrustation indicate eruption age of 20-25 Ma, significantly younger than the 122 Ma main OJP plateau and post-plateau basalts. The age range coincides with the collision of the OJP with the Solomon Arc. The Nuugurigia basalts geochemically differ from any other rocks sampled on the OJP so far. They are alkali basalts with elevated Sr, low Zr and Hf, and Enriched Mantle-I (EMI)-like isotopic composition. Parental magmas of these alkali basalts may have formed by small-degree melting of peridotitic mantle impregnated with recycled pyroxenite material having enriched geochemical composition in the OJP's mantle root. We conclude that small-volume alkali basalts from the enriched mantle root migrated through faults or fractures caused by the collision along the Stewart Arch to form the seamount. Our results suggest that the collision of the OJP with the Solomon arc played an important role in the origin of similar post-plateau seamounts along the Stewart Arch.

  15. Drilling Magma for Science, Volcano Monitoring, and Energy (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Lavallée, Y.; Blankenship, D.


    Magma chambers are central to understanding magma evolution, formation of continental crust, volcanism, and renewal of hydrothermal systems. Information from geology, petrology, laboratory experiments, and geophysical imagery has led to little consensus except a trend to see magma systems as being crystal-dominant (mush) rather than melt dominant. At high melt viscosities, crystal-liquid fractionation may be achieved by separation of melt from mush rather than crystals from liquid suspension. That the dominant volume has properties more akin to solid than liquid might explain the difficulty in detecting magma geophysically. Recently, geothermal drilling has intersected silicic magma at the following depths and SiO2 contents are: Puna, Hawaii, 2.5 km, 67 wt%; Menengai, Kenya 2.1 km, 67 wt%; Krafla, Iceland, 2.1 km, 75 wt%. Some similarities are: 1) Drillers encountered a "soft", sticky formation; 2) Cuttings or chips of clear quenched glass were recovered; 3) The source of the glass flowed up the well; 4) Transition from solid rock to recovering crystal-poor glass occurred in tens of meters, apparently without an intervening mush zone. Near-liquidus magma at the roof despite rapid heat loss there presents a paradox that may be explained by very recent intrusion of magma, rise of liquidus magma to the roof replacing partially crystallized magma, or extremely skewed representation of melt over mush in cuttings (Carrigan et al, this session). The latter is known to occur by filter pressing of ooze into lava lake coreholes (Helz, this session), but cannot be verified in actual magma without coring. Coring to reveal gradients in phase composition and proportions is required for testing any magma chamber model. Success in drilling into and controlling magma at all three locations, in coring lava lakes to over 1100 C, and in numerical modeling of coring at Krafla conditions (Su, this session) show this to be feasible. Other unprecedented experiments are using the known

  16. Silicic melt evolution in the early Izu-Bonin arc recorded in detrital zircons: Zircon U-Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry for Site U1438, Amami Sankaku Basin (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Tani, K.; Meffre, S.; Wooden, J. L.; Coble, M. A.


    Understanding the petrologic evolution of oceanic arc magmas through time is important because these arcs reveal the processes of formation and the early evolution of juvenile continental crust. The Izu-Bonin (IB) arc system has been targeted because it is one of several western Pacific intraoceanic arcs initiated at 50 Ma and because of its prominent spatial asymmetry, with widespread development of relatively enriched rear arc lavas. We examined Pb/U and trace element compositions in zircons recovered at IODP Site 351-U1438 and compared them to regional and global zircon suites. These new arc zircon data indicate that detrital zircons will yield new insights into the generation of IB silicic melts and form a set of useful geochemical proxies for interpreting ancient arc detrital zircon provenance. Project IBM drilling target IBM1 was explored by Expedition 351 at Site U1438, located in the proximal back-arc of the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) at 27.3°N. A 1.2 km thick section of Paleogene volcaniclastic rocks, increasingly lithified and hydrothermally altered with depth, constitutes a proximal rear arc sedimentary record of IB arc initiation and early arc evolution. The ages and compositions of U1438 zircons are compatible with provenance in one or more edifices of the northern KPR and are incompatible with drilling contamination. Melt zircon saturation temperatures and Ti-in-zircon thermometry suggest a provenance in relatively cool and silicic KPR melts. The abundances of selected trace elements with high native concentrations provide insight into the petrogenesis of U1438 detrital zircon host melts, and may be useful indicators of both short and long-term variations in melt compositions in arc settings. The U1438 zircons are slightly enriched in U and LREE and are depleted in Nb compared to zircons from mid-ocean ridges and the Parece-Vela Basin, as predicted for melts in a primitive oceanic arc setting with magmas derived from a highly depleted mantle

  17. Age revision of the Neotethyan arc migration into the southeast Urumieh-Dokhtar belt of Iran: Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Reza; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Alirezaei, Saeed; Sun, Weidong; Li, Cong-Ying


    The Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt of Central Iran runs parallel to the Zagros orogenic belt and has been resulted from Neotethys ocean subduction underneath Eurasia. The Bahr Aseman volcanic-plutonic complex (BAC), covering an area 2000 km2 in the Kerman magmatic belt (KMB) in the southern section of the Urumieh-Dokhtar belt, has long been considered as the earliest manifestation of extensive Cenozoic arc magmatism in KMB. The nature and timing of the magmatism, however, is poorly constrained. An area 1000 km2, in BAC and adjacent Razak volcaniclastic complex and Jebal Barez-type granitoids, was mapped and sampled for geochemistry and geochronology. Andesite and basaltic andesite are the main volcanic components in the study area; plutonic bodies vary from tonalite to quartz diorite, granodiorite and biotite-granite. The rocks in BAC display dominantly normal calc-alkaline character. On spider diagrams, the rocks are characterized by enrichments in LILE relative to HFSE and enrichments in LREE relative to HREE. These features suggest a subduction related setting for the BAC. LaN/YbN ratios for the intrusive and volcanic rocks range from 1.41 to 5.16 and 1.01 to 6.42, respectively. These values are lower than those for other known granitoids in KMB, namely the abyssal, dominantly Oligocene Jebal Barez-type (LaN/YbN = 1.66-9.98), and the shallow, dominantly late Miocene Kuh Panj-type (LaN/YbN = 12.97-36.04) granitoids. This suggests a less evolved magma source for the BAC igneous rocks. In Y vs. Nb and Th/Yb vs. La/Yb discrimination diagrams, an island-arc setting is defined for the BAC rocks. The rocks further plot in primitive island-arc domain in Nb vs. Rb/Zr and Y/Nb vs. TiO2 diagrams. The BAC volcanic and plutonic rocks yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 78.1 to 82.7 Ma and 77.5 to 80.8 Ma, respectively. Zircon U-Pb dating of volcanic rocks and granitoids from the adjacent Razak complex and the Jebal Barez-type granitoids indicated 48.2 Ma and 26.1 Ma ages

  18. Determining magmatic series and oxygen fugacity of volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu, north of Isfahan, based on biotite chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari


    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks of interest are situated in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA. They are parts of a vast magmatic province located in the north of Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. Having a prevailing porphyritic texture, these rocks include phenocrysts of plagioclase, amphibole and biotite in a matrix composed of feldspar, quartz, opaque, glass and microlite and mineralogically show composition of dacite to andesite. Minerals are mostly fresh. Effects of alteration are limited to weak chloritization and saussuritization in some amphiboles and rim of plagioclases, respectively. All of the analyzed biotites in the Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu are of Mg-biotite. According to a widespread classification of micas to 6 general end-members, biotites of interest are averagely composed of 55.45% phlogopite, 15.90% talc, 12.72% Ti-phlogopite, 11.44% eastonite, 3.71% ferri-eastonite and 0.78% muscovite. Chemical composition of biotites indicates a calk-alkaline magmatic series for the magma from which biotites are crystallized. Estimation of the oxygen fugacity of magma, based on chemical composition and Fe3+ content of biotite, shows that the oxygen fugacity was limited to FMQ buffer in quality and was about 10-15 bar in quantity. This value accords the oxygen fugacity for intermediate-acidic volcanic rocks.

  19. Characterization of open and closed volcanic systems in Indonesia and Mexico using InSAR time series (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.; Aoki, Y.


    use 2007-2011 Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) data to perform an arc-wide interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series survey of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and to study time-dependent ground deformation of four Indonesian volcanoes selected following the 2007-2009 study of Chaussard and Amelung (2012). Our objectives are to examine whether arc volcanoes exhibit long-term edifice-wide cyclic deformation patterns that can be used to characterize open and closed volcanic systems and to better constrain in which cases precursory inflation is expected. We reveal deformation cycles at both regularly active and previously inactive Indonesian volcanoes, but we do not detect deformation in the TMVB, reflecting a lower activity level. We identify three types of relationships between deformation and activity: inflation prior to eruption and associated with or followed by deflation (Kerinci and Sinabung), inflation without eruption and followed by slow deflation (Agung), and eruption without precursory deformation (Merapi, Colima, and Popocatépetl; at Merapi, no significant deformation is detected even during eruption). The first two cases correspond to closed volcanic systems and suggest that the traditional model of magmatic systems and eruptive cycles do apply to andesitic volcanoes (i.e., inflation and deflation episodes associated with magma accumulation or volatile exsolution in a crustal reservoir followed by eruptions or in situ cooling). In contrast, the last case corresponds to open volcanic systems where no significant pressurization of the magmatic reservoirs is taking place prior to eruptions and thus no long-term edifice-wide ground deformation can be detected. We discuss these results in terms of InSAR's potential for forecasting volcanic unrest.

  20. Magma buoyancy and volatile ascent driving autocyclic eruptivity at Hekla Volcano (Iceland) (United States)

    Hautmann, Stefanie; Sacks, I. Selwyn; Linde, Alan T.; Roberts, Matthew J.


    Volcanic eruptions are typically accompanied by ground deflation due to the withdrawal of magma from depth and its effusion at the surface. Here, based on continuous high-resolution borehole strain data, we show that ground deformation was absent during the major effusion phases of the 1991 and 2000 eruptions of Hekla Volcano, Iceland. This lack of surface deformation challenges the classic model of magma intrusion/withdrawal as source for volcanic ground uplift/subsidence. We incorporate geodetic and geochemical observables into theoretical models of magma chamber dynamics in order to constrain quantitatively alternative co- and intereruptive physical mechanisms that govern magma propagation and system pressurization. We find the lack of surface deformation during lava effusion to be linked to chamber replenishment from below whilst magma migrates as a buoyancy-driven flow from the magma chamber towards the surface. We further demonstrate that intereruptive pressure build-up is likely to be generated by volatile ascent within the chamber rather than magma injection. Our model explains the persistent periodic eruptivity at Hekla throughout historic times with self-initiating cycles and is conceptually relevant to other volcanic systems.

  1. Petrogeochemistry of Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoguang; Li Ziying; Wei Sanyuan; Qi Da'neng


    Through the discussion on petrogeochemistry of Later Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan Basin in Manzhouli area, combined with field observation and the predecessors' study, its magma evolution,genesis and diagenetic structural environment are discussed, and some suggestion are provided for the further work. Basaltic magma in this area is believed to be derived from mantle with incompatible elements which were later participated by some crustal materials. It is a partially melting product of mantle by early metasomatized fluid under lithosphere extension. Through petrogeochemical analysis of the volcanics and the contrast to the adjacent uranium-producing volcanics, it is concluded that this region has structural environment to form magma evolution series which are more favorable for volcanic hydrothermal-type uranium and polymetallic mineralization. (authors)

  2. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.


    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  3. Park Volcanics, Murihiku Terrane, New Zealand : petrology, petrochemistry, and tectonic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, D.S.; Cook, N.D.J.; Kawachi, Y.; Johnstone, R.D.; Gibson, I.L.


    The Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Park Volcanics Group comprises minor shallow intrusive and extrusive bodies emplaced during mainly marine sedimentation of the Murihiku Terrane, southern New Zealand. Gowan Andesite in western Southland and Glenham Porphyry andesites in eastern Southland are high-K andesites. Glassy examples have commonly lost K during alteration. Orthoclase contents of Or 3.6-3.7 in plagioclase phenocrysts at An 50 confirm the high-K nature of the melts at the time of phenocryst crystallisation. The Gowan andesites have higher Fe/Mg than the Glenham and related differences in minor element chemistry suggesting lower ∫O 2 during fractionation of the parent magma. Pinney Volcanics in western Southland are mostly high-K trachydacites but, like Glenham Porphyry, include minor rhyolite. Barnicoat Andesite in the Nelson area is medium-K olivine andesite, marginally tholeiitic in terms of its FeO*/MgO versus SiO 2 behaviour, but otherwise is typically calc-alkaline, as are the Gowan, Glenham, and Pinney. Analyses of pyroxenes (augites, orthopyroxenes, reaction rim and groundmass pigeonites) reveal xenocrysts recording an early stage of magma fractionation, slight iron enrichment in the andesite stage, and lowered Fe/Mg and increased Ca contents in augites of the most felsic rocks. Titanian tschermakite and titanian magnesio-tschermakite of deep-seated origin participated in fractionation leading to the Pinney Volcanics, and magnesio-hornblende, edenite, and biotite crystallised as minor late stage minerals following high-level emplacement of Gowan Andesite and siliceous Glenham Porphyry members. Low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (c. 0.7034-0.7037), REE and multi-element distribution patterns, and the mineralogical features collectively suggest fractionation of the andesites from parental basalt originating in an enriched mantle wedge above a subduction zone, with minimal contamination by continental crust. High-K andesites appear to be unknown in clearly

  4. Experimental Study of Lunar and SNC Magmas (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.


    The research described in this progress report involved the study of petrological, geochemical and volcanic processes that occur on the Moon and the SNC parent body, generally accepted to be Mars. The link between these studies is that they focus on two terrestrial-type parent bodies somewhat smaller than earth, and the fact that they focus on the role of volatiles in magmatic processes and on processes of magma evolution on these planets. The work on the lunar volcanic glasses has resulted in some exciting new discoveries over the years of this grant. We discovered small metal blebs initially in the Al5 green glass, and determined the significant importance of this metal in fixing the oxidation state of the parent magma (Fogel and Rutherford, 1995). More recently, we discovered a variety of metal blebs in the Al7 orange glass. Some of these Fe-Ni metal blebs were in the glass; others were in olivine phenocrysts. The importance of these metal spheres is that they fix the oxidation state of the parent magma during the eruption, and also indicate changes during the eruption (Weitz et al., 1997) They also yield important information about the composition of the gas phase present, the gas which drove the lunar fire-fountaining. One of the more exciting and controversial findings in our research over the past year has been the possible fractionation of H from D during shock (experimental) of hornblende bearing samples (Minitti et al., 1997). This research is directed at explaining some of the low H2O and high D/H observed in hydrous phases in the SNC meteorites.

  5. Short-circuiting magma differentiation from basalt straight to rhyolite? (United States)

    Ruprecht, P.; Winslow, H.


    Silicic magmas are the product of varying degrees of crystal fractionation and crustal assimilation/melting. Both processes lead to differentiation that is step-wise rather than continuous for example during melt separation from a crystal mush (Dufek and Bachmann, 2010). However, differentiation is rarely efficient enough to evolve directly from a basaltic to a rhyolitic magma. At Volcán Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, the magma series is dominated by crystal fractionation where mixing trends between primitive and felsic end members in the bulk rock compositions are almost absent (e.g. P, FeO, TiO2 vs. SiO2). How effective fraction is in this magmatic system is not well-known. The 2011-12 eruption at Cordón Caulle provides new constraints that rhyolitic melts may be derived directly from a basaltic mush. Minor, but ubiquitous mafic, crystal-rich enclaves co-erupted with the predominantly rhyolitic near-aphyric magma. These enclaves are among the most primitive compositions erupted at Puyehue-Cordón Caulle and geochemically resemble closely basaltic magmas that are >10 ka old (Singer et al. 2008) and that have been identified as a parental tholeiitic mantle-derived magma (Schmidt and Jagoutz, 2017) for the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone. The vesiculated nature, the presence of a microlite-rich groundmass, and a lack of a Eu anomaly in these encalves suggest that they represent recharge magma/mush rather than sub-solidus cumulates and therefore have potentially a direct petrogenetic link to the erupted rhyolites. Our results indicate that under some conditions crystal fractionation can be very effective and the presence of rhyolitic magmas does not require an extensive polybaric plumbing system. Instead, primitive mantle-derived magmas source directly evolved magmas. In the case, of the magma system beneath Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, which had three historic rhyolitic eruptions (1921-22, 1960, 2011-12) these results raise the question whether rhyolite magma extraction

  6. Magma Dynamics in Dome-Building Volcanoes (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Hornby, A. J.; Schaefer, L. N.; Oommen, T.; Di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.


    The frequent and, as yet, unpredictable transition from effusive to explosive volcanic behaviour is common to active composite volcanoes, yet our understanding of the processes which control this evolution is poor. The rheology of magma, dictated by its composition, porosity and crystal content, is integral to eruption behaviour and during ascent magma behaves in an increasingly rock-like manner. This behaviour, on short timescales in the upper conduit, provides exceptionally dynamic conditions that favour strain localisation and failure. Seismicity released by this process can be mimicked by damage accumulation that releases acoustic signals on the laboratory scale, showing that the failure of magma is intrinsically strain-rate dependent. This character aids the development of shear zones in the conduit, which commonly fracture seismogenically, producing fault surfaces that control the last hundreds of meters of ascent by frictional slip. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate that at ambient temperatures, gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities. At rock-rock interfaces, mechanical work induces comminution of asperities and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting and formation of pseudotachylyte. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma all influence frictional behaviour, which supersedes buoyancy as the controlling factor in magma ascent. In the conduit of dome-building volcanoes, the fracture and slip processes are further complicated: slip-rate along the conduit margin fluctuates. The shear-thinning frictional melt yields a tendency for extremely unstable slip thanks to its pivotal position with regard to the glass transition. This thermo-kinetic transition bestows the viscoelastic melt with the ability to either flow or

  7. Crystalline heterogeneities and instabilities in thermally convecting magma chamber (United States)

    Culha, C.; Suckale, J.; Qin, Z.


    A volcanic vent can supply different densities of crystals over an eruption time period. This has been seen in Hawai'i's Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption; however it is not common for all Kilauea or basaltic eruptions. We ask the question: Under what conditions can homogenous magma chamber cultivate crystalline heterogeneities? In some laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, a horizontal variation is observed. The region where crystals reside is identified as a retention zone: convection velocity balances settling velocity. Simulations and experiments that observe retention zones assume crystals do not alter the convection in the fluid. However, a comparison of experiments and simulations of convecting magma with crystals suggest that large crystal volume densities and crystal sizes alter fluid flow considerably. We introduce a computational method that fully resolves the crystalline phase. To simulate basaltic magma chambers in thermal convection, we built a numerical solver of the Navier-Stoke's equation, continuity equation, and energy equation. The modeled magma is assumed to be a viscous, incompressible fluid with a liquid and solid phase. Crystals are spherical, rigid bodies. We create Rayleigh-Taylor instability through a cool top layer and hot bottom layer and update magma density while keeping crystal temperature and size constant. Our method provides a detailed picture of magma chambers, which we compare to other models and experiments to identify when and how crystals alter magma chamber convection. Alterations include stratification, differential settling and instabilities. These characteristics are dependent on viscosity, convection vigor, crystal volume density and crystal characteristics. We reveal that a volumetric crystal density variation may occur over an eruption time period, if right conditions are met to form stratifications and instabilities in magma chambers. These conditions are realistic for Kilauea Iki's 1959 eruption.

  8. Origin Of Black Shale (Marl) Formation Aided By Continuous Volcanism For 10Ma Including Oceanic Anoxic Event, OAE2 (93-93.5 Ma) In The Eagle Ford Formation In South Texas (United States)

    Chakrabarty, P.; Basu, A. R.


    We report LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons, petrography, major and trace elements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of whole rock black shales(marls) from volcanic subsurface as well as surface exposure ash beds of the Eagle Ford and Boquillas Formations in South Texas. Zircons from the middle part of the 300ft long Eagle Ford cores yield ages of 93.2±1.66 Ma, 94.13±1.25 Ma and 93.7±1.9 Ma. These ages are consistent with the Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) age of deposition in three contiguous cores with spatial separation of 140 miles. An approximate 10Ma duration of deposition of volcanic ash and marl, at a rate of 28ft/Ma for the Eagle Ford is suggested from the 85.76 to 95.5 Ma ages. These ages are from the Eagle Ford ash beds, below the Austin Chalk and above the Buda Limestone and cover the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 at the C-T boundary. Zircons from 7 ash beds in the surface exposures of the Boquillas Formation near Del Rio, yield ages between 84.63 Ma - 90.91 Ma, implying younger than C-T boundary ages for these samples. The mineralogy, major and trace elements of the ash beds suggest their source from nearby arc-derived calc-alkaline volcanism. The ɛHf(T) of the analyzed ash bed zircons yield values between 0 - +8 averaging at +3.5, clearly indicating a mantle component in the host magmas of the zircons. This initial range of ɛHf(T) is similar to arc-volcanism signatures such as the Quaternary andesitic volcanism in Central Mexico. Petrographic analyses of marls away from the visible tuff layer contain phenocrysts of biotite, alkali feldspar and andesitic rock fragments. The whole rock marl with high concentration of some transition metals (V, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mo) and relatively higher MgO and TiO2 contents indicate contemporaneous arc volcanic activity at the time of marl deposition. XRD of subsurface Eagle Ford bulk marl samples from different depths in 4 cores, show volcanogenic clays, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite, dickite and halloysite

  9. Quantifying the Plutonic to Volcanic Relationship Along the Puna Plateau: Implications for Cordilleran Plateau Evolution (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Delph, J. R.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ducea, M. N.


    molten crustal magma reservoirs in continental arcs. It is our contention that integrating advances in crustal-scale seismic imaging with increased geological and geochemical sampling of volcanic deposits can further elucidate the enigmatic plutonic to volcanic relationship.

  10. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera. (United States)

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E


    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  11. Reestablishment of the Ancestral Cascades Arc in Western Nevada and Eastern California by Rollback of the Shallow Farallon Slab (United States)

    Henry, C. D.; Cousens, B.; John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.


    The character and even existence of an ancestral Tertiary Cascades arc in western Nevada and eastern California south of the modern arc are controversial. Based on extensive published and new data on the regional distribution, timing, style, and composition of magmatism, we conclude that an ancestral arc was established by WSW migration of magmatism into western NV and the northeastern Sierra Nevada in the Oligocene and Miocene as a result of progressive rollback of the shallow subducted slab. Magma migration started with the well-known southward sweep through NE NV and NW UT between ~46 and 36 Ma. By ~30 Ma, migration of the leading edge and central belt of activity was much more WSW, especially after removing younger ~E-W extension. Locally sourced, initially dispersed and small volume, intermediate to mafic lavas erupted in western NV and northeastern CA by ~30 Ma and the eastern Sierra Nevada by ~28 Ma, contemporaneous with the much more voluminous ignimbrite flare-up in central NV. As migration continued, the ignimbrite flare-up tapered off. A voluminous, NNW-trending, dominantly effusive volcanic belt developed by ~22-18 Ma in western NV and was continuous from the Bodie Hills (CA/NV) to the Warner Range (northeast CA) by ~16-15 Ma. The volcanic belt was dominated by intermediate to mafic magmas compositionally similar to those of the modern south Cascades arc but reflecting melting of an old, subduction-modified lithosphere (Cousens et al. 2008; Geosphere). Extensive middle Miocene bimodal rocks related to the Yellowstone hotspot cover these rocks in NW NV, NE CA, and SE OR, but 30-23 Ma, intermediate to mafic and lesser silicic rocks are voluminous wherever older rocks are exposed below the middle Miocene rocks. Between ~25 Ma and the present, magmatism migrated WSW at an average rate of ~8 km/Ma but was at least partly stepwise, as exemplified by an ~50 km westward step at 2 Ma in the Lassen area (Guffanti et al. 1990, JGR). The magmatic belt was as much

  12. Shallow Chamber & Conduit Behavior of Silicic Magma: A Thermo- and Fluid- Dynamic Parameterization Model of Physical Deformation as Constrained by Geodetic Observations: Case Study; Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat (United States)

    Gunn de Rosas, C. L.


    The Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (SHV) is an active, mainly andesitic and well-studied stratovolcano situated at the northern end of the Lesser Antilles Arc subduction zone in the Caribbean Sea. The goal of our research is to create a high resolution 3D subsurface model of the shallow and deeper aspects of the magma storage and plumbing system at SHV. Our model will integrate inversions using continuous and campaign geodetic observations at SHV from 1995 to the present as well as local seismic records taken at various unrest intervals to construct a best-fit geometry, pressure point source and inflation rate and magnitude. We will also incorporate a heterogeneous media in the crust and use the most contemporary understanding of deep crustal- or even mantle-depth 'hot-zone' genesis and chemical evolution of silicic and intermediate magmas to inform the character of the deep edifice influx. Our heat transfer model will be constructed with a modified 'thin shell' enveloping the magma chamber to simulate the insulating or conducting influence of heat-altered chamber boundary conditions. The final forward model should elucidate observational data preceding and proceeding unrest events, the behavioral suite of magma transport in the subsurface environment and the feedback mechanisms that may contribute to eruption triggering. Preliminary hypotheses suggest wet, low-viscosity residual melts derived from 'hot zones' will ascend rapidly to shallower stall-points and that their products (eventually erupted lavas as well as stalled plutonic masses) will experience and display two discrete periods of shallow evolution; a rapid depressurization crystallization event followed by a slower conduction-controlled heat transfer and cooling crystallization. These events have particular implications for shallow magma behaviors, notably inflation, compressibility and pressure values. Visualization of the model with its inversion constraints will be affected with Com

  13. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)


    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  14. The Effects of Varying Crustal Carbonate Composition on Assimilation and CO2 Degassing at Arc Volcanoes (United States)

    Carter, L. B.; Holmes, A. K.; Dasgupta, R.; Tumiati, S.


    Magma-crustal carbonate interaction and subsequent decarbonation can provide an additional source of CO2 release to the exogenic system superimposed on mantle-derived CO2. Carbonate assimilation at present day volcanoes is often modeled by limestone consumption experiments [1-4]. Eruptive products, however, do not clearly display the characteristic ultracalcic melt compositions produced during limestone-magma interaction [4]. Yet estimated CO2outflux [5] and composition of volcanics in many volcanic systems may allow ~3-17% limestone- or dolostone-assimilated melt contribution. Crystallization may retain ultracalcic melts in pyroxenite cumulates. To extend our completed study on limestone assimilation, here we explore the effect of varying composition from calcite to dolomite on chemical and thermal decarbonation efficiency of crustal carbonates. Piston cylinder experiments at 0.5 GPa and 900-1200 °C demonstrate that residual mineralogy during interaction with magma shifts from CaTs cpx and anorthite/scapolite in the presence of calcite to Di cpx and Fo-rich olivine with dolomite. Silica-undersaturated melts double in magnesium content, while maintaining high (>30 wt.%) CaO values. At high-T, partial thermal breakdown of dolomite into periclase and CO2 is minimal (<5%) suggesting that in the presence of magma, CO2 is primarily released due to assimilation. Assimilated melts at identical P-T conditions depict similarly high volatile contents (10-20 wt.% by EMPA deficit at 0.5 GPa, 1150 °C with hydrous basalt) with calcite or dolomite. Analysis of the coexisting fluid phase indicates the majority of water is dissolved in the melt, while CO2 released from the carbonate is preferentially partitioned into the vapor. This suggests that although assimilated melts have a higher CO2 solubility, most of the CO2can easily degas from the vapor phase at arc volcanoes, possibly more so at volcanic plumbing systems traversing dolomite [8]. [1]Conte et al 2009 EuJMin (21) 763

  15. Clustering of arc volcanoes caused by temperature perturbations in the back-arc mantle. (United States)

    Lee, Changyeol; Wada, Ikuko


    Clustering of arc volcanoes in subduction zones indicates along-arc variation in the physical condition of the underlying mantle where majority of arc magmas are generated. The sub-arc mantle is brought in from the back-arc largely by slab-driven mantle wedge flow. Dynamic processes in the back-arc, such as small-scale mantle convection, are likely to cause lateral variations in the back-arc mantle temperature. Here we use a simple three-dimensional numerical model to quantify the effects of back-arc temperature perturbations on the mantle wedge flow pattern and sub-arc mantle temperature. Our model calculations show that relatively small temperature perturbations in the back-arc result in vigorous inflow of hotter mantle and subdued inflow of colder mantle beneath the arc due to the temperature dependence of the mantle viscosity. This causes a three-dimensional mantle flow pattern that amplifies the along-arc variations in the sub-arc mantle temperature, providing a simple mechanism for volcano clustering.

  16. Deep magma transport at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Wright, T.L.; Klein, F.W.


    The shallow part of Kilauea's magma system is conceptually well-understood. Long-period and short-period (brittle-failure) earthquake swarms outline a near-vertical magma transport path beneath Kilauea's summit to 20 km depth. A gravity high centered above the magma transport path demonstrates that Kilauea's shallow magma system, established early in the volcano's history, has remained fixed in place. Low seismicity at 4-7 km outlines a storage region from which magma is supplied for eruptions and intrusions. Brittle-failure earthquake swarms shallower than 5 km beneath the rift zones accompany dike emplacement. Sparse earthquakes extend to a decollement at 10-12 km along which the south flank of Kilauea is sliding seaward. This zone below 5 km can sustain aseismic magma transport, consistent with recent tomographic studies. Long-period earthquake clusters deeper than 40 km occur parallel to and offshore of Kilauea's south coast, defining the deepest seismic response to magma transport from the Hawaiian hot spot. A path connecting the shallow and deep long-period earthquakes is defined by mainshock-aftershock locations of brittle-failure earthquakes unique to Kilauea whose hypocenters are deeper than 25 km with magnitudes from 4.4 to 5.2. Separation of deep and shallow long-period clusters occurs as the shallow plumbing moves with the volcanic edifice, while the deep plumbing is centered over the hotspot. Recent GPS data agrees with the volcano-propagation vector from Kauai to Maui, suggesting that Pacific plate motion, azimuth 293.5?? and rate of 7.4 cm/yr, has been constant over Kilauea's lifetime. However, volcano propagation on the island of Hawaii, azimuth 325??, rate 13 cm/yr, requires southwesterly migration of the locus of melting within the broad hotspot. Deep, long-period earthquakes lie west of the extrapolated position of Kilauea backward in time along a plate-motion vector, requiring southwesterly migration of Kilauea's magma source. Assumed ages of 0

  17. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Krier


    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event