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Sample records for volatile-saturated silicic magma

  1. Diapiric ascent of silicic magma beneath the Bolivian Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    Del Potro, R.; M. Díez; Blundy, J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Gottsmann, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The vertical transport of large volumes of silicic magma, which drives volcanic eruptions and the long-term compositional evolution of the continental crust, is a highly debated problem. In recent years, dyking has been favored as the main ascent mechanism, but the structural connection between a distributed configuration of melt-filled pores in the source region and shallow magma reservoirs remains unsolved. In the Central Andes, inversion of a new high-resolution Bouguer anomaly data over t...

  2. Low-(18)O Silicic Magmas: Why Are They So Rare?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsley, S.D.; Gregory, R.T.

    1998-10-15

    LOW-180 silicic magmas are reported from only a small number of localities (e.g., Yellowstone and Iceland), yet petrologic evidence points to upper crustal assimilation coupled with fractional crystallization (AFC) during magma genesis for nearly all silicic magmas. The rarity of 10W-l `O magmas in intracontinental caldera settings is remarkable given the evidence of intense 10W-l*O meteoric hydrothermal alteration in the subvolcanic remnants of larger caldera systems. In the Platoro caldera complex, regional ignimbrites (150-1000 km3) have plagioclase 6180 values of 6.8 + 0.1%., whereas the Middle Tuff, a small-volume (est. 50-100 km3) post-caldera collapse pyroclastic sequence, has plagioclase 8]80 values between 5.5 and 6.8%o. On average, the plagioclase phenocrysts from the Middle Tuff are depleted by only 0.3%0 relative to those in the regional tuffs. At Yellowstone, small-volume post-caldera collapse intracaldera rhyolites are up to 5.5%o depleted relative to the regional ignimbrites. Two important differences between the Middle Tuff and the Yellowstone 10W-180 rhyolites elucidate the problem. Middle Tuff magmas reached water saturation and erupted explosively, whereas most of the 10W-l 80 Yellowstone rhyolites erupted effusively as domes or flows, and are nearly devoid of hydrous phenocrysts. Comparing the two eruptive types indicates that assimilation of 10W-180 material, combined with fractional crystallization, drives silicic melts to water oversaturation. Water saturated magmas either erupt explosively or quench as subsurface porphyrins bejiire the magmatic 180 can be dramatically lowered. Partial melting of low- 180 subvolcanic rocks by near-anhydrous magmas at Yellowstone produced small- volume, 10W-180 magmas directly, thereby circumventing the water saturation barrier encountered through normal AFC processes.

  3. The buoyancy of large siliceous magma chambers is sufficient to initiate supereruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, W.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Seifert, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Perrillat, J.; Ota, T.; Nakamura, E.; Lerch, P.; Mezouar, M.

    2012-12-01

    magma chambers for a range of conditions/configurations indicates that magma buoyancy provides a significant background overpressure that in many cases may suffice to initiate an eruption. Thus, although magma recharge and mush rejuvenation, volatile saturation or tectonic stress may be important triggers for specific eruptive episodes, the initiation of a supereruption does not a priori require such a trigger. [1] Mason, B.G., D.M. Pyle, and C. Oppenheimer, Bulletin of Volcanology, 2004. 66: p. 735-748. [2] Self, S. and S. Blake, Elements, 2008. 4(1): p. 41. [3] Sparks, S., et al., in Report of a Geological Society of Landon Working Group, T. Nield, Editor. 2005: London. [4] Jellinek, A.M. and D.J. DePaolo, Bulletin of Volcanology, 2003. 65: p. 363-381. [5] Knoche, R., S.L. Webb, and D.B. Dingwell, Canadian Mineralogist, 1992. 30: p. 561-569. [6] Ochs, F.A. and R.A. Lange, Science, 1999. 283: p. 1314.

  4. Silicic magma differentiation in ascent conduits. Experimental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Castro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Crystallization of water-bearing silicic magmas in a dynamic thermal boundary layer is reproduced experimentally by using the intrinsic thermal gradient of piston-cylinder assemblies. The standard AGV2 andesite under water-undersaturated conditions is set to crystallize in a dynamic thermal gradient of about 35 °C/mm in 10 mm length capsules. In the hotter area of the capsule, the temperature is initially set at 1200 °C and decreases by programmed cooling at two distinct rates of 0.6 and 9.6 °C/h. Experiments are conducted in horizontally arranged assemblies in a piston cylinder apparatus to avoid any effect of gravity settling and compaction of crystals in long duration runs. The results are conclusive about the effect of water-rich fluids that are expelled out the crystal-rich zone (mush), where water saturation is reached by second boiling in the interstitial liquid. Expelled fluids migrate to the magma ahead of the solidification front contributing to a progressive enrichment in the fluxed components SiO2, K2O and H2O. The composition of water-rich fluids is modelled by mass balance using the chemical composition of glasses (quenched melt). The results are the basis for a model of granite magma differentiation in thermally-zoned conduits with application of in-situ crystallization equations. The intriguing textural and compositional features of the typical autoliths, accompanying granodiorite-tonalite batholiths, can be explained following the results of this study, by critical phenomena leading to splitting of an initially homogeneous magma into two magma systems with sharp boundaries. Magma splitting in thermal boundary layers, formed at the margins of ascent conduits, may operate for several km distances during magma transport from deep sources at the lower crust or upper mantle. Accordingly, conduits may work as chromatographic columns contributing to increase the silica content of ascending magmas and, at the same time, leave behind residual mushes that

  5. Silicic Arc Magmas And Silicic Slab Melts: The Melt-Rock Reaction Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Gomez-Tuena, A.; Bolge, L. L.; Espinasa-Perena, R.; Bindeman, I. N.; Stuart, F. M.; Zellmer, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    While a genetic link between silicic arc magmas and silicic melts from the subducted slab has long been proposed, this hypothesis is commonly refuted because most arc magmas lack a 'garnet-signature' which such slab melts must have. A comprehensive geochemical study of high-Mg# arc magmas from the Quaternary central Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), however, shows that this conflict can be reconciled if melt-rock reaction processes in the mantle wedge were essential to arc magma formation. In the central MVB, monogenetic and composite volcanoes erupt high-Mg# basalts to andesites with highly variable trace element patterns. These magmas contain high-Ni olivines (olivine Ni higher than permissible for olivines in partial peridotite melts) with high 3He/4He = 7-8 Ra that provide strong evidence for silicic slab components that infiltrate the subarc mantle to produce olivine-free segregations of 'reaction pyroxenite' in the sources of individual volcanoes. Melting of silica-excess and silica-deficient reaction pyroxenites can then produce high-Mg# basaltic and dacitic primary melts that mix during ascent through mantle and crust to form high-Mg# andesites. Mass balance requires that reaction pyroxenites contain at least >15-18 wt%, and likely more, of slab component. However, because the HREE of the slab component are efficiently retained in the eclogitic slab, elements Ho to Lu in partial melts from reaction pyroxenites remain controlled by the mantle and maintain MORB-normalized Ho/Lun ˜1.15 close to unity. In contrast, the MREE to LREE and fluid mobile LILE of the arc magmas are either controlled, or strongly influenced, by slab-contributions. The origin from hybrid sources also shows in the major elements that are blends of mantle-derived elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ti) and elements augmented by slab contributions (Si, Na, K, P, and possibly Al). Moreover, strong correlations between bulk rock SiO2, 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O (olivines) can be interpreted as mixtures of subarc

  6. Laguna del Maule magma feeding system and construction of a shallow silicic magma reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Francisco; Castruccio, Ángelo; Parada, Miguel; Scheu, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    expected for within-reservoir convective plumes that interact with surrounding cooler and more differentiated melts. Rhyolites appear to be unrelated to the evolution of rhyodacitic magma because they crystallised under buffered and less oxidizing conditions. This along with plagioclase patterns is in agreement with inputs of slightly hotter rhyolitic magma with no significant chemical difference that formed a zone of rhyolitic magma accumulation. This is consistent with the absence of mafic enclaves in the studied rhyolites. However, eruptions of andesitic-to-rhyodacitic lavas were triggered by injections of different more primitive magma batches into a mush-like reservoir stalled at different depths. Likewise, ascent of magma from a deeper to a shallower level would also be conducted by a more primitive magma recharge as it is suggested by the presence of mafic enclaves and complex zonation and textures of plagioclases in these lavas. Here constant input of hotter and more primitive magmas enables the system to remain active in time. In the case of the rhyolitic units, the silicic reservoir receives constant input of the extracted interstitial rhyolitic magma from a deeper level of the mush-like reservoir.

  7. Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Isaia, Roberto; Pyle, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Magma reservoirs are thought to grow relatively slowly, assembling incrementally under volatile-saturated conditions. Eruptions may be triggered by injections of volatile-rich melt, or generation of over-pressure due to protracted crystallization. Here, we analyse fluorine, chlorine and water in apatite crystals trapped at different stages of magma evolution, and in melt inclusions from clinopyroxene and biotite crystals expelled during an explosive eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, about 4,000 years ago. We combine our geochemical analyses with thermodynamic modelling to reconstruct the evolution of magmatic volatile contents leading up to the explosive eruption. We find that the magma reservoir remained persistently water-undersaturated throughout most of its lifetime. Even crystals in contact with the melt shortly before eruption show that the magma was volatile-undersaturated. Our models suggest that the melt reached volatile saturation at low temperatures, just before eruption. We suggest that late-stage volatile saturation probably triggered the eruption, and conclude that `priming’ of the magma system for eruption may occur on timescales much shorter than the decadal to centennial timescales thought typical for magma reservoir assembly. Thus, surface deformation pulses that record magma assembly at depth beneath Campi Flegrei and other similar magmatic systems may not be immediately followed by an eruption; and explosive eruptions may begin with little warning.

  8. Crystallization and Cooling of a Deep Silicate Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Impact and accretion simulations of terrestrial planet formation suggest that giant impacts are both common and expected to produce extensive melting. The moon-forming impact, for example, likely melted the majority of Earth's mantle to produce a global magma ocean that subsequently cooled and crystallised. Understanding the cooling process is critical to determining magma ocean lifetimes and recognising possible remnant signatures of the magma ocean in present-day mantle heterogeneities. Modelling this evolution is challenging, however, due to the vastly different timescales and lengthscales associated with turbulent convection (magma ocean) and viscous creep (present-day mantle), in addition to uncertainties in material properties and chemical partitioning. We consider a simplified spherically-symmetric (1-D) magma ocean to investigate both its evolving structure and cooling timescale. Extending the work of Abe (1993), mixing-length theory is employed to determine convective heat transport, producing a high resolution model that parameterises the ultra-thin boundary layer (few cms) at the surface of the magma ocean. The thermodynamics of mantle melting are represented using a pseudo-one-component model, which retains the simplicity of a standard one-component model while introducing a finite temperature interval for melting. This model is used to determine the cooling timescale for a variety of plausible thermodynamic models, with special emphasis on comparing the center-outwards vs bottom-up cooling scenarios that arise from the assumed EOS.

  9. Vanadium magnetite-melt oxybarometry of natural, silicic magmas: a comparison of various oxybarometers and thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arató, Róbert; Audétat, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    To test a recently developed oxybarometer for silicic magmas based on partitioning of vanadium between magnetite and silicate melt, a comprehensive oxybarometry and thermometry study on 22 natural rhyolites to dacites was conducted. Investigated samples were either vitrophyres or holocrystalline rocks in which part of the mineral and melt assemblage was preserved only as inclusions within phenocrysts. Utilized methods include vanadium magnetite-melt oxybarometry, Fe-Ti oxide thermometry and -oxybarometry, zircon saturation thermometry, and two-feldspar thermometry, with all analyses conducted by laser-ablation ICP-MS. Based on the number of analyses, the reproducibility of the results and the certainty of contemporaneity of the analyzed minerals and silicate melts the samples were grouped into three classes of reliability. In the most reliable ( n = 5) and medium reliable ( n = 10) samples, all fO2 values determined via vanadium magnetite-melt oxybarometry agree within 0.5 log units with the fO2 values determined via Fe-Ti oxide oxybarometry, except for two samples of the medium reliable group. In the least reliable samples ( n = 7), most of which show evidence for magma mixing, calculated fO2 values agree within 0.75 log units. Comparison of three different thermometers reveals that temperatures obtained via zircon saturation thermometry agree within the limits of uncertainty with those obtained via two-feldspar thermometry in most cases, whereas temperatures obtained via Fe-Ti oxide thermometry commonly deviate by ≥50 °C due to large uncertainties associated with the Fe-Ti oxide model at T- fO2 conditions typical of most silicic magmas. Another outcome of this study is that magma mixing is a common but easily overlooked phenomenon in silicic volcanic rocks, which means that great care has to be taken in the application and interpretation of thermometers and oxybarometers.

  10. Turbulent metal-silicate mixing, fragmentation, and equilibration in magma oceans

    CERN Document Server

    Deguen, Renaud; Olson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Much of the Earth was built by high-energy impacts of planetesimals and embryos, many of these impactors already differentiated, with metallic cores of their own. Geochemical data provide critical information on the timing of accretion and the prevailing physical conditions, but their interpretation depends critically on the degree of metal-silicate chemical equilibration during core-mantle differentiation, which is poorly constrained. Efficient equilibration requires that the large volumes of iron derived from impactor cores mix with molten silicates down to scales small enough to allow fast metal-silicate mass transfer. Here we use fluid dynamics experiments to show that large metal blobs falling in a magma ocean mix with the molten silicate through turbulent entrainment, with fragmentation into droplets eventually resulting from the entrainment process. In our experiments, fragmentation of the dense fluid occurs after falling a distance equal to 3-4 times its initial diameter, at which point a sizable volu...

  11. Zircon from historic eruptions in Iceland: Reconstructing storage and evolution of silicic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, T.L.; Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Bindeman, I.N.; Barth, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Zoning patterns, U-Th disequilibria ages, and elemental compositions of zircon from eruptions of Askja (1875 AD), Hekla (1158 AD), ??r??faj??kull (1362 AD) and Torfaj??kull (1477 AD, 871 AD, 3100 BP, 7500 BP) provide insights into the complex, extended, histories of silicic magmatic systems in Iceland. Zircon compositions, which are correlated with proximity to the main axial rift, are distinct from those of mid-ocean ridge environments and fall at the low-Hf edge of the range of continental zircon. Morphology, zoning patterns, compositions, and U-Th ages all indicate growth and storage in subvolcanic silicic mushes or recently solidified rock at temperatures above the solidus but lower than that of the erupting magma. The eruptive products were likely ascending magmas that entrained a zircon "cargo" that formed thousands to tens of thousands of years prior to the eruptions. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Chemical Zoning of Feldspars in Lunar Granitoids: Implications for the Origins of Lunar Silicic Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D; Simon, J. I.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z..

    2014-01-01

    Fine-scale chemical and textural measurements of alkali and plagioclase feldspars in the Apollo granitoids (ex. Fig. 1) can be used to address their petrologic origin(s). Recent findings suggest that these granitoids may hold clues of global importance, rather than of only local significance for small-scale fractionation. Observations of morphological features that resemble silicic domes on the unsampled portion of the Moon suggest that local, sizable net-works of high-silica melt (>65 wt % SiO2) were present during crust-formation. Remote sensing data from these regions suggest high concentrations of Si and heat-producing elements (K, U, and Th). To help under-stand the role of high-silica melts in the chemical differentiation of the Moon, three questions must be answered: (1) when were these magmas generated?, (2) what was the source material?, and (3) were these magmas produced from internal differentiation. or impact melting and crystallization? Here we focus on #3. It is difficult to produce high-silica melts solely by fractional crystallization. Partial melting of preexisting crust may therefore also have been important and pos-sibly the primary mechanism that produced the silicic magmas on the Moon. Experimental studies demonstrate that partial melting of gabbroic rock under mildly hydrated conditions can produce high-silica compositions and it has been suggested by that partial melting by basaltic underplating is the mechanism by which high-silica melts were produced on the Moon. TEM and SIMS analyses, coordinated with isotopic dating and tracer studies, can help test whether the minerals in the Apollo granitoids formed in a plutonic setting or were the result of impact-induced partial melting. We analyzed granitoid clasts from 3 Apollo samples: polymict breccia 12013,141, crystalline-matrix breccia 14303,353, and breccia 15405,78

  13. Hydrogen isotope investigation of amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in silicic magmas erupted at Lassen Volcanic Center, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, S.J.; Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratio, water content and Fe3 +/Fe2 + in coexisting amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in volcanic rocks can provide insight into shallow pre- and syn-eruptive magmatic processes such as vesiculation, and lava drainback with mixing into less devolatilized magma that erupts later in a volcanic sequence. We studied four ~ 35 ka and younger eruption sequences (i.e. Kings Creek, Lassen Peak, Chaos Crags, and 1915) at the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), California, where intrusion of crystal-rich silicic magma mushes by mafic magmas is inferred from the varying abundances of mafic magmatic inclusions (MMIs) in the silicic volcanic rocks. Types and relative proportions of reacted and unreacted hydrous phenocryst populations are evaluated with accompanying chemical and H isotope changes. Biotite phenocrysts were more susceptible to rehydration in older vesicular glassy volcanic rocks than coexisting amphibole phenocrysts. Biotite and magnesiohornblende phenocrysts toward the core of the Lassen Peak dome are extensively dehydroxylated and reacted from prolonged exposure to high temperature, low pressure, and higher fO2 conditions from post-emplacement cooling. In silicic volcanic rocks not affected by alteration, biotite phenocrysts are often relatively more dehydroxylated than are magnesiohornblende phenocrysts of similar size; this is likely due to the ca 10 times larger overall bulk H diffusion coefficient in biotite. A simplified model of dehydrogenation in hydrous phenocrysts above reaction closure temperature suggests that eruption and quench of magma ascended to the surface in a few hours is too short a time for substantial H loss from amphibole. In contrast, slowly ascended magma can have extremely dehydrogenated and possibly dehydrated biotite, relatively less dehydrogenated magnesiohornblende and reaction rims on both phases. Eruptive products containing the highest proportions of mottled dehydrogenated crystals could indicate that within a few days

  14. Differentiation of Asteroid 4 Vesta: Core Formation by Iron Rain in a Silicate Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Geochemical observations of the eucrite and diogenite meteorites, together with observations made by NASA's Dawn spacecraft while orbiting asteroid 4 Vesta, suggest that Vesta resembles H chondrites in bulk chemical composition, possible with about 25 percent of a CM-chondrite like composition added in. For this model, the core is 15 percent by mass (or 8 percent by volume) of the asteroid, with a composition of 73.7 percent by weight Fe, 16.0 percent by weight S, and 10.3 percent by weight Ni. The abundances of moderately siderophile elements (Ni, Co, Mo, W, and P) in eucrites require that essentially all of the metallic phase in Vesta segregated to form a core prior to eucrite solidification. The combination of the melting phase relationships for the silicate and metal phases, together with the moderately siderophile element concentrations together require that complete melting of the metal phase occurred (temperature is greater than1350 degrees Centigrade), along with substantial (greater than 40 percent) melting of the silicate material. Thus, core formation on Vesta occurs as iron rain sinking through a silicate magma ocean.

  15. Temporal magma dynamics during solidification of the mafic-silicic complex of Isle au Haut, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Kaustubh

    The Isle au Haut Igneous Complex provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the in situ physical and chemical interactions between contemporaneously emplaced mafic and silicic magmas. The complex contains a 600 m thick sequence of 11 alternating layers of gabbro and diorite (typically 15--40 m thick). Purely on the basis of density contrasts (2.65 g/cm 3 gabbro vs. 2.55 g/cm3 diorite), the entire system should have undergone wholesale instability and mixing; it is instead arrested in a grossly unstable state of interaction while molten. Chilled margins along the lower contacts of the gabbros and structural integrity of the diorite layers indicate that near liquidus gabbroic magma invaded partly crystalline, cooler diorite. Mineral assemblages, chemical analyses, and phase equilibria calculations indicate initial temperatures during emplacement of ˜1180°C (gabbro) and ˜1000°C (diorite). Conductive thermal models yield solidification timescales of 15--60 years for individual gabbro layers and about a thousand years for the entire complex. There is ample evidence for two phases of small-scale interfacial Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities of dioritic melt into the gabbros. Phase I occurred immediately upon gabbro emplacement whereas evenly spaced, slender more silicic pipes represent a much later stage (Phase II). Pipe geometry and spacing, estimated viscosities of the gabbroic magma and silicic melt, and the sudden increase in silica near the upper contact of the diorite, all indicate a thin (˜18--53 cm) buoyant layer at the upper contact of the diorite as the source of the pipes. Compaction of the diorite produced this layer over a period of about ten years. Simultaneous solidification along the lower contact of the overlying gabbro, thickening inwards, increased viscosity enough to arrest pipe ascent after a few meters. Crystal size distribution (CSD) analyses of the gabbro layers yield crystal growth rates (G0 = 2--4 x 10-10 cm/s) and nucleation rates

  16. Thermometry of the magma ocean: Controls on the metal-silicate partitioning of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, N. R.; Brenan, J. M.; Fei, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We have performed experiments to investigate the solubility and metal-silicate partitioning of gold as a function of metal sulphur content (XS), silicate melt polymerization (NBO/T) and pressure (P). These experiments show that Au becomes less siderophile both with increasing pressure and as the metal phase becomes more sulphur-rich. For the studied range of compositions, melt polymerization has no effect on the solubility of Au. The reduction in the siderophile tendency of gold with increasing metal sulphur content is greater than expected on the basis of activity-composition relationships in the metal phase. This suggests a significant role for complexing between Au and S in the silicate melt. Our new experimental results are combined with literature data to yield a parameterisation for the exchange coefficient of Au (KdAuMet/Sil) as a function of P, T and XS: Using this relationship, alongside similar parameterisations for Ni and Co selected from the literature, we performed continuous accretion models to delineate regions of parameter space in which Au and moderately siderophile element (MSE) abundances in the primitive upper mantle (PUM) could be reproduced. These models suggest that for metal-silicate equilibrium at very high pressures, Au will be overabundant in the PUM if equilibrium also occurs at extreme temperatures. Instead, most successful models are found when equilibrium occurs at high pressure but sub-liquidus temperatures. This result is in keeping with the physical conditions expected for a scenario where core-forming metal ponds and equilibrates at the rheological base of a magma ocean (e.g. Wade and Wood, 2005).

  17. Rejuvenation of shallow-crustal silicic magma bodies at Augustine and Hayes volcanoes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, M. L.; Vazquez, J. A.; Hayden, L. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Andersen, N. L.; Till, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Rejuvenation of crystal-rich magma bodies leading to eruption can occur on a variety of scales and in varied tectonic settings. Two examples from the Aleutian arc highlight 1) segregation of silicic melt from an intermediate mush, and 2) "defrosting" of a shallowly emplaced intrusion. Augustine Volcano erupted a late Pleistocene rhyolite pumice fall that we link through zircon geochronology to cumulate dioritic blocks, ripped from Augustine's shallow magmatic plumbing system and ejected during the 2006 eruption. Unpolished zircon rims from the rhyolite yield a U-Th age of ~25 ka, and interiors yield a dominant age population of ~26 ka. Zircons from diorites have interior ages and compositions indistinguishable from those of the rhyolite. The diorites, rhyolite, and early Holocene dacites define whole-rock linear unmixing trends consistent with melt (rhyolite) extraction from a mush (dacites), leaving behind a cumulate residue (diorites). A volatile-rich basalt erupted just prior to the rhyolite likely facilitated melt extraction from the mush. The rhyolitic Hayes River ignimbrite, erupted from Hayes volcano, contains dense porphyry blocks that match pumices in composition and phenocryst content and are samples of a shallow intrusion. Autocrystic monazite accommodated up to several weight % Th and significantly affected the U-Th ratio of the magma during differentiation. An isochron for early melt and low-U monazites yields an age of ~67 ka, whereas one for late melt and high-U monazites yields ~42 ka. This younger age is indistinguishable from the laser single crystal Ar-Ar age for sanidine of 41±2 ka (1 sigma). We interpret the apparent ~25 k.y. crystallization interval to represent the assembly and differentiation timescale associated with the Hayes magma body. Sharp reverse zoning in sanidine from pumice (but not porphyry) records a thermal pulse not seen in the more slowly reacting phases, suggesting that a rejuvenation event occurred just prior to eruption.

  18. 3D gravity inversion and thermodynamic modelling reveal properties of shallow silicic magma reservoir beneath Laguna del Maule, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Fournier, Dominique; Witter, Jeff

    2017-02-01

    Active, large volume, silicic magma systems are potentially the most hazardous form of volcanism on Earth. Knowledge of the location, size, and physical properties of silicic magma reservoirs, is therefore important for providing context in which to accurately interpret monitoring data and make informed hazard assessments. Accordingly, we present the first geophysical image of the Laguna del Maule volcanic field magmatic system, using a novel 3D inversion of gravity data constrained by thermodynamic modelling. The joint analysis of gravity and thermodynamic data allows for a rich interpretation of the magma system, and highlights the importance of considering the full thermodynamic effects on melt density, when interpreting gravity models of active magmatic systems. We image a 30 km3, low density, volatile rich magma reservoir, at around 2 km depth, containing at least 85% melt, hosted within a broader 115 km3 body interpreted as wholly or partially crystallised (>70% crystal) cumulate mush. Our model suggests a magmatic system with shallow, crystal poor magma, overlying deeper, crystal rich magma. Even though a large density contrast (-600 kg/m3) with the surrounding crust exists, the lithostatic load is 50% greater than the magma buoyancy force, suggesting buoyancy alone is insufficient to trigger an eruption. The reservoir is adjacent to the inferred extension of the Troncoso fault and overlies the location of an intruding sill, driving present day deformation. The reservoir is in close proximity to the 2.0 km3 Nieblas (rln) eruption at 2-3 ka, which we calculate tapped approximately 7% of the magma reservoir. However, we suggest that the present day magma system is not large enough to have fed all post-glacial eruptions, and that the location, or size of the system may have migrated or varied over time, with each eruption tapping only a small aliquot of the available magma. The presence of a shallow reservoir of volatile rich, near liquidus magma, in close

  19. Reaction rim growth on olivine in silicic melts: Implications for magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Gardner, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Finely crystalline amphibole or pyroxene rims that form during reaction between silicic host melt and cognate olivine xenocrysts, newly introduced during magma mixing events, can provide information about the timing between mixing and volcanic eruptions. We investigated rim growth experimentally by placing forsteritic olivine in rhyolitic and rhyodacitic melts for times between 25 and 622 h at 50 and 150 MPa, H2O-saturated, at the Ni-NiO buffer. Rims of orthopyroxene microlites formed from high-silica rhyolite and rhyodacite melts at 885°C and 50 MPa, and in the rhyolite at 150 MPa and 885°C. Rims of amphibole with lesser orthopyroxene formed in the rhyolite at 150 MPa and 800°C and in the rhyodacite at 150 MPa and 885°C. Irregular, convolute olivine edges and mass balance between olivine, melt, and rim phases show that olivine partly dissolved at all conditions. Iron-rich zones at the exteriors of olivines, which increased in width parabolically with time, show that Fe-Mg interdiffusion occurring in olivines was not outpaced by olivine dissolution. Linear increases of the square of rim widths with time suggest that diffusion within the melt is the rate-controlling process for olivine dissolution and rim growth. Rims grew one-half to one order-of-magnitude faster when melt water contents were doubled, unless conditions were far above the liquidus. Rim growth rate in rhyolite increases from 0.055 ± 0.01 µm2/h at 885°C and 50 MPa to 0.64 ± 0.13 µm2/h at 800°C and 150 MPa. Melt composition has a lesser effect on rim growth rates, with growth rate increasing as melt SiO2 content decreases. Pyroxene rims on olivines in andesite erupted from Arenal volcano (Costa Rica) grew at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.2 µm2/h over an eleven-year period. This rate is faster than those of the experiments due to lower melt viscosity and higher temperatures, and suggests that a magma mixing event preceded the start of the eruption by days.

  20. Priming Silicic Giant Magma Bodies: Finding Evidence for Internal Forcing Versus External Triggering of Supereruptions by Phase Equilibria Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, S.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand what triggers silicic eruptions because of the implications for modern-day systems. The goal of this project is to use phase equilibria modeling (i.e. rhyolite-MELTS) to determine to what extent magmas within the crust are induced to erupt due to external triggers (e.g. earthquakes; new magma injection; neighboring eruptions) and to what extent they naturally evolve to a point where eruption is inevitable (e.g. by fluid exsolution and decrease in magma strength and density). Whole-rock compositions from four rhyolite tuffs across the globe associated with large or supereruptions (Mamaku Tuff, New Zealand; Peach Spring Tuff, SW USA; early and late-erupted Bishop Tuff, California; and Toba Tuff, Indonesia) are studied using rhyolite-MELTS modeling. Key physical properties of magma are strongly affected by the initial volatile content due to fluid exsolution. By running simulations with varying water contents, we can track the evolution of fluid exsolution during crystallization. Isobaric (constrained temperature change at constant pressure) and isochoric (constrained temperature change at constant volume) models were run for the four compositions. In constrained-pressure scenarios, fluid is free to exsolve as crystallization proceeds, and the total system volume can increase or decrease accordingly; this would require deformation of the surrounding crust to accommodate the magma volume change. In constrained-volume scenarios, bubble exsolution is limited to the volume change due to crystallization; in this case, pressure can decrease or increase (if bubbles are absent or present). For fixed-pressure scenarios, fluid exsolution is more extensive and leads to internal triggering, at least for fluid-saturated conditions; external triggering is more likely in fluid-undersaturated conditions. For fixed-volume scenarios, none of the systems cross a fragmentation threshold for the crystal contents typically observed in natural pumice. If

  1. Noble gas solubility in silicate melts:a review of experimentation and theory, and implications regarding magma degassing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paonita

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Noble gas solubility in silicate melts and glasses has gained a crucial role in Earth Sciences investigations and in the studies of non-crystalline materials on a micro to a macro-scale. Due to their special geochemical features, noble gases are in fact ideal tracers of magma degassing. Their inert nature also allows them to be used to probe the structure of silicate melts. Owing to the development of modern high pressure and temperature technologies, a large number of experimental investigations have been performed on this subject in recent times. This paper reviews the related literature, and tries to define our present state of knowledge, the problems encountered in the experimental procedures and the theoretical questions which remain unresolved. Throughout the manuscript I will also try to show how the thermodynamic and structural interpretations of the growing experimental dataset are greatly improving our understanding of the dissolution mechanisms, although there are still several points under discussion. Our improved capability of predicting noble gas solubilities in conditions closer to those found in magma has allowed scientists to develop quantitative models of magma degassing, which provide constraints on a number of questions of geological impact. Despite these recent improvements, noble gas solubility in more complex systems involving the main volatiles in magmas, is poorly known and a lot of work must be done. Expertise from other fields would be extremely valuable to upcoming research, thus focus should be placed on the structural aspects and the practical and commercial interests of the study of noble gas solubility.

  2. The Metal-Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten at Magma Ocean Conditions Using a Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, N.; Jackson, C.; Fei, Y.; Bullock, E. S.; Armstrong, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The primitive upper mantle (PUM) represents the silicate residue of terrestrial core formation and should reflect element partitioning between metal and silicate melts that equilibrated in a magma ocean. Laboratory experiments suggest that the W/Mo ratio of PUM is only reproduced if S is added to the Earth during the late stages of accretion (Wade et al. 2012). Core-segregation, however, is posited to occur at >35 GPa and >3000 K; above the pressure range explored by existing W partitioning experiments and conditions under which O may also enter core-forming metal. The effect of light element solutes on a metallic Fe liquid can be modeled using experimentally determined interaction parameters (ɛ). On the basis of ɛ values determined at ambient pressure, both O and S should interact strongly with W (ɛw-o = 4.1, ɛw-s = 6.1), possibly complicating the history of W distribution during accretion. We have performed experiments to assess the metal-silicate partitioning of W at conditions directly relevant to those expected for the base of a magma ocean, under which O enters the metal phase. Experiments were performed at 15-50 GPa in a diamond anvil cell, using Re gaskets and an MgO pressure medium. In several instances, cells were loaded with two sample mixtures, containing W in either oxidized or reduced form. Heating spots subject to the same temperature and heating duration but different initial W oxidation state will be used to assess if heating times were sufficient to approach equilibrium. Samples were laser-heated at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source then recovered for analysis using a focused ion beam, to reveal cross-sections through the heated spot. Samples comprise a Fe-rich metal bleb, surrounded by silicate glass. The quenched metal contains exsolved spherules of a Si+O-rich phase, indicating significant solution of these elements at high pressure and temperature. Work is ongoing to quantify the element distribution between metal and silicate phases.

  3. Compositional gradients in large reservoirs of silicic magma as evidenced by ignimbrites versus Taylor Creek Rhyolite lava domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, W.A.; Ruiz, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows that were emplaced during a period of a few thousand years or less in late Oligocene time. Including genetically associated pyroclastic deposits, which are about as voluminous as the lava domes and flows, the Taylor Creek Rhyolite represents roughly 100 km3 of magma erupted from vents distributed throughout an area of several hundred square kilometers. Major-element composition is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-silica rhyolite and is nearly constant throughout the lava field. The magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was vertically zoned in trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr, and phenocryst abundance and size. Mean trace-element concentrations, ranges in concentrations, and element-pair correlations are similar to many subalkaline silicic ignimbrites. However, the polarity of the zonation was opposite that in reservoirs for ignimbrites, for most constituents. For example, compared to the Bishop Tuff, only 87Sr/86Sr and Sc increased upward in both reservoirs. Quite likely, a dominant but nonerupted volume of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was zoned like that for the Bishop Tuff, whereas an erupted, few-hundred-meter-thick cap on the magma body was variably contaminated by roof rocks whose contribution to this part of the magma system moderated relatively extreme trace-element concentrations of uncontaminated Taylor Creek Rhyolite but did not change the sense of correlation for most element pairs. The contaminant probably was a Precambrian rock of broadly granitic composition and with very high 87Sr/86Sr. Although examples apparently are not yet reported in the literature, evidence for a similar thin contaminated cap on reservoirs for large-volume silicic ignimbrites may exist in the bottom few meters of ignimbrites or perhaps only in the pumice fallout that normally immediately precedes ignimbrite emplacement. 87Sr/86Sr in sanidine phenocrysts of the

  4. Emplacement and Solidification of Inter-Layerd Silicic and Mafic Magmas, Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, K.; Marsh, B. D.

    2006-05-01

    The Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine, presents an intriguing association of basaltic and granitic rocks in the form of a composite layered sequence of alternating gabbroic and dioritic units. The 413 Ma complex may have formed by periodic replenishment or invasion of mafic magma into an evolving, more silicic magma chamber (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). The interaction of a denser magma overlying a less dense magma promotes Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI), resulting in overturning initiated through pipes and the eventual formation of a stable configuration of diorite over gabbro (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). Field exposures on the southern parts of the island covering a 160 m section through the sequence shows four gabbroic-dioritic pairs (i.e., gabbro over diorite) exhibiting strong interaction between the two in the forms of diapiric pipes of diorite intruding gabbro and gabbro pillows caught in diorite. It is clear that the two magmas were simultaneously molten, and this presents an opportunity to observe the physics and chemistry of interaction between gabbroic magma and partly molten diorite. Emplacement of denser, sill like gabbroic magma over solidifying, less dense dioritic magma may also have given rise to structures resembling load casts and flame structures common to sedimentary rocks. That the diorite was significantly solidified (e.g., ~55% crystals) at the time of intrusion of the gabbroic magma is reflected in field and textural relationships suggesting that overturning due to gravitational instability was initiated but did not go to completion. That is, the diorite was strong enough to act as a rigid medium for gabbro emplacement and subsequent support without wholesale mixing, but at the same time was weak enough to yield low density melt, perhaps through compaction, to undergo RTI at the interfaces and form extensive ensembles of diapiric pipes in the overlying gabbro. We examine the physics and chemistry of this process beginning with

  5. SilMush: A procedure for modeling of the geochemical evolution of silicic magmas and granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertogen, Jan; Mareels, Joyce

    2016-07-01

    A boundary layer crystallization modeling program is presented that specifically addresses the chemical fractionation in silicic magma systems and the solidification of plutonic bodies. The model is a Langmuir (1989) type approach and does not invoke crystal settling in high-viscosity silicic melts. The primary aim is to model a granitic rock as a congealed crystal-liquid mush, and to integrate major element and trace element modeling. The procedure allows for some exploratory investigation of the exsolution of H2O-fluids and of the fluid/melt partitioning of trace elements. The procedure is implemented as a collection of subroutines for the MS Excel spreadsheet environment and is coded in the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) language. To increase the flexibility of the modeling, the procedure is based on discrete numeric process simulation rather than on solution of continuous differential equations. The program is applied to a study of the geochemical variation within and among three granitic units (Senones, Natzwiller, Kagenfels) from the Variscan Northern Vosges Massif, France. The three units cover the compositional range from monzogranite, over syenogranite to alkali-feldspar granite. An extensive set of new major element and trace element data is presented. Special attention is paid to the essential role of accessory minerals in the fractionation of the Rare Earth Elements. The crystallization model is able to reproduce the essential major and trace element variation trends in the data sets of the three separate granitic plutons. The Kagenfels alkali-feldspar leucogranite couples very limited variation in major element composition to a considerable and complex variation of trace elements. The modeling results can serve as a guide for the reconstruction of the emplacement sequence of petrographically distinct units. Although the modeling procedure essentially deals with geochemical fractionation within a single pluton, the modeling results bring up a

  6. Core Formation on Asteroid 4 Vesta: Iron Rain in a Silicate Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Geochemical observations of the eucrite and diogenite meteorites, together with observations made by NASA's Dawn spacecraft, suggest that Vesta resembles H chondrites in bulk chemical composition, possibly with about 25% of a CM-chondrite like composition added in. For this model, the core is 15% by mass (or 8 volume %) of the asteroid. The abundances of moderately siderophile elements (Ni, Co, Mo, W, and P) in eucrites require that essentially all of the metallic phase in Vesta segregated to form a core prior to eucrite solidification. Melting in the Fe-Ni-S system begins at a cotectic temperature of 940 deg. C. Only about 40% of the total metal phase, or 3-4 volume % of Vesta, melts prior to the onset of silicate melting. Liquid iron in solid silicate initially forms isolated pockets of melt; connected melt channels, which are necessary if the metal is to segregate from the silicate, are only possible when the metal phase exceeds about 5 volume %. Thus, metal segregation to form a core does not occur prior to the onset of silicate melting.

  7. The 3D Distribution of Magma Bodies that Fed the Paraná Silicic Volcanics, Brazil: A Combination of Field Evidence, Textural Analysis, and Geothermobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, L.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Gravley, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Paraná Silicic Volcanics include some of the largest eruptive deposits known in the geological record. However, we know very little about the magma bodies that fed these eruptions. Combining physical volcanology, geochemistry, and geothermobarometry techniques, we aim to find the sources of extinct magma bodies to build a 3D view of the magma structure at the time by discovering storage conditions, eruption styles, and post-eruption alteration. The approach elucidates temporal and spatial eruption styles and sequences of the silicic units that make up the Palmas unit of the Serra Geral formation, Brazil. We use field investigations to determine the history of volcanic deposits, domes, and changes in eruptive style; we map and characterize volcanic deposits based on thickness (thicker is proximal to source) and distribution of effusive (proximal to source) and explosive deposits. We focus on several exposed canyons that exhibit either exclusively explosive or effusive, or a clear progression from explosive to effusive deposits. The progression from explosive to effusive indicates a system change from explosively energetic to effusively waning. Additionally, observation of pervasive flow banding in both effusive and explosive deposits indicates rheomorphic flow through many portions of the field area, an indicator of hot emplacement. Geochemical work focuses on the pre-eruptive magma conditions to determine the depth of magma bodies. We utilize glass bearing samples of both the explosively deposited juvenile blob-like structures and obsidian samples to determine crystallization depth. The glass is variably altered, via silicification and devitrification processes, with the blobs more greatly silicified than the obsidian. We use rhyolite-MELTS geothermobarometry when pristine glass can be found. Initial results indicate shallow ( 80 MPa) storage conditions for the explosively erupted blobs. The combination of techniques builds a 3D understanding of extinct super

  8. P, T, X magma storage conditions of the dominantly silicic explosive eruptions from Santorini volcano (Aegean Arc, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoux, A.; Druitt, T. H.; Deloule, E.; Scaillet, B.

    2010-12-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that dramatic changes in magma storage conditions can occur over very short periods of time at a single volcano and might be in close relationships with stress variations imposed on the crustal plumbing by the overlying volcano as it changes shape and volume over time. The Santorini volcano (South Aegean Arc) is an ideal target to unravel these potential relationships as its history is marked by alternating episodes of edifice construction and caldera collapses and the chronostratigraphy is well constrained. We focused our study on the products of the four major, dominantly silicic, explosive eruptions of Santorini: the Lower Pumice 1 and 2 (200 to 180 ka; 1st explosive cycle) and, the Cape Riva and the Minoan (~ 21 to 3 ka, 2nd explosive cycle). In order to precisely define the P, T, fO2, X (X for volatiles) storage conditions of the silicic magmas prior to these eruptions, we carried out a detailed micro-petrological and geochemical study on natural samples combined with an experimental work. The selected silicic components of the four eruptions are dacite to rhyodacite (SiO2 = 67-70 wt.%) with similar mineral paragenesis (plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, apatite ± pyrrhotite) and crystallinity < 20%. High resolution BSE images of plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts and EMPA profiles reveal a complex crystallization history. Plagioclases display fine-scale oscillatory normal zoning, resorbtion zones where melt inclusions (MI) of rhyolitic compositions were trapped, and An-rich sieved cores. Clinopyroxenes also show zoning patterns and include rhyolitic MI. Both interstitial glass and MI are Cl-rich (~3000 ppm) while F and S are less abundant (F ≤ 700 ppm, S ≤ 100 ppm). Determination of H2O contents by SIMS is in progress at the CRPG-Nancy (previous measurements from the literature gave ~ 5 wt.% H2O in the Minoan rhyodacite and ~4 wt.% in the Lower Pumice 2). Ilmenite-magnetite geothermometry

  9. Magma mixing and the generation of isotopically juvenile silicic magma at Yellowstone caldera inferred from coupling 238U–230Th ages with trace elements and Hf and O isotopes in zircon and Pb isotopes in sanidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Reid, Mary R.; Barfod, Gry H.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The nature of compositional heterogeneity within large silicic magma bodies has important implications for how silicic reservoirs are assembled and evolve through time. We examine compositional heterogeneity in the youngest (~170 to 70 ka) post-caldera volcanism at Yellowstone caldera, the Central Plateau Member (CPM) rhyolites, as a case study. We compare 238U–230Th age, trace-element, and Hf isotopic data from zircons, and major-element, Ba, and Pb isotopic data from sanidines hosted in two CPM rhyolites (Hayden Valley and Solfatara Plateau flows) and one extracaldera rhyolite (Gibbon River flow), all of which erupted near the caldera margin ca. 100 ka. The Hayden Valley flow hosts two zircon populations and one sanidine population that are consistent with residence in the CPM reservoir. The Gibbon River flow hosts one zircon population that is compositionally distinct from Hayden Valley flow zircons. The Solfatara Plateau flow contains multiple sanidine populations and all three zircon populations found in the Hayden Valley and Gibbon River flows, demonstrating that the Solfatara Plateau flow formed by mixing extracaldera magma with the margin of the CPM reservoir. This process highlights the dynamic nature of magmatic interactions at the margins of large silicic reservoirs. More generally, Hf isotopic data from the CPM zircons provide the first direct evidence for isotopically juvenile magmas contributing mass to the youngest post-caldera magmatic system and demonstrate that the sources contributing magma to the CPM reservoir were heterogeneous in 176Hf/177Hf at ca. 100 ka. Thus, the limited compositional variability of CPM glasses reflects homogenization occurring within the CPM reservoir, not a homogeneous source.

  10. Diffusion of major and trace elements in natural silicate melts as a tool to investigate timescales in magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Diego; Zezza, Angela; Behrens, Harald; Vetere, Francesco; Petrelli, Maurizio; Morgavi, Daniele; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    New melt injection into a shallow magma chamber is regarded as one of the potential triggers for explosive volcanic eruptions. Chemical diffusion occurring between the two mixing melts is a time-dependent process, and thus has the potential to shed light on the timescales involved in magma mixing events leading to an eruption. In order to achieve this, a complete database of diffusion coefficients in natural melts is a necessary prerequisite. We have carried out a set of 12 diffusion couple experiments in order to determine diffusion coefficients (D) of major and trace elements in two natural silicate melts. Two end-members from the Vulcano island (Aeolian archipelago, Italy) have been chosen for the experiments: a shoshonite (Vulcanello lava platform) and a rhyolitic obsidian (Pietre Cotte lava flow, La Fossa cone). Glasses from each end-member with added water contents of 0 wt%, 1 wt% and 2 wt% were produced in an Internally Heated Pressure Vessel (IHPV). Two glass cylinders with similar water content but different base composition are inserted in Au-Pd capsules and experiments are run in the IHPV at 1200° C with pressure from 0.5 to 3 kbar. Experiment capsules are rapidly quenched and analyzed by FTIR, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS for H2O, major and trace elements, respectively, along 2 mm linear profiles extending across the interface. A Boltzmann-Matano approach is used to obtain concentration-dependent diffusivities. The obtained concentration-distance profiles are asymmetric and extend deeper into the shoshonite relative to the rhyolite, indicating that diffusion is slower in the latter. Results show that diffusivities are notably accelerated by the presence of H2O in the melt. Experiments performed by using water-free glass show diffusivities one order of magnitude lower compared to glasses containing up to 2 wt% H2O. The effect of pressure, in the investigated range, is negligible and falls within measurement error. Among major elements, Si and Ti are the slowest

  11. A Long-Lived Porphyry Ore Deposit and Associated Upper Crustal Silicic Magma Body, Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. C.; Allen, C. M.; Reiners, P. W.; Dunlap, W. J.; Cooke, D. R.; Campbell, I. H.; White, N. C.

    2004-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits form within and adjacent to small porphyritic intrusions that are apophyses to larger silicic magma bodies that reside in the upper parts of the Earth's crusts. Centred on these intrusions are hydrothermal systems of exsolved magmatic fluid with a carapace of convectively circulating meteoric water. We have applied several different dating techniques to assess the longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system and to define the cooling history of porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Argentina. The closure temperatures of these techniques range from 800oC (zircon U-Pb) to ~70oC (apatite (U-Th)/He; Fig. 1). The resulting cooling history indicates that the magmatic-hydrothermal system cooled to ca. 200oC by ~1.5 m.y. after the last porphyry intrusion (i.e., 6.96±0.09 Ma; U-Pb zircon age). Based on (U-Th)/He apatite data (closure temperature ~60-70oC), exposure and cessation of the system occurred before 4 Ma. The longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system indicated by these results is inconsistent with accepted mechanisms for porphyry Cu deposit formation. Depending on wallrock permeability, depth and cooling method, a 2 km wide by 3 km high intrusion has been predicted to cool between 0.01 to 0.1 m.y. (marked as the grey interval; Cathles et al., 1997 Economic Geology). We have obtained numerous age determinations younger than the U-Pb zircon age of the last known intrusion at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These imply that simple cooling of the small, mineralized porphyries did not happen. For the magmatic-hydrothermal system to have been sustained for longer than 0.1 m.y., either 1) younger small intrusions have been episodically emplaced below the youngest known intrusions, thus prolonging heat flow, or 2) fluids derived from a deeper and larger parental intrusion have been episodically discharged through the ore deposit long after the porphyry intrusion had lost its available heat. In either case, the longevity of

  12. Million-year melt-presence in monotonous intermediate magma for a volcanic-plutonic assemblage in the Central Andes: Contrasting histories of crystal-rich and crystal-poor super-sized silicic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jason F.; de Silva, Shanaka; Schmitt, Axel K.; Economos, Rita; Sunagua, Mayel

    2017-01-01

    crystallized as a granodiorite pluton which was sampled as xenoliths in much later volcanic events. Over the ∼1.1 Ma zircon crystallization history for the PGI, postcaldera lavas and xenoliths, the melt remained in an ∼100-150 °C temperature window as indicated by Ti-in-zircon thermometry. Although chemical trends are consistent with zircon crystallization at variable temperatures, there is no secular cooling, but rather a thermal rejuvenation following the 2.89 Ma PGI eruption. As such these data provide a "low and slow" temporal constraint for models for the pre-eruptive lifetimes of mushy magma in contrast to the "rapid" mobilization of crystal-poor silicic magmas, consistent with a model where the latter are incubated within the former and extracted rapidly prior to eruption. The thermal and chemical monotony of crystal-rich dacites throughout a caldera cycle connotes conditions where near-eutectic melt can be maintained in near-surface magma reservoirs for an extended period of time if the subvolcanic magma reservoir is sufficiently large so that hotter and initially zircon-undersaturated magma can replenish shallow magma vented in a supereruption.

  13. The formation of the Yichun Ta-Nb deposit, South China, through fractional crystallization of magma indicated by fluid and silicate melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghu; Li, Jiankang; Chou, I.-Ming; Jiang, Lei; Ding, Xin

    2017-04-01

    The Yichun Ta-Nb deposit, which is located in Jiangxi Province, South China, can be divided into four lithological zones (from bottom upward): two-mica granite, muscovite granite, albite granite, and lepidolite-albite granite zones. It remains controversial whether these distinct vertical zones were formed through late magmatic-hydrothermal metasomatic alteration or fractional crystallization of magma. To investigate the evolution mechanism of rock- and ore-forming fluid in this deposit, we studied fluid and melt inclusions in quartz and lepidolite in these four granite zones. These fluid inclusions are mainly composed of H2O-NaCl, and have homogenization temperatures ranging from 160 °C to 240 °C, with densities between 0.86 and 0.94 g/cm3 and salinities between 0.5 and 6.5 wt% NaCl equivalent. Raman spectroscopic analyses showed that the daughter minerals contained in silicate melt inclusions are mainly quartz, lepidolite, albite, muscovite, microcline, topaz, and sassolite. From the lower to upper granite zones, the albite contents in silicate melt inclusions increase, while the muscovite contents decrease gradually until muscovite is substituted by lepidolite in the lepidolite-albite granite zone. Additionally, the calculated densities of the silicate melt inclusions exhibit decreasing trends from bottom upward. The total homogenization temperatures of silicate melt inclusions, which were observed under external pressures created in the sample chamber of a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell, decreased from 860 °C in the lower lithological zone to 776 °C in the upper lithological zone, and the initial melting temperatures of solid phases were 570-710 °C. The calculated initial H2O contents of granitic magma showed an increasing trend from the lower (∼2 wt% in the two-mica granite zone) to the upper granitic zones (∼3 wt% in the albite granite zone). All of these features illustrate that the vertical granite zones in the Yichun Ta-Nb deposit formed through

  14. Birth of a bubble: sub-second 4D in-situ synchrotron tomography reveals role of silicate crystals in degassing of andesitic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleše, Pia; Brun, Francesco; Casselman, Jake; Fife, Julie L.; Higgins, Michael D.; Lanzafame, Gabriele N.; Mancini, Lucia; Baker, Don R.

    2017-04-01

    Bubbles in silicate magmas are one of the main controls on eruption explosivity. Previous investigations of bubble dynamics in magmatic systems were generally conducted on natural post-eruption samples or quenched experimental charges; both types of studies provide only a view of the final state of a dynamic system, with little information on how that state was achieved. One of the most important and most elusive parameters, the exact location of bubble nucleation sites, cannot yet be directly observed in natural volcanic systems. We present a 4D X-ray microscopy study of bubble behaviour using experiments that simulate natural conditions as close as is currently possible with the aim of revealing the initial nucleation dynamics and growth of water bubbles in a magma. 4D in-situ synchrotron X-ray tomography experiments were conducted on hydrous, crystal-bearing andesitic run products produced at 1 GPa to observe bubble nucleation and track bubble growth and movement. The high-pressure run products were heated at 1 atm to above the solidus and observed in 3D at a resolution of 3 µm3 every 0.5 s for a total of 50 s. We discovered that bubbles nucleated heterogeneously on plagioclase/melt interfaces and on clinopyroxene crystals. Heterogeneous nucleation on oxides and homogeneous nucleation within the melt occurred significantly after bubble nucleation on silicates. The 3D bubble-crystal contact angle was not constant but changed with time; initially the contact angle was very large and decreased with bubble growth. Bubbles grew much larger than their associated crystal, producing textures similar to some natural volcanic samples. After each experiment the bubbly samples were scanned at sub-micron spatial resolutions to confirm that bubbles nucleated at the silicate crystal/melt interface. Our results show that the presence of silicate phases in magmas must be taken into account when discussing vesiculation in natural systems. We also demonstrate the power and

  15. Time scales of the dynamics of mafic-silicic magma interaction during solidification of the Isle au Haut gabbro-diorite layered complex, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, K.; Marsh, B. D.

    2008-05-01

    The opportunity to examine in detail the in situ physical and chemical interaction of juxtapositioned mafic and silicic magma is vital to understanding the general dynamics of interaction of basaltic and silicic magmas. The Isle au Haut Igneous Complex (413 Ma) is one of many along the coast of Maine exhibiting a clear silicic-mafic magmatic association in the form of a layered gabbro-diorite sequence emplaced within granitic country rock (Chapman and Rhodes 1992, Wiebe 1994, 2001). Although, purely on the basis of density contrasts, the entire system should have undergone wholesale instability and mixing, that it has not and is instead arrested in a grossly unstable state with many indications of interaction while molten, makes this an especially valuable sequence. The entire sequence (~600 m thick) has five pairs of gabbro-diorite layers with individual units typically 20-40 m (gabbro) and 15-35 m (diorite) thick. Based on the mineral assemblage, chemical analyses and phase equilibria, the initial temperatures at the time of emplacement of the two magmas were ~1180 oC (gabbro) and ~1020 oC (diorite). A conductive thermal model for the solidification of a typical gabbroic layer (~20 m) indicates a timescale on the order of a few years, whereas the whole complex solidified in about a thousand years. Essentially crystal-free gabbro invaded the partially crystallized and lower temperature diorite, forming a series of large horizontal 'fingers' or layers. Evidence of this process is in the form of distinct chilled margins of gabbro against diorite and that the gabbro has not fallen into the diorite in spite of its higher density. Yet the diorite has spawned fields of evenly spaced finger-like siliceous plumes (~6 cm radius) penetrating the gabbro to high levels at every interface, reaching to within ~2 m of the upper gabbro contact. The flattened plumes at this horizon, compositionally similar to the underlying undifferentiated diorite, represent an early stage of

  16. Shallow Chamber & Conduit Behavior of Silicic Magma: A Thermo- and Fluid- Dynamic Parameterization Model of Physical Deformation as Constrained by Geodetic Observations: Case Study; Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn de Rosas, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (SHV) is an active, mainly andesitic and well-studied stratovolcano situated at the northern end of the Lesser Antilles Arc subduction zone in the Caribbean Sea. The goal of our research is to create a high resolution 3D subsurface model of the shallow and deeper aspects of the magma storage and plumbing system at SHV. Our model will integrate inversions using continuous and campaign geodetic observations at SHV from 1995 to the present as well as local seismic records taken at various unrest intervals to construct a best-fit geometry, pressure point source and inflation rate and magnitude. We will also incorporate a heterogeneous media in the crust and use the most contemporary understanding of deep crustal- or even mantle-depth 'hot-zone' genesis and chemical evolution of silicic and intermediate magmas to inform the character of the deep edifice influx. Our heat transfer model will be constructed with a modified 'thin shell' enveloping the magma chamber to simulate the insulating or conducting influence of heat-altered chamber boundary conditions. The final forward model should elucidate observational data preceding and proceeding unrest events, the behavioral suite of magma transport in the subsurface environment and the feedback mechanisms that may contribute to eruption triggering. Preliminary hypotheses suggest wet, low-viscosity residual melts derived from 'hot zones' will ascend rapidly to shallower stall-points and that their products (eventually erupted lavas as well as stalled plutonic masses) will experience and display two discrete periods of shallow evolution; a rapid depressurization crystallization event followed by a slower conduction-controlled heat transfer and cooling crystallization. These events have particular implications for shallow magma behaviors, notably inflation, compressibility and pressure values. Visualization of the model with its inversion constraints will be affected with Com

  17. Clinopyroxene-melt element partitioning during interaction between trachybasaltic magma and siliceous crust: Clues from quartzite enclaves at Mt. Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, S.; Blundy, J. D.; Giacomoni, P.; Nazzari, M.; Scarlato, P.; Coltorti, M.; Langone, A.; Andronico, D.

    2017-07-01

    A peculiar characteristic of the paroxysmal sequence that occurred on March 16, 2013 at the New South East Crater of Mt. Etna volcano (eastern Sicily, Italy) was the eruption of siliceous crustal xenoliths representative of the sedimentary basement beneath the volcanic edifice. These xenoliths are quartzites that occur as subspherical bombs enclosed in a thin trachybasaltic lava envelope. At the quartzite-magma interface a reaction corona develops due to the interaction between the Etnean trachybasaltic magma and the partially melted quartzite. Three distinct domains are observed: (i) the trachybasaltic lava itself (Zone 1), including Al-rich clinopyroxene phenocrysts dispersed in a matrix glass, (ii) the hybrid melt (Zone 2), developing at the quartzite-magma interface and feeding the growth of newly-formed Al-poor clinopyroxenes, and (iii) the partially melted quartzite (Zone 3), producing abundant siliceous melt. These features makes it possible to quantify the effect of magma contamination by siliceous crust in terms of clinopyroxene-melt element partitioning. Major and trace element partition coefficients have been calculated using the compositions of clinopyroxene rims and glasses next to the crystal surface. Zone 1 and Zone 2 partition coefficients correspond to, respectively, the chemical analyses of Al-rich phenocrysts and matrix glasses, and the chemical analyses of newly-formed Al-poor crystals and hybrid glasses. For clinopyroxenes from both the hybrid layer and the lava flow expected relationships are observed between the partition coefficient, the valence of the element, and the ionic radius. However, with respect to Zone 1 partition coefficients, values of Zone 2 partition coefficients show a net decrease for transition metals (TE), high-field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements including yttrium (REE + Y), and an increase for large ion lithophile elements (LILE). This variation is associated with coupled substitutions on the M1, M2 and

  18. Rapid pre-eruptive thermal rejuvenation in a large silicic magma body: the case of the Masonic Park Tuff, Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, J. T.; Bachmann, O.; Dungan, M. A.; Huber, C.; Deering, C. D.; Lipman, P. W.; Martin, L. H. J.; Liebske, C.

    2017-05-01

    Determining the mechanisms involved in generating large-volume eruptions (>100 km3) of silicic magma with crystallinities approaching rheological lock-up ( 50 vol% crystals) remains a challenge for volcanologists. The Cenozoic Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field, in Colorado and northernmost New Mexico, USA, produced ten such crystal-rich ignimbrites within 3 m.y. This work focuses on the 28.7 Ma Masonic Park Tuff, a dacitic ( 62-65 wt% SiO2) ignimbrite with an estimated erupted volume of 500 km3 and an average of 45 vol% crystals. Near-absence of quartz, titanite, and sanidine, pronounced An-rich spikes near the rims of plagioclase, and reverse zoning in clinopyroxene record the reheating (from 750 to >800 °C) of an upper crustal mush in response to hotter recharge from below. Zircon U-Pb ages suggest prolonged magmatic residence, while Yb/Dy vs temperature trends indicate co-crystallization with titanite which was later resorbed. High Sr, Ba, and Ti concentrations in plagioclase microlites and phenocryst rims require in-situ feldspar melting and concurrent, but limited, mass addition provided by the recharge, likely in the form of a melt-gas mixture. The larger Fish Canyon Tuff, which erupted from the same location 0.7 m.y. later, also underwent pre-eruptive reheating and partial melting of quartz, titanite, and feldspars in a long-lived upper crustal mush following the underplating of hotter magma. The Fish Canyon Tuff, however, records cooler pre-eruptive temperatures ( 710-760 °C) and a mineral assemblage indicative of higher magmatic water contents (abundant resorbed sanidine and quartz, euhedral amphibole and titanite, and absence of pyroxene). These similar pre-eruptive mush-reactivation histories, despite differing mineral assemblages and pre-eruptive temperatures, indicate that thermal rejuvenation is a key step in the eruption of crystal-rich silicic volcanics over a wide range of conditions.

  19. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.

    2012-12-01

    chemical compositions near the evolved ignimbrite compositions, strictly through 70-80% fractional crystallization at 1-2 kbars and NNO oxygen fugacity. The combination of light δ18O values as well as elevated 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd values, in addition to the volumetric excess of silicic rocks suggest assimilation of the older and petrochemically-similar country-rocks (Karymshina volcano and/or the underlying Akhomten Massif). This research can be utilized for studies of other volcanoes at "long-term centers", underscoring the importance of using both isotopes and modeling of fractional crystallization to determine silicic magma derivation through coupled shallow crustal assimilation of similar older material and fractional crystallization.

  20. Phase equilibrium constraints on the production and storage of peralkaline silicic magmas: insights from Kenya and Pantelleria.

    OpenAIRE

    Scaillet, Bruno; Macdonald, Ray; Buccheri, Vincenzo; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Pichavant, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The origin of peralkaline silicic rocks is still obscure and stands perhaps as one of the last major unsettled issues in classic igneous petrology. The debate goes back to the end of the 18th century and despite intensive petrological, geochemical and laboratory efforts the consensus has yet to emerge as to which mechanisms produce peralkaline derivatives. Bowen (1937) first proposed that the shift from metaluminous to peralkaline field was due to extensive fractionation of calcic plagioclase...

  1. In defense of Magnetite-Ilmenite Thermometry in the Bishop Tuff and its implication for gradients in silicic magma reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bernard W; Hildreth, Edward; Bachmann, Olivier; Scaillet, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims to the contrary, the compositions of magnetite and ilmenite in the Bishop Tuff correctly record the changing conditions of T and fO2 in the magma reservoir. In relatively reduced (∆NNO 1, e.g., Fish Canyon Tuff, Pinatubo), and the d(aTiO2)/dT slope can be negative. Biotite, FeTi-oxides, liquid, and possibly plagioclase largely maintained equilibrium in the Bishop Tuff magma (unlike the pyroxenes, and cores of quartz, sanidine, and zircon) prior ro and during a mixing event triggered by a deeper recharge, which, based on elemental diffusion profiles in minerals, took place at least several decades before eruption. Equilibrating phases and pumice compositions show evolving chemical variations that correlate well with mutually consistent temperatures based on the FeTi-oxides, sanidine-plagioclase, and ∆18O quartz-magnetite pairs. Early Bishop Tuff (EBT) temperatures are lower (700 to ~780‎°C) than temperatures (780 to >820°C) registered in Late Bishop Tuff (LBT), the latter defined here not strictly stratigraphically, but by the presence of orthopyroxene and reverse-zoned rims on quartz and sanidine. The claimed similarity in compositions, Zr-saturation temperatures and thermodynamically calculated temperatures (730-740°C) between EBT and less evolved LBT reflect the use of glass inclusions in quartz cores in LBT that were inherited from the low temperature rhyolitic part of the reservoir characteristic of the EBT. LBT temperatures as high as 820°C, the preservation of orthopyroxene, and the presence of reverse-zoned minerals (quartz, sanidine, zircons) are consistent with magma recharge at the base of the zoned reservoir, heating the cooler rhyolitic melt, partly remelting cumulate mush, and introducing enough CO2 (0.4-1.4 wt%, mostly contained in the exsolved fluid phase) to significantly lower H2O-activity in the system.

  2. The influence of magma viscosity on convection within a magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Driesner, T.; Ulmer, P.

    2012-12-01

    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits are the most important sources of metals like Cu, Mo, W and Sn and a major resource for Au. It is well accepted that they are formed by the release of magmatic fluids from a batholith-sized magma body. Traditionally, it has been assumed that crystallization-induced volatile saturation (called "second boiling") is the main mechanism for fluid release, typically operating over thousands to tens of thousands of years (Candela, 1991). From an analysis of alteration halo geometries caused by magmatic fluids, Cathles and Shannon (2007) suggested much shorter timescales in the order of hundreds of years. Such rapid release of fluids cannot be explained by second boiling as the rate of solidification scales with the slow conduction of heat away from the system. However, rapid fluid release is possible if convection is assumed within the magma chamber. The magma would degas in the upper part of the magma chamber and volatile poor magma would sink down again. Such, the rates of degassing can be much higher than due to cooling only. We developed a convection model using Navier-Stokes equations provided by the computational fluid dynamics platform OpenFOAM that gives the possibility to use externally derived meshes with complex (natural) geometries. We implemented a temperature, pressure, composition and crystal fraction dependent viscosity (Ardia et al., 2008; Giordano et al., 2008; Moore et al., 1998) and a temperature, pressure, composition dependent density (Lange1994). We found that the new viscosity and density models strongly affect convection within the magma chamber. The dependence of viscosity on crystal fraction has a particularly strong effect as the steep viscosity increase at the critical crystal fraction leads to steep decrease of convection velocity. As the magma chamber is cooling from outside to inside a purely conductive layer is developing along the edges of the magma chamber. Convection continues in the inner part of the

  3. Sphene and zircon in the Highland Range volcanic sequence (Miocene, southern Nevada, USA): Elemental partitioning, phase relations, and influence on evolution of silicic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Gualda, G.A.R.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphene is prominent in Miocene plutonic rocks ranging from diorite to granite in southern Nevada, USA, but it is restricted to rhyolites in coeval volcanic sequences. In the Highland Range volcanic sequence, sphene appears as a phenocryst only in the most evolved rocks (72-77 mass% SiO2; matrix glass 77-78 mass% SiO2). Zr-in-sphene temperatures of crystallization are mostly restricted to 715 and 755??C, in contrast to zircon (710-920??C, Ti-in-zircon thermometry). Sphene rim/glass Kds for rare earth elements are extremely high (La 120, Sm 1200, Gd 1300, Lu 240). Rare earth elements, especially the middle REE (MREE), decrease from centers to rims of sphene phenocrysts along with Zr, demonstrating the effect of progressive sphene fractionation. Whole rocks and glasses have MREE-depleted, U-shaped REE patterns as a consequence of sphene fractionation. Within the co-genetic, sphene-rich Searchlight pluton, only evolved leucogranites show comparable MREE depletion. These results indicate that sphene saturation in intruded and extruded magmas occurred only in highly evolved melts: abundant sphene in less silicic plutonic rocks represents a late-stage 'bloom' in fractionated interstitial melt. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Origin of Miocene andesite and dacite in the Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province, central Arizona: Hybrids of mafic and silicic magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, R. V.; Johnson, Kelly G.

    2016-07-01

    The Miocene Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province (G-SVP), ∼8000 km2 in central Arizona, is composed largely of silicic pyroclastic rocks and lavas, and smaller volumes of alkalic basalt and intermediate-composition lavas. Volcanism began ∼20.5 Ma as sparse rhyolitic and mainly basaltic lavas followed by intermediate lavas, lasting until ∼19 Ma. At that time, ∼1 m.y. of silicic eruptions began, creating most of the G-SVP. Petrologic studies are available for basalts and some for silicic rocks, but petrologic/geochemical information is sparse for intermediate-composition lavas. These latter, andesites and dacites, are the focus of this study, in which we present the processes and sources responsible for their origins. Goldfield-Superstition andesites and dacites have SiO2 ∼56-70 wt.% and Na2O + K2O that qualifies some as trachy-andesite and -dacite. A prominent petrographic feature is plagioclase-phyric texture (∼11-30 vol% plagioclase), where oligoclase-andesine phenocrysts have cores surrounded by corroded, or reacted, zones, mantled by higher An% plagioclase. Where corroded zones are absent, margins are etched, curved, or embayed. Groundmass plagioclase is labradorite, also more calcic than the phenocrysts. Other minerals are quartz (subrounded; embayed), clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, and rare titanite and zircon. A salient compositional characteristic that provides insight to andesite-dacite origins with respect to other G-SVP rocks is revealed when using SiO2 as an index. Namely, abundances of many incompatible elements, mainly HFSE and REE, decrease over the low to high SiO2 range (i.e., abundances are lower in dacites than in co-eruptive andesites and underlying alkalic basalts). As examples: G-SVP basalts have ∼50-70 ppm La, and andesites-dacites have ∼59-22 ppm La; for Zr, basalts have ∼225-170 ppm, but most andesites-dacites have ∼180-50; for Y, basalts >20 ppm, andesites-dacites ∼18-9 ppm. To understand these trends of lower

  5. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary

  6. Late Holocene hydrous mafic magmatism at the Paint Pot Crater and Callahan flows, Medicine Lake Volcano, N. California and the influence of H2O in the generation of silicic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, R.J.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper characterizes late Holocene basalts and basaltic andesites at Medicine Lake volcano that contain high pre-eruptive H2O contents inherited from a subduction related hydrous component in the mantle. The basaltic andesite of Paint Pot Crater and the compositionally zoned basaltic to andesitic lavas of the Callahan flow erupted approximately 1000 14C years Before Present (14C years B.P.). Petrologic, geochemical and isotopic evidence indicates that this late Holocene mafic magmatism was characterized by H2O contents of 3 to 6 wt% H2O and elevated abundances of large ion lithophile elements (LILE). These hydrous mafic inputs contrast with the preceding episodes of mafic magmatism (from 10,600 to ~3000 14C years B.P.) that was characterized by the eruption of primitive high alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) with low H2O (Mg silicates and the suppression of plagioclase as an early crystallizing phase. In addition, H2O lowers the saturation temperature of Fe and Mg silicates, and brings the temperature of oxide crystallization closer to the liquidus. These combined effects generate SiO2-enrichment that leads to rhyodacitic differentiated lavas. In contrast, low H2O HAOT magmas at Medicine Lake differentiate to iron-rich basaltic liquids. When these Fe-enriched basalts mix with melted granitic crust, the result is an andesitic magma. Since mid-Holocene time, mafic volcanism has been dominated primarily by hydrous basaltic andesite and andesite at Medicine Lake Volcano. However, during the late Holocene, H2O-poor mafic magmas continued to be erupted along with hydrous mafic magmas, although in significantly smaller volumes.

  7. The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador,Canada:Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor%The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador, Canada: Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter C.Lightfoot; Dawn Evans-Lamswood; Robert Wheeler

    2012-01-01

    ,development of barren olivine gabbro,and by a change from typically massive sulfides and breccias sulfides into more typical variable-textured troctolites with heavy to weak disseminated sulfide.Sulfides hosted in the feeder dyke tend to have low metal tenors ([Ni] 100=2.5%-3.5 %) ; sulfides in Eastern Deeps massive and breccia ores have intermediate Ni tenors ([Ni] 100 =3.5%-4%) and disseminated sulfides in overlying rocks have high Ni tenors ([Ni] 100=4%-8%).Conduit-hosted mineralization and mineral zones in the paragneiss adjacent to the Reid Brook Deposit tendto have lower Ni tenor than the Ovoid and Eastern Deeps Deposits.The tenor of mineral hosted in thecountry rock gneisses tends to be the same as that developed in the conduit; the injection of the sulfide in-to the country rocks likely occurred before formation of monosulfide solid solution.The Ovoid Deposit ischaracterized by coarse-grained loop-textured ores consisting of 10cm-2m sized pyrrhotite crystals sepera-ted by chalcopyrite and pentlandite.A small lens of massive cubanite surrounded by more magnetite-richsulfide assemblages represents what appears to be the product of in-situ sulfide fractionation.Detailed exploration in the area between the Reid Brook Zone and the Eastern Deeps has shown thatthese intrusions and ore deposits are connected by a branched dyke and chamber system in a major west-east fault zone.The Eastern Deeps chamber may be controlled by graben-like fault structures,and themarginal structures appear to have controlled dykes which connect the chambers at different levels in thecrust.The geological relationships in the intrusion are consistent with emplacement of the silicate and sul-fide laden magma from a deeper sub-chamber (possibly a deep eastward extension of the Western DeepsIntrusion where S-saturation was initially achieved).The silicate and sulfide magmas were likely emplacedthrough this conduit into the Eastern Deeps intrusion as a number of different fragment laden pulses

  8. Gas-driven filter pressing in magmas: insights into in-situ melt segregation from crystal mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Arzilli, F.; Dobson, K. J.; Cordonnier, B.; Reusser, E.; Ulmer, P.; Marone, F.; Whittington, A. G.; Mancini, L.; Fife, J.; Blundy, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gas-driven filter pressing is the process of melt expulsion from a volatile-saturated crystal mush, induced by the buildup and subsequent release of gas pressure. Filter pressing is inferred to play a major role in magma fractionation at shallow depths (bubbles and crystals (~74 vol%). Above this threshold, the mush tends to fracture and gas escapes via fractures. Therefore, the efficiency of gas-driven filter pressing is promoted close to the percolation threshold and in situations where a mush inflates slowly relative to build-up of pressure and expulsion of melt. Such observations offer a likely explanation for the production of eruptible, crystal-poor magmas within Earth's crust. Figure = Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy 3D renderings of representative haplogranite (A-D) and dacite (E-H) samples, with different crystal (Φ) and bubble fractions (β) at representative temperatures and experimental times (t, in minutes). Black objects are bubbles and fractures; dark gray field is silicic glass/melt; light gray objects are corundum crystals in haplogranite sample, and quartz in dacite sample. White and black arrows indicate representative fractures and directions of melt expulsion during vesiculation, respectively. In H, white contours highlight quartz cluster boundaries and melt channels where melt is driven by gas bubbles. During experiments, gas exsolution mainly consists of (1) bubble nucleation and growth (white circles) and (2) crystal clustering and/or compaction (white rectangles).

  9. Petrologic imaging of silicic magma chambers: new calibration of Al-in-hornblende barometry and applications to the Long Valley - Mono - Inyo active volcanic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional Al-in-hornblende barometry relies on the hypothesis that the Al content in amphibole only depends on pressure, through the Tschermack substitution. However, Al content in amphibole also varies with temperature through the edenite substitution, resulting in large errors in amphibole barometry. Using literature data, we have recalibrated a temperature-independent barometer based on octahedral Al for amphiboles in rhyolitic and dacitic compositions (Médard et al., Goldschmidt 2013). Experimental pressures are reproduced with an average error of 36 MPa in the 100-400 MPa range. Our new amphibole barometer has been used to investigate the depth of magma storage underneath the recent eruptions of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. Preliminary investigation of samples from the Glass Creek and Obsidian flows, associated with the youngest eruptive activity to the South of the chain (the 1350 AD Inyo eruption), contain Al-rich amphiboles ( 10 wt% Al2O3) crystallized at pressures of 260 ± 20 MPa (9.8 ± 0.7 km) and a temperature of 835 °C. Similar amphibole crystals have been analyzed from products of the 1700 AD eruption on Pahoa island to the north of the chain by Bray (2014). Identical crystallization pressures of 260 ± 40 MPa are derived from their compositions, suggesting a constant pressure of magma storage under the entire Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. Highly crystalline mush samples from the Glass Creek dome have been interpreted as remobilized magma from the older Long Valley magma chamber. Low-Al amphiboles ( 7 wt% Al2O3) from a mush sample also crystallized at 260 ± 20 MPa and a temperature of 705 °C. The storage depth has thus been constant in the entire Long Valley - Mono - Inyo system over time. A storage depth of 9.8 ± 0.7 km is in excellent agreement with recent seismic work by Seccia et al. (2011) who used Vs to infer the presence of a highly molten (30-60 % melt) magmatic reservoir 7-11 km beneath the Long Valley caldera. Traditional Al

  10. Magmatic (silicates/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magma chamber margins : Evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Torok, K.

    1996-01-01

    Fluid inclusions were measured from a feldspathoid-bearing syenite xenolith entrained in trachyte from Ponza, one of the islands of the Pontine Archipelago, located in the Gulf of Gaeta, Italy. The feldspathoid-bearing syenite consists mainly of potassium feldspar, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, titanite, manganoan magnetite, apatite with minor nosean, Na-rich feldspar, pyrrhotite, and rare cheralite. Baddeleyite and zirkelite occur associated with manganoan magnetite. Detailed electron-microprobe analysis reveals enrichments in REE, Y, Nb, U, Th as well as Cl and F in appropriate phases. Fluid inclusions observed in potassium feldspar are either silicate-melt or aqueous inclusions. The aqueous inclusions can be further classified as. (1) one-phase vapor, (2) two-phase (V + L) inclusions, vapor-rich inclusions with a small amount of CO2 in most cases; homogenization of the inclusions always occurred in the vapor phase between 359 and 424??C, salinities vary from 2.9 to 8.5 wt. % NaCl equivalent; and. (3) three-phase and multiphase inclusions (hypersaline/sulfur-rich aqueous inclusions sometimes with up to 8 or more solid phases). Daughter minerals dissolve on heating before vapor/liquid homogenization. Standardless quantitative scanning electron microscope X-ray fluorescence analysis has tentatively identified the following chloride and sulfate daughter crystals; halite, sylvite, glauberite. arcanite, anhydrite, and thenardite. Melting of the daughter crystals occurs between 459 and 536??C (54 to 65 wt. % NaCI equivalent) whereas total homogenization is between 640 and 755??C. The occurrence of silicate-melt inclusions and high-temperature, solute-rich aqueous inclusions suggests that the druse or miarolitic texture of the xenolith is late-stage magmatic. The xenolith from Ponza represents a portion of the peripheral magma chamber wall that has recorded the magmatic/hydrothermal transition and the passage of high solute fluids enriched in chlorides, sulfur, and

  11. Magma Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  12. Silicic Large Igneous Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott Bryan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are the end-product of huge additions of magma to the continental crust both at the surface and at depth. Since the first categorisation of LIPs by Coffin & Eldholm (1994), it has been recognised that LIPs are more varied inform, age and character, and this includes the recognition of Silicic LIPs. Silicic LIPs are the largest accumulations of primary volcaniclastic rocks at the Earth's surface with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 and extrusive and subvolcanic intrusive volumes >0.25 Mkm3. The Late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic Silicic LIP events are the best recognised and are similar in terms of their dimension, crustal setting, volcanic architecture and geochemistry.

  13. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  14. Why do Martian Magmas erupt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Eruption of silicate lava, whether on Earth or another planet, requires that at some depth the melt has lower density than the surrounding rocks. As the densities of silicate liquids change during crystallization, whether a particular silicate liquid will erupt or be trapped at a level of neutral buoyancy is a complex yet fundamental issue for planetary dynamics. In general, 3 factors drive surface eruptions: inherent buoyancy relative to mantle phases, compositional evolution, and volatile contents. These factors manifest on Earth as terrestrial basalts commonly have compositions close to a density minimum [1]. Recent work has produced estimates of Martian parental magma compositions [2-5] based on shergottite meteorites and from Gusev crater. Using the MELTS algorithm [6] and other density calibrations, we simulated evolution of these liquids, focusing on density changes. For much of the crystallization path, density is controlled by FeO. All of the liquids begin with ρ ~ 2.8 g/cc at 1 bar, and the evolution of liquid density is controlled by the liquidus phases. At low pressures, olivine is the liquidus phase for each melt, and as FeO is not incompatible in olivine, olivine crystallization decreases liquid density, increasing buoyancy with crystallization. However, FeO is incompatible in pyroxene, and thus liquids crystallizing pyroxene become denser and less buoyant with crystallization, producing liquids with densities up to and above 3.0 g/cc. As the olivine-pyroxene saturation relationship is affected by pressure and chemistry, the identity of the liquidus phase and density evolution will vary between magmas. Without spreading centers, Mars has no location where the mantle approaches the surface, and it is likely that any magma which is denser than the crust will stall below or within that crust. The crystallization path of a liquid is a function of pressure, with pyroxene crystallizing first at P > 10 kbar (~80 km depth), close to the base of the Martian

  15. Tracking bubble evolution inside a silicic dike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Okumura, Satoshi; Arzilli, Fabio; Borrajo, Javier; Recio, Clemente; Ban, Masao; Gonzalo, Juan C.; Benítez, José M.; Douglas, Madison; Sasaki, Osamu; Franco, Piedad; Gómez-Barreiro, Juan; Carnicero, Asunción

    2016-10-01

    Pressure estimates from rapidly erupted crustal xenoliths constrain the depth of intrusion of the silicic lavas hosting them. This represents an opportunity for tracking magmatic bubble's evolution and quantifying the variation in bubble volume during rapid magma ascent through a volcanic dike just prior to eruption. The petrology, stable-isotope geochemistry and X-ray micro-tomography of dacites containing crustal xenoliths, erupted from a Neogene volcano in SE Spain, showed an increase in porosity from ~ 1.7 to 6.4% from ~ 19 to 13 km depth, at nearly constant groundmass and crystal volumes. This result provides additional constraints for experimental and numerical simulations of subvolcanic magma-crust degassing processes in silicic systems, and may allow the characterization of volcanic eruptive styles based on volatile content.

  16. Exoplanet Magma Ocean Magnetic Fields may be Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourzutschky, Alexander; Stevenson, David

    2015-11-01

    Kepler data suggest that many exoplanets have low densities for their mass, and therefore probably have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. For all but very thin atmospheres, these have a convective zone beneath the radiative outer region, and as a consequence have high temperatures at the assumed silicate surface, usually above the liquidus, implying a magma ocean. In many cases, the resulting high internal temperatures are sufficient to allow for dynamo action in the magma. There, the electrical conductivities are high enough to support such a dynamo but not so high that the thermal conductivity favors conduction over convection. High conductivity is bad for a dynamo so this lower thermal conductivity makes such magma ocean dynamos preferable to a putative iron core dynamo.In our simple models, the atmospheres of exoplanets will contain a convective zone beneath a radiative zone if sufficiently thick. We develop a simple model for the surface temperature of a rocky exoplanet with atmosphere-to-planet mass ratios 0.001% to 10%, planet masses 1-10 M⊕, and effective temperatures 150-1000 K. In most models with atmosphere mass ratios greater than 0.1% the rocky surface is above 1500 K, above the liquidus for silicate magma. Assuming a fully molten silicate magma ocean planet of Earthlike composition, the primary mode of heat transport is convection except at the high-temperature, high atmosphere mass ratio end. From that, even with conservative estimates of the electrical conductivity of the liquid silicate magma, the nominal magnetic Reynolds number at the surface seldom falls below 10. Thus the tentative conclusion is that rocky exoplanets with sufficiently thick atmospheric envelopes to melt the surface can generate magnetic fields irrespective of their putative cores. Estimates of the magnetic field were done following Christensen, yielding surface values in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 Gauss.

  17. Magma mixing during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnyagin, M.; Borisova, A. Y.; Plechov, P.; Shkurski, B.; Stefansson, A.

    2011-12-01

    We performed detailed study of matrix glasses, olivines and melt inclusions in 6 samples of tephras of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Tephras erupted during the early basaltic stage (March 20 - April 13) are very homogeneous with respect to matrix glass compositions and host assemblage of primitive phenocrysts (olivine Fo75-87, Cr-spinel Cr# = 0.14 - 0.55). The olivines have normal or rhythmic zoning which suggests multiple episodes of mixing with more primitive magmas and crystallization before eruption. Glasses of the initial andesitic stage (April 14 - 30) fall into three groups: basaltic (group 2a, andesitic (group 2b, >80% ) and dacitic (group 2c, andesitic stage (May 1 - 22, group 3) have exclusively andesitic composition, slightly more primitive than on the early stage. The compositions of olivine cores and Cr-spinel inclusions in olivine in the late stage andesites are identical to those in basalts and suggest injection of basaltic magma into silicic magma shortly before eruption of andesite. The composition of shallow magma reservoir before the 2010 eruption could have composition similar to the group 2c glasses. A remarkable peculiarity of silicic Eyjafjallajökull glasses is high Cl (0.2-0.45 wt%) and high Cl/K2O (0.07-0.13) which are higher compared to basaltic glasses and primitive inclusions in olivine (Cl=0.02-0.09 wt%, Cl/K2O=0.04-0.09). The Cl enrichment in silicic Eyjafjallajökull melts may be an indicator of assimilation of crustal rocks altered via interaction with Cl-rich surface or oceanic waters. To estimate the residence time of basaltic xenocrysts in andesitic magma erupted on May 11, we measured compositional profiles in olivine xenocrysts and calculated the time required to form such a zoning via Fe-Mg diffusion. Orientation of the studied olivine sections has been determined with universal table and verified by comparing the facet angles with the ideal olivine crystal shape. Our modeling indicates that the high-Mg olivine

  18. Geochemical Evidence for a Terrestrial Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    The aftermath of phase separation and crystal-liquid fractionation in a magma ocean should leave a planet geochemically differentiated. Subsequent convective and other mixing processes may operate over time to obscure geochemical evidence of magma ocean differentiation. On the other hand, core formation is probably the most permanent, irreversible part of planetary differentiation. Hence the geochemical traces of core separation should be the most distinct remnants left behind in the mantle and crust, In the case of the Earth, core formation apparently coincided with a magma ocean that extended to a depth of approximately 1000 km. Evidence for this is found in high pressure element partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between liquid silicate and liquid iron alloy, and with the Ni-Co ratio and the abundance of Ni and Co in the Earth's upper mantle. A terrestrial magma ocean with a depth of 1000 km will solidify from the bottom up and first crystallize in the perovskite stability field. The largest effect of perovskite fractionation on major element distribution is to decrease the Si-Mg ratio in the silicate liquid and increase the Si-Mg ratio in the crystalline cumulate. Therefore, if a magma ocean with perovskite fractionation existed, then one could expect to observe an upper mantle with a lower than chondritic Si-Mg ratio. This is indeed observed in modern upper mantle peridotites. Although more experimental work is needed to fully understand the high-pressure behavior of trace element partitioning, it is likely that Hf is more compatible than Lu in perovskite-silicate liquid pairs. Thus, perovskite fractionation produces a molten mantle with a higher than chondritic Lu-Hf ratio. Arndt and Blichert-Toft measured Hf isotope compositions of Barberton komatiites that seem to require a source region with a long-lived, high Lu-Hf ratio. It is plausible that that these Barberton komatiites were generated within the majorite stability field by remelting a perovskite

  19. Krafla Magma Testbed: An International Project Crossing The Scientific Frontier From Geothermal System Into Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Dingwell, D. B.; Ludden, J. N.; Mandeville, C. W.; Markusson, S.; Papale, P.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2016-12-01

    Few Earth regimes are subject to as much inference and as little direct knowledge as magma. Among the most important mysteries is the transition from hydrothermal to magmatic, i.e. from aqueous fluid-present to silicate melt-present, regimes. Because solid rock is ductile at near-solidus temperature, fractures should have fleeting existence and therefore heat transfer should be by conduction. Heat and mass transport across this zone influences evolution of magma bodies. The hydrothermal regime influences eruptive behavior when magma intrudes it and propagation of the transition zone toward magma is demonstrated by physical and chemical evidence. Both drilling observations and heat-balance considerations indicate that the melt- and fluid-absent transition zone is thin. Drilling of Iceland Deep Drilling Project's IDDP-1, 2 km into Krafla Caldera, showed that the transition from deep-solidus fine-grained granite to liquidus rhyolite is less than 30 m thick, probably much less. For the first time, we have the opportunity to interrogate an entire system of heat and mass transport, from magmatic source through the hydrothermal zone to surface volcanism, and in so doing unite the disciplines of volcanology and geothermal energy. With support from industry, national geoscience agencies, community stakeholders, and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), we are developing a broad program to push the limits of knowledge and technology in extremely hot Earth. We use the term "testbed" for two reasons: Surface and borehole observations used in volcano monitoring and geothermal exploration will be tested and reinterpreted in light of the first "ground-truth" about magma. More than "observing", magma and the transition zone will be manipulated through fluid injection and extraction to understand time-dependent behavior. Sensor technology will be pushed to measure magmatic conditions directly. Payoffs are in fundamental planetary science, volcano

  20. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Kathy; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2006-09-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by exsolution of H2O-rich vapour from silicic magma. Eruption dynamics involve a complex interplay between nucleation and growth of vapour bubbles and crystallization, generating highly nonlinear variation in the physical properties of magma as it ascends beneath a volcano. This makes explosive volcanism difficult to model and, ultimately, to predict. A key unknown is the temperature variation in magma rising through the sub-volcanic system, as it loses gas and crystallizes en route. Thermodynamic modelling of magma that degasses, but does not crystallize, indicates that both cooling and heating are possible. Hitherto it has not been possible to evaluate such alternatives because of the difficulty of tracking temperature variations in moving magma several kilometres below the surface. Here we extend recent work on glassy melt inclusions trapped in plagioclase crystals to develop a method for tracking pressure-temperature-crystallinity paths in magma beneath two active andesite volcanoes. We use dissolved H2O in melt inclusions to constrain the pressure of H2O at the time an inclusion became sealed, incompatible trace element concentrations to calculate the corresponding magma crystallinity and plagioclase-melt geothermometry to determine the temperature. These data are allied to ilmenite-magnetite geothermometry to show that the temperature of ascending magma increases by up to 100 degrees C, owing to the release of latent heat of crystallization. This heating can account for several common textural features of andesitic magmas, which might otherwise be erroneously attributed to pre-eruptive magma mixing.

  1. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  2. A decadal view of magma fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although the past decade has seen fundamental advances in studies of explosive volcanism, the disruption to air traffic caused by the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, highlights the need for improved understanding of magmatic fragmentation in general, and of fine ash generation in particular. To develop a theoretical basis for predicting the fine ash content of eruptive plumes, we need to understand not only fragmentation mechanisms but also the dependence of those mechanisms on conditions of magma ascent and degassing. Experimental and analytical approaches to this problem include experimental studies of vesiculation and permeability development in silicic melts, quantitative textural studies of pyroclasts to constrain conditions that reduce fragmentation efficiency (that is, allow vesicular clasts to be preserved), direct experiments on fragmentation in both natural and analog materials, and determination of total grain size distributions (TGSDs) of pyroclastic deposits. Experiments on silicic melts have demonstrated that very high supersaturations (overpressures ΔP) may be achieved in silicic melts prior to homogeneous bubble nucleation, and that the high bubble number densities of silicic pumice require not only homogeneous nucleation but also nucleation of a mixed H2O-CO2 gas phase. In most pumice and scoria clasts, resulting vesicle populations form power law size distributions; power law exponents >3 in silicic tephras indicate that small vesicles comprise most of the vesicle volume (consistent with rapid late-stage vesiculation at high ΔP), while exponents 60-70%) and show no dependence on either melt composition or mass eruption rate; this suggests that melt porosity is more important than either decompression rate or magma rheology for clast preservation. These pyroclasts also have uniformly high permeabilities, high pore connectivity, and simple porous pathways, all of which suggest that ease of gas escape also contributed to clast

  3. Decadal to monthly timescales of magma transfer and reservoir growth at a caldera volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, T H; Costa, F; Deloule, E; Dungan, M; Scaillet, B

    2012-02-01

    Caldera-forming volcanic eruptions are low-frequency, high-impact events capable of discharging tens to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma explosively on timescales of hours to days, with devastating effects on local and global scales. Because no such eruption has been monitored during its long build-up phase, the precursor phenomena are not well understood. Geophysical signals obtained during recent episodes of unrest at calderas such as Yellowstone, USA, and Campi Flegrei, Italy, are difficult to interpret, and the conditions necessary for large eruptions are poorly constrained. Here we present a study of pre-eruptive magmatic processes and their timescales using chemically zoned crystals from the 'Minoan' caldera-forming eruption of Santorini volcano, Greece, which occurred in the late 1600s BC. The results provide insights into how rapidly large silicic systems may pass from a quiescent state to one on the edge of eruption. Despite the large volume of erupted magma (40-60 cubic kilometres), and the 18,000-year gestation period between the Minoan eruption and the previous major eruption, most crystals in the Minoan magma record processes that occurred less than about 100 years before the eruption. Recharge of the magma reservoir by large volumes of silicic magma (and some mafic magma) occurred during the century before eruption, and mixing between different silicic magma batches was still taking place during the final months. Final assembly of large silicic magma reservoirs may occur on timescales that are geologically very short by comparison with the preceding repose period, with major growth phases immediately before eruption. These observations have implications for the monitoring of long-dormant, but potentially active, caldera systems.

  4. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, J.; Gottsmann, J.; Cashman, K.; Gutiérrez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  5. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E

    2016-07-22

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  6. Self Sealing Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Lavallee, Yan

    2015-04-01

    During ascent of magma, pressure decreases and bubbles form. If the volume increases more rapidly than the relaxation timescale, the magma fragments catastrophically. If a permeable network forms, the magma degasses non-violently. This process is generally assumed to be unidirectional, however, recent studies have shown how shear and compaction can drive self sealing. Here, we additionally constrain skin formation during degassing and sintering. We heated natural samples of obsidian in a dry atmosphere and monitored foaming and impermeable skin formation. We suggest a model for skin formation that is controlled by diffusional loss of water and bubble collapse at free surfaces. We heated synthetic glass beads in a hydrous atmosphere to measure the timescale of viscous sintering. The beads sinter at drastically shorter timescales as water vapour rehydrates an otherwise degassed melt, reducing viscosity and glass transition temperatures. Both processes can produce dense inhomogeneities within the timescales of magma ascent and effectively disturb permeabilities and form barriers, particularly at the margins of the conduit, where strain localisation takes place. Localised ash in failure zones (i.e. Tuffisite) then becomes associated with water vapour fluxes and alow rapid rehydration and sintering. When measuring permeabilities in laboratory and field, and when discussing shallow degassing in volcanoes, local barriers for degassing should be taken into account. Highlighting the processes that lead to the formation of such dense skins and sintered infills of cavities can help understanding the bulk permeabilities of volcanic systems.

  7. Evolution of the crustal magma plumbing system during the build-up to the 22-ka caldera-forming eruption of Santorini (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbro, G.N.; Druitt, Timothy H.; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The formation of shallow, caldera-sized reservoirs of crystal-poor silicic magma requires the generation of large volumes of silicic melt, followed by the segregation of that melt and its accumulation in the upper crust. The 21.8 ± 0.4-ka Cape Riva eruption of Santorini discharged >10 km3 of crystal-poor dacitic magma, along with

  8. Magma deformation and emplacement in rhyolitic dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ellen; Tuffen, Hugh; James, Mike; Wynn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Silicic eruption mechanisms are determined by the rheological and degassing behaviour of highly-viscous magma ascending within shallow dykes and conduits. However, we have little knowledge of how magmatic behaviour shifts during eruptions as dykes and conduits evolve. To address this we have analysed the micro- to macro-scale textures in shallow, dissected rhyolitic dykes at the Tertiary Húsafell central volcano in west Iceland. Dyke intrusion at ~3 Ma was associated with the emplacement of subaerial rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits following caldera formation[1]. The dykes are dissected to ~500 m depth, 2-3 m wide, and crop out in two stream valleys with 5-30 m-long exposures. Dykes intrude diverse country rock types, including a welded ignimbrite, basaltic lavas, and glacial conglomerate. Each of the six studied dykes is broadly similar, exhibiting obsidian margins and microcrystalline cores. Dykes within pre-fractured lava are surrounded by external tuffisite vein networks, which are absent from dykes within conglomerate, whereas dykes failed to penetrate the ignimbrite. Obsidian at dyke margins comprises layers of discrete colour. These display dramatic thickness variations and collapsed bubble structures, and are locally separated by zones of welded, brecciated and flow-banded obsidian. We use textural associations to present a detailed model of dyke emplacement and evolution. Dykes initially propagated with the passage of fragmented, gas-charged magma and generation of external tuffisite veins, whose distribution was strongly influenced by pre-existing fractures in the country rock. External tuffisites retained permeability throughout dyke emplacement due to their high lithic content. The geochemically homogenous dykes then evolved via incremental magma emplacement, with shear deformation localised along emplacement boundary layers. Shear zones migrated between different boundary layers, and bubble deformation promoted magma mobility. Brittle

  9. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  10. Seismic Tremors and Three-Dimensional Magma Wagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Bercovici, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic tremor is a feature shared by many silicic volcanoes and is a precursor of volcanic eruption. Many of the characteristics of tremors, including their frequency band from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz, are common for volcanoes with very different geophysical and geochemical properties. The ubiquitous characteristics of tremor imply that it results from some generation mechanism that is common to all volcanoes, instead of being unique to each volcano. Here we present new analysis on the magma-wagging mechanism that has been proposed to generate tremor. The model is based on the suggestion given by previous work (Jellinek & Bercovici 2011; Bercovici et.al. 2013) that the magma column is surrounded by a compressible, bubble-rich foam annulus while rising inside the volcanic conduit, and that the lateral oscillation of the magma inside the annulus causes observable tremor. Unlike the previous two-dimensional wagging model where the displacement of the magma column is restricted to one vertical plane, the three-dimensional model we employ allows the magma column to bend in different directions and has angular motion as well. Our preliminary results show that, without damping from viscous deformation of the magma column, the system retains angular momentum and develops elliptical motion (i.e., the horizontal displacement traces an ellipse). In this ''inviscid'' limit, the magma column can also develop instabilities with higher frequencies than what is found in the original two-dimensional model. Lateral motion can also be out of phase for various depths in the magma column leading to a coiled wagging motion. For the viscous-magma model, we predict a similar damping rate for the uncoiled magma column as in the two-dimensional model, and faster damping for the coiled magma column. The higher damping thus requires the existence of a forcing mechanism to sustain the oscillation, for example the gas-driven Bernoulli effect proposed by Bercovici et al (2013). Finally, using our new 3

  11. Halogen behaviours during andesitic magma degassing: from magma chamber to volcanic plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Villemant, B.; Boudon, G.; Michel, A.

    2009-04-01

    Halogen (F, Cl, Br and I) behaviours during degassing of H2O-rich silicic magmas are investigated using volatile content analysis in glass (matrix glass and melt inclusions) of volcanic clasts (pumice and lava-dome fragments) in a series of plinian, vulcanian and lava dome-forming eruptions. Examples are taken from andesitic systems in subduction zones: Montagne Pelée and Soufrière Hills of Montserrat (Lesser Antilles) and Santa Maria-Santiaguito (Guatemala). Halogens behaviour during shallow degassing primarily depends on their incompatible character in melts and on H2O solubility. But variations in pre-eruptive conditions, degassing kinetics and syn-eruptive melt crystallisation, induce large variations in halogen extraction efficiency during H2O degassing, up to prevent halogen loss. In all studied systems, Cl, Br and I are not fractionated neither by differentiation nor by degassing processes: thus Cl/Br/I ratios remain well preserved in melts from reservoirs to eruption. These ratios measured in erupted clasts are characteristic of pre-eruptive magma compositions and may be used to trace deep magmatic processes. Moreover, during plinian eruptions, Cl, Br and I are extracted by H2O degassing but less efficiently than predicted by available experimental fluid-melt partition coefficients, by a factor as high as 5. F behaves as an incompatible element and, contrary to other halogens, is never significantly extracted by degassing. Degassing during lava dome-forming eruptions of andesitic magmas occurs mainly at equilibrium and is more efficient at extracting halogens and H2O than explosive degassing. The mobility of H2O and halogens depends on their speciation in both silicate melts and exsolved fluids which strongly varies with pressure. We suggest that the rapid pressure decrease during highly explosive eruptions prevents complete volatile speciation at equilibrium and consequently strongly limits halogen degassing.

  12. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  13. Silicate mineralogy at the surface of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namur, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury's volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate minerals, magnesium sulfide minerals in hollows and a darkening component attributed to graphite, but existing spectral data is insufficient to build a mineralogical map for the planet. Here we investigate the mineralogical variability of silicates in Mercury's crust using crystallization experiments on magmas with compositions and under reducing conditions expected for Mercury. We find a common crystallization sequence consisting of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes and tridymite for all magmas tested. Depending on the cooling rate, we suggest that lavas on Mercury are either fully crystallized or made of a glassy matrix with phenocrysts. Combining the experimental results with geochemical mapping, we can identify several mineralogical provinces: the Northern Volcanic Plains and Smooth Plains, dominated by plagioclase, the High-Mg province, strongly dominated by forsterite, and the Intermediate Plains, comprised of forsterite, plagioclase and enstatite. This implies a temporal evolution of the mineralogy from the oldest lavas, dominated by mafic minerals, to the youngest lavas, dominated by plagioclase, consistent with progressive shallowing and decreasing degree of mantle melting over time.

  14. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot

  15. The rheology of crystal-rich magmas (Kuno Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Aldin Faroughi, Salah; Degruyter, Wim

    2016-04-01

    of dispersion of the magma (change in the state variables caused by either shear localization or crystal breakage). We argue that the model we propose is a first step to go beyond fitting experimental data and towards building a predictive rheology model for crystal-bearing magmas. Cooper, K.M., and Kent, A.J.R. (2014) Rapid remobilization of magmatic crystals kept in cold storage. Nature, 506(7489), 480-483. Dufek, J., and Bachmann, O. (2010) Quantum magmatism: Magmatic compositional gaps generated by melt-crystal dynamics. Geology, 38(8), 687-690. Huber, C., Bachmann, O., and Manga, M. (2009) Homogenization processes in silicic magma chambers by stirring and mushification (latent heat buffering). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 283(1-4), 38-47.

  16. Magma Electrolysis: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Electrolytic extraction of O2 from molten lunar soil is conceptually simple and thus a candidate process for producing O2 on the Moon. Possible container and electrode materials are being tested for durability in corrosive high-temperature silicate melts and looking for complications that might increase energy requirements. Gaseous oxygen is being produced by electrolysis of 1-2 gram quantities of silicate melts in spinel (MgAl2O4) crucibles; in these melts, spinel is a stable phase. The concentration of FeO was kept low because FeO decrease O2 production efficiency. Platinum electrodes were placed about 0.5 cm apart in the melt. The spinel crucible was still intact after 40 minutes of electrolysis, when the experiment was halted for examination. The Pt anode was also intact; its Pt was maintained in a dynamci state in which the anode was continuously oxidized but quickly reduced again by the silicate melt, inhibiting migration of Pt away from the anode. In melts with low concentrations of Al2O3 + SiO2 (2 wt percent), the energy of resistance heating was only approximately equal to 10 to 20 percent of the theoretical amount required to produce O2. In melts substantially more concentrated in Al2O3 + SiO2, higher melt viscosity resulted in frothing that, in the worst case, caused high enough melt resistivities to raise the energy requirements to nearly 10 times theoretical. Both Fe and Si are produced at the cathode; in iron-rich melts, a- and c-iron and molten ferrosilicon were observed. Production was also observed at the cathode of a previously unrecognized gas; which is not yet identified. The solubility of metallic species was measured in silicate melts. They are too low to reduce significantly the efficiency of O2 production.

  17. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  18. Differentiation of Vesta: Implications for a shallow magma ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Wladimir; Spohn, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    The Dawn mission confirms predictions that the asteroid 4 Vesta is differentiated with an iron-rich core, a silicate mantle and a basaltic crust, and confirms Vesta as the parent body of the HED meteorites. To better understand its early evolution, we perform numerical calculations of the thermo-chemical evolution adopting new data obtained by the Dawn mission such as mass, bulk density and size of the asteroid. We have expanded the model of Neumann et al. (2012) that includes accretion, compaction, melting and associated changes of material properties and partitioning of 26Al, advective heat transport, and differentiation by porous flow, to include convection and effective cooling in a magma ocean. Depending on the melt fraction, the heat transport by melt segregation is modelled either by porous flow or by convection and heat flux of a magma ocean with a high effective thermal conductivity. We show that partitioning of 26Al and its transport with the silicate melt is crucial for the formation of a magma oce...

  19. Combined effect of permeability and crystallization on the explosive eruption of basaltic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Houghton, B. F.; Crozier, J.

    2015-12-01

    Plinian eruptions are the most dangerous style of eruptive activity of basaltic magma. In this study, we focus on the two best studied Plinian eruptions of basaltic magma at Mt. Tarawera, New Zealand (1886 CE) and Mt. Etna, Italy (122 BCE). We measured and analyzed the porosity-permeability relationships of the pyroclasts from both eruptions. We then used numerical modeling to assess the relative importance of two competing processes during eruptive magma ascent, which are the syneruptive crystallization that increases viscosity, potentially increasing bubble overpressure, and the open-system degassing of the permeable magma that allows the pressurized gas to escape, potentially reducing bubble overpressure. We find that the onset of crystallization is likely to have occurred prior to the onset of magma percolation. The orders of magnitude increase in magma viscosity due to the nucleation and growth of microlites had the combined effect of rapidly increasing the decompression rate, due to viscous pressure losses associated with magma flow within the volcanic conduit, and decreasing the rates of bubble growth, thus building up large overpressures inside bubbles. Although measured permeabilities of the studied pyroclasts are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than their silicic counterpart, our model results show that crystallization and subsequent increase in viscosity are likely to surpass the effect of open-system gas loss, thus increasing bubble overpressure, required for explosive magma fragmentation.

  20. Trace element geochemistry of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex, India: Evidence for fractional crystallization and silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotiranjan S Ray; P N Shukla

    2004-12-01

    Carbonatites are believed to have crystallized either from mantle-derived primary carbonate magmas or from secondary melts derived from carbonated silicate magmas through liquid immiscibility or from residual melts of fractional crystallization of silicate magmas. Although the observed coexistence of carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks in most complexes, their coeval emplacement in many, and overlapping initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios are supportive of their cogenesis; there have been few efforts to devise a quantitative method to identify the magmatic processes. In the present study we have made an attempt to accomplish this by modeling the trace element contents of carbonatites and coeval alkaline silicate rocks of Amba Dongar complex, India. Trace element data suggest that the carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks of this complex are products of fractional crystallization of two separate parental melts. Using the available silicate melt-carbonate melt partition coefficients for various trace elements, and the observed data from carbonatites, we have tried to simulate trace element distribution pattern for the parental silicate melt. The results of the modeling not only support the hypothesis of silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility for the evolution of Amba Dongar but also establish a procedure to test the above hypothesis in such complexes.

  1. Determining the Metal/Silicate Partition Coefficient of Germanium: Implications for Core and Mantle Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently there are several hypotheses for the thermal state of the early Earth. Some hypothesize a shallow magma ocean, or deep magma ocean, or heterogeneous accretion which requires no magma ocean at all. Previous models are unable to account for Ge depletion in Earth's mantle relative to CI chondrites. In this study, the element Ge is used to observe the way siderophile elements partition into the metallic core. The purpose of this research is to provide new data for Ge and to further test these models for Earth's early stages. The partition coefficients (D(sub Ge) = c(sub metal)/c(sub silicate), where D = partition coefficient of Ge and c = concentration of Ge in the metal and silicate, respectively) of siderophile elements were studied by performing series of high pressure, high temperature experiments. They are also dependent on oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition. Ge is a moderately siderophile element found in both the mantle and core, and has yet to be studied systematically at high temperatures. Moreover, previous work has been limited by the low solubility of Ge in silicate melts (less than 100 ppm and close to detection limits for electron microprobe analysis). Reported here are results from 14 experiments studying the partitioning of Ge between silicate and metallic liquids. The Ge concentrations were then analyzed using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) which is sensitive enough to detect ppm levels of Ge in the silicate melt.

  2. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  3. Experiments on metal-silicate plumes and core formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Weeraratne, Dayanthie

    2008-11-28

    Short-lived isotope systematics, mantle siderophile abundances and the power requirements of the geodynamo favour an early and high-temperature core-formation process, in which metals concentrate and partially equilibrate with silicates in a deep magma ocean before descending to the core. We report results of laboratory experiments on liquid metal dynamics in a two-layer stratified viscous fluid, using sucrose solutions to represent the magma ocean and the crystalline, more primitive mantle and liquid gallium to represent the core-forming metals. Single gallium drop experiments and experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with gallium layers and gallium mixtures produce metal diapirs that entrain the less viscous upper layer fluid and produce trailing plume conduits in the high-viscosity lower layer. Calculations indicate that viscous dissipation in metal-silicate plumes in the early Earth would result in a large initial core superheat. Our experiments suggest that metal-silicate mantle plumes facilitate high-pressure metal-silicate interaction and may later evolve into buoyant thermal plumes, connecting core formation to ancient hotspot activity on the Earth and possibly on other terrestrial planets.

  4. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not

  5. On the cooling of a deep terrestrial magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Andrault, D.; Samuel, H.

    2015-12-01

    In its early evolution, the Earth mantle likely experienced several episodes of complete melting enhanced by giant impact heating, short-lived radionuclides heating and viscous dissipation during the metal/silicate separation. We have developed numerical models to monitor the thermo-chemical evolution of a cooling and crystallizing magma ocean from an initially fully molten mantle. For this purpose, we use a 1D approach accounting for turbulent convective heat transfer. Our numerical model benchmarked with analytical solutions solves the heat equation in spherical geometry. This model also integrates recent and strong experimental constraints from mineral physics such as adiabatic temperature profiles and liquidus/solidus up 140 GPa for different mantle compositions. Our preliminary results show that a deep magma ocean starts to crystallize rapidly after its formation. The cooling efficiency of the magma ocean is strongly dependent on the coupling with the core cooling. Hence, depending on the thermal boundary layer thickness at the CMB, the thermal coupling between the core and magma ocean can either insulate the core during the MO solidification and favor a hot core, generate the formation of a thin basal molten layer or empty the heat from the core. Then, once the melt fraction reaches a critical value, the cooling efficiency becomes limited.

  6. Nitrogen distribution between aqueous fluids and silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Huang, Ruifang; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Keppler, Hans

    2015-02-01

    The partitioning of nitrogen between hydrous fluids and haplogranitic, basaltic, or albitic melts was studied at 1-15 kbar, 800-1200 °C, and oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging from the Fe-FeO buffer to 3log units above the Ni-NiO buffer. The nitrogen contents in quenched glasses were analyzed either by electron microprobe or by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas the nitrogen contents in fluids were determined by mass balance. The results show that the nitrogen content in silicate melt increases with increasing nitrogen content in the coexisting fluid at given temperature, pressure, and fO2. Raman spectra of the silicate glasses suggest that nitrogen species change from molecular N2 in oxidized silicate melt to molecular ammonia (NH3) or the ammonium ion (NH4+) in reduced silicate melt, and the normalized Raman band intensities of the nitrogen species linearly correlate with the measured nitrogen content in silicate melt. Elevated nitrogen contents in silicate melts are observed at reduced conditions and are attributed to the dissolution of NH3/NH4+. Measured fluid/melt partition coefficients for nitrogen (DNfluid/ melt) range from 60 for reduced haplogranitic melts to about 10 000 for oxidized basaltic melts, with fO2 and to a lesser extent melt composition being the most important parameters controlling the partitioning of nitrogen. Pressure appears to have only a minor effect on DNfluid/ melt in the range of conditions studied. Our data imply that degassing of nitrogen from both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc magmas is very efficient, and predicted nitrogen abundances in volcanic gases match well with observations. Our data also confirm that nitrogen degassing at present magma production rates is insufficient to accumulate the atmosphere. Most of the nitrogen in the atmosphere must have degassed very early in Earth's history and degassing was probably enhanced by the oxidation of the mantle.

  7. Relationships between Basic and Silicic Magmatism in Continental Rift Settings: A Petrogeochemical Study of Carboniferous Post-collisional Rift Silicic Volcanics in Tianshan, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Petrogeochemical data are reported for silicic volcanic rocks from the Tianshan Carboniferous rift, with the aim of discussing the petrogenesis of silicic magmas. Incompatible element vs. incompatible element diagrams display smooth positive trends for the Tianshan Carboniferous rift-related volcanic rocks; the isotope ratios of the silicic lavas [87Sr/86Sr(t)=0.69988-0.70532; εNd(t)=4.76-8.00; 206Pb/204Pb(t)=17.435-18.017; 207Pb/204Pb(t)=15.438-15.509; 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 37.075-37.723] encompass those of the basic lavas. These data suggest a genetic link between rhyolites and basalts, but are not definitive in establishing whether silicic rocks are related to basalts through fractional crystallization or partial melting. Geochemical modeling of incompatible vs. compatible elements excludes the possibility that silicic melts are generated by the melting of basaltic rocks, and indicates a derivation by fractional crystallization plus moderate assimilation of wall rocks (AFC) starting from intermediate rocks to silicic rocks. Continuous AFC from basalt to rhyolite,with small rates of crustal assimilation, best explains the geochemical data. The presence or absence of bimodal volcanism (the "Daly Gap") might be related to cooling rates of magma chambers. In central and eastern Tianshan, the crust was thinner and the cooling rates of the magma chamber within the crust were greater. These conditions resulted in a rapid fall in temperature within the magma reservoir and caused a narrow temperature interval over which intermediate melts formed, effectively reducing the volume of the intermediate melts.

  8. Volatile Evolution of Magma Associated with the Solchiaro Eruption in the Phlegrean Volcanic District (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.; Bodnar, R. J.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Fedele, L.; Shimizu, N.; Hunter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Phlegrean volcanic district (PVD) in southern Italy is one of the best known volcanic hazard areas in the world. More than 1.5 million people live in close proximity to the volcanic centers. The PVD comprises three volcanic fields: the Campi Flegrei caldera and the islands of Ischia and Procida. We studied volatiles plus major and trace elements in the magma associated with the Solchiaro eruption on the Island of Procida, Italy, to gain a better understanding of the relationship between pre-eruptive volatiles and magmatic evolution. The Solchiaro eruption is one of the more primitive products erupted in the PVD and provides information on the source of later more evolved magmas associated with this volcanic system. The composition of the magma before eruption was determined by analyzing 104 melt inclusions (MIs) in forsteritic olivine, glass embayment plus rim glasses, and high vesciculated glasses selected from 4 representative samples. The composition of MIs was recalculated and ranges from basaltic to trachy-basaltic. Among major elements potassium shows the highest variability, from 0.5 to 6 wt%. MI define a continuous trend based on major and minor element compositions. Embayments matrix glass and high vesciculated glasses define a field that suggests a discontinuous process. Compatible to incompatible trace element ratios in early melts are highly variable and represent the melt phase before or at the very beginning of assimilation-fractional crystallization (FCA) processes. Intermediate melt compositions reflect continuing FCA processes, late melt compositions suggest that the FCA process was aborted before eruption. Volatile contents of early melt are highly variable and reflect source heterogeneities, and the melts are interpreted to be undersaturated. Intermediate melts were volatile saturated and H2O-CO2 contents define a degassing path. Depths of trapping of MI range from 4.4 to 2.2 km, and are calculated based on Newman and Lowenstern (2002) and

  9. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... silicate nanocomposites and their structure-properties relationship. In the first part of the thesis, thermoplastic layered silicates were obtained by extrusion. Different modification methods were tested to observe the intercalation treatment effect on the silicate-modifier interactions. The silicate...

  10. Internal triggering of volcanic eruptions: tracking overpressure regimes for giant magma bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, Samantha; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding silicic eruption triggers is paramount for deciphering explosive volcanism and its potential societal hazards. Here, we use phase equilibria modeling to determine the potential role of internal triggering - wherein magmas naturally evolve to a state in which eruption is inevitable - in rhyolitic magma bodies. Whole-rock compositions from five large to super-sized rhyolitic deposits are modeled using rhyolite-MELTS. By running simulations with varying water contents, we can track crystallization and bubble exsolution during magma solidification. We use simulations with variable enthalpy and fixed pressure for the five compositions. The interplay between bubble exsolution and crystallization can lead to an increase in the system volume, which can lead to magma overpressurization. We find that internal triggering is possible for high-silica rhyolite magmas crystallizing at pressures below 300 MPa (50 wt.%, which makes magma immobile - high-silica rhyolite eruptions from such depths would require external triggering, but examples are scarce or entirely absent. Calculated crystallinities at which the critical overpressure threshold is reached compare favorably with observed crystal contents in natural samples for many systems, suggesting that internal evolution plays a critical role in triggering eruptions. Systems in which fluid saturation happens late relative to crystallization or in which degassing is effective can delay or avoid internal triggering. We argue that priming by crystallization and bubble exsolution is critical for magma eruption, and external triggering serves simply as the final blow - rather than being the driving force - of explosive rhyolitic eruptions.

  11. Behavior of halogens during the degassing of felsic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Villemant, B.; Boudon, G.

    2010-09-01

    Residual concentrations of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) and H2O in glass (matrix glass and melt inclusions) have been determined in a series of volcanic clasts (pumice and lava-dome fragments) of plinian, vulcanian and lava dome-forming eruptions. Felsic magmas from calc-alkaline, trachytic and phonolitic systems have been investigated: Montagne Pelée and Soufrière Hills of Montserrat (Lesser Antilles), Santa Maria-Santiaguito (Guatemala), Fogo (Azores) and Vesuvius (Italy). The behavior of halogens during shallow H2O degassing primarily depends on their incompatible character and their partitioning between melt and exsolved H2O vapor. However, variations in pre-eruptive conditions, degassing kinetics, and syn-eruptive melt crystallization induce large variations in the efficiency of halogen extraction. In all systems studied, Cl, Br and I are not fractionated from each other by differentiation or by degassing processes. Cl/Br/I ratios in melt remain almost constant from the magma reservoir to the surface. The ratios measured in erupted clasts are thus characteristic of pre-eruptive magma compositions and may be used to trace deep magmatic processes. F behaves as an incompatible element and, unlike the other halogens, is never significantly extracted by degassing. Cl, Br and I are efficiently extracted from melts at high pressure by H2O-rich fluids exsolved from magmas or during slow effusive magma degassing, but not during rapid explosive degassing. Because H2O and halogen mobility depends on their speciation, which strongly varies with pressure in both silicate melts and exsolved fluids, we suggest that the rapid pressure decrease during highly explosive eruptions prevents complete equilibrium between the diverse species of the volatiles and consequently limits their degassing. Conversely, degassing in effusive eruptions is an equilibrium process and leads to significant halogen output in volcanic plumes.

  12. Seismic Tremors and Magma Wagging During Explosive Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, M.; Bercovici, D.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic tremor is a ubiquitous feature of explosive eruptions. This ground oscillation persists for minutes to weeks and is characterized by a remarkably narrow band of frequencies (i.e., ~0.5 - 7 Hz). Prior to major eruptions, tremor can occur in concert with ground deformation probably related to a buildup of magmatic gas. Volcanic tremor is, thus, of particular value for eruption forecasting. Most models for volcanic tremor rely on specific properties of the geometry, structure and constitution of volcanic conduits as well as the gas content of the erupting magma. Because neither the initial structure nor the evolution of the magma-conduit system will be the same from one volcano to the next, it is surprising that tremor characteristics are so consistent among different volcanoes. Indeed, this universality of tremor properties remains a major enigma. Here we employ the contemporary view that silicic magma rises in the conduit as a columnar plug surrounded by a highly vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. We demonstrate that, for most geologically relevant conditions, the magma column will oscillate or "wag" against the restoring "gas-spring" force of the annulus at observed tremor frequencies. In contrast to previous models, the magma wagging oscillation is relatively insensitive to the conduit structure and geometry, thereby predicting the narrow band of tremor frequencies observed around the world. Moreover, the model predicts that as an eruption proceeds there will be an upward drift in both the maximum frequency and the total signal frequency bandwidth, the nature of which depends on the explosivity of the eruption, as observed.

  13. Phase equilibria and trace element partitioning in a magma ocean to 260 kilobars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude

    1992-01-01

    A magma ocean can solidify in a way that is intermediate between perfect equilibrium and perfect fractional crystallization. In order to model quantitatively any fractional crystallization scenario, it is necessary to understand the geochemical characteristics of the phases that crystallize from a magma ocean, and how they vary with pressure. The crystallizing phase is called the liquidus phase, and their identities were determined by numerous experiments utilizing the multianvil apparatus. For chondritic compositions the liquidus phases are as follows: olivine at 1 atmosphere to 100 kilobars; garnet from 100 to about 260 kilobars; silicate perovskite from 260 kilobars to possibly the core-mantle boundary in the Earth.

  14. Electrical conductivity of water-bearing magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, F.

    2003-04-01

    Phase diagrams and chemical analyzes of crystals and glass inclusions of erupted lavas tell us that most explosive volcanic eruptions were caused by extremely water-rich pre-eruptive conditions. Volcanologists estimate volcanic hazards by the pre-eruptive water content of lavas erupted in the past and they hypothesize that future eruptions should show similar features. Alternatively, the development of methods allowing direct estimation of water content of magmas stored in the Earth’s interior would have the advantage of providing direct constraints about upcoming rather than past eruptions. Geoelectrical sounding, being the most sensitive probe to the chemical state of the Earth’s interior, seems a promising tool providing that its interpretation is based on relevant laboratory constraints. However, the current database of electrical conductivity of silicate melt merely constrains anhydrous composition. We have therefore undertaken an experimental program aiming at elucidating the effect of water on the electrical conductivity of natural magmas. Measurements (impedance spectroscopy) are performed using a two electrodes set-up in an internally heated pressure vessel. The explored temperature and pressure range is 25-1350°C and 0.1-400MPa. The material used is a natural rhyolitic obsidian. Hydration of this rhyolite is first performed in Pt capsules with 0.5, 1, 2 and 6wt% of water. In a second step, the conductivity measurements are performed at pressure and temperature in a modified Pt capsule. One end of the capsule is arc-welded whereas the other end is closed with the help of a BN cone and cement through which an inner electrode is introduced in the form a Pt wire. The capsule is used as outer electrode. The electrical cell has therefore a radial geometry. The rhyolite is introduced in the cell in the form of a cylinder drilled in the previously hydrated glass. At dwell condition, the melt is sandwiched between two slices of quartz avoiding any deformation

  15. The chemical and isotopic differentiation of an epizonal magma body: Organ Needle pluton, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Farmer, G.L.; McCurry, M.; Mertzman, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Major and trace element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of whole rocks and mineral separates from the Oligocene, alkaline Organ Needle pluton (ONP), southern New Mexico, constrain models for the differentiation of the magma body parental to this compositionally zoned and layered epizonal intrusive body. The data reveal that the pluton is rimmed by lower ??(Nd) (~-5) and higher 87Sr/86Sr (~0.7085) syenitic rocks than those in its interior (??(Nd) ~ 2, 87Sr/86Sr ~0.7060) and that the bulk compositions of the marginal rocks become more felsic with decreasing structural depth. At the deepest exposed levels of the pluton, the ??(Nd)~-5 lithology is a compositionally heterogeneous inequigranular syenite. Modal, compositional and isotopic data from separates of rare earth element (REE)-bearing major and accesory mineral phases (hornblende, titanite, apatite, zircon) demonstrate that this decoupling of trace and major elements in the inequigranular syenite results from accumulation of light REE (LREE)-bearing minerals that were evidently separated from silicic magmas as the latter rose along the sides of the magma chamber. Chemical and isotopic data for microgranular mafic enclaves, as well as for restite xenoliths of Precambrian granite wall rock, indicate that the isotopic distinction between the marginal and interior facies of the ONP probably reflects assimilation of the wall rock by ??(Nd) ~-2 mafic magmas near the base of the magma system. Fractional crystallization and crystal liquid separation of the crystally contaminated magma at the base and along the margins of the chamber generated the highly silicic magmas that ultimately pooled at the chamber top.

  16. Research drilling in young silicic volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichelberger, J.C.

    1989-06-30

    Magmatic activity, and particularly silicic magmatic activity, is the fundamental process by which continental crust forms and evolves. The transport of magma from deep crustal reservoirs to the surface is a neglected but important aspect of magmatic phenomena. It encompasses problems of eruptive behavior, hydrothermal circulation, and ore deposition, and must be understood in order to properly interpret deeper processes. Drilling provides a means for determining the relationship of shallow intrusive processes to eruption processes at young volcanoes where eruptions are best understood. Drilling also provides a means for directly observing the processes of heat and mass transfer by which recently emplaced intrusions approach equilibrium with their new environment. Drilling in the Inyo Chain, a 600-year-old chain of volcanic vents in California, has shown the close relationship of silicic eruption to shallow dike emplacement, the control of eruptive style by shallow porous-flow degassing, the origin of obsidian by welding, the development of igneous zonation by viscosity segregation, and the character and size of conduits in relation to well-understood magmatic and phreatic eruptions. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  18. Using seismic and tilt measurements simultaneously to forecast eruptions of silicic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, Jurgen; Collinson, Amy; Mothes, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Independent interpretations of seismic swarms and tilt measurement on active silicic volcanoes have been successfully used to assess their eruption potential. Swarms of low-frequency seismic events have been associated with brittle failure or stick-slip motion of magma during ascent and have been used to estimate qualitatively the magma ascent rate which typically accelerates before lava dome collapses. Tilt signals are extremely sensitive indicators for volcano deformation and have been often modelled and interpreted as inflation or deflation of a shallow magma reservoir. Here we show that tilt in many cases does not represent inflation or deflation but is directly linked to magma ascent rate.This talk aims to combine these two independent observations, seismicity and deformation, to design and implement a forecasting tool that can be deployed in volcano observatories on an operational level.

  19. Melt production and magma emplacement: What use are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, F.

    2003-04-01

    I will review the processes of melt production and magma emplacement and address two questions: how do these processes affect planetary evolution?; and what can we learn from observing them, both now and in the future? Melt production is primarily controlled by the temperature of the planetary interior. The extraction of melt from silicate mantles has a number of effects. Firstly, it advects heat (e.g. Io, Venus?). Secondly, it segregates radiogenic materials into the crust, thus cooling the mantle (e.g. Mars, Earth). Thirdly, it removes volatiles from the interior (e.g. Venus, Mars). Recognition that melting is occurring gives us information about likely conditions inside the planet. Models of melt generation by convective upwelling have been used to constrain the interior properties of the Earth, Venus and Mars. Melting during tidal heating (Io) or accretion is less well understood. Magma emplacement is primarily controlled by the density of the magma and the surrounding material. Extrusive activity is likely for high volatile concentrations or low crustal densities. Water is particularly difficult to erupt, since (unlike silicates) the melt is denser than the solid. Different styles of magma emplacement are observed: voluminous surface flows and volcanic edifices of various kinds (ubiquitous); giant radiating dyke swarms (Earth, Venus, Mars); intrusive sills and diapirs (Earth, Venus?, Mars?, Europa?). The extrusive emplacement of magma will cause resurfacing, and is thus easily detected. The release of volatiles during emplacement may have local (e.g. Laki) or global (Venus? Mars?) effects on climate and atmosphere. Intrusive emplacement is harder to detect, but may interact with local volatiles to create unusual landforms (Earth, Mars). The style and volume of emplacement is a useful diagnostic tool. The morphology of lava flows gives information about the rheology and composition of the flow material (e.g. Venus, Miranda). Observations of dykes may be used to

  20. Evolution of silicic volcanism following the transition to the modern High Cascades, Deschutes Formation, central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eungard, D.; Kent, A. J.; Grunder, A.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the controls on silicic volcanism within convergent margin environments has important implications for crustal growth and modification during subduction. In the central Oregon Cascade range silicic volcanism has generally decreased in both size and frequency of eruptions over the last ~40 million years. Despite the general decrease, an increased abundance of silicic volcanism is observed from 5-8 Ma, corresponding to the transition from the Western Cascades to High Cascades volcanic regime. In order to constrain the processes that lead to formation of silicic magmas at this time we have studied the petrogenesis of two extensive and well-preserved ash-flow tuffs from this time period hosted within the Deschutes Formation of central Oregon. The Lower Bridge (LBT) and McKenzie Canyon Tuffs (MCT) produced ~5 km3 each of magma of predominantly rhyolitic and basaltic andesite composition. Both include large volumes of rhyolite, although the MCT also contains a significant mafic component. Both tuffs are normally zoned with mafic ejecta concentrated upsection. Geothermometry also shows that the rhyolitic component in both magmas was relatively hot (~830 degrees C). Distribution, thickness, welding facies, and paleoflow indications from imbricated pumice suggest that both eruptions derive from the same source region, probably near the present day Three Sisters complex, and were likely produced from the same magmatic system. Variations in major and trace element geochemistry also indicate that the magmas involved in both eruptions were produced through fractionation and mixing of mantle melts with a silicic partial melt derived from melting of mafic crust. Production of these voluminous silicic magmas required both crystal fractionation of incoming melts from the mantle, together with mixing with silicic partial melts derived from relatively hot mafic crust. This observation provides a potential explanation for the decrease in silicic melt production

  1. Warm storage for arc magmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K; Harrison, T Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2016-12-06

    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the "cold storage" model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.

  2. Self consistent model of core formation and the effective metal-silicate partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.; Labrosse, S.; Kameyama, M.

    2010-12-01

    It has been long known that the formation of the core transforms gravitational energy into heat and is able to heat up the whole Earth by about 2000 K. However, the distribution of this energy within the Earth is still debated and depends on the core formation process considered. Iron rain in the surface magma ocean is supposed to be the first mechanism of separation for large planets, iron then coalesces to form a pond at the base of the magma ocean [Stevenson 1990]. The time scale of the separation can be estimated from falling velocity of the iron phase, which is estimated by numerical simulation [Ichikawa et al., 2010] as ˜ 10cm/s with iron droplet of centimeter-scale. A simple estimate of the metal-silicate partition from the P-T condition of the base of the magma ocean, which must coincide with between peridotite liquidus and solidus by a single-stage model, is inconsistent with Earth's core-mantle partition. P-T conditions where silicate equilibrated with metal are far beyond the liquidus or solidus temperature for about ˜ 700K. For example, estimated P-T conditions are: 40GPa at 3750K for Wade and Wood, 2005, T ≧ 3600K for Chabot and Agee, 2003 and 35GPa at T ≧ 3300K for Gessmann and Rubie, 2000. Meanwhile, Rubie et al., 2003 shown that metal couldn't equilibrate with silicate on the base of the magma ocean before crystallization of silicate. On the other hand, metal-silicate equilibration is achieved only ˜ 5 s in the state of iron rain. Therefore metal and silicate simultaneously separate and equilibrate each other at the P-T condition during the course to the iron pond. Taking into account the release of gravitational energy, temperature of the middle of the magma ocean would be higher than the liquidus. Estimation of the thermal structure during the iron-silicate separation requires the development of a planetary-sized calculation model. However, because of the huge disparity of scales between the cm-sized drops and the magma ocean, a direct

  3. Implications of Viscosity-Contrast for Co-Extruding Two-Component Magmas, Triggering Eruptions and Forming Layered Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Clarke, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    Polymer co-extrusion experiments represent excellent dynamical analogies with two-magma transport and the effusion of composite lava domes. They demonstrate that the co-extrusion of magmas having different viscosity can explain not only the observed normal zoning in magma dikes and conduits but also the compositional layering observed in effused lava domes. New results indicate that dike and conduit zoning along with dome layering are strongly dependent on the viscosity contrast between the flowing magmas. Realistic models of magma storage and dike formation show that co-extrusion of magmas is both more readily explained and energetically preferred over serial intrusion processes. Co-extrusion during the formation of dikes may play an important role in triggering larger volcanic eruptions. Lubrication of the flow by a typically, more mafic, lower-viscosity component allows a more viscous but also more highly volatile-charged magma to be transported greater distances upward in the dike resulting in exsolution of a gas phase and the formation of a magma foam. Transition to a foam lowers the bulk density of the magma enabling dikes to propagate greater vertical distances for a given back pressure. Our new results suggest that a dike propagating across a sloping magma-chamber roof intersecting both "wet" silicic and relatively "dry" mafic layers has the greatest probability of reaching the surface in the dike segment where the magmas flow co-extrusively. Thus, bimodal eruptive compositions are dynamically preferred in such a petrologically common magmatic regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  4. Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Hydrous Silicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolper, Edward

    2007-03-05

    The focus of this DOE-funded project has been the study of volatile components in magmas and the atmosphere. Over the twenty-one year period of this project, we have used experimental petrology and stable isotope geochemistry to study the behavior and properties of volatile components dissolved in silicate minerals and melts and glasses. More recently, we have also studied the concentration and isotopic composition of CO2 in the atmosphere, especially in relation to air quality issues in the Los Angeles basin.

  5. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  6. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  7. Chemical Fractionation in the Silicate Vapor Atmosphere of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Eiler, John; 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.10.03

    2010-01-01

    Despite its importance to questions of lunar origin, the chemical composition of the Moon is not precisely known. In recent years, however, the isotopic composition of lunar samples has been determined to high precision and found to be indistinguishable from the terrestrial mantle despite widespread isotopic heterogeneity in the Solar System. In the context of the giant-impact hypothesis, this level of isotopic homogeneity can evolve if the proto-lunar disk and post-impact Earth undergo turbulent mixing into a single uniform reservoir while the system is extensively molten and partially vaporized. In the absence of liquid-vapor separation, such a model leads to the lunar inheritance of the chemical composition of the terrestrial magma ocean. Hence, the turbulent mixing model raises the question of how chemical differences arose between the silicate Earth and Moon. Here we explore the consequences of liquid-vapor separation in one of the settings relevant to the lunar composition: the silicate vapor atmosphere...

  8. Thermochemistry of Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  9. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  10. The Yellowstone hotspot in space and time: Nd and Hf isotopes insilici magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Barbara P.; Perkins, Michael E.; Christensen, John N.; Lee,Den-Chuen; Halliday, A.N.

    2006-04-19

    Over the course of its 16 m.y. history, the Yellowstonehotspot has produced silicic magmas exhibiting systematic, and oftensympathetic, variations in isotopic and chemical composition, temperatureand frequency of eruption. Nd and Hf isotopic ratios vary systematicallyfrom initial eruptions at ~;16 Ma, contemporaneous with basalticvolcanism in eastern Oregon and Washington, to the present dayYellowstone Volcanic Plateau. Nd and Hf isotopic ratios co-vary and spanthe range of most terrestrial samples, reflecting mixing of mantle andcrustal sources. Earliest erupted silicic magmas were hot (in excess of1050oC), relatively less evolved and have isotopic ratios within therange of contemporaneous Columbia River flood basalts. The transit of thehotspot across the lithospheric boundary between the western accretedoceanic terrain and the Precambrian craton at 15 Ma is marked by shiftsin eNd from +4 to -11 and in ?Hf from +10 to -10. The duration of thetransit yields a crustal magma source diameter of ~;70 km. In theinterval from 14 to 9 Ma, ?Nd systematically increases from -11 to -7,recording a minimum increase in the mantle component from 5 percent to 30percent. The mantle component could be twice as great, depending upon theisotopic composition of crust and mantle reservoirs. In this sameinterval, peak temperatures of ~;1000oC occurred at 9 Ma. The last 8 m.y.are characterized by less frequent eruption of lower temperature(830-900oC) and more compositionally evolved magmas.

  11. Gradients in physical parameters in zoned felsic magma bodies: Implications for evolution and eruptive withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J. A.; Wörner, G.; Blake, S.

    1990-10-01

    Five diverse, well documented, chemically zoned magmas have been chosen from the literature to demonstrate the extent and patterns of density and viscosity gradients in zoned magma chambers. The patterns are used to assess implications for development of zonation, and withdrawal dynamics and preservation of systematic chemical variations in the final pyroclastic deposit. These examples are: Bishop Tuff, California (high-silica rhyolite); Los Humeros, Mexico (calc-alkaline rhyolite to andesite); Fogo A, Azores (trachyte); Laacher See, Eifel (phonolite) and Tenerife, Canary Islands (phonolite). It was necessary to make several simplifying assumptions in order to calculate viscosity and density profiles through each system; results are particularly sensitive to magmatic water and crystal contents. Nevertheless, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Small, strongly zoned, alkaline magma systems which evolved through fractional crystallisation of a basaltic parent (Fogo A, Laacher See) have suffered a partial time-integrated volatile depletion prior to eruption. The most likely mechanism of volatile loss is degassing of the uppermost, highly differentiated, "cupola" magma layer. (2) Eruption withdrawal dynamics are critically dependent on density gradients (and therefore on volatile content and phenocryst abundance), while viscosity variations play a subordinate rôle in the chosen examples. (3) Formation of a chemically zoned tephra sequence by eruption of chemically zoned felsic magma requires a pre-eruptive volatile gradient in the magma chamber. (4) Withdrawal-layer thicknesses during eruptions from naturally zoned magma chambers are of the order of 100 m. (5) The quantitative treatment of gravitational liquid segregation processes by Nilson et al. (1985) successfully predicts times required for zonation of magma bodies: typically 10 3-10 4 years for small alkaline systems, and > 10 5 years for large silicic systems.

  12. Terrestrial magma ocean and core segregation in the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Eiji; Yurimoto, Naoyoshi

    1992-01-01

    According to the recent theories of formation of the earth, the outer layer of the proto-earth was molten and the terrestrial magma ocean was formed when its radius exceeded 3000 km. Core formation should have started in this magma ocean stage, since segregation of metallic iron occurs effectively by melting of the proto-earth. Therefore, interactions between magma, mantle minerals, and metallic iron in the magma ocean stage controlled the geochemistry of the mantle and core. We have studied the partitioning behaviors of elements into the silicate melt, high pressure minerals, and metallic iron under the deep upper mantle and lower mantle conditions. We employed the multi-anvil apparatus for preparing the equilibrating samples in the ranges from 16 to 27 GPa and 1700-2400 C. Both the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and the Secondary Ion Mass spectrometer (SIMS) were used for analyzing the run products. We obtained the partition coefficients of various trace elements between majorite, Mg-perovskite, and liquid, and magnesiowustite, Mg-perovskite, and metallic iron. The examples of the partition coefficients of some key elements are summarized in figures, together with the previous data. We may be able to assess the origin of the mantle abundances of the elements such as transition metals by using the partitioning data obtained above. The mantle abundances of some transition metals expected by the core-mantle equilibrium under the lower mantle conditions cannot explain the observed abundance of some elements such as Mn and Ge in the mantle. Estimations of the densities of the ultrabasic magma Mg-perovskite at high pressure suggest existence of a density crossover in the deep lower mantle; flotation of Mg-perovskite occurs in the deep magma ocean under the lower mantle conditions. The observed depletion of some transition metals such as V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in the mantle may be explained by the two stage process, the core-mantle equilibrium under the lower

  13. H2O-rich melt inclusions in fayalitic olivine from Hekla volcano: Implications for phase relationships in silicic systems and driving forces of explosive volcanism on Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj; Storm, Sonja; Mironov, Nikita; van den Bogaard, Christel; Botcharnikov, Roman

    2012-12-01

    Silicic Icelandic magmas are widely believed to contain low to moderate H2O content prior to degassing, and that their high explosivity mostly results from the interaction of the magmas with ice or meteoric water. Here we report the compositions of glass inclusions (SiO2=57-72 wt%, K2O=1.3-2.6 wt%) in Fe-rich olivines (Fo2-42) from the largest Holocene eruptions of Hekla volcano (H3 and H4) on Iceland, which preserved quenched melts with very high primary H2O contents (3.3-6.2 wt%). The silicic Hekla melts originate primarily by extensive (˜90%) crystal fractionation of H2O-poor (˜0.6 wt%) basalts and represent an end member in the systematics of terrestrial magmas because they originate at low fO2 (ΔQFM ˜-0.1 to -0.4) and have as high H2O contents as significantly more oxidized island-arc magmas (ΔQFM≥1). This demonstrates that H2O and ΔQFM do not correlate in silicic magmas from different tectonic settings, and that fO2, not H2O content, shows a major difference between silicic ocean-island (e.g., Icelandic) and island-arc magmas. Analysis of available experimental data suggests that high H2O activity and low fO2 expand the field of olivine stability in silicic melts. Low fO2 and low MgO content could also suppress crystallization of amphibole. On the basis of these results we propose that an anhydrous mineral assemblage bearing Fe-rich olivine in evolved volcanic and Skaergaard-type intrusive rocks does not imply low H2O in magmas prior to degassing but, in contrast to the commonly held view, is an indicator of H2O-rich silicic parental magmas crystallized at low fO2. Finally, the high H2O content in magma was a major driving force of the largest explosive eruptions of Hekla volcano and must be at least as important for driving silicic explosive volcanism on Iceland as magma-ice interaction.

  14. Magma flow through elastic-walled dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.; Woods, A.W.; Boer, de A.

    2005-01-01

    A convection–diffusion model for the averaged flow of a viscous, incompressible magma through an elastic medium is considered. The magma flows through a dike from a magma reservoir to the Earth’s surface; only changes in dike width and velocity over large vertical length scales relative to the chara

  15. Core Formation Timescale, Silicate-Metal Equilibration, and W Diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Q.; Jacobsen, B.; Tinker, D.; Lesher, C.

    2004-12-01

    by large-scale Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities following giant impacts breaks up the metallic core of the impactor into centimeter-sized droplets within minutes. We have constructed a simple model to study the kinetics of isotope equilibration between metal-silicate during the "rain-fall" of metal droplets descending through the terrestrial magma ocean. This model highlights the importance of the kinetics of ion mobility of W for assessing quantitatively the degree of metal-silicate equilibration during core formation. We have determined for the first time that the W self-diffusion coefficient in basaltic liquid is 4.98E-7 cm2/s at 3GPa, 1500 C. We assume this is a minimum value in the magma ocean scenario, and the equilibration is rate-limited by diffusion in the silicate liquid. Applying this value and taking a reasonable estimate of viscosity for silicate liquids from the literature, we show that the degree of equilibration asymptotically approaches 100% within the timescale of metal-silicate segregation when the metallic droplets are <20 cm in diameter.

  16. Magma redox and structural controls on iron isotope variations in Earth's mantle and crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphas, N.; Roskosz, M.; Alp, E. E.; Neuville, D. R.; Hu, M. Y.; Sio, C. K.; Tissot, F. L. H.; Zhao, J.; Tissandier, L.; Médard, E.; Cordier, C.

    2014-07-01

    The heavy iron isotopic composition of Earth's crust relative to chondrites has been explained by vaporization during the Moon-forming impact, equilibrium partitioning between metal and silicate at core-mantle-boundary conditions, or partial melting and magma differentiation. The latter view is supported by the observed difference in the iron isotopic compositions of MORBS and peridotites. However, the precise controls on iron isotope variations in igneous rocks remain unknown. Here, we show that equilibrium iron isotope fractionation is mainly controlled by redox (Fe3+/Fetot ratio) and structural (e.g., polymerization) conditions in magmas. We measured, for the first time, the mean force constants of iron bonds in silicate glasses by synchrotron Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy - NRVS, or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering - NIS). The same samples were studied by conventional Mössbauer and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The NRIXS results reveal a +0.2 to +0.4‰ equilibrium fractionation on 56Fe/54Fe ratio between Fe2+ and Fe3+ end-members in basalt, andesite, and dacite glasses at magmatic temperatures. These first measurements can already explain ∼1/3 of the iron isotopic shift measured in MORBs relative to their source. Further work will be required to investigate how pressure, temperature, and structural differences between melts and glasses affect equilibrium fractionation factors. In addition, large fractionation is also found between rhyolitic glass and commonly occurring oxide and silicate minerals. This fractionation reflects mainly changes in the coordination environment of Fe2+ in rhyolites relative to less silicic magmas and mantle minerals, as also seen by XANES. We provide a new calibration of XANES features vs. Fe3+/Fetot ratio determinations by Mössbauer to estimate Fe3+/Fetot ratio in situ in glasses of basaltic, andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic

  17. Transfer of volatiles and metals from mafic to felsic magmas in composite magma chambers: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haihao; Audétat, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In order to determine the behavior of metals and volatiles during intrusion of mafic magma into the base of silicic, upper crustal magma chambers, fluid-rock partition coefficients (Dfluid/rock) of Li, B, Na, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Mo, As, Se, Sb, Te, W, Tl, Pb and Bi were determined experimentally at 2 kbar and 850 °C close to the solidus of mafic magma. In a first step, volatile-bearing mafic glasses were prepared by melting a natural basaltic trachyandesite in the presence of volatile-bearing fluids at 1200 °C/10 kbar in piston cylinder presses. The hydrous glasses were then equilibrated in subsequent experiments at 850 °C/2 kbar in cold-seal pressure vessels, which caused 80-90% of the melt to crystallize. After 0.5-2.0 days of equilibration, the exsolved fluid was trapped by means of in-situ fracturing in the form of synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz. Both the mafic rock residue and the fluid inclusions were subsequently analyzed by laser-ablation ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Reverse experiments were conducted by equilibrating metal-bearing aqueous solutions with rock powder and then trapping the fluid. In two additional experiments, information on relative element mobilities were obtained by reacting fluids that exsolved from crystallizing mafic magma with overlying silicic melts. The combined results suggest that under the studied conditions S, Cl, Cu, Se, Br, Cd and Te are most volatile (Dfluid/rock >10), followed by Li, B, Zn, As, Ag, Sb, Cs, W, Tl, Pb and Bi (Dfluid/rock = 1-10). Less volatile are Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Mo and Rb (Dfluid/rock 0.1-1), and the least fluid-mobile elements are Al, Si, Ti, Zr, Ba and Ce (Dfluid/rock <0.1). This trend is broadly consistent with relative element volatilities determined on natural high-temperature fumarole gases, although some differences exist. Based on the volatility data and measured mineral-melt and sulfide-melt partition coefficients, volatile fluxing in

  18. Elucidating the magmatic history of the Austurhorn silicic intrusive complex (southeast Iceland) using zircon elemental and isotopic geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, A. J.; Miller, C. F.; Carley, T. L.; Economos, R. C.; Schmitt, A. K.; Coble, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Austurhorn intrusive complex (AIC) in southeast Iceland comprises large bodies of granophyre and gabbro, and a mafic-silicic composite zone (MSCZ) that exemplifies magmatic interactions common in Icelandic silicic systems. Despite being one of Iceland's best-studied intrusions, few studies have included detailed analyses of zircon, a mineral widely recognized as a valuable tracer of the history and evolution of its parental magma(s). In this study, we employ high spatial resolution zircon elemental and isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology as tools for elucidating the complex construction and magmatic evolution of Austurhorn's MSCZ. The trace element compositions of AIC zircon crystals form a broad but coherent array that partly overlaps with the geochemical signature for zircons from Icelandic silicic volcanic rocks. Typical of Icelandic zircons, Hf concentrations are relatively low (mush-like material and a prolonged lifetime for the complex.

  19. Clinopyroxene in postshield Haleakala ankaramite: 2. Texture, compositional zoning and supersaturation in the magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Benoit; Hammer, Julia; Baronnet, Alain; Jacob, Samantha; Hellebrand, Eric; Sinton, John

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the external morphologies and internal compositional zoning patterns of clinopyroxene phenocrysts in an ankaramite of Haleakala volcano (Hawaii) to constrain magma crystallization conditions in the volcano's postshield stage. The phenocrysts are characterized by euhedral faceted morphologies and crystallographically coherent subcrystals. Quantitative EPMA and X-ray element mapping reveal two domains within the crystals: porous, Si-Mg-Ca-Cr-rich zones associated with the forms {100}, {010} and {110}, and nonporous, Al-Ti-Na-rich zones associated with the forms {-111}. The chemical variations, internal porosity and parallel subcrystals are consistent with nonconcentric crystal growth at varying degrees of supersaturation. We infer that initial growth occurred in a diffusion-limited regime to produce dendritic crystals; subsequent growth was markedly slower, with lesser supersaturation allowing dendrites to infill and produce polyhedral external morphologies. This sequence promoted the evolution of crystals from an hourglass shape with dominant {-111} forms, to sector-zoned euhedral crystals in which elements were partitioned according to: (Al + Ti + Na){-111} = (Si + Mg + Cr + Ca){110},{100},{010}. Infilling of dendritic crystals occurred to a greater extent on faster-growing sectors and was interrupted by the eruption, resulting in porosity of the slower-growing {hk0} sectors. Outermost Na-poor rims formed on all sectors due to slower growth rate under interface-limited conditions. Paradoxically, high levels of supersaturation producing large crystals of clinopyroxene (and olivine) are indicated in the volcano's deep-seated reservoir and lower degrees of supersaturation characterize syn-eruptive crystal growth. The presence of vapor bubbles within the melt-filled crystal embayments and inclusions suggests rapid clinopyroxene growth caused volatile saturation and reservoir pressurization, leading to eruption of the ankaramite.

  20. Differentiation Mechanism and Evolution of High-level Magma Chamber at Xiangshan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    The calc-alkaline volcanic magmas,which formed the Mesozoic uraniferous volcanic complex of Xiangshan,resulted from partial melting of the mixture of lower crust and enriched mantle with a high mixing proportion in a specific tectonic setting such as active continental margin or ocean-continent collision zone.The preliminary concentrations of Uand Th occur in low-degree par-tial melts.Only small part of these melts was rapidly extracted and erupted and most intruded into the high-level magma chamber(depth:12-13 km) of the compressed upper lithosphere ,in which occurred a strong differentiation which would resulted in strong preconcentrations of the high-hygromagmaphile elements U and Th associated with strong depletion of the 3-d transition ele-ments Ti,Sc,Co,Zr,etc.At the final stage of subduction of the West-Pacific-Kula plate towards the Asian continental plate,the regional tectonic environment was transformed from a compressive in-to a tensional setting.The strongly differentiated,U(and Th) enriched silicic alkalic magmas in high level magma chamber extensively erupted,extruded and intruded.The hydrothermal fluids released as a result of late volcano-degassing and dewatering during crystallization-solidification of magmas,re-sulted in the remobilization,leaching,migration and reconcentration of uranium ,which had been preconcentrated in volcanic rocks.Therefore,specific regional petrogeochemical criteria are expected for the uraniferous volcanic series.

  1. Origin of silicic volcanic rocks in Central Costa Rica: a study of a chemically variable ash-flow sheet in the Tiribí Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Rachel; Vogel, Thomas; Patino, Lina; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez, Wendy; Smith, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Chemical heterogeneities of pumice clasts in an ash-flow sheet can be used to determine processes that occur in the magma chamber because they represent samples of magma that were erupted at the same time. The dominant ash-flow sheet in the Tiribí Tuff contains pumice clasts that range in composition from 55.1 to 69.2 wt% SiO2. It covers about 820 km2 and has a volume of about 25 km3 dense-rock equivalent (DRE). Based on pumice clast compositions, the sheet can be divided into three distinct chemical groupings: a low-silica group (55.1-65.6 wt% SiO2), a silicic group (66.2-69.2 wt% SiO2), and a mingled group (58.6-67.7 wt% SiO2; all compositions calculated 100% anhydrous). Major and trace element modeling indicates that the low-silica magma represents a mantle melt that has undergone fractional crystallization, creating a continuous range of silica content from 55.1-65.6 wt% SiO2. Eu/Eu*, MREE, and HREE differences between the two groups are not consistent with crystal fractionation of the low-silica magma to produce the silicic magma. The low-silica group and the silicic group represent two distinct magmas, which did not evolve in the same magma chamber. We suggest that the silicic melts resulted from partial melting of relatively hot, evolved calc-alkaline rocks that were previously emplaced and ponded at the base of an over-thickened basaltic crust. The mingled group represents mingling of the two magmas shortly before eruption. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-001-0188-8.

  2. THE VISCOUS TO BRITTLE TRANSITION IN CRYSTAL- AND BUBBLE-BEARING MAGMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia ePistone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from viscous to brittle behaviour in magmas plays a decisive role in determining the style of volcanic eruptions. While this transition has been determined for one- or two-phase systems, it remains poorly constrained for natural magmas containing silicic melt, crystals, and gas bubbles. Here we present new experimental results on shear-induced fracturing of three-phase magmas obtained at high-temperature (673-1023 K and high-pressure (200 MPa conditions over a wide range of strain-rates (5·10-6 s-1 to 4·10-3 s-1. During the experiments bubbles are deformed (i.e. capillary number are in excess of 1 enough to coalesce and generate a porous network that potentially leads to outgassing. A physical relationship is proposed that quantifies the critical stress required for magmas to fail as a function of both crystal (0.24 to 0.65 and bubble volume fractions (0.09 to 0.12. The presented results demonstrate efficient outgassing for low crystal fraction ( 0.44 promote gas bubble entrapment and inhibit outgassing. The failure of bubble-free, crystal-bearing systems is enhanced by the presence of bubbles that lower the critical failure stress in a regime of efficient outgassing, while the failure stress is increased if bubbles remain trapped within the crystal framework. These contrasting behaviours have direct impact on the style of volcanic eruptions. During magma ascent, efficient outgassing reduces the potential for an explosive eruption and favours brittle behaviour, contributing to maintain low overpressures in an active volcanic system resulting in effusion or rheological flow blockage of magma at depth. Conversely, magmas with high crystallinity experience limited loss of exsolved gas, permitting the achievement of larger overpressures prior to a potential sudden transition to brittle behaviour, which could result in an explosive volcanic eruption.

  3. Change in Magma Dynamics at Okataina Rhyolite Caldera revealed by Plagioclase Textures and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, P. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    A fundamental reorganization of magma dynamics at Okataina volcano, New Zealand, occurred at 26 ka involving a change from smaller volume, high-temperature rhyodacite magmas to a lower eruptive tempo of larger volume, low-temperature, rhyolite magmas. Zircon studies demonstrate the presence of a periodically active, long-lived (100,000 yr) magmatic reservoir. However, there is little correlation between periods of zircon crystallization and eruption events. In contrast, the changing magmatic dynamics is revealed in plagioclase growth histories. Crystals from the ~0.7 ka Kaharoa eruption are characterized by resorbed cores displaying a cellular-texture of high-An (>40) zones partially replaced by low-An (Mg, Sr and Ti follow the resorption surface and display rimward depletion trends, accompanied by Ba and REE enrichment. The zonation is consistent with fractional crystallization and cooling. The cores display wide trace element diversity, pointing to crystallization in a variety of melts, before transport and mixing into a common magma where the rims grew. Plagioclase from the ~36 ka Hauparu eruption display several regrowth zones separated by resorption surfaces, which surround small resorbed cores with a spongy cellular texture of variable An content (An 40-50). The crystals display step-wise re-growth of successively higher An, Fe, Mg and Ti content, consistent with progressive mafic recharge. Two crystal groups are distinguished by trace element chemistry indicating growth in separate melts and co-occurrence via magma-mingling. The contrasting zoning patterns in plagioclase correspond to the evolutionary history of magmatism at Okataina. Emptying of the magma reservoir following caldera eruption at 46 ka reduced barriers to mafic magma ascent. This is recorded by the frequent resorption and recharge episodes in Hauparu crystals. Subsequent re-development of a more silicic reservoir zone (post-26 ka) dampened thermal and mass perturbations, resulting in simpler

  4. Timescales for permeability reduction and strength recovery in densifying magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Farquharson, J. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    likely persistently re-fracture and keep the conduit margin permeable. The modelling therefore supports the notion that repeated fracture-healing cycles are responsible for the successive low-magnitude earthquakes associated with silicic dome extrusion. Taken together, our results indicate that the transition from effusive to explosive behaviour may rest on the competition between permeability reduction within the conduit and outgassing through fractures at the conduit margin. If the conditions for explosive behaviour are satisfied, the magma densification clock will be reset and the process will start again. The timescales of permeability reduction and strength recovery presented in this study may aid our understanding of the permeability evolution of conduit margin fractures, magma fracture-healing cycles, surface outgassing cycles, and the timescales required for pore pressure augmentation and the initiation of explosive eruptions.

  5. Advancing dynamic and thermodynamic modelling of magma oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron; Sanan, Patrick; Tackley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The techniques for modelling low melt-fraction dynamics in planetary interiors are well-established by supplementing the Stokes equations with Darcy's Law. But modelling high-melt fraction phenomena, relevant to the earliest phase of magma ocean cooling, necessitates parameterisations to capture the dynamics of turbulent flow that are otherwise unresolvable in numerical models. Furthermore, it requires knowledge about the material properties of both solid and melt mantle phases, the latter of which are poorly described by typical equations of state. To address these challenges, we present (1) a new interior evolution model that, in a single formulation, captures both solid and melt dynamics and hence charts the complete cooling trajectory of a planetary mantle, and (2) a physical and intuitive extension of a "Hard Sphere" liquid equation of state (EOS) to describe silicate melt properties for the pressure-temperature (P-T) range of Earth's mantle. Together, these two advancements provide a comprehensive and versatile modelling framework for probing the far-reaching consequences of magma ocean cooling and crystallisation for Earth and other rocky planets. The interior evolution model accounts for heat transfer by conduction, convection, latent heat, and gravitational separation. It uses the finite volume method to ensure energy conservation at each time-step and accesses advanced time integration algorithms by interfacing with PETSc. This ensures it accurately and efficiently computes the dynamics throughout the magma ocean, including within the ultra-thin thermal boundary layers (important for multi-component systems). Our new high P-T liquid EOS accurately captures the energetics and physical properties of the partially molten system whilst retaining the largest number of familiar EOS parameters. We demonstrate the power of our integrated dynamic and EOS model by exploring two crystallisation scenarios for Earth that are dictated by the coincidence of the liquid

  6. Extent of metal-silicate disequilibrium during accretion and early differentiation of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie, D. C.; Nimmo, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Frost, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, Mars, Venus and Mercury accreted on a timescale of 10-100 My through a series of violent collisions with planetesimals and embryos. The high energy of such impacts was sufficient to cause deep magma ocean formation which facilitated the segregation of metal and silicate liquids. Planetary cores thus formed as a multistage process that was inseparable from the accretion process. In order to better understand the formation and early differentiation of the terrestrial planets, we are integrating a multistage core-formation model with N-body accretion simulations. Constraints on model parameters are the compositions of the Earth's primitive mantle and, to a lesser extent, the mantles of Mars and Mercury which may be FeO rich and FeO-poor respectively. We use a least-squares minimization to optimise 4 model parameters. Elements currently considered include Si, O, Ni, Co, W, Nb, Cr, Ta and V. We concentrate on recent N-body simulations that result in an approximately Earth-mass planet at ~1 AU. In order to satisfy the model constraints, accretion has to be heterogeneous, with embryos and planetesimals originating in the inner part of the solar system (e.g. emulsify and equilibrate in a magma ocean and (2) the fraction of magma oceans that are involved in the equilibration process for both impacting planetesimals and embryos. Both estimates are crucial for interpreting Hf-W age determinations. Best results are obtained when the fraction of silicate mantle/magma ocean that interacts chemically with the metallic cores of impactors is limited and lies in the range 0.003 to 0.1, depending on the size of the impactor and magma ocean depth. The degree of incomplete metal equilibration depends on the extent to which the impactor's mantle participates in the metal-silicate equilibration process.

  7. Volcanic tremors and magma wagging: gas flux interactions and forcing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Jellinek, A. Mark; Michaut, Chloé; Roman, Diana C.; Morse, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Volcanic tremor is an important precursor to explosive eruptions and is ubiquitous across most silicic volcanic systems. Oscillations can persist for days and occur in a remarkably narrow frequency band (i.e. 0.5-7 Hz). The recently proposed magma-wagging model of Jellinek & Bercovici provides a basic explanation for the emergence and frequency evolution of tremor that is consistent with observations of many active silicic and andesitic volcanic systems. This model builds on work suggesting that the magma column rising in the volcanic conduit is surrounded by a permeable vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. The magma-wagging model stipulates that the magma column rattles within the spring like foam of the annulus, and predicts oscillations at the range of observed tremor frequencies for a wide variety of volcanic environments. However, the viscous resistance of the magma column attenuates the oscillations and thus a forcing mechanism is required. Here we provide further development of the magma-wagging model and demonstrate that it implicitly has the requisite forcing to excite wagging behaviour. In particular, the extended model allows for gas flux through the annulus, which interacts with the wagging displacements and induces a Bernoulli effect that amplifies the oscillations. This effect leads to an instability involving growing oscillations at the lower end of the tremor frequency spectrum, and that drives the system against viscous damping of the wagging magma column. The fully non-linear model displays tremor oscillations associated with pulses in gas flux, analogous to observations of audible `chugging'. These oscillations also occur in clusters or envelopes that are consistent with observations of sporadic tremor envelopes. The wagging model further accurately predicts that seismic signals on opposite sides of a volcano are out of phase by approximately half a wagging or tremor period. Finally, peaks in gas flux occur at the end of the growing instability

  8. Volatile contents of mafic-to-intermediate magmas at San Cristóbal volcano in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Rotolo, S. G.; Rizzo, A. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    San Cristóbal volcano in northwest Nicaragua is one of the most active basaltic-andesitic stratovolcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Here we provide novel constraints on the volcano's magmatic plumbing system, by presenting the first direct measurements of major volatile contents in mafic-to-intermediate glass inclusions from Holocene and historic-present volcanic activity. Olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] 1500 μg/g) found in Nicaragua at Cerro Negro, Nejapa, and Granada. Models of H2O and CO2 solubilities constrain the degassing pathway of magmas up to 425 MPa ( 16 km depth), which includes a deep CO2 degassing step (only partially preserved in the MI record), followed by coupled degassing of H2O and S plus crystal fractionation at magma volatile saturation pressures from ∼ 195 to < 10 MPa. The variation in volatile contents from San Cristóbal MI is interpreted to reflect (1) Holocene eruptive cycles characterized by the rapid emplacement of basaltic magma batches, saturated in volatiles, at depths of 3.8-7.4 km, and (2) the ascent of more-differentiated and cogenetic volatile-poor basaltic andesites during historic-present eruptions, having longer residence times in the shallowest (< 3.4 km) and hence coolest regions of the magmatic plumbing system. We also report the first measurements of the compositions of noble-gas isotopes (He, Ne, and Ar) in fluid inclusions in olivine and pyroxene crystals. While the measured 40Ar/36Ar ratios (300-304) and 4He/20Ne ratios (9-373) indicate some degree of air contamination, the 3He/4He ratios (7.01-7.20 Ra) support a common mantle source for Holocene basalts and historic-present basaltic andesites. The magmatic source is interpreted as generated by a primitive MORB-like mantle, that is influenced to variable extents by distinct slab fluid components for basalts (Ba/La 76 and U/Th 0.8) and basaltic andesites (Ba/La 86 and U/Th 1.0) in addition to effects of magma differentiation. These values for the

  9. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate

  10. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, H.C.

    1984-10-01

    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  11. Coupled 142Nd-143Nd evidence for a protracted magma ocean in Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaille, V; Brandon, A D; Yin, Q Z; Jacobsen, B

    2007-11-22

    Resolving early silicate differentiation timescales is crucial for understanding the chemical evolution and thermal histories of terrestrial planets. Planetary-scale magma oceans are thought to have formed during early stages of differentiation, but the longevity of such magma oceans is poorly constrained. In Mars, the absence of vigorous convection and plate tectonics has limited the scale of compositional mixing within its interior, thus preserving the early stages of planetary differentiation. The SNC (Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny) meteorites from Mars retain 'memory' of these events. Here we apply the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd and the long-lived 147Sm-143Nd chronometers to a suite of shergottites to unravel the history of early silicate differentiation in Mars. Our data are best explained by progressive crystallization of a magma ocean with a duration of approximately 100 million years after core formation. This prolonged solidification requires the existence of a primitive thick atmosphere on Mars that reduces the cooling rate of the interior.

  12. Is magma cooling responsible for the periodic activity of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Neuberg, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    After 400 years of quiescence, Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat (SHV) started erupting in 1995. Ongoing deformation and sulphur dioxide emission demonstrate that this volcanic systems is still restless, however, after 5 years of inactivity it remains unclear whether magma extrusion will restart. Also, if such periodically observed activity at SHV will restart, can we use past monitoring data to attempt to forecast the reawakening of this volcano? Cooling of volatile saturated magma leads to crystallisation, the formation of gas bubbles and expansion. Such volumetric variations are not only potentially responsible for deformation signals observed at the surface (Caricchi et al., 2014), but also lead to pressurisation of the magmatic reservoir and eventually renewed magma extrusion (Tait et al., 1989). We postulate that volcanic activity observed at SHM over the last 20 years could be essentially the result of the unavoidable progressive cooling of a magmatic body, which was probably assembled over thousands of years and experienced internal segregation of eruptible lenses of magma (Christopher et al., 2015). To test this hypothesis, we performed thermal modelling to test if the cooling of a shallow magma body emplaced since 1990 could account for the monitoring signals observed at SHV. The results show that progressive cooling of a 4km3 volume of melt could explain the deformation rate currently observed. Using the deformation rate obtained from the modelling for the first 15 years of cooling, a reservoir volume of about 13 km3 (Paulatto et al., 2012) and a critical value of overpressure of 10 MPa, it would have taken approximately only 3 years to pressurise the reservoir to the critical pressure and restart magma extrusion. This is in agreement with the time interval between previous pauses at SHV before 2010. Considering the current deformation rates, we speculate that magma extrusion could restart in 6-8 years after the end of the last event in 2010, hence

  13. Experimental investigations of influence of pressure on the solubility of sulfur in silicate melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, Anastasia; Gorbachev, Nikolay

    2010-05-01

    Sulfide-silicate demixing of silicate melts on immiscible silicate and sulfide liquids occurs at magma sulfur saturation. This type of liquation plays an important role in geochemistry of mantle magmas, in processes of magmatic differentiation, and in ore deposit formation. The major parameter defining sulfide-silicate stratification of silicate melts is solubility of sulfur in magmas. It is considered that «solubility of sulfur» is concentration of sulfur in silicate melts. The previous researches have established positive dependence of solubility of sulphur on temperature [1, 2], melt composition [3, 4], oxidation-reduction conditions [5, 6] and our experimental data confirm it. However, available data does not give a simple answer about dependence of solubility of sulfur from pressure in modelling and natural "dry" sulfide-saturated silicate melts. The reason of difference in experiments remains not clear and further work is needed on this topic. In this paper, we report our findings on the influence of pressure on the solubility of sulfur in hydrous magnesian melts. This melts are represent by olivine basalt - picrite, coexisting with Fe-Cu-Ni sulfide melt and harzburgite (Ol+Opx) and it was investigated in a temperature range from 1200 to 1350°С and a pressure range from 0.2 to 2.5 GPa. Experiments were carried out on the piston-cylinder at Р=1-2.5GPa and in an internal-heated pressure vessels at P=0.2-0.6 GPa by a quenching technique. Our findings disagree with all previous studies demonstrating the positive [7] or negative [8, 9] influence of pressure on the solubility of sulfur in silicate melts. Our researches have shown complicated influence of pressure. Concentration of sulfur in glasses increases with increase in pressure from 0.2 to 0.6 GPa in experiments where andesite was used as a starting material. The sulfur concentration increases from 0.09 wt.% at 0.2 GPa to 0.4 wt.% at 0.6 GPa and Т=1200°С. In hydrous magnesian basalts (12-18 % MgO), we

  14. The redox state, FeO content, and origin of sulfur-rich magmas on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.; Sprague, Ann L.; Hauck, Steven A.; Nittler, Larry R.; Solomon, Sean C.; Weider, Shoshana Z.

    2013-01-01

    MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) orbital observations of Mercury have revealed elevated S abundances, Ca-S and Mg-S correlations, and a low upper limit for ferrous iron in surface silicates. These data indicate the presence of Ca and/or Mg sulfides in volcanic rocks and a low oxygen fugacity (fO2) in their parental magmas. We have evaluated coupled fO2 and fS2 values and FeO contents in Mercury's magmas from silicate-sulfide equilibria and empirical models for silicate melts and metallurgical slags. The evaluated fO2 at 1700-1800 K is 4.5 to 7.3 log10 units below the iron-wüstite buffer. These values correspond to 0.028-0.79 wt % FeO, implying that Fe must be also present in sulfides and metal and are also consistent with the composition of the partial melt of an enstatite chondrite. This derived upper limit for FeO is substantially lower than the limits obtained from reflectance measurements of Mercury's surface materials. The low fO2 and FeO values provide new constraints for igneous processes on Mercury as well as the formation, evolution, and internal structure of the innermost planet.

  15. Metal-Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten from 10 to 50 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Campbell, A. J.; Danielson, L.; Rahman, Z.; Righter, K.

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical models of core formation are commonly based on core and mantle abundances of siderophile elements that partitioned between silicate and metal in a magma ocean in the early Earth. Tungsten is a moderately siderophile element that may provide constraints on the pressure, temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity conditions, and on the timing of core formation in the Earth. Previous experimental studies suggest that pressure exerts little to no influence over W metal-silicate partitioning up to 24 GPa, and indicate that the stronger influences are temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity. However, core formation models based in part on W, predict metal-silicate equilibration pressures outside the available experimental pressure range, requiring extrapolation of parameterized models. Therefore, higher pressure experimental data on W were needed to constrain this important parameter.

  16. Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmenta...

  17. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  18. Formation of redox gradients during magma-magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, P.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Magma-mixing is a key process that controls mass transfer in magmatic systems. The variations in melt compositions near the magma-magma interface potentially change the Fe oxidation state [1] and, thus, affect the solubility and transport of metals. To test this hypothesis, diffusion-couple experiments were performed at 1000 °C, 150 MPa and QFM+4. Synthesized crystal-bearing cylinders of hydrous dacite and hydrous basaltic andesite were equilibrated for up to 80 h. The run products show that mafic components (Fe, Mg, etc.) were transported from the andesite into the dacite, while Si, Na and K diffused from the dacite into the andesite. A crystal dissolution sequence in the order of cpx, opx, plag, and spl/il was observed for the andesite. We combined μ-XANES spectroscopy at Fe K-edge [2] with two-oxide oxybarometry [3] to measure redox profiles within our experiments. Here, fO2 decreased towards the interface within the dacite and increased towards the interface within the andesite. This discontinuous fO2 evolution, with a sharp redox gradient of ~1.8 log fO2 units at the interface was maintained throughout the time-series despite the externally imposed fO2 of the vessel. We propose a combination of two mechanisms that create and sustain this redox gradient: 1) The dissolution of cpx and opx in the andesite mainly introduced Fe2+ into the melt, which diffused towards the dacite, lowering Fe3+/SFe near the interface. 2) Charge balance calculations in the melt during diffusive exchange suggest net positive charge excess in the andesite near the interface (i.e., oxidation) and net negative charge excess in the dacite near the interface (i.e., reduction). We suggest that this (metastable) redox layer can help to explain the contrasting Au/Cu ratios observed for arc-related porphyry-type ore deposits. [1] Moretti (2005), Ann. Geophys. 48, 583-608. [2] Cottrell et al. (2009), Chem. Geol. 268, 167-179. [3] Ghiorso and Evans (2008), Am. J. Sci. 308, 957-1039.

  19. Deciphering the thermal and mixing history of the Pleistocene rhyolite magma chamber at Augustine Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Webster, J. D.; Mandeville, C. W.; Monteleone, B.; Shimizu, N.; Goldoff, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent activity at Augustine Volcano, located in Cook Inlet, Alaska, has been dominated by intermediate composition lavas and relatively small explosions. Earlier in Augustine's history, however, a thick (~30 m) rhyolite fall was erupted ca. 25 ka, containing at least three distinct rhyolite lithologies. Numerous studies have documented evidence of magma mixing in the more recently-erupted material. Here we attempt to evaluate similar mixing events that may have affected the 25 ka rhyolitic magma prior to its eruption. Basaltic to basaltic-andesitic deposits are found interbedded with the rhyolite at Augustine, so at least two magmas were present in Augustine's plumbing system at the same or nearly the same time. Hints at interactions between two or more magmas are also evident on a smaller scale. Xenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene are present in the rhyolite, each with mafic melt inclusions. Additionally, two of the three rhyolitic lithologies studied contain high-aluminum amphiboles that are compositionally similar to amphiboles from mafic enclaves entrained during the 2006 eruption and thus may be xenocrystic. To further investigate possible heating by secondary melts and the history of mixing, we use the titanium-in-quartz geothermometer (TitaniQ) on chemical zonation in quartz phenocrysts. We find that most quartz has a distinct 3-zone pattern, though one lithology also contains some complex zoning patterns in phenocryst cores, perhaps suggesting a xenocrystic origin. Additionally, we examine relationships between trace elements in the silicate melt inclusions from a variety of phenocryst types to determine if there is evidence for input of additional magma of different compositions. Finally, we apply results of a preliminary investigation of the mineralogy of a high-phosphorus dacite that stratigraphically overlies the rhyolite to assess their similarity and the degree of mixing, if any, that may have led to the transition from rhyolitic to dacitic magma.

  20. A numerical program for steady-state flow of magma-gas mixtures through vertical eruptive conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a model that calculates flow properties (pressure, vesicularity, and some 35 other parameters) as a function of vertical position within a volcanic conduit during a steady-state eruption. The model idealizes the magma-gas mixture as a single homogeneousfluid and calculates gas exsolution under the assumption of equilibrium conditions. These are the same assumptions on which classic conduit models (e.g. Wilson and Head, 1981) have been based. They are most appropriate when applied to eruptions of rapidly ascending magma (basaltic lava-fountain eruptions, and Plinian or sub-Plinian eruptions of intermediate or silicic magmas) that contains abundant nucleation sites (microlites, for example) for bubble growth.

  1. Chlorine as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas: Evidence from a systematic study of the eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H; Boudon, G; Cioni, R; Webster, J D; Zdanowicz, G; Orsi, G; Civetta, L

    2016-02-18

    Defining the magma storage conditions of a volcanic system is a major goal in modern volcanology due to its direct implications for the style of a possible eruption, and thus on the associated risk of any crisis and the necessary management and mitigation strategies. Below 200 MPa and at equivalent depths, the strongly non-ideal behaviour of the H-C-O-S-Cl-F system in the silicate melt causes unmixing of the fluid phase to form an H2O-rich vapour and a hydrosaline phase in equilibrium with the silicate melt, both responsible for buffering the chlorine (Cl) concentration. Following this equilibrium, the Cl concentration in melts may be used as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas. Systematic application of this method to the main explosive eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius highlights two main magma ponding zones, at ~180-200 and ~100 MPa. At these pressures, the maximum pre-eruptive H2O contents for the different magma compositions can be estimated; the results obtained, largely in agreement with the current literature, therefore confirm the validity of the method. The Cl geobarometer may help scientists to define the variation of the magmatic reservoir location through time and thus provide strong constraints on pre-eruptive conditions, which are of utmost importance for volcanic crisis management.

  2. Chlorine as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas: Evidence from a systematic study of the eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Boudon, G.; Cioni, R.; Webster, J. D.; Zdanowicz, G.; Orsi, G.; Civetta, L.

    2016-02-01

    Defining the magma storage conditions of a volcanic system is a major goal in modern volcanology due to its direct implications for the style of a possible eruption, and thus on the associated risk of any crisis and the necessary management and mitigation strategies. Below 200 MPa and at equivalent depths, the strongly non-ideal behaviour of the H-C-O-S-Cl-F system in the silicate melt causes unmixing of the fluid phase to form an H2O-rich vapour and a hydrosaline phase in equilibrium with the silicate melt, both responsible for buffering the chlorine (Cl) concentration. Following this equilibrium, the Cl concentration in melts may be used as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas. Systematic application of this method to the main explosive eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius highlights two main magma ponding zones, at ~180–200 and ~100 MPa. At these pressures, the maximum pre-eruptive H2O contents for the different magma compositions can be estimated; the results obtained, largely in agreement with the current literature, therefore confirm the validity of the method. The Cl geobarometer may help scientists to define the variation of the magmatic reservoir location through time and thus provide strong constraints on pre-eruptive conditions, which are of utmost importance for volcanic crisis management.

  3. Magma Energy Research Project, FY80 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colp, J.L. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The technical feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies is explored. Five aspects of the project are studied: resource location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization, magma/material compatibility, and energy extraction.

  4. Influence of extrusion rate and magma rheology on the growth of lava domes: Insights from particle-dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Taha; Elsworth, Derek; Voight, Barry; Mattioli, Glen; Jansma, Pamela

    2014-09-01

    Lava domes are structures that grow by the extrusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Repeated cycles of growth are punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for the strength of the composite magma that rheologically stiffens and strengthens at its surface. Here we explore lava dome growth and failure mechanics using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. The model follows the evolution of fractured lava, with solidification driven by degassing induced crystallization of magma. The particle-dynamics model emulates the natural development of dome growth and rearrangement of the lava dome which is difficult in mesh-based analyses due to mesh entanglement effects. The deformable talus evolves naturally as a frictional carapace that caps a ductile magma core. Extrusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the distribution of strength in the composite structure. This new model is calibrated against existing observational models of lava dome growth. Results show that the shape and extent of the ductile core and the overall structure of the lava dome are strongly controlled by the infusion rate. The effects of extrusion rate on magma rheology are sensitive to material stiffness, which in turn is a function of volatile content and crystallinity. Material stiffness and material strength are key model parameters which govern magma rheology and subsequently the morphological character of the lava dome and in turn stability. Degassing induced crystallization causes material stiffening and enhances material strength reflected in non-Newtonian magma behavior. The increase in stiffness and strength of the injected magma causes a transition in the style of dome growth, from endogenous expansion of a ductile core, to stiffer and stronger intruding material capable of punching through the overlying material and resulting in the development of a spine or

  5. More Evidence for Multiple Meteorite Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2009-02-01

    Cosmochemists have identified six main compositional types of magma that formed inside asteroids during the first 100 million years of Solar System history. These magmas vary in their chemical and mineralogical make up, but all have in common low concentrations of sodium and other volatile elements. Our low-sodium-magma diet has now changed. Two groups of researchers have identified a new type of asteroidal magma that is rich in sodium and appears to have formed by partial melting of previously unmelted, volatile-rich chondritic rock. The teams, one led by James Day (University of Maryland) and the other by Chip Shearer (University of New Mexico), studied two meteorites found in Antarctica, named Graves Nunatak 06128 and 06129, using a battery of cosmochemical techniques. These studies show that an even wider variety of magmas was produced inside asteroids than we had thought, shedding light on the melting histories and formation of asteroids.

  6. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  7. Dynamics of a large, restless, rhyolitic magma system at Laguna del Maule, southern Andes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brad S.; Andersen, Nathan L.; Le Mével, Hélène; Feigl, Kurt L.; DeMets, Charles; Tikoff, Basil; Thurber, Clifford H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Cardonna, Carlos; Córdova, Loreto; Gil, Fernando; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Miller, Craig W.; Fierstein, Judith; Hildreth, Edward; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions of large-volume rhyolitic magma systems are common in the geologic record and pose a major potential threat to society. Unlike other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, a large rhyolitic volcano may provide warning signs long before a caldera-forming eruption occurs. Yet, these signs—and what they imply about magma-crust dynamics—are not well known. This is because we have learned how these systems form, grow, and erupt mainly from the study of ash flow tuffs deposited tens to hundreds of thousands of years ago or more, or from the geophysical imaging of the unerupted portions of the reservoirs beneath the associated calderas. The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chile, includes an unusually large and recent concentration of silicic eruptions. Since 2007, the crust there has been inflating at an astonishing rate of at least 25 cm/yr. This unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of a large rhyolitic system while magma migration, reservoir growth, and crustal deformation are actively under way is stimulating a new international collaboration. Findings thus far lead to the hypothesis that the silicic vents have tapped an extensive layer of crystal-poor, rhyolitic melt that began to form atop a magmatic mush zone that was established by ca. 20 ka with a renewed phase of rhyolite eruptions during the Holocene. Modeling of surface deformation, magnetotelluric data, and gravity changes suggest that magma is currently intruding at a depth of ~5 km. The next phase of this investigation seeks to enlarge the sets of geophysical and geochemical data and to use these observations in numerical models of system dynamics.

  8. Zircon crystallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Tuff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ~60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction).

  9. Zircon crytallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Miff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ??? 60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction). ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  10. Rheological flow laws for multiphase magmas: An empirical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Mattia; Cordonnier, Benoît; Ulmer, Peter; Caricchi, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The physical properties of magmas play a fundamental role in controlling the eruptive dynamics of volcanoes. Magmas are multiphase mixtures of crystals and gas bubbles suspended in a silicate melt and, to date, no flow laws describe their rheological behaviour. In this study we present a set of equations quantifying the flow of high-viscosity (> 105 Pa·s) silica-rich multiphase magmas, containing both crystals (24-65 vol.%) and gas bubbles (9-12 vol.%). Flow laws were obtained using deformation experiments performed at high temperature (673-1023 K) and pressure (200-250 MPa) over a range of strain-rates (5 · 10- 6 s- 1 to 4 · 10- 3 s- 1), conditions that are relevant for volcanic conduit processes of silica-rich systems ranging from crystal-rich lava domes to crystal-poor obsidian flows. We propose flow laws in which stress exponent, activation energy, and pre-exponential factor depend on a parameter that includes the volume fraction of weak phases (i.e. melt and gas bubbles) present in the magma. The bubble volume fraction has opposing effects depending on the relative crystal volume fraction: at low crystallinity bubble deformation generates gas connectivity and permeability pathways, whereas at high crystallinity bubbles do not connect and act as "lubricant" objects during strain localisation within shear bands. We show that such difference in the evolution of texture is mainly controlled by the strain-rate (i.e. the local stress within shear bands) at which the experiments are performed, and affect the empirical parameters used for the flow laws. At low crystallinity ( 44 vol.%) the viscosity decreases with increasing strain-rate. Because these behaviours are also associated with modifications of sample textures during the experiment and, thus, are not purely the result of different deformation rates, we refer to "apparent shear-thickening" and "apparent shear-thinning" for the behaviours observed at low and high crystallinity, respectively. At low

  11. Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2004-04-29

    Primitive chondritic meteorites contain material (presolar grains), at the level of a few parts per million, that predates the formation of our Solar System. Astronomical observations and the chemical composition of the Sun both suggest that silicates must have been the dominant solids in the protoplanetary disk from which the planets of the Solar System formed, but no presolar silicates have been identified in chondrites. Here we report the in situ discovery of presolar silicate grains 0.1-1 microm in size in the matrices of two primitive carbonaceous chondrites. These grains are highly enriched in 17O (delta17O(SMOW) > 100-400 per thousand ), but have solar silicon isotopic compositions within analytical uncertainties, suggesting an origin in an oxygen-rich red giant or an asymptotic giant branch star. The estimated abundance of these presolar silicates (3-30 parts per million) is higher than reported for other types of presolar grains in meteorites, consistent with their ubiquity in the early Solar System, but is about two orders of magnitude lower than their abundance in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles. This result is best explained by the destruction of silicates during high-temperature processing in the solar nebula.

  12. A model to forecast magma chamber rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we present a model to calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath active volcanoes. Here we discuss our model in the context of Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  13. Experimental Study of Lunar and SNC Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this progress report involved the study of petrological, geochemical, and volcanic processes that occur on the Moon and the SNC meteorite parent body, generally accepted to be Mars. The link between these studies is that they focus on two terrestrial-type parent bodies somewhat smaller than earth, and the fact that they focus on the types of magmas (magma compositions) present, the role of volatiles in magmatic processes, and on processes of magma evolution on these planets. We are also interested in how these processes and magma types varied over time.In earlier work on the A15 green and A17 orange lunar glasses, we discovered a variety of metal blebs. Some of these Fe-Ni metal blebs occur in the glass; others (in A17) were found in olivine phenocrysts that we find make up about 2 vol 96 of the orange glass magma. The importance of these metal spheres is that they fix the oxidation state of the parent magma during the eruption, and also indicate changes during the eruption . They also yield important information about the composition of the gas phase present, the gas that drove the lunar fire-fountaining. During the tenure of this grant, we have continued to work on the remaining questions regarding the origin and evolution of the gas phase in lunar basaltic magmas, what they indicate about the lunar interior, and how the gas affects volcanic eruptions. Work on Martian magmas petrogenesis questions during the tenure of this grant has resulted in advances in our methods of evaluating magmatic oxidation state variations in Mars and some new insights into the compositional variations that existed in the SNC magmas over time . Additionally, Minitti has continued to work on the problem of possible shock effects on the abundance and distribution of water in Mars minerals.

  14. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  15. The Origin of ‘OIB-Type’ Magmas in the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Gomez-Tuena, A.; Zellmer, G. F.; Cai, Y.; Stuart, F. M.; Espinasa-Perena, R.; Langmuir, C. H.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Many models consider a primary mantle origin of high-Mg andesites, but the subarc mantle of arcs producing high-Mg andesites remains poorly defined. In the monogenetic volcanic field of Sierra Chichinautzin (central Mexican Volcanic Belt), high-Mg andesites are spatially and temporally intimately associated with mildly alkaline basalts and basaltic andesites, variously referred to as ‘OIB-type’, ‘intraplate’ or ‘high-Nb arc basalts’ (Wallace and Carmichael 1999, Contrib Mineral Petrol; Schaaf et al. 2005, J Petrol). ‘OIB-type’ magmas and high-Mg andesites have erupted within a few hundreds to thousands of years from vents only a few kilometers apart, or may even have erupted jointly from single vents. It has been suggested that these ‘OIB-type’ magmas were melts from subarc mantle yet unmodified by subduction fluxes while high-Mg andesites were produced from mantle sources residual to the ‘OIB-type’ magmas. In order to test this model, we investigated ‘OIB-type’ magmas erupting from three young and closely spaced monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (V. Chichinautzin, V. Suchiooc, Cuescomates vent). The primitive olivine-phyric alkaline basalts and basaltic andesites (SiO2 = 49.6-53.5 wt%; Mg#=62-68 and MgO= 6.5-8.3 wt%) have high Ni (97-179 ppm), Nb (18-34 ppm), Nb/La (0.9-1.2) and 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra = 7.3-8.0) typical of near-primary mantle magmas unaffected by the passage through the ~47 km thick continental crust. However, all ‘OIB-type’ magmas contain high-Ni olivines that are indicative of siliceous slab melts infiltrating and reacting with peridotite mantle (Straub et al., 2008, G-cubed; Wang & Gaetani 2008, Contrib Mineral Petrol). Significant slab additions to the mantle source of the ‘OIB-type’ magmas are further confirmed by Sr-Nd-Pb systematics. We suggest that ‘OIB-type’ arc magmas reflect fertilization of a pre-existing MORB-type subarc mantle by enriched, little fractionated slab

  16. Long term storage of explosively erupted magma at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J.; Macias, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Dacitic magmas production is common in subduction-related volcanoes, occurring in those with a long period of activity as a result of the magmatic evolution. However, in this evolution many factors (i.e. crystal fractionation, assimilation, magma mixing) can interact to produce dacites. Nevado de Toluca volcano (4,680 masl; 19°09'N; 99°45'W) Central Mexico has recorded a long period of time producing dacites explosively, at least during 42 ka of activity, involving several km3 of magma, with two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ~21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice) and ~10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice). Questions like, what was the mechanism responsible to produce voluminous dacitic magma and how the volatiles and pressure changed in the Nevado de Toluca system, remain without answers. Dacites from the Lower Toluca Pumice (LTP) contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor resorbed biotite, set in a glassy-vesicular matrix and the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) dacites contain the same mineral phases plus orthopyroxene. Ilmenite- ulvospinel geothermometry yielded a temperature of ~860°C for the LTP dacite, a little hotter than the UTP (~ 840°C). Based on hydrothermal experiments data, amphibole is stable above 100 MPa under 900°C, while plagioclase crystallizes up to 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900°C. Pyroxene occurs only at pressures of 200-100 MPa with its respective temperatures of 825-900°C. Water contents in the LTP magma (2-3.5 wt %) are similar to that calculated for the UTP magma (1.3-3.6 wt %). So, there are only small changes in temperature and pressure from ~21.7 ka to 10.5 ka. It is noteworthy that orthopyroxene is absent in the LTP, however reaction-rimmed biotite (probably xenocrystic) is commonly observed in all dacites. Hence, almost all dacitic magmas seem to be stored at relatively similar pressures, water contents, and temperatures. All of these data could suggest repetitive basic magma injections producing the

  17. An experimental tool to look in a magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonde, C.; Massare, D.; Bureau, H.; Martel, C.; Pichavant, M.; Clocchiatti, R.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the physical and geochemical processes occurring in the volcanoes roots is one of the fundamental tasks of research in the experimental petrology community. This requires experimental tools able to create confining conditions appropriate for magma chambers and conduits. However, the characterization of some natural magmatic processes requires more than a blink experimental approach, to be rigorously studied. In some cases, the in situ approach is the only one issue, because it permits the observation of processes (crystallization of mineral phases, bubble growth.) and their kinetic studies. Here we present a powerful tool, a transparent internally heated autoclave. With this apparatus, pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) and temperatures (up to 900°C) appropriate for subvolcanic magma reservoirs can be obtained. Because it is equipped with transparent sapphire windows, either images or movies can be recorded during an experiment. The pressure medium is Argon, and heating is achieved by a W winding placed into the pressure vessel. Pressure and temperature are calibrated using both well known melting points (eg. salts, metals) and phase transitions (AgI), either at room temperature or at medium and high temperatures. During an experiment, the experimental charge is held between two thick windows of diamond, placed in the furnace cylinder. The experimental volume is about 1 mm3. The observation and numeric record are made along the horizontal axis, through the windows. This apparatus is currently used for studies of nucleation and growth of gas bubbles in a silicate melt. The first results will be presented at the meeting.

  18. Magma beneath Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, G.P.; Christiansen, R.L.; Iyer, H.M.; Pitt, A.M.; Mabey, D.R.; Blank, H.R.; Zietz, I.; Gettings, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    The Yellowstone plateau volcanic field is less than 2 million years old, lies in a region of intense tectonic and hydrothermal activity, and probably has the potential for further volcanic activity. The youngest of three volcanic cycles in the field climaxed 600,000 years ago with a voluminous ashflow eruption and the collapse of two contiguous cauldron blocks. Doming 150,000 years ago, followed by voluminous rhyolitic extrusions as recently as 70,000 years ago, and high convective heat flow at present indicate that the latest phase of volcanism may represent a new magmatic insurgence. These observations, coupled with (i) localized postglacial arcuate faulting beyond the northeast margin of the Yellowstone caldera, (ii) a major gravity low with steep bounding gradients and an amplitude regionally atypical for the elevation of the plateau, (iii) an aeromagnetic low reflecting extensive hydrothermal alteration and possibly indicating the presence of shallow material above its Curie temperature, (iv) only minor shallow seismicity within the caldera (in contrast to a high level of activity in some areas immediately outside), (v) attenuation and change of character of seismic waves crossing the caldera area, and (vi) a strong azimuthal pattern of teleseismic P-wave delays, strongly suggest that a body composed at least partly of magma underlies the region of the rhyolite plateau, including the Tertiary volcanics immediately to its northeast. The Yellowstone field represents the active end of a system of similar volcanic foci that has migrated progressively northeastward for 15 million years along the trace of the eastern Snake River Plain (8). Regional aeromagnetic patterns suggest that this course was guided by the structure of the Precambrian basement. If, as suggested by several investigators (24), the Yellowstone magma body marks a contemporary deep mantle plume, this plume, in its motion relative to the North American plate, would appear to be "navigating" along a

  19. 21 CFR 872.6670 - Silicate protector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6670 Silicate protector. (a) Identification. A silicate protector is a device made of silicone intended to be applied with an absorbent tipped applicator to...

  20. Magma Chambers, Thermal Energy, and the Unsuccessful Search for a Magma Chamber Thermostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Although the traditional concept that plutons are the frozen corpses of huge, highly liquid magma chambers ("big red blobs") is losing favor, the related notion that magma bodies can spend long periods of time (~106years) in a mushy, highly crystalline state is widely accepted. However, analysis of the thermal balance of magmatic systems indicates that it is difficult to maintain a significant portion in a simmering, mushy state, whether or not the system is eutectic-like. Magma bodies cool primarily by loss of heat to the Earth's surface. The balance between cooling via energy loss to the surface and heating via magma accretion can be denoted as M = ρLa/q, where ρ is magma density, L is latent heat of crystallization, a is the vertical rate of magma accretion, and q is surface heat flux. If M>1, then magma accretion outpaces cooling and a magma chamber forms. For reasonable values of ρ, L, and q, the rate of accretion amust be > ~15 mm/yr to form a persistent volume above the solidus. This rate is extremely high, an order of magnitude faster than estimated pluton-filling rates, and would produce a body 10 km thick in 700 ka, an order of magnitude faster than geochronology indicates. Regardless of the rate of magma supply, the proportion of crystals in the system must vary dramatically with depth at any given time owing to transfer of heat. Mechanical stirring (e.g., by convection) could serve to homogenize crystal content in a magma body, but this is unachievable in crystal-rich, locked-up magma. Without convection the lower part of the magma body becomes much hotter than the top—a process familiar to anyone who has scorched a pot of oatmeal. Thermal models that succeed in producing persistent, large bodies of magma rely on scenarios that are unrealistic (e.g., omitting heat loss to the planet's surface), self-fulfilling prophecies (e.g., setting unnaturally high temperatures as fixed boundary conditions), or physically unreasonable (e.g., magma is intruded

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Silicate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; NING Congqin; ZHOU Yue; CHEN Lei; LIN Kaili; CHANG Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of pure silicate ceramic particles, CaSiO3, Ca3SiO5, bredigite and akermanite were prepared and their bactericidal effects were systematically investigated. The phase compositions of these silicate ceramics were characterized by XRD. The ionic concentration meas urement revealed that the Calcium (Ca) ion concentration were relatively higher in Ca3SiO5 and bredigite, and much lower in CaSiO3 and akermanite. Accordingly, the pH values of the four silicate ceramics extracts showed a positive correlation with the particle concentrations. Meanwhile, by decreasing the particle size, higher Ca ion concentrations can be achieved, leading to the increase of aqueous pH value as well. In summary, all of the four silicate ceramics tested in our study showed antibacterial effect in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, the order of their antibacterial activity against E.coli from strong to weak is Ca3SiO5, bredigite, CaSiO3 and akermanite.

  2. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  3. Triple oxygen isotope composition of the Campi Flegrei magma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Wörner, Gerhard; Pack, Andreas; Sengupta, Sukanya; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Arienzo, Ilenia; D'Antonio, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    together form one vertical trend in Sr-O isotope space that deviates profoundly from all other subduction-related magmas. These results suggest that magmas could be derived from (a) a mantle source variably modified by pelagic sediments and later (b) assimilated high δ18O crustal material that did not significantly affect the Sr-isotope composition. In addition, Δ17O variations in hand-picked minerals and some possible contaminants (contact metamorphic skarns, altered Campi Flegrei pyroclastic rocks, marine pelagic shales and cherts) have been analyzed in order to identify the endmembers/contaminants for the Campi Flegrei volcanic complex. Δ17O, calculated as (1000*LN(δ17O/1000+1))-0.5305*(1000*LN(δ18O/1000+1)), vary between -0.03 and -0.1‰ in minerals, and between -0.07 and -0.2‰ in contaminants. Limestone assimilation is a possibility but can be ruled out by the absence of a positive correlation between δ18O and CaO. Assimilation of altered high δ18O older volcanic deposits of similar Sr-isotope composition or, alternatively, shallow assimilation of Sr-poor partial melts derived at low pressure from crustal silicate rocks are possible explanations for the observed trends and need to be further tested.

  4. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ(57)Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ(57)Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ(57)Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted.

  5. Effects of ionization on silicate glasses. [Silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primak, W.

    1982-02-01

    This evaluation of radiation effects in silicate glasses caused by ionization is based on our own investigations, on material collected in our files (reports, articles, and notes), and on a computer literature search through recent issues of Physics Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts (and the apparently pertinent references which appeared). Some of our recent results, available heretofore only in internal correspondence, are presented in some detail. It is concluded that research into the behavior of silicate glasses generally will be required before the specific effects in the radioactive waste storage glasses can be properly understood and evaluated. Two particular neglected areas of investigation are targeted for immediate concern: a kinetic analysis of annealing data and the acquisition of data on effects of irradiation at controlled elevated temperatures.

  6. Enhancement of magma mixing efficiency by chaotic dynamics: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Cristina P.; Perugini, Diego; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Dingwell, Donald B.; Poli, Giampiero

    2011-06-01

    Magma mixing is common in the Earth. Understanding the dynamics of the mixing process is necessary for dealing with the likely consequences of mixing events in the petrogenesis of igneous rocks and the physics of volcanic eruptive triggers. Here, a new apparatus has been developed in order to perform chaotic mixing experiments in systems of melts with high viscosity contrast. The apparatus consists of an outer and an inner cylinder, which can be independently rotated at finite strains to generate chaotic streamlines. The two cylinder axes are offset. Experiments have been performed for ca. 2 h, at 1,400°C under laminar fluid dynamic conditions ( Re ~ 10-7). Two end-member silicate melt compositions were synthesized: (1) a peralkaline haplogranite and (2) a haplobasalt. The viscosity ratio between these two melts was of the order of 103. Optical analysis of post-experimental samples reveals a complex pattern of mingled filaments forming a scale-invariant (i.e. fractal) distribution down to the μm-scale, as commonly observed in natural samples. This is due to the development in space and time of stretching and folding of the two melts. Chemical analysis shows strong non-linear correlations in inter-elemental plots. The original end-member compositions have nearly entirely disappeared from the filaments. The generation of thin layers of widely compositionally contrasting interfaces strongly enhances chemical diffusion producing a remarkable modulation of compositional fields over a short-length scale. Notably, diffusive fractionation generates highly heterogeneous pockets of melt, in which depletion or enrichment of chemical elements occur, depending on their potential to spread via chemical diffusion within the magma mixing system. Results presented in this work offer new insights into the complexity of processes expected to be operating during magma mixing and may have important petrological implications. In particular: (1) it is shown that, in contrast with

  7. The Plinian Lower Pumice 2 eruption, Santorini, Greece: Magma evolution and volatile behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertisser, Ralf; Preece, Katie; Keller, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    the rhyodacite, primarily due to partitioning of sulphur into pyrrhotite or, depending on temperature, a FeS-rich melt during magmatic differentiation at oxygen fugacities around the FMQ oxygen buffer. Sulphur concentrations in groundmass glasses of the LP2 pumices suggest that ˜ 43% of the remaining sulphur was released into the atmosphere during the LP2 eruption, the climatic effects of which are considered minor when compared to eruptions of more oxidised silicic arc magmas. Chlorine remained dissolved in the melt during magmatic differentiation prior to and during the LP2 eruption, indicating that chlorine emissions to the atmosphere were negligible.

  8. [A study of phonon vibration like modes for aggregation structure in silicate melts by high temperature Raman spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei-Cang; Li, Ru-Bi; Shang, Tong-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian-Hua; You, Jing-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Silicate melts are special fractal dimension system that is metastable state of near-way order and far-way disorder. In this paper, the size of nanometer aggregation structure and the frequences of phonon vibration like mode in the low dimension silicate series (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and Na2-Al2O3-SiO2 series) synthesized via high temperature melting and sol gel methods were measured by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low wavenumber Raman spectrum (LWRS) and high temperature Raman spectrum (HTRS in situ measuring). The nanometer self-similarity aggregation structure(it's size is about a few nm to a few tens nm) and phonic phonon vibration like modes of low temperature silicate gel, high temperature silicate melts and it's quenching glasses phases were obtained. So a quantitative method by HTRS for measuring the aggregation size in the high temperature melts was established. The results showed that the aggregation size of the silicate melts is smaller at high temperature than at room temperature and the number of bridge oxygen in one Si-O tetrahedron in network structure units is decreasing at high temperature. This study work provides important theory and information for deliberating geochemistry characteristic, crystallization & evolution of natural magma and enhancing performance of low dimension silicate matelials.

  9. Silicate Composition of the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Fogerty, Shane; Watson, Dan M; Sargent, Benjamin A; Koch, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. Analysis of the well-known 9.7{\\mu}m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modelled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modelling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and {\\zeta} Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as "polivene." Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapez...

  10. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2017-01-01

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core‑rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  11. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2017-01-01

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core−rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems. PMID:28120860

  12. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, David A; Troll, Valentin R; Deegan, Frances M; Jolis, Ester M; Smith, Victoria C; Whitehouse, Martin J; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Bindeman, Ilya N

    2017-01-25

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ(18)O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ(18)O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ(18)O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ(18)O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ(18)O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  13. Surface characterization of silicate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Marta

    2012-03-28

    The success of an implanted prosthetic material is determined by the early events occurring at the interface between the material and the body. These events depend on many surface properties, with the main ones including the surface's composition, porosity, roughness, topography, charge, functional groups and exposed area. This review will portray how our understanding of the surface reactivity of silicate bioceramics has emerged and evolved in the past four decades, owing to the adoption of many complementary surface characterization tools. The review is organized in sections dedicated to a specific surface property, each describing how the property influences the body's response to the material, and the tools that have been adopted to analyse it. The final section introduces the techniques that have yet to be applied extensively to silicate bioceramics, and the information that they could provide.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Metal Silicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lii Kwang-Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Organically templated metal phosphates have been extensively studied because of interesting structural chemistry and potential applications in catalysis. However, in most cases the organic templates cannot be removed without collapse of the frameworks. This is in contrast to the high thermal stability and extensive applications of zeolites in refinery and petrochemical processes.Therefore, studies have been directed to the synthesis of transition metal silicates to produce more stable frameworks. Our synthetic methods are twofold, namely mild hydrothermal reactions in Teflon-lined autoclaves at 100-200 ℃ using organic amines as templates and high-temperature,high-pressure hydrothermal reactions in gold ampoules contained in a high-pressure reaction vessel at ca. 550 ℃ and 150 Mpa using alkali metal cations as templates. In this presentation I will report the high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structures, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of a number of new silicates of indium, uranium, and transition metals.

  15. Experimental, in-situ carbon solution mechanisms and isotope fractionation in and between (C-O-H)-saturated silicate melt and silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid to upper mantle temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2017-02-01

    Our understanding of materials transport processes in the Earth relies on characterizing the behavior of fluid and melt in silicate-(C-O-H) systems at high temperature and pressure. Here, Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine structure of and carbon isotope partitioning between melts and fluids in alkali aluminosilicate-C-O-H systems. The experimental data were recorded in-situ while the samples were at equilibrium in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell at temperatures and pressures to 825 °C and >1300 MPa, respectively. The carbon solution equilibrium in both (C-O-H)-saturated melt and coexisting, silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid is 2CO3 + H2O + 2Qn + 1 = 2HCO3 + 2Qn. In the Qn-notation, the superscript, n, is the number of bridging oxygen in silicate structural units. At least one oxygen in CO3 and HCO3 groups likely is shared with silicate tetrahedra. The structural behavior of volatile components described with this equilibrium governs carbon isotope fractionation factors between melt and fluid. For example, the ΔH equals 3.2 ± 0.7 kJ/mol for the bulk 13C/12C exchange equilibrium between fluid and melt. From these experimental data, it is suggested that at deep crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures, the δ13C-differences between coexisting silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid and (C-O-H)-saturated silicate melts may change by more than 100‰ as a function of temperature in the range of magmatic processes. Absent information on temperature and pressure, the use of carbon isotopes of mantle-derived magma to derive isotopic composition of magma source regions in the Earth's interior, therefore, should be exercised with care.

  16. Biogenic silicate accumulation in sediments, Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuegang; SONG Jinming; DAI Jicui; YUAN Huamao; LI Ning; LI Fengye; SUN Song

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that low silicate content in seawater is a major limiting factor to phytoplankton primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. However the reason of Si-limitation remains poorly understood. In the present study we measured the biogenic silicate content and discussed the accumulation of silicate in Jiaozhou Bay sediment. The results show that the biogenic silica content in the sediment of the Jiaozhou Bay is obviously much higher than those in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. The BSi:TN ratios and BSi:16P ratios in the sediment are > 1 and the OC:BSi ratio in sediment is lower than these of Redfield ratio (106:16), indicating that the decomposition rate of OC is much higher than that for BSi in similar conditions. Therefore, the majority of the biogenic silicate was buried and thus did not participate in silicate recycling. Silicate accumulation in sediment may explain why Si limits the phytoplankton growth in the Jiaozhou Bay. Comparing the flux of biogenic silicate from sediments with primary production rate, it can be concluded that only 15.5% of biogenic silicate is hydrolyzed during the journey from surface to bottom in seawater, thus approximate 84.5% of biogenic silicate could reach the bottom. The silicate releasing rate from the sediment to seawater is considerably lower than that of sedimentation of biogenic silicate, indicating silicate accumulation in sediment too. In a word, the silicate accumulation in sediment is the key reason of silicate limiting to phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay.

  17. Longevity of silicate ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    The demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of dental ceramics as a biocompatible and functionally sufficient alternative to conventional restorative materials. Silicate ceramic restorations are widely used for veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns in dentistry. Long-term data are of crucial importance to optimize clinical practice. The purpose of the present article is to summarize data of the Innsbruck ceramic evaluation up to 261 months with the focus on longevity and failure characteristics.

  18. Convective Regimes in Crystallizing Basaltic Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Holness, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Cooling through the chamber walls drives crystallisation in crustal magma chambers, resulting in a cumulate pile on the floor and mushy regions at the walls and roof. The liquid in many magma chambers, either the bulk magma or the interstitial liquid in the mushy regions, may convect, driven either thermally, due to cooling, or compositionally, due to fractional crystallization. We have constructed a regime diagram of the possible convective modes in a system containing a basal mushy layer. These modes depend on the large-scale buoyancy forcing characterised by a global Rayleigh number and the proportion of the chamber height constituting the basal mushy region. We have tested this regime diagram using an analogue experimental system composed of a fluid layer overlying a pile of almost neutrally buoyant inert particles. Convection in this system is driven thermally, simulating magma convection above and within a porous cumulate pile. We observe a range of possible convective regimes, enabling us to produce a regime diagram. In addition to modes characterised by convection of the bulk and interstitial fluid, we also observe a series of regimes where the crystal pile is mobilised by fluid motions. These regimes feature saltation and scouring of the crystal pile by convection in the bulk fluid at moderate Rayleigh numbers, and large crystal-rich fountains at high Rayleigh numbers. For even larger Rayleigh numbers the entire crystal pile is mobilised in what we call the snowglobe regime. The observed mobilisation regimes may be applicable to basaltic magma chambers. Plagioclase in basal cumulates crystallised from a dense magma may be a result of crystal mobilisation from a plagioclase-rich roof mush. Compositional convection within such a mush could result in disaggregation, enabling the buoyant plagioclase to be entrained in relatively dense descending liquid plumes and brought to the floor. The phenocryst load in porphyritic lavas is often interpreted as a

  19. Microtextural and mineral chemical analyses of andesite–dacite from Barren and Narcondam islands: Evidences for magma mixing and petrological implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dwijesh Ray; S Rajan; Rasik Ravindra; Ashim Jana

    2011-02-01

    Andesite and dacite from Barren and Narcondam volcanic islands of Andaman subduction zone are composed of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, olivine, titanomagnetite, magnesio-hornblende and rare quartz grains. In this study, we use the results of mineral chemical analyses of the calc-alkaline rock suite of rocks as proxies for magma mixing and mingling processes. Plagioclase, the most dominant mineral, shows zoning which includes oscillatory, patchy, multiple and repetitive zonation and ‘fritted’ or ‘sieve’ textures. Zoning patterns in plagioclase phenocrysts and abrupt fluctuations in An content record different melt conditions in a dynamic magma chamber. ‘Fritted’ zones (An55) are frequently overgrown by thin calcic (An72) plagioclase rims over well-developed dissolution surfaces. These features have probably resulted from mixing of a more silicic magma with the host andesite. Olivine and orthopyroxene with reaction and overgrowth rims (corona) suggest magma mixing processes. We conclude that hybrid magma formed from the mixing of mafic and felsic magma by two-stage processes initial intrusion of hotter mafic melt (andesitic) followed by cooler acidic melt at later stage.

  20. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanic rocks from the Lake Chad region: An extension of the Cameroon volcanic line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Torng, P.-K.; Yang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, near Lake Chad, are considered to be an extension of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL) but their petrogenetic association is uncertain. The silicic rocks are divided into peraluminous and peralkaline groups with both rock types chemically similar to within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma indicating the magmas erupted ˜10 million years before the next oldest CVL rocks (i.e., ˜66 Ma). The Sr isotopes (i.e., ISr = 0.7021-0.7037) show a relatively wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268-0.51271) are uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Thermodynamic modeling shows that the silicic rocks likely formed by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma but that the peraluminous rocks were affected by low temperature alteration processes. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts identified within the Late Cretaceous basins (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51245-0.51285) of Chad than the uncontaminated CVL rocks (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270-0.51300). The age and isotopic compositions suggest the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad region are related to Late Cretaceous extensional volcanism in the Termit basin. It is unlikely that the silicic volcanic rocks are petrogenetically related to the CVL but it is possible that magmatism was structurally controlled by suture zones that formed during the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean and/or the Pan-African Orogeny.

  1. The parent magmas of the SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, J.; Pan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Mineral compositions, partition coefficients, and computer-graphic representations of liquidus phase boundaries are used here to calculate parent magma compositions for Nakhla, Chassigny, and the xenocryst assemblage in EETA79001B, ALHA77005, and the EETA79001A groundmass. The calculated SNC parent magma compositions have low concentrations of Al2O3 and widely varying wollastonitite (CaO) component. In this regard they resemble basaltic komatiites, but their range of Wo is more extensive than that of basaltic komatiites and trace element characteristics are different. The calculated Nakhla parent magma has an unusually high Wo content and does not resemble any other known magmatic composition. A model of SNC petrogenesis is proposed.

  2. Chemical compositions of aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid in the vicinity of the second critical endpoint in the system peridotite-H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Ono, S.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the chemical compositions of fluid and melt is fundamental in understanding the magma genesis and chemical differentiation in the Earth's interior. We investigated the stability fields of aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid magma using in-situ x-ray radiography and the second critical endpoint in the system peridotite-H2O was determined to be around 3.8 GPa (Mibe et al., 2007, JGR). Using the quenched recovered samples obtained by Mibe et al. (2007), we determined the chemical compositions of aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid in the vicinity of the second critical endpoint in the system peridotite-H2O by EPMA analyses. A 10- to 30-μm diameter electron beam was used to obtain the composition of quenched materials from aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid. The compositions of coexisting aqueous fluid and silicate melt were determined at 3.3 GPa and 3.6 GPa and 1180°C. In both samples, olivine coexists with aqueous fluid and silicate melt. In the run at 3.3 GPa, the composition of aqueous fluid was high-Mg dacitic, whereas the composition of silicate melt was hydrous peridotite. In the run at 3.6 GPa, the composition of aqueous fluid was high-Mg andesitic, whereas the composition of silicate melt was hydrous komatiitic. Although aqueous fluids in both runs are high-Mg, both MgO and FeO preferentially enters into silicate melt compared to aqueous fluid.

  3. Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahren, Börje; Troll, Valentin R.; Andersson, Ulf B.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Gardner, Màiri F.; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2-8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7-12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3-7 km) and sub-Moho (23-28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

  4. The Influence of Crystal Size Distributions (CSD) on the Rheology of Magma: New Insights from Analogue Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J.; Mueller, S.; Castro, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing the flow properties, or rheology, of magma is of great importance for volcanological research. It is vital for understanding eruptive and depositional features, modelling magma flow rates and distances, interpreting pre-eruptive volcanic unrest and earthquakes, and ultimately predicting volcanic hazards related to magma motion. Despite its key role in governing volcanic processes, magma rheology is extremely difficult to constrain in time and space within a natural volcanic system, because it is dependent upon so many variables. Therefore, both analogue and experimental studies of permissible yet simplified scenarios are needed to isolate different rheological influences. Despite significant progress in understanding the rheological properties of silicate melts and two-phase mixtures (e.g. melt + crystals), as well as the impact of the volume fraction (e.g. Pinkerton & Stevenson, 1992; Caricchi et al., 2007; Mueller et al., 2010) and shape (Mueller et al., 2011) of crystals on magma rheology, the effect of the crystal size distribution (CSD) is still poorly constrained. A highly disperse CSD (i.e., a great variety of different crystal sizes) leads to a much more efficient packing of crystals in a flowing magma which predominantly controls the rheological behavior of magma in a sheared particle Accounting for, or neglecting, the size distribution of crystals can therefore make a considerable difference in magma flow models. We present the results of systematic rheometric experiments using multimodal analogue particle suspensions of well-defined size fractions of micrometer-sized glass beads in silicone oil as magma-analogue material. Starting with simple bimodal distributions (i.e. particles of two distinct sizes), the complexity of the samples' particle size distribution has been successively increased and evaluated towards tetramodal distributions (four distinct size fractions). Statistical values of the given suspensions have been calculated and

  5. The timing of compositionally-zoned magma reservoirs and mafic 'priming' weeks before the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai rhyolite eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brad S.; Costa, Fidel; Herrin, Jason S.; Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-10-01

    The June, 6, 1912 eruption of more than 13 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma at Novarupta vent, Alaska was the largest of the 20th century. It ejected >7 km3 of rhyolite, ∼1.3 km3 of andesite and ∼4.6 km3 of dacite. Early ideas about the origin of pyroclastic flows and magmatic differentiation (e.g., compositional zonation of reservoirs) were shaped by this eruption. Despite being well studied, the timing of events that led to the chemically and mineralogically zoned magma reservoir remain poorly known. Here we provide new insights using the textures and chemical compositions of plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals and by reevaluating previous U-Th isotope data. Compositional zoning of the magma reservoir likely developed a few thousand years before the eruption by several additions of mafic magma below an extant silicic reservoir. Melt compositions calculated from Sr contents in plagioclase fill the compositional gap between 68 and 76% SiO2 in whole pumice clasts, consistent with uninterrupted crystal growth from a continuum of liquids. Thus, our findings support a general model in which large volumes of crystal-poor rhyolite are related to intermediate magmas through gradual separation of melt from crystal-rich mush. The rhyolite is incubated by, but not mixed with, episodic recharge pulses of mafic magma that interact thermochemically with the mush and intermediate magmas. Hot, Mg-, Ca-, and Al-rich mafic magma intruded into, and mixed with, deeper parts of the reservoir (andesite and dacite) multiple times. Modeling the relaxation of the Fe-Mg concentrations in orthopyroxene and Mg in plagioclase rims indicates that the final recharge event occurred just weeks prior to the eruption. Rapid addition of mass, volatiles, and heat from the recharge magma, perhaps aided by partial melting of cumulate mush below the andesite and dacite, pressurized the reservoir and likely propelled a ∼10 km lateral dike that allowed the overlying rhyolite to reach the

  6. Evolution of the crustal magma plumbing system during the build-up to the 22-ka caldera-forming eruption of Santorini (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, G. N.; Druitt, T. H.; Scaillet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of shallow, caldera-sized reservoirs of crystal-poor silicic magma requires the generation of large volumes of silicic melt, followed by the segregation of that melt and its accumulation in the upper crust. The 21.8 ± 0.4-ka Cape Riva eruption of Santorini discharged >10 km3 of crystal-poor dacitic magma, along with Santorini. One of the last Therasia lavas to be discharged was a hybrid andesite formed by the mixing of dacite and basalt. The Cape Riva eruption occurred no more than 2,800 ± 1,400 years after the final Therasia activity. The Cape Riva dacite is similar in major element composition to the Therasia dacites, but is poorer in K and most incompatible trace elements (e.g. Rb, Zr and LREE). The same chemical differences are observed between the Cape Riva and Therasia hybrid andesites, and between the calculated basaltic mixing end-members of each series. The Therasia and Cape Riva dacites are distinct silicic magma batches and are not related by shallow processes of crystal fractionation or assimilation. The Therasia lavas were therefore not simply precursory leaks from the growing Cape Riva magma reservoir. The change 21.8 ky ago from a magma series richer in incompatible elements to one poorer in those elements is one step in the well documented decrease with time of incompatibles in Santorini magmas over the last 530 ky. The two dacitic magma batches are interpreted to have been emplaced sequentially into the upper crust beneath the summit of the volcano, the first (Therasia) then being partially, or wholly, flushed out by the arrival of the second (Cape Riva). This constrains the upper-crustal residence time of the Cape Riva reservoir to less than 2,800 ± 1,400 years, and the associated time-averaged magma accumulation rate to >0.004 km3 year-1. Rapid ascent and accumulation of the Cape Riva dacite may have been caused by an increased flux of mantle-derived basalt into the crust, explaining the occurrence of hybrid andesites (formed by

  7. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2014-05-01

    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  8. Mantle Origin of Silicic Calc-alkaline Basalts to Andesites in the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Zellmer, G. F.; Gómez-Tuena, A.; Stuart, F.; Espinasa-Perena, R.; Cai, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Quaternary central Mexican Volcanic Belt, constructed on ~50 km thick continental crust, erupts a broad spectrum of basaltic to dacitic calc-alkaline magmas with the arc-typical high ratios of large-ion lithophile to high-field strength elements. In order to understand their genesis, we investigated high-Mg# olivine-phyric calc-alkaline basalts to andesites from Holocene monogenetic volcanoes Tuxtepec (50.2 wt% SiO2; 9.7 wt% MgO), Yecahuazac (53.1;8.0), Suchiooc Cone (53.2;9.2), Guespalapa (54.4-61.2;5.3-7.9) and Cuatepel (55.6-58.9;5.4-7.5), and as well as one basaltic andesite from composite volcano Popocateptl (56.7;6.9). The high 3He/4He (7.3 ± 0.3 Ra; n=16) of olivine phenocrysts that crystallize at upper crustal levels, and the limited range of Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios preclude any significant crustal contamination of these magmas. Moreover, small, but significant differences in Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios and the variations of olivine phenocrysts in the Fo-Ni space conclusively rule out that these magmas were related through fractional crystallization. Consequently, the basaltic to andesitic magmas must originate from the sub-arc mantle. Building on the high-Ni content of the olivines that by far exceed Ni abundances of olivines in partial melts of peridotite, we propose that the subarc MVB mantle contains segregations of silica-excess and silica-deficient 'reaction pyroxenites' that formed through infiltration of highly reactive silicic fluids or melts from slab. Upon melting, the pyroxenites produce dacitic and basaltic initial melts, respectively, that mix in variable proportions during ascent through mantle and crust. This genetic model links the silica enrichment of the arc magmas directly to the silica flux from slab, with no requirement for any significant melt silica increase in the overlying crust.

  9. Geology of magma systems: background and review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterfreund, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    A review of basic concepts and current models of igneous geology is presented. Emphasis is centered on studies of magma generation, ascent, emplacement, evolution, and surface or near-surface activity. An indexed reference list is also provided to facilitate future investigations.

  10. Unusual Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T.; Agresti, D.; Martin, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite. Morris et al. proposed that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stabilities of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas, we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of super- and sub-liquidus glasses from a shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar to 4 GPa, and variable fO2. Second, we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition.

  11. Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Martin, A.; Pando, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2011-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite [1]. Morris et al. [1] propose that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks [2,3]. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stability of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas [4,5]. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition. Second, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of the same shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar and variable fO2 at 1250 C, and at variable pressure. These two goals will help define not only magnetite stability, but pyroxene-melt equilibria that are also dependent upon fO2.

  12. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  13. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    John Browning; Kyriaki Drymoni; Agust Gudmundsson

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techni...

  14. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy

  15. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in

  16. Chemical reactivity parameters (HSAB) applied to magma evolution and ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneresse, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-01

    Magmas are commonly described through the usual content of 10 major oxides. This requires a complex dimensional plot. Concepts of hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) interactions allow estimating chemical reactivity of elements, such as electronegativity, i.e. the chemical potential changed of sign, hardness and electrophilicity. For complex system, those values result from equalization methods, i.e. the equalization of the respective chemical potentials, or from ab-initio computations through density functional theory (DFT). They help to characterize silicate magmas by a single value describing their reactivity. Principles of minimum electrophilicity (mEP), maximum hardness (MHP) and minimum polarizability (mPP) indicate trends towards regions of higher stability. Those parameters are plotted within a fitness landscape diagram, highlighting toward which principle reactions trend. Major oxides, main minerals and magmas determine the respective fields in which evolve natural rocks. Three poles are identified, represented by silica and alkalis, whereas oxidation forms the third trend. Mantle-derived rocks show a large variation in electrophilicity compared to hardness. They present all characters of a closed chemical system, being simply described by the free Gibbs energy. Conversely, rocks contaminated within the continental crust show a large variation in hardness between a silica pole and an alkaline, defining two separate trends. The trends show the character of an open chemical system, requiring a Grand Potential description (i.e. taking into account the difference in chemical potential). The terms open and closed systems refer to thermodynamical description, implying contamination for the crust and recycling for the mantle. The specific role of alkalis contrasts with other cations, pointing to their behavior in modifying silicate polymer structures. A second application deals with the reactivity of the melt and its fluid phase. It leads to a better understanding on the

  17. The mechanics of shallow magma reservoir outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmigiani, A.; Degruyter, W.; Leclaire, S.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.

    2017-08-01

    Magma degassing fundamentally controls the Earth's volatile cycles. The large amount of gas expelled into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions (i.e., volcanic outgassing) is the most obvious display of magmatic volatile release. However, owing to the large intrusive:extrusive ratio, and considering the paucity of volatiles left in intrusive rocks after final solidification, volcanic outgassing likely constitutes only a small fraction of the overall mass of magmatic volatiles released to the Earth's surface. Therefore, as most magmas stall on their way to the surface, outgassing of uneruptible, crystal-rich magma storage regions will play a dominant role in closing the balance of volatile element cycling between the mantle and the surface. We use a numerical approach to study the migration of a magmatic volatile phase (MVP) in crystal-rich magma bodies ("mush zones") at the pore scale. Our results suggest that buoyancy-driven outgassing is efficient over crystal volume fractions between 0.4 and 0.7 (for mm-sized crystals). We parameterize our pore-scale results for MVP migration in a thermomechanical magma reservoir model to study outgassing under dynamical conditions where cooling controls the evolution of the proportion of crystal, gas, and melt phases and to investigate the role of the reservoir size and the temperature-dependent viscoelastic response of the crust on outgassing efficiency. We find that buoyancy-driven outgassing allows for a maximum of 40-50% volatiles to leave the reservoir over the 0.4-0.7 crystal volume fractions, implying that a significant amount of outgassing must occur at high crystal content (>0.7) through veining and/or capillary fracturing.

  18. S-Isotope Fractionation between Fluid and Silicate Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, A.; Holtz, F.; Shimizu, N.; Behrens, H.; Mandeville, C. W.; Simon, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Large amounts of sulfur (S) can be released from silicate melts during volcanic eruption. Degassing of magma can lead to S-isotope fractionation between fluid and melt. However, experimental data on fluid-melt S-isotope fractionation are scarce and no data exist for silicate melts at temperatures (T) > 1000°C. Recent advances in in situ S-isotope analyses using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) enable determinations of the isotopic composition in silicate glasses with low S content [1] and allow us to investigate experimentally fluid-melt S-isotope fractionation effects in magmatic systems. Isothermal decompression experiments were conducted in internally heated pressure vessels (IHPV). Volatile-bearing (~3 to ~8 wt% H2O, 140 to 2700 ppm S, 0 to 1000 ppm Cl) andesitic and basaltic glasses were synthesized at ~1040°C, ~500 MPa and log(fO2) = QFM to QFM+4 (QFM: quartz-magnetite-fayalite buffer). The decompression experiments were carried out at T = 1030 to 1200°C and similar fO2. Pressure (P) was released continuously from ~400 MPa to 150, 100 or 70 MPa with rates (r) ranging from 0.001 to 0.2 MPa/s. The samples were either rapidly quenched after decompression or annealed for various times (tA) at final conditions (1 to 72 h) before quenching. The volatile-bearing starting glasses and the partially degassed experimental glasses were analyzed by electron microprobe (e.g. Cl-, S-content), IR-spectroscopy (H2O content) and SIMS (δ34S). The gas-melt isotope fractionation factors (αg-m) were estimated following Holloway and Blank [2] and utilizing mass balance calculations. The results show that αg-m remains constant within error over the investigated range of r and tA, reflecting fluid-melt equilibrium fractionation of S isotopes for given T and fO2. Data obtained for oxidizing conditions (~QFM+4) are in agreement with observations in arc magmas [3] and close to what is predicted by previous theoretical and experimental data [4; 5; 6]; e.g. a α(SO2 gas - SO42

  19. Nanoscale zinc silicate from phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, C. R.; Amarasinghe, R.; Freitas, J. A.; Culbertson, J. C.; Wollmershauser, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report a faster, less expensive method of producing zinc silicate nanoparticles. Such particles are used in high volume to make phosphors and anti-corrosion coatings. The approach makes use of phytoliths (plant rocks), which are microscopic, amorphous, and largely silicate particles embedded in plants, that lend themselves to being easily broken down into nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of Zn2SiO4 were produced in a two stage process. In the refinement stage, plant residue, mixed with an appropriate amount of ZnO, was heated in an argon atmosphere to a temperature exceeding 1400 °C for four to six hours and then heated in air at 650 °C to remove excess carbon. TEM shows 50-100 nm nanoparticles. Raman scattering indicates that only the -Zn2SiO4 crystalline phase was present. X-ray analysis indicated pure rhombohedral R 3 bar phase results from using rice/wheat husks. Both samples luminesced predominantly at 523 nm when illuminated with X-rays or UV laser light.

  20. Silicate condensation in Mira variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gail, Hans-Peter; Pucci, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    We study whether the condensation of silicate dust in Mira envelopes could be caused by cluster formation by the abundant SiO molecules. For a simplified model of the pulsational motions of matter in the the outer layers of a Mira variable which is guided by a numerical model for Mira pulsations, the equations of dust nucleation and growth are solved in the co-moving frame of a fixed mass element. It is assumed that seed particles form by clustering of SiO molecules. The calculation of the nucleation rate is based on the experimental data of Nuth and Donn (1982). The quantity of dust formed is calculated by a moment method and the calculation of radiation pressure on the dusty gas is based on a dirty silicate model. Dust nucleation occurs in the model at the upper culmination of the trajectory of a gas parcel where it stays for a considerable time at low temperatures while subsequent dust growth occurs during the descending part of the motion and continues after the next shock reversed motion. It is found tha...

  1. Is gold solubility subject to pressure variations in ascending arc magmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, Sébastien; Nakamura, Michihiko; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Chang, Qing; Zellmer, Georg F.

    2016-09-01

    Magmas play a key role in the genesis of epithermal and porphyry ore deposits, notably by providing the bulk of ore metals to the hydrothermal fluid phase. It has been long shown that the formation of major deposits requires a multi-stage process, including the concentration of metals in silicate melts at depth and their transfer into the exsolved ore fluid in more superficial environments. Both aspects have been intensively studied for most of noble metals in subsurface conditions, whereas the effect of pressure on the concentration (i.e., solubility) of those metals in magmas ascending from the sublithospheric mantle to the shallow arc crust has been quite neglected. Here, we present new experimental data aiming to constrain the processes of gold (Au) dissolution in subduction-linked magmas along a range of depth. We have conducted hydrous melting experiments on two dacitic/adakitic magmas at 0.9 and 1.4 GPa and ∼1000 °C in an end-loaded piston cylinder apparatus, under fO2 conditions close to NNO as measured by solid Co-Pd-O sensors. Experimental charges were carried out in pure Au containers, the latter serving as the source of gold, in presence of variable amounts of H2O and, for half of the charges, with elemental sulfur (S) so as to reach sulfide saturation. Au concentrations in melt quenched to glass were determined by LA-ICPMS. When compared to previous data obtained at lower pressures and variable redox conditions, our results show that in both S-free and sulfide-saturated systems pressure has no direct, detectable effect on melt Au solubility. Nevertheless, pressure has a strong, negative effect on sulfur solubility. Since gold dissolution is closely related to the behavior of sulfur in reducing and moderately oxidizing conditions, pressure has therefore a significant but indirect effect on Au solubility. The present study confirms that Au dissolution is mainly controlled by fO2 in S-free melts and by a complex interplay of fO2 and melt S2

  2. The Non-Newtonian Rheology of Real Magmas: insights into 3D microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Caricchi, L.; Ulmer, P.; Reusser, E.; Marone, F.; Burlini, L.

    2010-12-01

    We present high-resolution 3D microstructures of three-phase magmas composed of melt, bubbles and crystals in different proportions deformed at magmatic pressure and temperature conditions. This study aims to constrain the dependence of rheological and physical properties of magmas on the viscosity of the silicate melt, the applied deformation rate, the relative contents of crystals and bubbles and on the interactions between these phases. The starting material is composed of a hydrous haplogranitic melt containing H2O (2.26 wt%) and CO2 (624 ppm) and different proportions of quartz crystals (between 24 and 65 vol%; 63-125 μm in diameter) and bubbles (between 9 and 12 vol%; 5-150 μm in diameter). Experiments were performed in simple shear using a HT-HP internally-heated Paterson-type rock deformation apparatus (Paterson and Olgaard, 2000) at strain rates ranging between 5×10-5 s-1 and 4×10-3 s-1, at a constant pressure of 200 MPa and temperatures ranging between 723 and 1023 K. Synchrotron based X-ray tomographic microscopy performed at the TOMCAT beamline (Stampanoni et al., 2006) at the Swiss Light Source enabled quantitative evaluation of the 3D microstructure. At high temperature and low strain rate conditions the silicate melt behaves as a Newtonian liquid (Webb and Dingwell, 1990). Higher deformation rates and the contemporary presence of gas bubbles and solid crystals make magma rheology more complex and non-Newtonian behaviour occurs. In all experimental runs two different non-Newtonian effects were observed: shear thinning (decrease of viscosity with increasing strain rate) in high crystal-content magmas (55-65 vol% crystals; 9-10 vol% bubbles) and shear thickening (increase of viscosity with increasing strain rate) in magmas at lower degree of crystallinity (24 vol% crystals; 12 vol% bubbles). Both behaviours were observed at intermediate crystal-content (44 vol% crystals; 12 vol% bubbles), with an initial thickening that subsequently gives way to

  3. Geophysical Evidence for the Locations, Shapes and Sizes, and Internal Structures of Magma Chambers beneath Regions of Quaternary Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, H. M.

    1984-04-01

    at the onset of melting of rocks and to delineate in three dimensions the shape of the partly melted zone. Similarly, decreases in density and electrical resistivity in rocks during melting, can be detected. Seismic refraction and reflection are not yet used extensively in magma chamber studies. In a study, in the Yellowstone region, seismic delays occurring in a fan-shooting configuration and time-term modelling show the presence of an intense molten zone in the upper crust. Deep seismic sounding (a combination of seismic refraction and reflection) and modelling amplitude and velocity changes of diffracted seismic waves from explosions and earthquakes, have enabled mapping of small and large magma chambers beneath many volcanoes in Kamchatka, U.S.S.R. Teleseismic P-wave residuals have been used to model low-velocity bodies, interpreted as magma chambers, in several Quaternary volcanic centres in the U.S.A. The results show that magma chambers with volumes of a few hundred to a few thousand cubic kilometres volume seem to be confined to regions of silicic volcanism. Many of the magma bodies seem to have upper-mantle roots implying that they are not isolated pockets of partial melt, but may be deriving their magma supplies from deeper parental sources. Medium or large crustal magma chambers are absent in the andesitic volcanoes of western United States and the basaltic Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. However, regional velocity models of the Oregon Cascades and Hawaii show evidence for the presence of magma reservoirs in the upper mantle. The transport of magma to the upper crust in these regions probably occurs rapidly through narrow conduits, with transient storage occurring in small chambers of a few cubic kilometres volume. Very little use has been made of the gravity and magnetic maps to model magma chambers. The number of available case histories, though few, indicate that these data can be very useful to give constraints on the density and temperature in magma chambers

  4. Structure and Viscosity of Carbonate-Silicate Melts Using in situ Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, D. R.; Manning, C. E.; Kavner, A.; Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical properties of carbon-rich magmas at high pressures and temperatures are a major factor controlling the deep-Earth carbon cycle, and may play a crucial role in global magmatism at depth. We have measured the structure of carbonate-silicate liquids as a function of carbon content along the calcite-wollastonite (CaCO3-CaSiO3) and calcite-forsterite (CaCO3-Mg2SiO3) compositional joins at ~1800 oC, and 3 or 6 GPa in a Paris-Edinburgh press using X-ray diffuse scattering. Pair distribution functions calculated from the scattering data confirm that CaCO3 behaves as an ionic liquid, while compositions with 40-100 wt% wollastonite contain polymerized silicate with an average connectivity (Qn) of at least two bridging O per Si (Q2). Even liquid compositions with as little as 35 wt% forsterite component contain silicate polymers, despite the absence of bridging O in the crystalline orthosilicate. As the carbonate content of the melt is increased, the average connectivity of SiO4 units linearly increases from ~Q2 for pure wollastonite liquid to >Q3 for 40 wt% wollastonite, even though less silicate is present. Analysis of Ca-Ca and Ca-Si pair correlations, as well as Ca-O bond distances, indicate that Ca2+ bonds more strongly to the silicate framework as carbonate content increases. Increasing pressure from 3 to 6 GPa at constant composition causes Qn to fall near Q0. The trends in local atomic structure with composition and pressure explain falling sphere viscometry measurements in carbonate-silicate liquids at upper mantle conditions. These viscosities are as low as 6x10-3 Pa-s for pure CaCO3, only half a log unit higher than that of water, and span ~1.6 log units between the carbonate and silicate end-members. Structural and viscosity trends taken together indicate carbonate-rich, depolymerized and highly mobile liquid at depth which transitions into silicate-rich, polymerized and much less mobile liquid as the melt ascends into the crust.

  5. Subglacial Silicic Eruptions: Wet Cavities and Moist Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J. A.; McGarvie, D. W.; Gilbert, J. S.; Smellie, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    Comparing the deposits of subglacial eruptions with those of subaerial and subaqueous eruptions enables the influence of magma-water-ice interactions to be explored. In this presentation, the Icelandic subglacial rhyolite tuyas of Kerlingarfjöll and Prestahnúkur are compared with subaerial and subaqueous rhyolite formations at Sierra La Primavera, México. Prestahnúkur formed by the subglacial lava effusion and thick lava flows with steep termini are products of confinement by ice walls. Basal deposits of perlitised obsidian lobes suggest a water-saturated environment, and the extremely abundant microvesicular lava blocks surrounding these lobes and throughout the edifice are broadly similar to the carapaces of silicic lava domes at La Primavera known to have a subaqueous origin. Although bedded and sorted deposits are present at Prestahnúkur, they are trivial compared to the thick and extensive caldera-lake deposits of La Primavera, which even contain a "giant pumice" marker bed formed by the lake-wide deposition of once-bouyant blocks. The Kerlingarfjöll rhyolite tuyas formed during explosive subglacial eruptions. The first-erupted material forms structureless beds of phreatomagmatically-fragmented ash; ash from subaqueous eruptions at La Primavera is similarly fine grained, but in contrast is well-bedded (due to lacustrine deposition). Later-erupted material at Kerlingarfjöll typically consists of massive unconsolidated lapilli-tuffs. The lapilli themselves are similar to those within the well-sorted subaerially-formed pumice cones La Primavera, however Kerlingarfjöll's lapilli- tuffs have grain-size characteristics of proximal pyroclastic flows. These observations suggest that although similar fragmentation mechanisms operated in both locations, transport and consequent sorting was limited at Kerlingarfjöll. The different products of the two Icelandic subglacial tuyas are related to their different eruption rates and magma volatile contents. Melting of

  6. Magma evolution and volatile behaviour prior to and during the Plinian Lower Pumice 2 eruption, Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertisser, R.; Preece, K.; Keller, J.

    2009-04-01

    concentrations in groundmass glasses of the LP2 pumices suggest that c. 60% of the remaining sulphur was released into the atmosphere during the LP2 eruption, the climatic effects of which are considered minor when compared to eruptions of more oxidised silicic arc magmas. Chlorine remained dissolved in the melt during magmatic differentiation prior to and during the LP2 eruption, indicating that chlorine emissions to the atmosphere were negligible.

  7. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of arc magma recorded in plagioclase from the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Martel, Caroline; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Cathala, Annick; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Pratomo, Indyo; Sumarti, Sri

    2016-10-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of magmatic crystals provide important information to distinguish between deep juvenile and crustal contributions. In this work, high-resolution multicollector secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal strong variations of δ18O values in three plagioclase crystals (800-1700 μm) from two representative basaltic andesite samples of the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia). The δ18O values (from 4.6‰ to 7.9‰) are interpreted to reflect oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the melt composition during plagioclase growth. The lowest δ18O values (4.6-6.6‰) are found in anorthite-rich cores (An82-97), whereas higher δ18O values (5.7-7.9‰) are found in anorthite-poorer zones (An33-86), typically in crystal rims. Combining these new plagioclase δ18O data with δ18O of calc-silicate crustal xenoliths erupted between 1994 and 1998, the composition of glass inclusions hosted by the anorthite-rich plagioclase (An82-92), available experimental data, and the results of thermodynamic modeling using the Magma Chamber Simulator code, we conclude that the abundant anorthite-rich cores crystallized from a mantle-derived hydrous basaltic to basaltic trachyandesite melt that recharged a deeper (200-600 MPa) magma storage zone, whereas lower anorthite zones crystallized at shallower levels (100-200 MPa). The oxygen isotope variations in the plagioclase are explained by a two-stage model of interaction of the hydrous, mafic mantle-derived magma (1) with old crustal rocks depleted in 18O due to high temperature alteration that yielded the low δ18O values in the anorthite-rich cores at deep levels (13-20 km), and later (2) with 18O-enriched carbonate material that yielded the high δ18O values in anorthite-poorer zones at shallow levels (∼4.5-9 km). Thermodynamic modeling is consistent with ∼18 wt.% assimilation of crustal calc-silicate material at 925-950 °C and 100-200 MPa by the 2010 Merapi basaltic andesite magma prior to

  8. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  9. Silicate melts density, buoyancy relations and the dynamics of magmatic processes in the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Malfait, Wim J.

    2016-04-01

    Although silicate melts comprise only a minor volume fraction of the present day Earth, they play a critical role on the Earth's geochemical and geodynamical evolution. Their physical properties, namely the density, are a key control on many magmatic processes, including magma chamber dynamics and volcanic eruptions, melt extraction from residual rocks during partial melting, as well as crystal settling and melt migration. However, the quantitative modeling of these processes has been long limited by the scarcity of data on the density and compressibility of volatile-bearing silicate melts at relevant pressure and temperature conditions. In the last decade, new experimental designs namely combining large volume presses and synchrotron-based techniques have opened the possibility for determining in situ the density of a wide range of dry and volatile-bearing (H2O and CO2) silicate melt compositions at high pressure-high temperature conditions. In this contribution we will illustrate some of these progresses with focus on recent results on the density of dry and hydrous felsic and intermediate melt compositions (rhyolite, phonolite and andesite melts) at crustal and upper mantle conditions (up to 4 GPa and 2000 K). The new data on felsic-intermediate melts has been combined with in situ data on (ultra)mafic systems and ambient pressure dilatometry and sound velocity data to calibrate a continuous, predictive density model for hydrous and CO2-bearing silicate melts with applications to magmatic processes down to the conditions of the mantle transition zone (up to 2773 K and 22 GPa). The calibration dataset consist of more than 370 density measurements on high-pressure and/or water-and CO2-bearing melts and it is formulated in terms of the partial molar properties of the oxide components. The model predicts the density of volatile-bearing liquids to within 42 kg/m3 in the calibration interval and the model extrapolations up to 3000 K and 100 GPa are in good agreement

  10. Differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritani, T.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, J.; Hirahara, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2012-04-01

    In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation) (Jaupart and Tait, 1995, and references therein). The geochemical path caused by boundary layer fractionation can be fairly different from a path resulting from homogeneous fractionation (e.g., Langmuir, 1989). Therefore, it is important to understand the relative contributions of these fractionation mechanisms in magma chambers. Kuritani (2009) examined the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms in cooling basaltic magma chambers using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. However, the basaltic magmas examined in the work were alkali-rich (Na2O+K2O > 4 wt.%). In this study, to explore differentiation mechanisms of frontal-arc basalt magmas that are volumetrically much more important than rear-arc alkali basalt magmas, the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms are examined for low-K tholetiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc, using the same mass balance model. First, the water content and the temperature of the Iwate magma were estimated. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-81) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were derived from a common magma with variable temperature in a magma chamber, and the plagioclase phenocrysts were all derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of the magma chamber. By

  11. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D., E-mail: diego.perugini@unipg.it [Department of Physics and Geology, Petro-Volcanology Research Group (PVRG), University of Perugia, Piazza Università, Perugia 06100 (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10{sup 6} Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment.

  12. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  13. Convective melting in a magma chamber: theory and numerical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakin, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present results of the numerical modeling of convective melting in a magma chamber in 2D. Model was pointed on the silicic system approximated with Qz-Fsp binary undersaturated with water. Viscosity was calculated as a function of the melt composition, temperature and crystal content and comprises for the pure melt 104.5-105.5 Pas. Lower boundary was taken thermally insulated in majority of the runs. Size of FEM (bilinear elements) grid for velocity is 25x25 cm and for the integration of the density term 8x8 cm. Melting of the chamber roof proceeds with the heat supply due to the chaotic thermo-compositional convection and conductive heat loose into melted substrate. We compare our numerical data with existing semi-analytical models. Theoretical studies of the assimilation rates in the magma chambers usually use theoretical semi-analytical model by Huppert and Sparks (1988) (e.g., Snyder, 2000). We find that this model has strong points: 1) Independence of the melting rate on the sill thickness (Ra>>Rac) 2) Independence of the convective heat transfer on the roof temperature 3) Determination of the exponential thermal boundary layer ahead of the melting front and weak points: 1) Ignoring the possibility of the crystallization without melting regime for narrow sills and dykes. 2)Neglecting of two-phase character of convection. 3)Ignoring of the strong viscosity variation near the melting front. Independence of convective flux from the sill size (at Ra>>Rac) allows reducing of computational domain to the geologically small size (10-15 m). Concept of exponential thermal boundary layer is also rather important. Length scale (L0) of this layer is related to the melting rate and thermal diffusivity coefficient kT as L0=kT/um and at the melting rate 10 m/yr becomes about 2 m. Such small scale implies that convective melting is very effective (small conductive heat loss) and part of the numerical domain filled with roof rocks can be taken small. In the H&S model

  14. Sulfur solubility in reduced mafic silicate melts: Implications for the speciation and distribution of sulfur on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namur, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard; Holtz, Francois; Cartier, Camille; McCammon, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Chemical data from the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed that surface rocks on Mercury are unusually enriched in sulfur compared to samples from other terrestrial planets. In order to understand the speciation and distribution of sulfur on Mercury, we performed high temperature (1200-1750 °C), low- to high-pressure (1 bar to 4 GPa) experiments on compositions representative of Mercurian lavas and on the silicate composition of an enstatite chondrite. We equilibrated silicate melts with sulfide and metallic melts under highly reducing conditions (IW-1.5 to IW-9.4; IW = iron-wüstite oxygen fugacity buffer). Under these oxygen fugacity conditions, sulfur dissolves in the silicate melt as S2- and forms complexes with Fe2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. The sulfur concentration in silicate melts at sulfide saturation (SCSS) increases with increasing reducing conditions (from 10 wt.% S at IW-8) and with increasing temperature. Metallic melts have a low sulfur content which decreases from 3 wt.% at IW-2 to 0 wt.% at IW-9. We developed an empirical parameterization to predict SCSS in Mercurian magmas as a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2), temperature, pressure and silicate melt composition. SCSS being not strictly a redox reaction, our expression is fully valid for magmatic systems containing a metal phase. Using physical constraints of the Mercurian mantle and magmas as well as our experimental results, we suggest that basalts on Mercury were free of sulfide globules when they erupted. The high sulfur contents revealed by MESSENGER result from the high sulfur solubility in silicate melt at reducing conditions. We make the realistic assumption that the oxygen fugacity of mantle rocks was set during equilibration of the magma ocean with the core and/or that the mantle contains a minor metal phase and combine our parameterization of SCSS with chemical data from MESSENGER to constrain the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's interior to IW- 5.4 ± 0.4. We also calculate that the mantle of Mercury

  15. Short-lived radioactivity and magma genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James; Condomines, Michel

    1992-09-01

    Short-lived decay products of uranium and thorium have half-lives and chemistries sensitive to the processes and time scales of magma genesis, including partial melting in the mantle and magmatic differentiation in the crust. Radioactive disequilibrium between U-238, Th-230, and Ra-226 is widespread in volcanic rocks. These disequilibria and the isotopic composition of thorium depend especially on the extent and rate of melting as well as the presence and composition of vapor during melting. The duration of mantle melting may be several hundred millennia, whereas ascent times are a few decades to thousands of years. Differentiation of most magmas commonly occurs within a few millennia, but felsic ones can be tens of millennia old upon eruption.

  16. Magma Oceans on Exoplanets and Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda

    2009-09-01

    Late, giant accretionary impacts likely form multiple magma oceans of some depth in young rocky planets. Models of magma ocean solidification that incorporate water, carbon, and other incompatible volatile elements in small amounts predict a range of first-order outcomes important to planetary evolution. First, initial planetary bulk composition and size determine the composition of the earliest degassed atmosphere. This early atmosphere appears in a rapid burst at the end of solidification, determined by the ability of nucleating bubbles to reach the surface. Larger planets will have briefer and more catastrophic atmospheric degassing during solidification of any magma ocean. Second, this early atmosphere is sufficiently insulating to keep the planetary surface hot for millions of years. Depending upon the atmospheric composition and temperature structure these hot young planets may be observable from Earth or from satellites. Third, small but significant quantities of volatiles remain in the planet's solid mantle, encouraging convection, plate tectonics, and later atmospheric degassing through volcanism. A critical outcome of magma ocean solidification is the development of a solid mantle density gradient with den-sity increasing with radius, which will flow to gravitational stability. Shallow, dense, damp material will carry its water content as it sinks into the perovskite stability zone and transforms into perovskite. Even in models with very low initial water contents, a large fraction of the sinking upper mantle material will be forced to dewater as it crosses the boundary into the relatively dry lower mantle, leaving its water behind in a rapid flux as it sinks. This water ad-dition could initiate or speed convection in planets in which perovskite is stable, that is, planets larger than Mars.

  17. Pressure waves in a supersaturated bubbly magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzon, I.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Navon, O.; Chouet, B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the interaction of acoustic pressure waves with an expanding bubbly magma. The expansion of magma is the result of bubble growth during or following magma decompression and leads to two competing processes that affect pressure waves. On the one hand, growth in vesicularity leads to increased damping and decreased wave amplitudes, and on the other hand, a decrease in the effective bulk modulus of the bubbly mixture reduces wave velocity, which in turn, reduces damping and may lead to wave amplification. The additional acoustic energy originates from the chemical energy released during bubble growth. We examine this phenomenon analytically to identify conditions under which amplification of pressure waves is possible. These conditions are further examined numerically to shed light on the frequency and phase dependencies in relation to the interaction of waves and growing bubbles. Amplification is possible at low frequencies and when the growth rate of bubbles reaches an optimum value for which the wave velocity decreases sufficiently to overcome the increased damping of the vesicular material. We examine two amplification phase-dependent effects: (1) a tensile-phase effect in which the inserted wave adds to the process of bubble growth, utilizing the energy associated with the gas overpressure in the bubble and therefore converting a large proportion of this energy into additional acoustic energy, and (2) a compressive-phase effect in which the pressure wave works against the growing bubbles and a large amount of its acoustic energy is dissipated during the first cycle, but later enough energy is gained to amplify the second cycle. These two effects provide additional new possible mechanisms for the amplification phase seen in Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic signals originating in magma-filled cracks.

  18. Thermal and mechanical evolution of magma reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Dufek, J.

    2012-12-01

    Magmas spend most of their suprasolidus lifespan at high crystallinity. Crystal-rich mushes have a low thermal contrast with the surrounding crust and latent heat buffering is expected to decrease the cooling rate as they approach the solidus. The impact of latent buffering is phase-diagram dependent; massive crystallization over a short temperature interval, occurring near invariant points, can significantly increase the time a given magma spends above the solidus. This latent heat effect is likely to play an important role in the upper crust, as the typical upper crustal compositions (dacite) reach the haplogranite eutectic around 40-60 vol% crystals. As high crystallinity is the most probable state for magmas in the upper crust, the interaction between crystal mushes and hot recharges from below is common. Hence, the thermo-mechanical response of mushes to recharge is a central process in the rheological evolution of these systems. An important feedback following recharge is related to the reduction in density as solid phases melt, leading to the development of in-situ overpressures. The combined effect of melting and overpressurization has a two major consequences for magmatic systems, both commonly observed in the rock record: (1) it increases the likelihood for reactivation of locked crystal mushes, and (2) it enhances the assimilation of stoped blocks in the upper crust.

  19. Viscosity of mafic magmas at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochain, B.; Sanloup, C.; Leroy, C.; Kono, Y.

    2017-01-01

    While it is accepted that silica-rich melts behave anomalously with a decrease of their viscosity at increased pressures (P), the viscosity of silica-poor melts is much less constrained. However, modeling of mantle melts dynamics throughout Earth's history, including the magma ocean era, requires precise knowledge of the viscous properties of silica-poor magmas. We extend here our previous measurements on fayalite melt to natural end-members pyroxenite melts (MgSiO3 and CaSiO3) using in situ X-ray radiography up to 8 GPa. For all compositions, viscosity decreases with P, rapidly below 5 GPa and slowly above. The magnitude of the viscosity decrease is larger for pyroxene melts than for fayalite melt and larger for the Ca end-member within pyroxene melts. The anomalous viscosity decrease appears to be a universal behavior for magmas up to 13 GPa, while the P dependence of viscosity beyond this remains to be measured. These results imply that mantle melts are very pervasive at depth.

  20. The effect of pressurized magma chamber growth on melt migration and pre-caldera vent locations through time at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of eruptions at long-lived volcanic centers provides a window into the co-evolution of crustal magma transport, tectonic stresses, and unsteady magma generation at depth. Mount Mazama in the Oregon Cascades has seen variable activity over the last 400 ky, including the 50 km3 climactic eruption at ca. 7.7 ka that produced Crater Lake caldera. The physical mechanisms responsible for the assembly of silicic magma reservoirs that are the precursors to caldera-forming eruptions are poorly understood. Here we argue that the spatial and temporal distribution of geographically clustered volcanic vents near Mazama reflects the development of a centralized magma chamber that fed the climactic eruption. Time-averaged eruption rates at Mount Mazama imply an order of magnitude increase in deep magma influx prior to the caldera-forming event, suggesting that unsteady mantle melting triggered a chamber growth episode that culminated in caldera formation. We model magma chamber–dike interactions over ∼50 ky preceding the climactic eruption to fit the observed distribution of surface eruptive vents in space and time, as well as petrologically estimated deep influx rates. Best fitting models predict an expanding zone of dike capture caused by a growing, oblate spheroidal magma chamber with 10–30 MPa of overpressure. This growing zone of chamber influence causes closest approaching regional mafic vent locations as well as more compositionally evolved Mazama eruptions to migrate away from the climactic eruptive center, returning as observed to the center after the chamber drains during the caldera-forming eruption.

  1. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán.; Wright, Heather; Vazquez, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous "excess sulfur" problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the "petrologic estimate"), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of vapor

  2. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of

  3. Petrogenesis and geodynamic significance of silicic volcanism in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, C. M.; Ferrari, L.; Orozco, M. A.; Lopez Martinez, M.

    2012-04-01

    produced pulses of mafic magma that were partly trapped in the crust yielding crustal melting. Extensional faulting since the Pliocene favours the eruption of silicic magma as effusive dome and lava flows. Rifting at the boundaries of the Jalisco block is seen as a rollback induced reactivation of crustal structures but is unlike to evolve into a Jalisco microplate.

  4. Silicic ash beds bracket Emeishan Large Igneous province to < 1 m.y. at ~ 260 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hu; Cawood, Peter A.; Hou, Ming-Cai; Yang, Jiang-Hai; Ni, Shi-Jun; Du, Yuan-Sheng; Yan, Zhao-Kun; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Claystone beds directly below and above the Emeishan basalts in SW China formed around the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G - L) boundary. Zircons from both levels give U-Pb ages of 260 Ma, and are identical within-error to ages reported for the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP). The claystones lack Nb - Ta anomalies on primitive mantle normalized elemental diagrams; zircons from these claystones have a geochemical affinity to within-plate-type magmas. These features, combined with the strong negative Eu anomalies in the zircons and high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios, indicate that claystones around the G - L boundary have a silicic volcanic component related to Emeishan LIP. Zircons from the underlying claystone bed have much higher U/Yb and Th/Nb ratios and lower εHf(t) values than those overlying the LIP, suggesting that early-stage silicic volcanic rocks had a higher crustal contamination or assimilation during magmatic processes. In terms of stratigraphic correlation, our data demonstrate that silicic eruptions occurred not only at the end, but also at the beginning of the Emeishan LIP, and the overall duration of the main basaltic phase was short (< 1 m.y).

  5. Volatile content of Hawaiian magmas and volcanic vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, A. P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Ferguson, D. J.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i may be affected by magma volatile content. We find that volatile content and magma flow from deep source to Kīlauea's summit reservoirs are non-linearly related. For example, a 25-30% change in volatiles leads to a near two-fold increase in magma supply. Hawaiian volcanism provides an opportunity to develop and test hypotheses concerning dynamic and geochemical behavior of hot spot volcanism on different time scales. The Pu'u 'Ō'ō-Kupaianaha eruption (1983-present) is thought to be fed by essentially unfettered magma flow from the asthenosphere into a network of magma reservoirs at approximately 1-4 km below Kīlauea's summit, and from there into Kīlauea's east rift zone, where it erupts. Because Kīlauea's magma becomes saturated in CO2 at about 40 km depth, most CO2 is thought to escape buoyantly from the magma, before entering the east rift zone, and instead is emitted at the summit. Between 2003 and 2006 Kīlauea's summit inflated at unusually high rates and concurrently CO2emissions doubled. This may reflect a change in the balance between magma supply to the summit and outflow to the east rift zone. It remains unknown what caused this surge in magma supply or what controls magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes in general. We have modeled two-phase magma flow, coupled with H2O-CO2 solubility, to investigate the effect of changes in volatile content on the flow of magma through Kīlauea's magmatic plumbing system. We assume an invariant magma transport capacity from source to vent over the time period of interest. Therefore, changes in magma flow rate are a consequence of changes in magma-static and dynamic pressure throughout Kīlauea's plumbing system. We use measured summit deformation and CO2 emissions as observational constraints, and find from a systematic parameter analysis that even modest increases in volatiles reduce magma-static pressures sufficiently to generate a 'surge' in

  6. Moonage Daydream: Reassessing the Simple Model for Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the differentiation of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) remain enigmatic, as the Moon is not simply composed of highlands anorthosite and a suite of mare basalts as inferred from early studies. Results from recent orbital missions, and the increasingly detailed study of lunar samples, have revealed a much larger range of lithologies, from relatively MgO-rich and "purest anorthosite" discovered on the lunar far side by the M3 instrument on Chandraayan-1 to more exotic lithologies such as Si-rich domes and spinel-rich clasts distributed globally. To understand this increasingly complex geology, we must understand the initial formation and evolution of the LMO, and the composition of the cumulates this differentiation could have produced. Several attempts at modelling such a crystallization sequence have been made, and have raised as many questions as they have answered. We present results from our ongoing experimental simulations of magma ocean crystallization, investigating two end-member bulk compositions (TWM and LPUM) under fully fractional crystallization conditions. These simulations represent melting of the entire silicate portion of the Moon, as an end-member starting point from which to begin assessing the evolution of the lunar interior and formation of the lunar crust.

  7. The oxidation state, and sulfur and Cu contents of arc magmas: implications for metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeremy P.

    2015-09-01

    . These sulfides may retain some highly siderophile elements in the source, but are unlikely to be sufficiently voluminous to significantly affect the budget of more modestly sulfide-compatible and more abundant elements such as Cu and Mo. These primary magmas can therefore be considered to be largely Cu-Mo-undepleted, although highly siderophile elements such as Au and platinum group elements (PGE) may be depleted unless no sulfides remain in the source. The latter condition seems unlikely during active subduction because of the continuous flux of fresh sulfur from the slab, but may occur during post-subduction re-melting (leading to potentially Au-rich post-subduction porphyry and alkalic-type epithermal systems). Lower crustal differentiation of main-stage arc magmas results in some loss of Cu to residual or cumulate sulfides, but again the amount appears to be minor, and does not drastically reduce the Cu content of derivative intermediate-composition melts. Fractionation and devolatilization affect the oxidation state of the magma in competing ways, but, while crystallization and segregation of Fe3 +-rich magnetite can cause reduction in reduced to moderately oxidized evolved magmas, this effect appears to be outweighed by the oxidative effects of degassing reduced or weakly oxidized gaseous species such as H2, H2S, and SIVO2, and preferential solvation and removal of Fe2 + in saline hydrothermal fluids. Consequently, most arc magmatic suites show slight increases in oxidation state during differentiation, reaching typical values of ΔFMQ = + 1 to + 2. This oxidation state is significant, because it corresponds to the transition from dissolved sulfide to sulfate dominance in magmas. It has been shown that Cu and Au solubilities in silicate magma increase up to this level (ΔFMQ ≈ + 1), but while Cu solubility continues to increase at higher oxidation states, Au shows a precipitous drop as sulfide, which solvates Au in the melt, is converted to sulfate. This may

  8. Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hervé

    1999-03-01

    Both geochemical and experimental petrological research indicate that Archaean continental crust was generated by partial melting of an Archaean tholeiite transformed into a garnet-bearing amphibolite or eclogite. The geodynamic context of tholeiite melting is the subject of controversy. It is assumed to be either (1) subduction (melting of a hot subducting slab), or (2) hot spot (melting of underplated basalts). These hypotheses are considered in the light of modern adakite genesis. Adakites are intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks, andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (basaltic members are lacking). They have trondhjemitic affinities (high-Na 2O contents and K 2O/Na 2O˜0.5) and their Mg no. (0.5), Ni (20-40 ppm) and Cr (30-50 ppm) contents are higher than in typical calc-alkaline magmas. Sr contents are high (>300 ppm, until 2000 ppm) and REE show strongly fractionated patterns with very low heavy REE (HREE) contents (Yb≤1.8 ppm, Y≤18 ppm). Consequently, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios are typical and discriminating features of adakitic magmas, indicative of melting of a mafic source where garnet and/or hornblende are residual phases. Adakitic magmas are only found in subduction zone environments, exclusively where the subduction and/or the subducted slab are young (situation is well-exemplified in Southern Chile where the Chile ridge is subducted and where the adakitic character of the lavas correlates well with the young age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere. In typical subduction zones, the subducted lithosphere is older than 20 Ma, it is cool and the geothermal gradient along the Benioff plane is low such that the oceanic crust dehydrates before it reaches the solidus temperature of hydrated tholeiite. Consequently, the basaltic slab cannot melt. The released large ion lithophile element (LILE)-rich fluids rise up into the mantle wedge, inducing both its metasomatism and partial melting. Afterwards, the residue is made up of olivine

  9. The intrusion of new magma triggered the 2011-2012 unrest at Santorini: evidence from noble-gas isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M.; Di Piazza, A.; Francalanci, L.; Sortino, F.; D'Alessandro, W.

    2013-12-01

    Santorini is one of the most famous active volcanoes of the world for its catastrophic explosive eruption that occurred during the Minoan civilization. Since then the Kameni eruptive centers that formed within the caldera erupted repeatedly until 1950. In 2011-2012 the volcano has been characterized by a seismic unrest, that was unprecedented at Santorini at least since the 1950 eruption, and that led to fear for an imminent eruption. Because more than 100,000 visitors are present on the island during the tourist season, and considering the eruptive potential of Santorini, it is crucial to evaluate the hazard of this volcano, which depends on the type of magma actually present in the volcanic system. With the aim to address this question, this research shows the first comparison between noble-gas isotope composition of the present fumarolic gases with that of fluid inclusions hosted in enclaves contained in the 1570 and 1925 AD dacitic magmas erupted at Nea Kameni. These enclaves are a portion of mafic magma batches that replenished the shallow chamber of the plumbing system hosting cooler and more silicic melts. Their Sr-Nd isotope ratios are quite similar to those measured in the host dacitic rocks, implying a common parental magma. Therefore, the analyzed enclaves may be considered representative of the historic magma erupted at Nea Kameni which could be still present in the volcano plumbing system feeding the crater fumaroles. The 3He/4He ratios of enclaves, once corrected for air contamination (3.1-3.6 Ra), partially overlap those of the gases (3.5-4.0 Ra) collected from Nea and Palea Kameni. The range of 3He/4He ratios (3.1-4.0 Ra) is appreciably lower than typical arc volcanoes (R/Ra ~7-8), implying that a contamination by 4He-rich fluids occurred either directly in the mantle and/or in the plumbing system. Comparison of 3He/4He and 4He/40Ar* ratios measured in enclaves with those of gases, as well as long-term monitoring of R/Ra in the latters, coherently

  10. Petrology of Volcán Tequila, Jalisco, Mexico: disequilibrium phenocryst assemblages and evolution of the subvolcanic magma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul J.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    1994-09-01

    Volcán Tequila is an extinct stratovolcano in the western Mexican Volcanic Belt that has erupted lavas ranging from andesite to rhyolite during the last 0.9 Ma. Following an early period of rhyolitic volcanism, the main edifice of the volcano was constructed by central vent eruptions that produced ˜ 25 km3 of pyroxene-andesite. At about 0.2 Ma central activity ceased and numerous flows of hornblende-bearing andesite, dacite, and rhyodacite erupted from vents located around the flanks of the volcano. Bimodal plagioclase phenocryst rim compositions in lavas from both the main edifice and the flanks indicate that magma mixing commonly occurred shortly prior to or during eruption. Compositions of endmember magmas involved in mixing, as constrained by whole-rock major and trace element abundances, phenocryst compositions, and mineral-melt exchange equilibria, are similar to those of some lavas erupted from the central vent and on the flanks of the volcano. Estimated pre-eruptive temperatures for hornblende-bearing lavas (970° 830°C) are systematically lower than for lavas that lack hornblende (1045° 970°C), whereas magmatic H2O contents are systematically higher for hornblende-bearing lavas. In addition to stabilizing hornblende, high magmatic water contents promoted crystallization of calcic plagioclase (An70 82). Frequent injections of magma into the base of the subvolcanic plumbing system followed by eruption of mixed magma probably prevented formation of large volumes of silicic magma, which have caused paroxysmal, caldera-forming eruptions at other stratovolcanoes in western Mexico. The later stages of volcanic activity, represented by the flank lavas, indicate a change from a large magma storage reservoir to numerous small ones that developed along a NW-trending zone parallel to regional fault trends. Sr and Nd isotopic data for lavas from the Tequila region and other volcanoes in western Mexico demonstrate that differentiated calc-alkaline magmas are formed

  11. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  12. Rapid high-silica magma generation in basalt-dominated rift settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Deegan, Frances M.; Riishuus, Morten S.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Ellis, Ben S.; Krumbholz, Michael; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2015-04-01

    The processes that drive large-scale silicic magmatism in basalt-dominated provinces have been widely debated for decades, with Iceland being at the centre of this discussion [1-5]. Iceland hosts large accumulations of silicic rocks in a largely basaltic oceanic setting that is considered by some workers to resemble the situation documented for the Hadean [6-7]. We have investigated the time scales and processes of silicic volcanism in the largest complete pulse of Neogene rift-related silicic magmatism preserved in Iceland (>450 km3), which is a potential analogue of initial continent nucleation in early Earth. Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland hosts silicic rocks in excess of 20 vol.%, which exceeds the ≤12 vol% usual for Iceland [3,8]. New SIMS zircon ages document that the dominantly explosive silicic pulse was generated within a ≤2 Myr window (13.5 ± 0.2 to 12.2 ± 03 Ma), and sub-mantle zircon δ18O values (1.2 to 4.5 ± 0.2‰, n=337) indicate ≤33% assimilation of low-δ18O hydrothermally-altered crust (δ18O=0‰), with intense crustal melting at 12.5 Ma, followed by rapid termination of silicic magma production once crustal fertility declined [9]. This silicic outburst was likely caused by extensive rift flank volcanism due to a rift relocation and a flare of the Iceland plume [4,10] that triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. High-silica melt production from a basaltic parent was replicated in a set of new partial melting experiments of regional hydrated basalts, conducted at 800-900°C and 150 MPa, that produced silicic melt pockets up to 77 wt.% SiO2. Moreover, Ti-in-zircon thermometry from Borgarfjörður Eystri give a zircon crystallisation temperature ~713°C (Ti range from 2.4 to 22.1 ppm, average=7.7 ppm, n=142), which is lower than recorded elsewhere in Iceland [11], but closely overlaps with the zircon crystallisation temperatures documented for Hadean zircon populations [11-13], hinting at

  13. Effect of pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe ratio in a mafic magma and consequences for magma ocean redox gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H. L.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Cottrell, E.; Withers, A. C.

    2017-05-01

    Experiments establishing the effect of pressure on the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of andesitic silicate melts buffered by coexisting Ru and RuO2 were performed from 100 kPa to 7 GPa and 1400–1750 °C. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios were determined by room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, but corrected for the effects of recoilless fraction. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in quenched glasses decrease with increasing pressure consistent with previous results between 100 kPa and 3 GPa (O’Neill et al., 2006), but show only small pressure effects above 5 GPa. Ratios also decrease with increasing temperature. Mössbauer hyperfine parameters indicate mean coordination of Fe3+ ions of ~5 in glasses, with no dependence on the pressure from which the glasses were quenched, but show an increase with pressure in mean coordination of Fe2+ ions, from ~5 to ~6. XANES spectra on these glasses show variations in pre-edge intensities and centroid positions that are systematic with Fe3+/ΣFe, but are displaced from those established from otherwise identical andesitic glasses quenched at 100 kPa (Zhang et al., 2016). These systematics permit construction of a new XANES calibration curve relating pre-edge sub-peak intensities to Fe3+/ΣFe applicable to high pressure glasses. Consistent with interpretations of the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters, XANES pre-edge peak features in high pressure glasses are owing chiefly to the effects of pressure on the coordination of Fe2+ ions from ~5.5 to ~6, with negligible effects evident for Fe3+ ions. We use the new data to construct a thermodynamic model relating the effects of oxygen fugacity and pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe. We apply this model to calculate variations in oxygen fugacity in isochemical (constant Fe3+/ΣFe) columns of magma representative of magma oceans, in which fO2 is fixed at the base by equilibration with molten Fe. These calculations

  14. Effect of pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe ratio in a mafic magma and consequences for magma ocean redox gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. L.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Cottrell, E.; Withers, A. C.

    2017-05-01

    Experiments establishing the effect of pressure on the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of andesitic silicate melts buffered by coexisting Ru and RuO2 were performed from 100 kPa to 7 GPa and 1400-1750 °C. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios were determined by room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, but corrected for the effects of recoilless fraction. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in quenched glasses decrease with increasing pressure consistent with previous results between 100 kPa and 3 GPa (O'Neill et al., 2006), but show only small pressure effects above 5 GPa. Ratios also decrease with increasing temperature. Mössbauer hyperfine parameters indicate mean coordination of Fe3+ ions of ∼5 in glasses, with no dependence on the pressure from which the glasses were quenched, but show an increase with pressure in mean coordination of Fe2+ ions, from ∼5 to ∼6. XANES spectra on these glasses show variations in pre-edge intensities and centroid positions that are systematic with Fe3+/ΣFe, but are displaced from those established from otherwise identical andesitic glasses quenched at 100 kPa (Zhang et al., 2016). These systematics permit construction of a new XANES calibration curve relating pre-edge sub-peak intensities to Fe3+/ΣFe applicable to high pressure glasses. Consistent with interpretations of the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters, XANES pre-edge peak features in high pressure glasses are owing chiefly to the effects of pressure on the coordination of Fe2+ ions from ∼5.5 to ∼6, with negligible effects evident for Fe3+ ions. We use the new data to construct a thermodynamic model relating the effects of oxygen fugacity and pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe. We apply this model to calculate variations in oxygen fugacity in isochemical (constant Fe3+/ΣFe) columns of magma representative of magma oceans, in which fO2 is fixed at the base by equilibration with molten Fe. These calculations indicate that oxygen fugacities at the surface of shallow magma oceans are more reduced than at depth. For magma oceans in

  15. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  17. Characterization of silicate/Si(001) interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copel, M.; Cartier, E.; Narayanan, V.; Reuter, M. C.; Guha, S.; Bojarczuk, N.

    2002-11-01

    Many of the proposed high permittivity gate dielectrics for silicon-based microelectronics rely on a stack configuration, with an SiO2 buffer layer to provide an interface. We describe a means for creating gate dielectrics with a direct yttrium silicate-silicon interface through the solid-state reaction of yttria and silicon oxynitride, avoiding the preparation of an oxide-free silicon surface. Characterization by medium-energy ion scattering indicates complete consumption of the underlying oxide through silicate formation during high-temperature annealing. Furthermore, the silicate dielectric exhibits small flat-band voltage shifts, indicating low quantities of charge, without passivation steps. Creation of a silicate-silicon interfaces by a simple route may enable the study of an alternate class of dielectrics.

  18. Emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite magma deduced from complete internal section of the Akaishiyama lava, Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, K.; Sano, K.

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneously explosive and effusive eruptions of silicic magmas has shed light on the vesiculation and outgassing history of ascending magmas in the conduit and emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite lavas (Castro et al., 2014; Shipper et al, 2013). As well as the knowledge of newly erupted products such as 2008-2009 Chaitén and 2011-2012 Cordón Caule eruptions, field and micro-textural evidences of well-exposed internal structure of obsidian-rhyolite lava leads to reveal eruption processes of silicic magmas. The Shirataki monogenetic volcano field, 2.2 million year age, northern Hokkaido, Japan, contains many outcrops of obsidian and vesiculated rhyolite zones (SiO2=76.7-77.4 wt.%). Among their outcrops, Akaishiyama lava shows good exposures of internal sections from the top to the bottom along the Kyukasawa valley with thickness of about 190 meters, showing the symmetrical structure comprising a upper clastic zone (UCZ; 5m thick), an upper dense obsidian zone (UDO; 15m), an upper banded obsidian zone (UBO; 70-80m), a central rhyolite zone (CR; 65m), a lower banded obsidian zone (LBO; 15m), a lower dense obsidian zone (LDO; 20m), and a lower clastic zone (LCZ; 3m). The upper banded obsidian zone is characterized by existence of spherulite concentration layers with tuffisite veins and rhyolite enclaves. Spherulites consisting of albite, cristobalaite and obsidian glass, are clustered in the dense obsidian. Tuffisite veins show brecciated obsidians in tuffaceous matrix, showing an outgassing path during the emplacement of obsidian lava. Perpendicular dip of spherulite parallel rows indicates the banded zone itself was the domain of vent area. From the observation of these occurrences in the internal section and rock texture, we show the qualitative formation model of Shirataki obsidian-rhyolite lava.

  19. U-Th fractionation by fluids in K-rich magma genesis: The Vico volcano, Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, B.; Flehoc, C.

    1989-01-01

    The /sup 230/Th-/sup 238/U disequilibrium method has been applied to the potassic volcanic series of Vico (Latium, Central Italy). The 3 main events of the recent volcanic activity have been dated using whole-rock isochrons. The lava flows of the main cone were erupted between 260 and 180 ky. Pyroclastic flows are dated around 90 ky and the final effusive activity (Mte. Venere) around 60 ky. These results are in good agreement with previous K/Ar ages. The intense Th-U fractionation (Th/U varying from 3.2 to 11) is apparently not related to processes of partial melting and crystal fractionation. The Th-U fractionation is the most intense in basic terms of the first episode, and is due to the percolation of a deep hydrothermal fluid which impoverishes U in different batches of primary magmas. More limited Th-U fractionations in highly differentiated magma are due to U (accompanied by Sb and alkalies) enrichments in the shallow magma chambers. A time-integrated model is proposed for the evolution of the (/sup 230/Th//sup 232/Th) ratio in the mantle source of Vico. It shows that Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations are probably related to the bulk K, U and Th enrichment of the mantle of the Roman Province, around 300 ky ago. A metasomatic enrichment by a silicate melt is proposed to explain the anomalously high Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations.

  20. Intrinsic luminescence of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, V.I.; Grabovskis, V.Y.; Tolstoi, M.N.; Vitol, I.K.

    1986-09-01

    This study obtains additional information on L centers and their role in electron excitation and intrinsic luminescence of a whole series. (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) of alkali silicate glasses. The authors compare the features of the interaction with radiation of specimens of glass and crystal of a similar chemical composition, since silicates of alkali metals can be obtained in both the glassy and crystalline states.

  1. Outgassing from Open and Closed Magma Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix W. von Aulock

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During magma ascent, bubbles nucleate, grow, coalesce, and form a variably permeable porous network. The reorganization, failing and sealing of bubble walls may contribute to the opening and closing of the volcanic system. In this contribution we cause obsidian to nucleate and grow bubbles to high gas volume fraction at atmospheric pressure by heating samples to 950°C for different times and we image the growth through a furnace. Following the experiment, we imaged the internal pore structure of selected samples in 3D and then dissected for analysis of textures and dissolved water content remnant in the glass. We demonstrate that in these high viscosity systems, during foaming and subsequent foam-maturation, bubbles near a free surface resorb via diffusion to produce an impermeable skin of melt around a foam. The skin thickens non-linearly through time. The water concentrations at the outer and inner skin margins reflect the solubility of water in the melt at the partial pressure of water in atmospheric and water-rich bubble conditions, respectively. In this regime, mass transfer of water out of the system is diffusion limited and the sample shrinks slowly. In a second set of experiments in which we polished off the skin of the foamed samples and placed them back in the furnace to allow open system outgassing, we observe rapid sample contraction and collapse of the connected pore network under surface tension as the system efficiently outgasses. In this regime, mass transfer of water is permeability limited. We conclude that diffusion-driven skin formation can efficiently seal connectivity in foams. When rupture of melt film around gas bubbles (i.e., skin removal occurs, then rapid outgassing and consequent foam collapse modulate gas pressurization in the vesiculated magma. The mechanisms described here are relevant to the evolution of pore network heterogeneity in permeable magmas.

  2. Chlorine solubility in evolved alkaline magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Carroll

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of Cl solubility in trachytic to phonolitic melts provide insights into the capacity of alkaline magmas to transport Cl from depth to the earth?s surface and atmosphere, and information on Cl solubility variations with pressure, temperature and melt or fluid composition is crucial for understanding the reasons for variations in Cl emissions at active volcanoes. This paper provides a brief review of Cl solubility experiments conducted on a range of trachytic to phonolitic melt compositions. Depending on the experimental conditions the melts studied were in equilibrium with either a Cl-bearing aqueous fluid or a subcritical assemblage of low- Cl aqueous fluid + Cl-rich brine. The nature of the fluid phase(s was identified by examination of fluid inclusions present in run product glasses and the fluid bulk composition was calculated by mass balance. Chlorine concentrations in the glass increase with increasing Cl molality in the fluid phase until a plateau in Cl concentration is reached when melt coexists with aqueous fluid + brine. With fluids of similar Cl molality, higher Cl concentrations are observed in peralkaline phonolitic melts compared with peraluminous phonolitic melts; overall the Cl concentrations observed in phonolitic and trachytic melts are approximately twice those found in calcalkaline rhyolitic melts under similar conditions. The observed negative pressure dependence of Cl solubility implies that Cl contents of melts may actually increase during magma decompression if the magma coexists with aqueous fluid and Cl-rich brine (assuming melt-vapor equilibrium is maintained. The high Cl contents (approaching 1 wt% Cl observed in some melts/glasses from the Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei areas suggest saturation with a Cl-rich brine prior to eruption.

  3. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  4. Magma storage under Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, J.; Neave, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.; Morgan, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland is defined by a number of volcanic systems and large basaltic eruptions occur both through central volcanoes (e.g. Grímsvötn) and on associated fissure rows (e.g. Laki, Eldgjá). We have collected a large quantity of micro-analytical data from a number of EVZ eruptions, with the aim of identifying common processes that occur in the premonitory stages of significant volcanic events. Here, we focus on the AD 1783 Laki event, the early postglacial Saksunarvatn tephra and the sub-glacially erupted Skuggafjöll tindar and for each of these eruptions we have >100 olivine-hosted or plagioclase-hosted melt inclusion analyses for major, trace and volatile elements. These large datasets are vital for understanding the history of melt evolution in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. Diverse trace element compositions in melt inclusions hosted in primitive macrocrysts (i.e. Fo>84, An>84) indicate that the mantle melts supplied to the plumbing system of EVZ eruptions are highly variable in composition. Concurrent mixing and crystallisation of these melts occurs in crustal magma bodies. The levels of the deepest of these magma bodies are not well constrained by EVZ petrology, with only a handful of high-CO2 melt inclusions from Laki providing evidence for magma supply from >5 kbar. In contrast, the volatile contents of melt inclusions in evolved macrocrysts, which are close to equilibrium with the carrier liquids, indicate that final depths of inclusion entrapment are 0.5-2 kbar. The major element composition of the matrix glasses shows that the final pressure of equilibration between the melt and its macrocryst phases also occurred at 0.5-2 kbar. The relationship between these pressures and seismic/geodetic estimates of chamber depths needs to be carefully evaluated. The melt inclusion and macrocryst compositional record indicates that injection of porphyritic, gas-rich primitive melt into evolved/enriched and degassed shallow

  5. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  6. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Greensite

    Full Text Available We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  7. Heterogeneous Earth Accretion and Incomplete Metal-Silicate Reequilibration at High Pressure During Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie, D. C.; Mann, U.; Frost, D. J.; Kegler, P.; Holzheid, A.; Palme, H.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new model of core formation, based on the partitioning of siderophile elements, that involves accreting the Earth through a series of collisions with smaller bodies that had already differentiated at low pressure. Each impact results in a magma ocean in which the core of the impactor reequilibrates with silicate liquid at high pressure before merging with the Earth's protocore. The oxygen contents of the chondritic compositions of the proto-Earth and impactors can be varied. The compositions of coexisting metal and silicate are determined through mass balance combined with partitioning equations for Ni, FeO, Si and other siderophile elements. The oxygen fugacity is fixed by the partitioning of FeO and is a function of P, T and bulk oxygen content. An important constraint for core formation is that core-mantle partition coefficients for Ni and Co must both converge to values of 23-28. Based on a recent study of the partitioning of Ni and Co over a wide P-T range (Kegler et al., EPSL, submitted) together with other published data, this constraint is not satisfied by a single- stage core formation model at any conditions because the partition coefficients converge at values that are much too low. In the present multi-stage model, the correct values can be reached if only part of each impactor core reequilibrates with silicate liquid in the magma ocean (as proposed by previous models based on Hf-W isotope studies). Physically, this would mean that impactor cores fail to emulsify completely as they sink through the magma ocean. Incorporating other elements (e.g. V and Cr) in the model requires, in addition, that the bulk composition of the impactors changes during accretion from reduced (FeO-poor) to oxidised FeO-rich). Then, with the resulting increase in fO2, incomplete reequilibration of the cores during the final 20-30% of Earth accretion is required to satisfy the Ni-Co constraint. In addition, this model enables the concentrations of O and Si in the

  8. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia; Schiazza, Mariangela; Liu, Yu; Giosa, Paola; Crocetti, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  9. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoppa Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  10. A felsic MASH zone of crustal magmas - Feedback between granite magma intrusion and in situ crustal anatexis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindinger, Martin; Weinberg, Roberto F.

    2017-07-01

    Magma mixing and mingling are described from different tectonic environments and are key mechanisms in the evolution of granitoids. The literature focuses on the interaction between mafic and felsic magmas with only limited research on the interaction between similar magmas. Here, we investigate instead hybridization processes between felsic magmas formed during the 500 Ma Delamerian Orogeny on the south coast of Kangaroo Island. Field relations suggest that a coarse, megacrystic granite intruded and interacted with a fine-grained diatexite that resulted from combined muscovite dehydration and water-fluxed melting of Kanmantoo Group turbidites. The two magmas hybridized during syn-magmatic deformation, explaining the complexity of relationships and variability of granitoids exposed. We suggest that granite intrusion enhanced melting of the turbidites by bringing in heat and H2O. With rising melt fraction, intrusive magmas became increasingly unable to traverse the partially molten terrane, creating a positive feedback between intrusion and anatexis. This feedback loop generated the exposed mid-crustal zone where magmas mixed and homogenized. Thus, the outcrops on Kangaroo Island represent a crustal and felsic melting-assimilation-storage-homogenization (felsic MASH) zone where, instead of having direct mantle magma involvement, as originally proposed, these processes developed in a purely crustal environment formed by felsic magmas.

  11. Open-system dynamics and mixing in magma mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantz, G. W.; Schleicher, J. M.; Burgisser, A.

    2015-10-01

    Magma dominantly exists in a slowly cooling crystal-rich or mushy state. Yet, observations of complexly zoned crystals, some formed in just one to ten years, as well as time-transgressive crystal fabrics imply that magmas mix and transition rapidly from a locked crystal mush to a mobile and eruptable fluid. Here we use a discrete-element numerical model that resolves crystal-scale granular interactions and fluid flow, to simulate the open-system dynamics of a magma mush. We find that when new magma is injected into a reservoir from below, the existing magma responds as a viscoplastic material: fault-like surfaces form around the edges of the new injection creating a central mixing bowl of magma that can be unlocked and become fluidized, allowing for complex mixing. We identify three distinct dynamic regimes that depend on the rate of magma injection. If the magma injection rate is slow, the intruded magma penetrates and spreads by porous media flow through the crystal mush. With increasing velocity, the intruded magma creates a stable cavity of fluidized magma that is isolated from the rest of the reservoir. At higher velocities still, the entire mixing bowl becomes fluidized. Circulation within the mixing bowl entrains crystals from the walls, bringing together crystals from different parts of the reservoir that may have experienced different physiochemical environments and leaving little melt unmixed. We conclude that both granular and fluid dynamics, when considered simultaneously, can explain observations of complex crystal fabrics and zoning observed in many magmatic systems.

  12. Influence of silicate anions structure on desilication in silicate-bearing sodium aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 张闻; 齐天贵; 彭志宏; 周秋生; 李小斌

    2016-01-01

    The structural changes of silicate anions in the desilication process with the addition of calcium hydrate alumino-carbonate were studied by measuring Raman spectra, infrared spectra and corresponding second derivative spectra. The results show that the desilication ratio in the solution prepared by the addition of sodium silicate (solution-SS) is much greater than that in the solution by the addition of green liquor (solution-GL), and low alumina concentration in the sodium aluminate solutions facilitates the desilication process. It is also shown that alumino-silicate anions in the solution-GL, and Q3 polymeric silicate anions in solution-SS are predominant, respectively. In addition, increasing the concentration of silica favors respectively the formation of the alumino-silicate or the Q3 silicate anions in the solution-GL or the solution-SS. Therefore, it can be inferred that the low desilication ratio in the silicate-bearing aluminate solution is mainly attributed to the existence of alumino-silicate anions.

  13. Characterizing silicic rocks in the Parana Magmatic Province: an update in their origin and emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, A. F.; Nardy, A. R.; Machado, F. B.; Gravley, D. M.; Gualda, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP), a large igneous province in southern Brazil (with correlative rocks in western Africa), includes 800,000 km3 of flood basalts generated during the rifting that ultimately led to the opening of the South Atlantic and covers nearly 75% of the surface of the Paraná Basin. Towards the top of the volcanic pile, silicic rocks are observed in many areas. They comprise a small proportion of the total erupted volume (2.5%), yet correspond to a significant flare-up of silicic volcanism over a period of only a few million years. In Brazil, the silicic rocks are divided into two groups, the Chapecó Member, which appears more northerly and includes porphyritic, crystal-rich, high-Ti dacites and trachydacites; and the Palmas Member, which includes fine-grained, crystal-poor, low-Ti dacites and rhyolites. The mode of emplacement (lavas vs. pyroclastic flows) of the volcanic units has been the subject of much controversy. The aim of this project is to better understand the origin and evolution of the PMP silicic rocks. We are combining information from the regional to the thin section scale to better characterize eruption dynamics and magma distribution prior to eruption. In both Palmas and Chapecó units, we observe features consistent with emplacement in the form of pyroclastic density currents, e.g. fiamme, variable weathering patterns consistent with local variations in welding at the outcrop scale, vertical gas-escape structures, sedimentary dykes, and lythophysae. Some ignimbrite units can be traced for 10's of kilometers and with more research on their spatial distribution could reveal the location of eruptive centers. In the Palmas, ignimbrites can be observed juxtaposed against or overlying discrete eruptive centers in the form of discordant structures that resemble domes and coulees typical of lava extrusion and flow. However, many of the silicic rocks are ambiguous and difficult to characterize, with features that could be related

  14. Ionic-polymeric models and the amphoteric behavior of water in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, R.

    2012-04-01

    magmas, this autoprotolysis reaction has been hitherto neglected for water dissolved in silicate melts. By mixing cations and anions on distinct sublattices and quantifying the disproportionation of water dissolved in silicate melts into its ionic products, H+ and OH-, we reconcile conflicting spectroscopic determinations of water speciation, and explain the contrasting rheology of hydrous basaltic and rhyolitic melts. In fact basalts show much less depression of viscosity by water addition because of a relative predominance of OH-, such that water increase tends immediately to limit depolymerization rather than enhance it. This opens new perspectives to the understanding of the chemical control leading to either effusive or explosive eruptions.

  15. The relationship between subduction zone redox budget and arc magma fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K.-A.; Tomkins, A.-G.

    2011-08-01

    A number of lines of evidence point to a causal link between oxidised slab-derived fluids, oxidised sub-arc mantle, and the formation of economic concentrations of metals such as Cu and Au that require oxidised magmas. However, trace element evidence from some trace element and isotope data suggests that sub-arc mantle is no more oxidised than mantle elsewhere. A simple analytical model is applied to constrain the evolution of sub-arc mantle oxidation state as a function of redox-budget fluxes from the subducting slab. Influential variables include the solubility of Fe 3+ and SO 42 - in slab-derived fluids, the geometry of the infiltration of slab-derived fluids in sub-arc mantle, the coupling between slab-derived and arc-output redox budgets, and the concentration of redox-buffering elements such as Fe and S in the sub-arc mantle. Plausible Archean and Proterozoic redox budget fluxes would not have created oxidised sub-arc mantle without input from ferric iron or sulphate dissolved in non-aqueous fluids such as silicate melts. Aqueous-borne Phanerozoic redox budget fluxes, on the other hand, which are dominated by the sulphate component, could have increased sub-arc fO 2 by up to three log 10 units. The results are generally consistent with the proposed elevated fO 2 for sub-arc mantle, but no resolution was found for the apparent contradiction between high proposed fO 2 values derived from iron-based oxybarometry and the lower values inferred from trace element and isotope evidence. Increases in sub-arc mantle fO 2 are favoured by focussed fluid infiltration and magma generation, weak coupling between slab and arc-output redox budgets, and restricted redox-buffering in the sub-arc mantle. Fertile arc segments for ore deposits associated with oxidised magmas require fluid chemistry and pressure-temperature gradients that enhance Fe 3+ and SO 42 - solubility in aqueous and silica-rich fluids, tectonic stress regimes that favour focussed transfer of components into

  16. Melting curve of the deep mantle applied to properties of early magma ocean and actual core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, Denis; Lo Nigro, Giacomo; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Bouhifd, Mohamed A.; Garbarino, Gaston; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Our planet experienced partial melting early in its history as a consequence of energy release due to accretion. Partial mantle melting could still happen today in the lowermost mantle. Occurrence of melting is primordial for the chemical segregation between the different Earth's reservoirs and for the dynamics of the whole planet. Melting of iron-alloys is relatively easy to achieve, but the silicated mantle happens to be more refractory. We investigated experimentally melting properties of two starting material, forsterite and chondritic-mantle, at pressures ranging from 25 to 140 GPa, using laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with synchrotron radiation. We show that partial melting in the lowermost mantle, as suggested by seismology on the basis of the ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZ), requires temperatures above 4200 K at the core-mantle boundary. At low pressures, our curve plots significantly lower than previous reports. Compared to recent estimates of mantle geotherm, while this temperature remains possible if the Earth's core is very hot, it is more likely that ULVZs correspond to high concentration of incompatible elements driven down to the D"-layer by subducting slabs or extracted out from the outer core. When our chondritic melting curve is coupled with recent isentropic temperature profiles for a magma ocean, we obtain a correlation between magma ocean depth and the potential temperature (Tp) at its surface; an ocean depth of 1000 km (equivalent to ~40 GPa) corresponds to Tp=2000 K, which happens to be significantly hotter than the estimated surface temperature of a sustained magma ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a lid at the magma ocean surface at an epoch as early as that of core-mantle segregation.

  17. Discovering Mathematics with Magma Reducing the Abstract to the Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Bosma, Wieb

    2006-01-01

    With a design based on the ontology and semantics of algebra, Magma enables users to rapidly formulate and perform calculations in the more abstract parts of mathematics. This book introduces the role Magma plays in advanced mathematical research through 14 case studies which, in most cases, describe computations underpinning theoretical results.

  18. Three Dimensional Magma Wagging: Seismic Diagnostics And Forcing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Jellinek, M.; Bercovici, D.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic tremor involving 0.5-7 Hz ground oscillations are common precursors of explosive sillicic volcanism. Here we present recent progress on the development and application of the three dimensional magma-wagging model, which is extended from the magma wagging model for tremor [Jellinek and Bercovici, 2011, Bercovici et al., 2013]. In our model, a stiff magma column rising in a vertical conduit oscillates against a surrounding foamy annulus of bubbly magma, giving rise to tremor. Inside the volcanic conduit, the magma column undergoes swirling motion, in which each horizontal section of the column can trace elliptical trajectories. We propose seismic diagnostics for the characteristics of the swirling motion using the time-lag between seismic stations, and test our model by analyzing pre-eruptive seismic data from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. Our analysis demonstrates the existence of elliptical swirling motion more than one week before the eruption, and suggests that the 2009 eruption was accompanied by qualitative changes in the magma wagging behavior including fluctuations in eccentricity and a reversal in the direction of elliptical swirling motion when the eruption was immediately impending. We further explore the coupling between the dynamics of the gas flux in the foamy annulus and the wagging motion of the magma column. We show that the gas flux provides a driving force for the magma column to swirl against viscous damping. The coupling between gas flux and wagging motion also brings the possibility to link observation of out-gassing with seismic measurements.

  19. Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  20. Magma mixing enhanced by bubble segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiesmaier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available That rising bubbles may significantly affect magma mixing paths has already been demon strated by analogue experiments. Here, for the first time, bubble-advection experiments are performed employing volcanic melts at magmatic temperatures. Cylinders of basaltic glass were placed below cylinders of rhyolite glass. Upon melting, interstitial air formed bubbles that rose into the rhyolite melt, thereby entraining tails of basaltic liquid. The formation of plume-like filaments of advected basalt within the rhyolite was characterized by microCT and subsequent high-resolution EMP analyses. Melt entrainment by bubble ascent appears to be an efficient mechanism for mingling volcanic melts of highly contrasting compositions and properties. MicroCT imaging reveals bubbles trailing each other and multiple filaments coalescing into bigger ones. Rheological modelling of the filaments yields viscosities of up to 2 orders of magnitude lower than for the surrounding rhyolitic liquid. Such a viscosity contrast implies that bubbles rising successively are likely to follow this pathway of low resistance that previously ascending bubbles have generated. Filaments formed by multiple bubbles would thus experience episodic replenishment with mafic material. Inevitable implications for the concept of bubble advection in magma mixing include thereby both an acceleration of mixing because of decreased viscous resistance for bubbles inside filaments and non-conventional diffusion systematics because of intermittent supply of mafic material (instead of a single pulse inside a material. Inside the filaments, the mafic material was variably hybridised to andesitic through rhyolitic composition. Compositional profiles alone are ambiguous, however, to determine whether single or multiple bubbles were involved during formation of a filament. Statistical analysis, employing concentration variance as measure of homogenisation, demonstrates that also filaments appearing as single

  1. Experimental Constraints on a Vesta Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, C.; Jones, J. H.; Le, L.

    2014-01-01

    A magma ocean model was devised to relate eucrites (basalts) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites), which are found mixed together as clasts in a suite of polymict breccias known as howardites. The intimate association of eucritic and diogenitic clasts in howardites argues strongly that these three classes of achondritic meteorites all originated from the same planetoid. Reflectance spectral evidence (including that from the DAWN mission) has long suggested that Vesta is indeed the Eucrite Parent Body. Specifically, the magma ocean model was generated as follows: (i) the bulk Vesta composition was taken to be 0.3 CV chondrite + 0.7 L chondrite but using only 10% of the Na2O from this mixture; (ii) this composition is allowed to crystallize at 500 bar until approx. 80% of the system is solid olivine + low-Ca pyroxene; (iii) the remaining 20% liquid crystallizes at one bar from 1250C to 1110C, a temperature slightly above the eucrite solidus. All crystallization calculations were performed using MELTS. In this model, diogenites are produced by cocrystallization of olivine and pyroxene in the >1250C temperature regime, with Main Group eucrite liquids being generated in the 1300-1250C temperature interval. Low-Ca pyroxene reappears at 1210C in the one-bar calculations and fractionates the residual liquid to produce evolved eucrite compositions (Stannern Trend). We have attempted to experimentally reproduce the Vesta magma ocean. In the MELTS calculation, the change from 500 bar to one bar results in a shift of the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary so that the 1250C liquid is now in the olivine field and, consequently, olivine should be the first-crystallizing phase, followed by low-Ca pyroxene at 1210C, and plagioclase at 1170C. Because at one bar the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary is a peritectic, fractional crystallization of the 1210C liquid proceeds with only pyroxene crystallization until plagioclase appears. Thus, the predictions of the MELTS calculation are clear

  2. Magma mixing induced by particle settling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renggli, Christian J.; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; De Campos, Cristina P.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-11-01

    A time series of experiments at high temperature have been performed to investigate the influence of particle settling on magma mixing. A natural rhyolite glass was held above a natural basalt glass in a platinum crucible. After melting of the glasses at superliquidus temperatures, a platinum sphere was placed on the upper surface of the rhyolitic melt and sank into the experimental column (rhyolitic melt above basaltic melt). Upon falling through the rhyolitic-basaltic melt interface, the Pt sphere entrained a filament of rhyolitic melt in its further fall. The quenched products of the experiments were imaged using X-ray microCT methods. The images of our time series of experiments document the formation of a rhyolite filament as it is entrained into the underlying basalt by the falling platinum sphere. When the Pt particle reached the bottom of the crucible, the entrained rhyolitic filament started to ascend buoyantly up to the initial rhyolitic-basaltic interface. This generated a significant thickness increase of a comingled "melange" layer at the interface due to "liquid rope coiling" and piling up of the filament. As a consequence, the basalt/rhyolite interface was greatly enlarged and diffusive hybridisation greatly accelerated. Further, bubbles, originating at the interface, are observed to have risen into the overlying rhyolite dragging basalt filaments with them. Upon crossing the basalt/rhyolite interface, the bubbles have non-spherical shapes as they adapt to the differing surface tensions of basaltic and rhyolitic melts. Major element profiles, measured across the rhyolite filaments, exhibit asymmetrical shapes from the rhyolite into the basalt. Na and Ti reveal uphill diffusion from the rhyolite towards the interface in the filament cross sections. These results reveal the potential qualitative complexity of the mingling process between rhyolitic and basaltic magmas in the presence of sinking crystals. They imply that crystal-rich magma mingling may

  3. A possible model for initiationof ULF oscillation in magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Nikitina

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available During the period just prior to an earthquake, an electomagnetic emission develops over seismic zones. In this paper, a model of excitation of magnetic fields over zones of volcanic activity is proposed. Movement of magma along volcanic channels precedes an earthquake, hydrodynamic processes in the moving magma can lead to formation of waves and vortices in the flow which, in turn, can cause development of magnetic fields in conducting magma. During this period, the movement of the magma intensifies leading to a corresponding intensification of the magnetic fields. In this paper, different possible sources of ULF pulsation in magma are examined,and the variable geomagnetic fields induced by this pulsation are estimated.

  4. Intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust facilitated by magma pulsing and dike-diapir interactions: Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Paterson, Scott

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a 2-D thermomechanical modeling study of intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust to explore the roles of multiple pulsing and dike-diapir interactions in the presence of visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Multiple pulsing is simulated by replenishing source regions with new pulses of magma at a certain temporal frequency. Parameterized "pseudo-dike zones" above magma pulses are included. Simulation results show that both diking and pulsing are crucial factors facilitating the magma ascent and emplacement. Multiple pulses keep the magmatic system from freezing and facilitate the initiation of pseudo-dike zones, which in turn heat the host rock roof, lower its viscosity, and create pathways for later ascending pulses of magma. Without diking, magma cannot penetrate the highly viscous upper crust. Without multiple pulsing, a single magma body solidifies quickly and it cannot ascent over a long distance. Our results shed light on the incremental growth of magma chambers, recycling of continental crust, and evolution of a continental arc such as the Sierra Nevada arc in California.

  5. The three stages of magma ocean cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-12-01

    Models of magma ocean (MO) cooling and crystallization can provide important constraints on MO plausibility for a given planet, on the origin of long term, stable crusts, and even on the origin of the solar system. Assuming the MO is initially extensive enough to have a mostly molten surface, its first stage of cooling is an era of radiative heat loss from the surface, with extremely rapid convection below, and no conductive layer in between. The development of the chill crust starts the second stage of MO cooling. Heat loss is now limited by conduction through the crust. The third stage of cooling starts when the near surface MO evolves compositionally to the point of saturation with feldspar. At this point, the cooling rate again precipitously diminishes, the rate of crustal thickness growth as a function of temperature suddenly increases. More work on incorporating chemical constraints into the evolving physical models of MO solidification would be worthwhile.

  6. MAGMA: a multiagent architecture for metaheuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Michela; Roli, Andrea

    2004-04-01

    In this work, we introduce a multiagent architecture called the MultiAGent Metaheuristic Architecture (MAGMA) conceived as a conceptual and practical framework for metaheuristic algorithms. Metaheuristics can be seen as the result of the interaction among different kinds of agents: The basic architecture contains three levels, each hosting one or more agents. Level-0 agents build solutions, level-1 agents improve solutions, and level-2 agents provide the high level strategy. In this framework, classical metaheuristic algorithms can be smoothly accommodated and extended. The basic three level architecture can be enhanced with the introduction of a fourth level of agents (level-3 agents) coordinating lower level agents. With this additional level, MAGMA can also describe, in a uniform way, cooperative search and, in general, any combination of metaheuristics. We describe the entire architecture, the structure of agents in each level in terms of tuples, and the structure of their coordination as a labeled transition system. We propose this perspective with the aim to achieve a better and clearer understanding of metaheuristics, obtain hybrid algorithms, suggest guidelines for a software engineering-oriented implementation and for didactic purposes. Some specializations of the general architecture will be provided in order to show that existing metaheuristics [e.g., greedy randomized adaptive procedure (GRASP), ant colony optimization (ACO), iterated local search (ILS), memetic algorithms (MAs)] can be easily described in our framework. We describe cooperative search and large neighborhood search (LNS) in the proposed framework exploiting level-3 agents. We show also that a simple hybrid algorithm, called guided restart ILS, can be easily conceived as a combination of existing components in our framework.

  7. Core formation in silicate bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, F.; O'Brien, D. P.; Kleine, T.

    2008-12-01

    Differentiation of a body into a metallic core and silicate mantle occurs most efficiently if temperatures are high enough to allow at least the metal to melt [1], and is enhanced if matrix deformation occurs [2]. Elevated temperatures may occur due to either decay of short-lived radio-isotopes, or gravitational energy release during accretion [3]. For bodies smaller than the Moon, core formation happens primarily due to radioactive decay. The Hf-W isotopic system may be used to date core formation; cores in some iron meteorites and the eucrite parent body (probably Vesta) formed within 1 My and 1-4~My of solar system formation, respectively [4]. These formation times are early enough to ensure widespread melting and differentiation by 26Al decay. Incorporation of Fe60 into the core, together with rapid early mantle solidification and cooling, may have driven early dynamo activity on some bodies [5]. Iron meteorites are typically depleted in sulphur relative to chondrites, for unknown reasons [6]. This depletion contrasts with the apparently higher sulphur contents of cores in larger planetary bodies, such as Mars [7], and also has a significant effect on the timing of core solidification. For bodies of Moon-size and larger, gravitational energy released during accretion is probably the primary cause of core formation [3]. The final stages of accretion involve large, stochastic collisions [8] between objects which are already differentiated. During each collision, the metallic cores of the colliding objects merge on timescales of a few hours [9]. Each collision will reset the Hf-W isotopic signature of both mantle and core, depending on the degree to which the impactor core re-equilibrates with the mantle of the target [10]. The re-equilibration efficiency depends mainly on the degree to which the impactor emulsifies [11], which is very uncertain. Results from N-body simulations [8,12] suggest that significant degrees of re- equilibration are required [4,10]. Re

  8. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.

    2010-05-11

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  9. Layered amphibolite sequence in NE Sardinia, Italy: remnant of a pre-Variscan mafic silicic layered intrusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, Marcello; Puxeddu, Mariano; Cruciani, Gabriele; Dini, Andrea; Loi, Marilisa

    2005-04-01

    analogies with Siberian, Deccan and proto-Atlantic rift tholeiites. Comparisons with Thingmuli, Skaergaard and Kiglapait rocks and with experimental data suggest that the Monte Plebi intrusion was an open-to-oxygen system with fO2 ≥ FMQ. Mafic and ultramafic samples yielded ɛNd(460)=+0.79 /+3.06 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.702934-0.703426, and four silicic samples ɛNd(460)=-0.53/-1.13; 87Sr/86Sr=0.703239-0.703653. Significant differences in Nd isotope ratios between mafic and silicic rocks prove that both groups evolved separately in deeper magma chambers, from different mantle sources, with negligible interaction with crustal material, and were later repeatedly injected within a shallower magma chamber. The spectrum of Sr and Nd isotope data is consistent with a slightly enriched mantle metasomatized during an event earlier than 460 Ma. The metasomatising component was represented by alkali-Th-rich fluids of crustal origin rather than by sedimentary materials, able to modify alkali and Sr-Nd isotope systematics. Monte Plebi layered amphibolites might represent the first example of a strongly metamorphosed fragment of an early Paleozoic mafic silicic layered intrusion emplaced in a thinning continental crust and then tectonically dismembered by Variscan orogeny.

  10. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  11. MAGMA: analysis of two-channel microarrays made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrauer, Hubert; Zoller, Stefan; Schlapbach, Ralph

    2007-07-01

    The web application MAGMA provides a simple and intuitive interface to identify differentially expressed genes from two-channel microarray data. While the underlying algorithms are not superior to those of similar web applications, MAGMA is particularly user friendly and can be used without prior training. The user interface guides the novice user through the most typical microarray analysis workflow consisting of data upload, annotation, normalization and statistical analysis. It automatically generates R-scripts that document MAGMA's entire data processing steps, thereby allowing the user to regenerate all results in his local R installation. The implementation of MAGMA follows the model-view-controller design pattern that strictly separates the R-based statistical data processing, the web-representation and the application logic. This modular design makes the application flexible and easily extendible by experts in one of the fields: statistical microarray analysis, web design or software development. State-of-the-art Java Server Faces technology was used to generate the web interface and to perform user input processing. MAGMA's object-oriented modular framework makes it easily extendible and applicable to other fields and demonstrates that modern Java technology is also suitable for rather small and concise academic projects. MAGMA is freely available at www.magma-fgcz.uzh.ch.

  12. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.

    2014-12-01

    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  13. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking... agent in food in an amount not in excess of that reasonably required to produce its intended effect. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...

  14. Stability of calcium silicate in basic solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生

    2003-01-01

    Mixture of CaO and SiO2 was sintered at 1 200 or 1 400 ℃ according to the mole ratio of CaO/SiO2 of 1 or 2, and then calcium silicate was leached in pure caustic or soda solution. The results indicated that calcium silicate exists much more stably in caustic solution than that in soda solution, and CaO*SiO2 is more stable than β-2CaO*SiO2 whether in caustic solution or in soda solution. The increase of sintering temperature favored the stability of calcium silicate in the leaching process. When β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in soda solution, the increase of leaching temperature and time resulted in decomposing of more calcium silicate. And when β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in caustic solution at high temperature, much 2CaO*SiO2*H2O but little CaO*SiO2*H2O appeared in slag.

  15. Immiscible silicate liquid partition coefficients: implications for crystal-melt element partitioning and basalt petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Ilya V.; Dorfman, Alexander M.; Danyushevsky, Leonid V.; Jakobsen, Jakob K.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates partitioning of elements between immiscible aluminosilicate and borosilicate liquids using three synthetic mixtures doped with 32 trace elements. In order to get a good spatial separation of immiscible liquids, we employed a high-temperature centrifuge. Experiments were performed at 1,050-1,150°C, 1 atm, in sealed Fe and Pt containers. Quenched products were analysed by electron microprobe and LA ICP-MS. Nernst partition coefficients ( D’s) between the Fe-rich and Si-rich aluminosilicate immiscible liquids are the highest for Zn (3.3) and Fe (2.6) and the lowest for Rb and K (0.4-0.5). The plots of D values against ionic potential Z/r in all the compositions show a convex upward trend, which is typical also for element partitioning between immiscible silicate and salt melts. The results bear upon the speciation and structural position of elements in multicomponent silicate liquids. The ferrobasalt-rhyolite liquid immiscibility is observed in evolved basaltic magmas, and may play an important role in large gabbroic intrusions, such as Skaergaard, and during the generation of unusual lavas, such as ferropicrites.

  16. COMPARISON OF SOL-GEL SILICATE COATINGS ON Ti SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings cont...

  17. Generation of new continental crust by sublithospheric silicic-magma relamination in arcs: A test of Taylor's andesite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Antonio; Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of the Earth's continental crust is that although this reservoir is generally regarded as having differentiated from the mantle, it has an andesitic bulk composition that contrasts with the intrinsic basaltic composition of mantle-derived melts. Classical models for new crust generation

  18. Segregating gas from melt: an experimental study of the Ostwald ripening of vapor bubbles in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautze, Nicole C.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusive coarsening (Ostwald ripening) of H2O and H2O-CO2 bubbles in rhyolite and basaltic andesite melts was studied with elevated temperature–pressure experiments to investigate the rates and time spans over which vapor bubbles may enlarge and attain sufficient buoyancy to segregate in magmatic systems. Bubble growth and segregation are also considered in terms of classical steady-state and transient (non-steady-state) ripening theory. Experimental results are consistent with diffusive coarsening as the dominant mechanism of bubble growth. Ripening is faster in experiments saturated with pure H2O than in those with a CO2-rich mixed vapor probably due to faster diffusion of H2O than CO2 through the melt. None of the experimental series followed the time1/3 increase in mean bubble radius and time-1 decrease in bubble number density predicted by classical steady-state ripening theory. Instead, products are interpreted as resulting from transient regime ripening. Application of transient regime theory suggests that bubbly magmas may require from days to 100 years to reach steady-state ripening conditions. Experimental results, as well as theory for steady-state ripening of bubbles that are immobile or undergoing buoyant ascent, indicate that diffusive coarsening efficiently eliminates micron-sized bubbles and would produce mm-sized bubbles in 102–104 years in crustal magma bodies. Once bubbles attain mm-sizes, their calculated ascent rates are sufficient that they could transit multiple kilometers over hundreds to thousands of years through mafic and silicic melt, respectively. These results show that diffusive coarsening can facilitate transfer of volatiles through, and from, magmatic systems by creating bubbles sufficiently large for rapid ascent.

  19. The fatty acids and alkanes of Satureja adamovicii Silic and Satureja fukarekii Silic (NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSANKA KITIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The content and composition of fatty acids and alkanes of Satureja adamovicii Silic and Satureja fukarekii Silic were analized by GC. It was found that unsaturated acids prevailed and that the major components were palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The hydrocarbon fractions of pentane extracts were shown to consist of the alkane homologues (C17 to C34 with nonacosane and hentriacontane being prevailing compounds.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. Primary magmas and mantle temperatures through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, Jérôme; Feng, Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Chemical composition of mafic magmas is a critical indicator of physicochemical conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and fluid availability, accompanying melt production in the mantle and its evolution in the continental or oceanic lithosphere. Recovering this information has fundamental implications in constraining the thermal state of the mantle and the physics of mantle convection throughout the Earth's history. Here a statistical approach is applied to a geochemical database of about 22,000 samples from the mafic magma record. Potential temperatures (Tps) of the mantle derived from this database, assuming melting by adiabatic decompression and a Ti-dependent (Fe2O3/TiO2 = 0.5) or constant redox condition (Fe2+/∑Fe = 0.9 or 0.8) in the magmatic source, are thought to be representative of different thermal "horizons" (or thermal heterogeneities) in the ambient mantle, ranging in depth from a shallow sublithospheric mantle (Tp minima) to a lower thermal boundary layer (Tp maxima). The difference of temperature (ΔTp) observed between Tp maxima and minima did not change significantly with time (˜170°C). Conversely, a progressive but limited cooling of ˜150°C is proposed since ˜2.5 Gyr for the Earth's ambient mantle, which falls in the lower limit proposed by Herzberg et al. [2010] (˜150-250°C hotter than today). Cooling of the ambient mantle after 2.5 Ga is preceded by a high-temperature plateau evolution and a transition from dominant plumes to a plate tectonics geodynamic regime, suggesting that subductions stabilized temperatures in the Archaean mantle that was in warming mode at that time.abstract type="synopsis">Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's upper mantle constitutes a major interface between inner and outer envelops of the planet. We explore at high resolution its thermal state evolution (potential temperature of the ambient mantle, Tp) in depth and time using a multi-dimensional database of mafic lavas chemistry (>22,000 samples formed in

  2. Silicate melt structure at high temperatures and pressures: concepts and questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A great deal is now known about the structure of glass-forming silicate (and other oxide) liquids, from decades of research on quenched glasses of interest to the geosciences and technology. However, specific structural information and derived general concepts from such studies are only the starting point for thinking about melts at temperatures far above the glass transition, and for high pressures and compositions that do not result in quenchable glasses. This talk will attempt to briefly summarize what we know about temperature and pressure effects on melt structure, emphasizing questions yet to be clearly answered. As examples of the latter, we are yet to have a quantitative structural explanation of the all-important configurational entropy and enthalpy of even simple silicate compositions, suggesting that short-lived and possibly ill-defined defect structures account for much of the non-vibrational energy taken up on heating to liquidus temperatures. At least in the pressure range before major increases in silicon coordination (which probably includes the upper mantle source regions for most modern mafic magmas), known changes in cation coordination are not enough to account for known changes in density, either at high T/P or in quenched and decompressed glasses. And even the basic concepts of silicate melt structure, such as `network formers' and `network modifiers' are inadequate in a high pressure liquid comprised primarily of cations with 6, 7 or 8-fold coordination. Such kinds of questions pose important and intriguing challenges for structural thinking based on improved computational models and rapid advances in in-situ, high P/T structural measurements.

  3. Time scales of crystal mixing in magma mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Jillian M.; Bergantz, George W.; Breidenthal, Robert E.; Burgisser, Alain

    2016-02-01

    Magma mixing is widely recognized as a means of producing compositional diversity and preconditioning magmas for eruption. However, the processes and associated time scales that produce the commonly observed expressions of magma mixing are poorly understood, especially under crystal-rich conditions. Here we introduce and exemplify a parameterized method to predict the characteristic mixing time of crystals in a crystal-rich magma mush that is subject to open-system reintrusion events. Our approach includes novel numerical simulations that resolve multiphase particle-fluid interactions. It also quantifies the crystal mixing by calculating both the local and system-wide progressive loss of the spatial correlation of individual crystals throughout the mixing region. Both inertial and viscous time scales for bulk mixing are introduced. Estimated mixing times are compared to natural examples and the time for basaltic mush systems to become well mixed can be on the order of 10 days.

  4. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...

  5. The Role of Magma Mixing in Creating Magmatic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. P.; Collins, S.; Morgan, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Most magmas derived from the mantle are fundamentally basaltic. An assessment of actual magmatic rock compositions erupted at the earth's surface, however, shows greater diversity. While still strongly dominated by basalts, magmatic rock compositions extend to far more differentiated (higher SiO2, LREE enriched) compositions. Magmatic diversity is generated by differentiation processes, including crystal fractionation/ accumulation, crustal contamination and magma mixing. Among these, magma mixing is arguably inevitable in magma systems that deliver magmas from source-to-surface, since magmas will tend to multiply re-occupy plumbing systems. A given mantle-derived magma type will mix with any residual magmas (and crystals) in the system, and with any partial melts of the wallrock which are generated as it is repeatedly flushed through the system. Evidence for magma mixing can be read from the petrography (identification of crystals derived from different magmas), a technique which is now well-developed and supplemented by isotopic fingerprinting (1,2) As a means of creating diversity, mixing is inevitably not efficient as its tendency is to blend towards a common composition (i.e. converging on homogeneity rather than diversity). It may be surprising then that many systems do not tend to homogenise with time, meaning that the timescales of mixing episodes and eruption must be similar to external magma contributions of distinct composition (recharge?). Indeed recharge and mixing/ contamination may well be related. As a result, the consequences of magma mixing may well bear on eruption triggering. When two magmas mix, volatile exsolution may be triggered by retrograde boiling, with crystallisation of anhydrous phase(s) in either of the magmas (3) or volatiles may be generated by thermal breakdown of a hydrous phase in one of the magmas (4). The generation of gas pressures in this way probably leads to geophysical signals too (small earthquakes). Recent work pulling

  6. Magma Rich Events at Magma-Poor Rifted Margins: A South-East Indian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Caroline; Kusznir, Nick; Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Horn, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The south-east Indian continental rifted margin, as imaged by the INE1-1000 deep long-offset seismic reflection section by ION Geophysical, is a classic example of a magma-poor rifted margin, showing highly thinned continental crust, or possibly exhumed mantle, within the ocean-continent transition (OCT). Outboard, the steady-state oceanic crust is between 4 and 5 km thickness, consistent with magma-poor continental breakup and sea-floor spreading. It is therefore surprising that between the hyper-extended crust showing thin or absent continental crust (of approximately 75 km width) and the anomalously thin steady-state oceanic crust, there appears to be a region of thicker magmatic crust of approximately 11 km thickness and 100 km width. Magmatic events, at or just after continental breakup, have also been observed at other magma-poor rifted margins (e.g. NE Brazil). This interpretation of magma-poor OCT structure and thinner than global average oceanic crust separated by thicker magmatic crust on the SE Indian margin is supported by gravity inversion; which uses a 3D spectral technique and includes a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. Residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis corrected for sediment loading using flexural backstripping, gives a small negative value (approximately -0.1 km) over the steady-state oceanic crust compared with a positive value (approximately +0.3 km) over the thicker magmatic crust. This RDA difference is consistent with the variation in crustal thickness seen by the seismic reflection interpretation and gravity inversion. We use joint inversion of the time domain seismic reflection and gravity data to investigate the average basement density and seismic velocity of the anomalously thick magmatic crust. An initial comparison of Moho depth from deep long-offset seismic reflection data and gravity inversion suggests that its basement density and seismic velocity are slightly less than that of the outboard steady-state oceanic

  7. Il magma costitutivo dell'immaginario sociale contemporaneo: vivere e pensare il magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Maria Valastro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La figura dell’Etna, sede della redazione di M@gm@, ha sollecitato un’immaginazione straordinaria durante la creazione del progetto editoriale avviato nel 2002, stimolando il coraggio di un’esperienza entusiasmante e appassionata dalla logica del magma del vulcano fonte di una poetica che ha alimentato, grazie alla sua sintassi metaforica, la costituzione di un progetto e di spazi alternativi. Celebriamo in quest’occasione il sesto anniversario della rivista, dedicando un numero ai contributi proposti dagli associati d’analisiqualitativa.com (il progetto dell’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi, l’Associazione culturale scientifica che pubblica la rivista ed i membri della redazione.

  8. Tracking Magma Degassing and Changes in Magma Rheology Between Major Dome Collapse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K.; Cronin, S. J.; Lube, G.

    2012-12-01

    Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia, produced two particularly large dome collapse events on 26 October and 5 November 2010, during its largest eruption since 1872. These were accompanied by explosive eruptions and highly destructive pyroclastic density currents that killed several hundred people in villages on the southern flanks. Previous work revealed that the tephras from the 26 October surges were dominated by free crystals liberated from a vesicular melt, while the 5 November tephras were dominated by juvenile lava fragments as the result of the development of permeable pathways for gas escape caused by vesicle coalescence and collapse. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of lava clasts from the 2010 surge-producing events at Merapi revealed differences in the groundmass crystallinities as a result of decompression-induced crystallization during magma ascent over a time period of ten days. Lava clasts from the 5 November event contain microlite number densities over an order of magnitude higher than lava clasts from the 26 October collapse, 7.6 x 104 per mm2 versus 5.7 x 103 per mm2, respectively. The number density of plagioclase feldspar microlites is ten times higher in the 5 November event, while the number of pyroxene/Fe-oxide microlites is fifteen times higher compared to the 26 October event. Additionally, textures of the microlites provide information on magma ascent rates during the two phases of magma extrusion. 26 October lava clasts display euhedral and tabular plagioclase microlites with an average area of 133 μm2(n=100). 5 November lava clasts contain plagioclase microlites with lath-shaped and swallowtail morphologies and pyroxene/Fe-oxide microlites with anhedral, skeletal, and hopper morphologies, with most of the latter on the order of 1 μm in diameter. These variations in groundmass textures indicate that the lava extruded prior to the 5 November collapse event experienced a significant amount of decompression

  9. The roles of fractional crystallization, magma mixing, crystal mush remobilization and volatile-melt interactions in the genesis of a young basalt-peralkaline rhyolite suite, the greater Olkaria volcanic complex, Kenya Rift valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.E.; Fitton, J.G.; Rogers, N.W.; Nejbert, K.; Tindle, A.G.; Marshall, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Greater Olkaria Volcanic Complex is a young (???20 ka) multi-centred lava and dome field dominated by the eruption of peralkaline rhyolites. Basaltic and trachytic magmas have been erupted peripherally to the complex and also form, with mugearites and benmoreites, an extensive suite of magmatic inclusions in the rhyolites. The eruptive rocks commonly represent mixed magmas and the magmatic inclusions are themselves two-, three- or four-component mixes. All rock types may carry xenocrysts of alkali feldspar, and less commonly plagioclase, derived from magma mixing and by remobilization of crystal mushes and/or plutonic rocks. Xenoliths in the range gabbro-syenite are common in the lavas and magmatic inclusions, the more salic varieties sometimes containing silicic glass representing partial melts and ranging in composition from anorthite ?? corundum- to acmite-normative. The peralkaline varieties are broadly similar, in major element terms, to the eruptive peralkaline rhyolites. The basalt-trachyte suite formed by a combination of fractional crystallization, magma mixing and resorption of earlier-formed crystals. Matrix glass in metaluminous trachytes has a peralkaline rhyolitic composition, indicating that the eruptive rhyolites may have formed by fractional crystallization of trachyte. Anomalous trace element enrichments (e.g. ??? 2000 ppm Y in a benmoreite) and negative Ce anomalies may have resulted from various Na- and K-enriched fluids evolving from melts of intermediate composition and either being lost from the system or enriched in other parts of the reservoirs. A small group of nepheline-normative, usually peralkaline, magmatic inclusions was formed by fluid transfer between peralkaline rhyolitic and benmoreitic magmas. The plumbing system of the complex consists of several independent reservoirs and conduits, repeatedly recharged by batches of mafic magma, with ubiquitous magma mixing. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  10. Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paradigm for lunar evolution is of crystallization of a global scale magma ocean, giving rise to the anorthositic crust and mafic cumulate interior. It is thought that all other lunar rocks have arisen from this differentiated interior. However, until recently this paradigm has remained untested experimentally. Presented here are the first experimental results of fractional crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) using the Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) bulk lunar composition [1].

  11. From rock to magma and back again: The evolution of temperature and deformation mechanism in conduit margin zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Violay, Marie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    Explosive silicic volcanism is driven by gas overpressure in systems that are inefficient at outgassing. The zone at the margin of a volcanic conduit-thought to play an important role in the outgassing of magma and therefore pore pressure changes and explosivity-is the boundary through which heat is exchanged from the hot magma to the colder country rock. Using a simple heat transfer model, we first show that the isotherm for the glass transition temperature (whereat the glass within the groundmass transitions from a glass to an undercooled liquid) moves into the country rock when the magma within the conduit can stay hot, or into the conduit when the magma is quasi-stagnant and cools (on the centimetric scale over days to months). We then explore the influence of a migrating viscous boundary on compactive deformation micromechanisms in the conduit margin zone using high-pressure (effective pressure of 40 MPa), high-temperature (up to 800 °C) triaxial deformation experiments on porous andesite. Our experiments show that the micromechanism facilitating compaction in andesite is localised cataclastic pore collapse at all temperatures below the glass transition of the amorphous groundmass glass Tg (i.e., rock). In this regime, porosity is only reduced within the bands of crushed pores; the porosity outside the bands remains unchanged. Further, the strength of andesite is a positive function of temperature below the threshold Tg due to thermal expansion driven microcrack closure. The micromechanism driving compaction above Tg (i.e., magma) is the distributed viscous flow of the melt phase. In this regime, porosity loss is distributed and is accommodated by the widespread flattening and closure of pores. We find that viscous flow is much more efficient at reducing porosity than cataclastic pore collapse, and that it requires stresses much lower than those required to form bands of crushed pores. Our study therefore highlights that temperature excursions can result in a

  12. Contrasting plagioclase textures and geochemistry in response to magma dynamics in an intra-caldera rhyolite system, Okataina volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Phil

    2015-05-01

    The changing magmatic dynamics of the rhyolite caldera volcano, Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand, is revealed in plagioclase growth histories. Crystals from the ~ 0.7 ka Kaharoa eruption are characterized by resorbed cores displaying a cellular texture of high-An (> 40) zones partially replaced by low-An (Mg, Sr, and Ti follow the resorption surface and display rimward depletion trends, accompanied by Ba and REE enrichment. The zonation is consistent with fractional crystallization and cooling. The cores display wide trace element diversity, pointing to crystallization in a variety of melts, before transport and mixing into a common magma where the rims grew. Plagioclase from the ~ 36 ka Hauparu eruption display several regrowth zones separated by resorption surfaces, which surround small resorbed cores with a spongy cellular texture of variable An content (An40-50). The crystals display step-wise regrowth of successively higher An, Fe, Mg, and Ti content, consistent with progressive mafic recharge. Two crystal groups are distinguished by trace element chemistry, indicating growth in separate melts and co-occurrence via magma mingling. For plagioclase in both eruption deposits, partition coefficients (D) estimated from crystal rim-groundmass glass analyses, produce melt compositions similar to the array of rock and glass compositions erupted and are consistent with the processes of fractional crystallization and recharge. However, D values estimated from some published formulations based on An content and temperature produce unrealistic melts. The contrasting zoning patterns in plagioclase correspond to the evolutionary history of magmatism at Okataina. Emptying of the magma reservoir following caldera eruption at 46 ka reduced barriers to mafic magma ascent. This is recorded by the frequent resorption and recharge episodes in Hauparu crystals. Subsequent redevelopment of a more silicic reservoir zone (post-26 ka) dampened thermal and mass perturbations

  13. Characterizing Amorphous Silicates in Extraterrestrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, A.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicates are common in extraterrestrial materials. They are seen in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites as well as in planetary materials. Tagish Lake is one of the most primitive carbonaceous meteorites in which TEM and XRD analyses found evidence for poorly crystalline phyllosilicate-like species; Raman spectra revealed amorphous silicates with variable degree of polymerization and low crystallinity. On Mars, CheMin discovered amorphous phases in all analyzed samples, and poorly crystalline smectite in mudstone samples. These discoveries pose questions on the crystallinity of phyllosilicates found by remote sensing on Mars, which is directly relevant to aqueous alteration during geologic history of Mars. Our goal is to use spectroscopy to better characterize amorphous silicates. We use three approaches: (1) using silicate glasses synthesized with controlled chemistry to study the effects of silicate polymerization and (2) using phyllosilicates synthesized with controlled hydrothermal treatment to study the effect of crystallinity on vibrational spectroscopy, finally (3) to use the developed correlations in above two steps to study amorphous phases in meteorites, and those found in future missions to Mars. In the 1st step, silicate glasses were synthesized from pure oxides in a range of NBO/T ratios (from 0 to 4). Depending on the targeted NBO/T and composition of mixed oxides, temperatures for each experiment fell in a range from 1260 to 1520 °C, run for ~ 4 hrs. The melt was quenched in liquid N2 or water. Homogeneity of glass was checked under optical microscopy. Raman spectra were taken over 100 spots on small chips free of bubbles and crystals. We have observed that accompanying an increase of NBO/T, there is a strengthening and a position shift of the Raman peak near 1000 cm-1 (Si-Onon-bridging stretching mode), and the weakening of broad Raman peaks near 500 cm-1 (ring breathing mode) and 700cm-1 (Si-Obridging-Si mode). We are building the

  14. Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Sébastien; Lacanna, Giorgio; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Pistolesi, Marco; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Allocca, Carmine; Cigolini, Corrado; Nishimura, Takeshi; Poggi, Pasquale; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

  15. Vesiculation of rhyolite magma in the IDDP-1 borehole at Krafla, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewick, Laura; Tuffen, Hugh; Owen, Jacqueline; Kennedy, Ben; Eichelberger, John; Zierenberg, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In 2009 the IDDP-1 borehole at Krafla, Iceland unexpectedly intersected rhyolitic magma at 2.1 km depth [1,2], providing unprecedented opportunities to investigate silicic melt formation and storage, and potential for powerful geothermal energy production. A key objective is to constrain the nature of the rhyolitic melt and its response to drilling. As no intact core was extracted, evidence is fragmental - from glassy rhyolitic clasts retrieved from the cuttings. These exhibit a range of glass colours, vesicularities and phenocryst contents [1,2]. Here we use benchtop infra-red spectroscopy and petrological microscopy to characterise the H2O concentrations and bubble number densities within diverse glassy clasts, complemented by 1 Atm bubble growth experiments with a heated stage to investigate vesicle growth. Juvenile glassy clasts were divided into three categories (brown>banded>very dark glass). H2O concentrations within clasts showed some spatial variability, with enrichment towards bubble-rich areas that may be resorption-related but could not be adequately characterised with a benchtop source. However, mean values ranged from 1.41-1.68 wt %, with no statistically significant difference between clast types. This is broadly consistent with previous studies [1,2]. Bubble growth rates in all clast types were determined during isothermal dwells at 600, 650 and 700 °C, for which bubbles grew at 0.03-0.09, 0.11-0.31, and 0.46-0.82 μm s-1 respectively. The highest growth rates were measured for the most water-rich clast analysed - a banded clast with mean H2O of 1.68 wt %, and initially-larger bubbles also grew more rapidly. Measured bubble number densities (BNDs) range from 10[11.7] m-3 in banded clasts to 10[13.1] m-3 in very dark clasts, corresponding to decompression rates of ~0.1-1 MPa/s [3], although experimentation on IDDP-1 magma is needed to properly calibrate BNDs as a decompression rate meter. Nonetheless, such decompression rates suggest nucleation

  16. Contrasting sediment melt and fluid signatures for magma components in the Aeolian Arc: Implications for numerical modeling of subduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Denis; Gazel, Esteban; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Cannatelli, Claudia; Lucchi, Federico; Atlas, Zachary D.; Trela, Jarek; Mazza, Sarah E.; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-06-01

    The complex geodynamic evolution of Aeolian Arc in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea resulted in melts with some of the most pronounced along the arc geochemical variation in incompatible trace elements and radiogenic isotopes worldwide, likely reflecting variations in arc magma source components. Here we elucidate the effects of subducted components on magma sources along different sections of the Aeolian Arc by evaluating systematics of elements depleted in the upper mantle but enriched in the subducting slab, focusing on a new set of B, Be, As, and Li measurements. Based on our new results, we suggest that both hydrous fluids and silicate melts were involved in element transport from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. Hydrous fluids strongly influence the chemical composition of lavas in the central arc (Salina) while a melt component from subducted sediments probably plays a key role in metasomatic reactions in the mantle wedge below the peripheral islands (Stromboli). We also noted similarities in subducting components between the Aeolian Archipelago, the Phlegrean Fields, and other volcanic arcs/arc segments around the world (e.g., Sunda, Cascades, Mexican Volcanic Belt). We suggest that the presence of melt components in all these locations resulted from an increase in the mantle wedge temperature by inflow of hot asthenospheric material from tears/windows in the slab or from around the edges of the sinking slab.

  17. High Temperature Metamorphism In The Conductive Boundary Layer Of An Intrusion Of Rhyolite Magma In The Krafla Geothermal System, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Elders, W. A.; Mortensen, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    A rhyolite magma body within the Krafla geothermal system- encountered at a depth of 2.1 km during drilling of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project's IDDP-1 borehole - is producing high temperature metamorphism within adjacent country rocks. Cuttings recovered during drilling within a few meters of the intrusive contact are undergoing recrystallization into granoblastic, pyroxene hornfelses. In mafic rocks, clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-magnetite-ilmenite assemblages record temperatures in the range of 800-950°C. Silicic lithologies - mainly older felsitic intrusions -contain pockets of rhyolite melt, quenched to glass during drilling, amongst alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, clinopyroxene, and magnetite. Curiously, no lower grade metamorphic assemblages have been identified in the drill cuttings, and country rocks at distances beyond 30 m of the contact are essentially unaltered. These findings suggest that the intruding rhyolite magma body has created a thin conductive boundary layer above it, but that a contact metamorphic aureole has not as yet developed beyond this. The heat flow across the boundary layer is calculated to be a minimum of 23 W m-2. This flux is capable of supplying steam to a geothermal power plant that can produce approximately 40 MW of electrical generation from a single well that has a measured well-head temperature of up to 415°C.

  18. Cooling rate calculations for silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, D. P., III; Dyar, M. D.

    1986-03-01

    Series solution calculations of cooling rates are applied to a variety of samples with different thermal properties, including an analog of an Apollo 15 green glass and a hypothetical silicate melt. Cooling rates for the well-studied green glass and a generalized silicate melt are tabulated for different sample sizes, equilibration temperatures and quench media. Results suggest that cooling rates are heavily dependent on sample size and quench medium and are less dependent on values of physical properties. Thus cooling histories for glasses from planetary surfaces can be estimated on the basis of size distributions alone. In addition, the variation of cooling rate with sample size and quench medium can be used to control quench rate.

  19. Recycle of silicate waste into mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2011-04-15

    Template synthesis of porous carbon materials usually requires selective removal of template silica from the carbon/silica composites. It not only involves waste of valuable chemicals, but also poses significant environmental concerns including high waste treatment cost. Recycling of silicates released from such nanocasting methods is successfully performed for the first time to regenerate valuable mesoporous MCM and SBA type silica materials, which will not only help in saving valuable chemicals, but also in decreasing chemical waste, contributing in improvement of our environmental standards. This approach can thus improve cost effectiveness for the mass production of nanostructured carbon and others utilizing silica directed nanocasting method by recycling otherwise silicate waste into highly desirable valuable mesoporous silica.

  20. Six White Dwarfs with Circumstellar Silicates

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M; Zuckerman, B

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope spectra reveal 10 micron silicate emission from circumstellar dust orbiting six externally-polluted white dwarfs. Micron-size glasses with an olivine stoichiometry can account for the distinctively broad wings that extend to 12 microns; these particles likely are produced by tidal-disruption of asteroids. The absence of infrared PAH features is consistent with a scenario where extrasolar rocky planets are assembled from carbon-poor solids.

  1. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  2. Origins of Calc-Alkaline (s.l.) Andesitic Magmas - Where We Stand Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    The mainly igneous continents have intermediate mean SiO2 (~60 wt%) and Mg# (0.4-0.55 mol). Bowen championed crystallization-differentiation of basalts to silicic daughter liquids, but he encountered difficulties with conflicting evidence for iron enrichment. We now know that as dry reduced basalts crystallize, melt SiO2 begins climbing steeply at F (melt fraction): 0.25-0.35, reaching intermediate values at F: 0.1-0.2. H2O changes basalt crystallization by (1) increasing the ratio of olivine to high-Ca pyroxene, (2) delaying onset and reducing the proportion of plagioclase, (3) stabilizing calcic plagioclase, (4) destabilizing low-Ca pyroxene, (5) eventually stabilizing amphibole, and (6) destabilizing silicate minerals more than magnetite. Factors 1-5 enrich melts early in SiO2, 6 limits decline of Mg#. H2O of 2-6 wt% is sufficient for early SiO2 enrichment; fO2 modestly above Ni-NiO yields daughter liquids with high (calc-alkaline) Mg#s. These values are matched by many natural subduction zone magmas, so seemingly, the problem is solved. Yet, difficulties remain: Melt SiO2 enrichment commences at F: 0.6-0.7 in experiments on hydrous Mg basalts, reaching intermediate SiO2 at F: 0.2-0.4. Cumulates 60-80% of the basalt mass must have returned to the mantle if basalt differentiation formed the continents. Differentiation mainly near the base of the crust has geologic support, and would aid disposal of cumulates, but most experiments on hydrous basalts at such pressures yield peraluminous andesitic liquids, unlike common metaluminous andesites. A composite scenario avoiding peraluminous intermediates is crystallization-differentiation plus mixing with silicic liquids mainly residual or remelted from shortly antecedent intrusions. Even in this case, cumulates and restites exceeding the continental mass must have been lost. The Archean was different: Residual-eclogite-sourced granitoids are widespread, but experiments on hydrous eclogites at plausible temperatures

  3. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  4. Phase equilibrium modelling of granite magma petrogenesis: B. An evaluation of the magma compositions that result from fractional crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arias, Marcos; Stevens, Gary

    2017-04-01

    Several fractional crystallization processes (flow segregation, gravitational settling, filter-pressing), as well as batch crystallization, have been investigated in this study using thermodynamic modelling (pseudosections) to test whether they are able to reproduce the compositional trends shown by S-type granites. Three starting compositions comprising a pure melt phase and variable amounts of entrained minerals (0, 20 and 40 wt.% of the total magma) have been used to study a wide range of likely S-type magma compositions. The evolution of these magmas was investigated from the segregation from their sources at 0.8 GPa until emplacement at 0.3 GPa in an adiabatic path, followed by isobaric cooling until the solidus was crossed, in a closed-system scenario. The modelled magmas and the fractionated mineral assemblages are compared to the S-type granites of the Peninsula pluton, Cape Granite Suite, South Africa, which have a composition very similar to most of the S-type granites. The adiabatic ascent of the magmas digests partially the entrained mineral assemblage of the magmas, but unless this entrained assemblage represents less than 1 wt.% of the original magma, part of the mineral fraction survives the ascent up to the chosen pressure of emplacement. At the level of emplacement, batch crystallization produces magmas that only plot within the composition of the granites of the Peninsula pluton if the bulk composition of the original magmas already matched that of the granites. Flow segregation of crystals during the ascent and gravitational settling fractional crystallization produce bodies that are generally more mafic than the most mafic granites of the pluton and the residual melts have an almost haplogranitic composition, producing a bimodal compositional distribution not observed in the granites. Consequently, these two processes are ruled out. Filter-pressing fractional crystallization produces bodies in an onion-layer structure that become more felsic

  5. Volatile Abundances and Magma Geochemistry of Recent (2006) Through Ancient Eruptions (Less Than 2100 aBP) of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. D.; Mandeville, C. W.; Gerard, T.; Goldoff, B.; Coombs, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska, is a subduction-related Aleutian arc volcano located approximately 275 km southwest of Anchorage. During the past 200 years, Augustine volcano has shown explosive eruptive behavior seven times, with the most recent activity occurring in January through March 2006. Its ash and pumice eruptions pose a threat to commercial air traffic, the local fishing industry, and the inhabitants of the region. Following prior investigations on volatile abundances and processes of evolution for magmas associated with the 1976 (Johnston, 1978) and 1986 (Roman et al., 2005) eruptions of Augustine, we have analyzed phenocrysts, matrix glasses, and silicate melt inclusions in andesites formed during 5 pre-historic eruptions (ranging from 2100 to 1000 years in age) as well as the 1986 and recent 2006 eruptions. Outcrops of basaltic units on Augustine are rare, and basaltic melt inclusions are as well, so most melt inclusions studied range from andesitic to rhyolitic compositions. Comparison of the volatile abundances in felsic melt inclusion glasses shows few differences in H2O, CO2, S, and Cl, respectively, between eruptive materials of the pre- historic, 1976 (Johnston, 1978), and 1986 (Roman et al., 2005; our data) events. The magmas associated with these eruptions contained 1.6 to 8.0 wt.% H2O with 0.21 to 0.84 wt.% Cl, 100 to 1800 ppm CO2, and 100 to 400 ppm S. In contrast, preliminary research on rhyodacitic to rhyolitic melt inclusions in a single 2006 andesite sample collected from a lahar deposit indicates they contain somewhat lower H2O contents and higher Cl and S abundances than felsic melt inclusions from prior eruptions, and they exhibit geochemical trends consonant with magma mixing. Relationships involving H2O, CO2, S, and Cl in prehistoric through 1986 melt inclusions are consistent with fluid-saturated magma evolution of andesitic to rhyolitic melt compositions during closed-system ascent. The various batches of magma rose through

  6. A new view of the He-Ar-CO 2 degassing at mid-ocean ridges: Homogeneous composition of magmas from the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paonita, Antonio; Martelli, Mauro

    2007-04-01

    Deep-sea exploration is rapidly improving our understanding of volatiles geochemistry in mid-ocean-ridge igneous products. It is also placing greater constraints on degassing processes of the Earth's mantle, with the result that degassing models based on vapour-melt equilibrium are no longer able to explain the increasing number of data. In fact, such models force to postulate an upper mantle strongly heterogeneous at any scale, and cannot account for the widespread carbon supersaturation of the recovered igneous products. Here we review the global He-Ar-CO 2 dataset of fluid inclusions in mid-ocean-ridge glasses using the framework of advanced modelling of multicomponent bubble growth in magmas. We display that non-equilibrium fractionations among He, Ar and CO 2, driven by their different diffusivities in silicate melts, are common in most of the natural conditions of magma decompression and their signature strongly depends on pressure of degassing. Due to the comparable Ar and CO 2 diffusivity, magma degassing at low pressure fractionates both the He/Ar and He/CO 2 ratio by a similar extent, while the slower CO 2 diffusion at high pressure causes early kinetic effects on Ar/CO 2 ratio and dramatically changes the degassing path. On this ground, the very different geochemical signatures among suites of data coming from different ridge segments mainly depend on the depth of the magma chamber where the melt was stored. Besides, the variations inside a single suite highlight variable ascent speed and cooling rate of the emplaced lava. The large variations in both the He/CO 2 and Ar/CO 2 ratios at almost constant He/Ar, displayed in glasses coming from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 24-30°N segment and the Rodriguez Triple Junction, are therefore interpreted as a high-pressure signature. In contrast, the simultaneous increase in both He/CO 2 and He/Ar of the East Pacific Rise, Pito Seamount and South-East Indian Ridge data sets suggests the dominance of low

  7. Intermediate composition magma production in an intracontinental setting: Unusual andesites and dacites of the mid-Miocene Santa Rosa-Calico volcanic field, Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueseke, Matthew E.; Hart, William K.

    2009-11-01

    The mid-Miocene Santa Rosa-Calico volcanic field (SC) of northern Nevada provides an outstanding example of the role open-system magmatic processes play in producing calc-alkaline and tholeiitic andesite-dacite magmas in an intracontinental setting. SC volcanism commenced at ˜ 16.7 Ma and is associated with the initial manifestations of the Yellowstone hotspot, the Columbia River-Steens flood basalt event(s), and the formation of the Northern Nevada rift. Locally a diverse package of magmatic products ranging from tholeiitic basalt to high-Si rhyolite was produced during an ˜ 2 myr duration. Within this package are the products of at least four distinct intermediate composition magmatic systems that may represent as much as 40% of the SC volcanic pile. These help differentiate the SC from contemporaneous Oregon Plateau volcanic fields (e.g. McDermitt, Lake Owyhee, Northwest Nevada) that are dominated by bimodal basalt-rhyolite assemblages. All SC intermediate units are characterized by textural and mineralogic complexities including xenoliths and xenocrysts of local crust and crystal clots of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene ± oxide. SC intermediate units are dominantly tholeiitic, but include lava flows with transitional to calc-alkaline affinities. Relative to locally erupted Steens Basalt, SC intermediate lava flows have similar elemental enrichments and depletions, but dissimilar Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. These isotopic differences, coupled with the abundant disequilibrium features and variable incompatible element ratios, indicate that open system magmatic processes played a major role in the genesis of the intermediate units. SC silicic magmas were produced primarily via upper crustal melting of chemically and isotopically heterogeneous Cretaceous granitoid. Interaction between fractionating mafic Steens flood basalt magmas and the more evolved crustal melts ± assimilation of local upper crust provides a general template for the

  8. A test for Io's magma ocean: Modeling tidal dissipation with a partially molten mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierson, C. J.; Nimmo, F.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic induction measurements and astrometry provide constraints on the internal structure of Io, a volcanically active moon of Jupiter. We model the tidal response of a partially molten Io using an Andrade rheology which is supported by silicate deformation experiments. This model uses material properties similar to the Earth's mantle and includes feedbacks between partial melting, tidal heat production, and melt transport. We are able to satisfy constraints provided by the measured imaginary part of the tidal Love number Im(k2), the inferred depth and melt fraction of a near-surface partially molten layer, and the observed equatorial concentration of volcanic landforms. We predict a value for the real part of the tidal Love number of Re(k2) = 0.09 ± 0.02, much smaller than the value of Re(k2)≈0.5 predicted for an Io with a fluid magma ocean. Future spacecraft observations should be able to measure this value and test which model is correct.

  9. Experimental constraints on the outgassing dynamics of basaltic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Azzopardi, B. J.; Phillips, J. C.; Ripepe, M.

    2012-03-01

    The dynamics of separated two-phase flow of basaltic magmas in cylindrical conduits has been explored combining large-scale experiments and theoretical studies. Experiments consisted of the continuous injection of air into water or glucose syrup in a 0.24 m diameter, 6.5 m long bubble column. The model calculates vesicularity and pressure gradient for a range of gas superficial velocities (volume flow rates/pipe area, 10-2-102 m/s), conduit diameters (100-2 m), and magma viscosities (3-300 Pa s). The model is calibrated with the experimental results to extrapolate key flow parameters such as Co (distribution parameter) and Froude number, which control the maximum vesicularity of the magma in the column, and the gas rise speed of gas slugs. It predicts that magma vesicularity increases with increasing gas volume flow rate and decreases with increasing conduit diameter, until a threshold value (45 vol.%), which characterizes churn and annular flow regimes. Transition to annular flow regimes is expected to occur at minimum gas volume flow rates of 103-104 m3/s. The vertical pressure gradient decreases with increasing gas flow rates and is controlled by magma vesicularity (in bubbly flows) or the length and spacing of gas slugs. This study also shows that until conditions for separated flow are met, increases in magma viscosity favor stability of slug flow over bubbly flow but suggests coexistence between gas slugs and small bubbles, which contribute to a small fraction of the total gas outflux. Gas flow promotes effective convection of the liquid, favoring magma homogeneity and stable conditions.

  10. Construction of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine, USA: the Plutonic Record of Evolving Magma Chambers Affected by Multiple Episodes of Replenishment, Rejuvenation, Crystal Accumulation and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Hawkins, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Increasingly, the plutonic roots of volcanic systems can be shown to contain temporal records of events inferred from the study of volcanic rocks. The Vinalhaven intrusive complex preserves evidence for multiple episodes of silicic and mafic replenishments, rejuvenation of granite, and probable eruptive events over a nominal time-span of 1.7 Ma (Hawkins and Wiebe, this volume). The complex is about 12 km in diameter and consists mainly of cg granite, a thick section of arcuate, inward-dipping gabbro-diorite sheets in the southeastern half of the complex, and a circular core of fg granite. Field relations demonstrate that the base of the intrusion is along the southeastern margin of the complex, and the top is along the northwestern margin where it intrudes coeval volcanic rocks. Aphyric basaltic and granitic dikes fed this essentially bimodal intrusion. When basaltic dikes intersected a silicic chamber, basalt spread across a floor of silicic crystal mush to form gabbro-diorite sheets in granite. Several extensive layers of angular blocks of country rock occur within the mafic rocks. Granitic dikes and the fg granitic core of the complex have sharp to gradational contacts with cg granite, and, locally, both granites are intimately mixed and commingled. These relations indicate that new silicic injections mixed into partly crystallized resident magma. Several irregular bodies of porphyry (0.2 to 0.5 km in average dimension) intrude cg granite with sharp, gradational, or commingled contacts. The porphyry has 5 to 40% corroded phenocrysts, identical in composition to crystals in the granite, and a variably quenched matrix. Some of these bodies formed when late injections of basalt remelted largely solid portions of cg granite. New silicic input may have contributed to other porphyry bodies. The matrix probably quenched because of a sudden decrease in pressure, possibly due to eruption of magma from the chamber. The cg granite and inter-layered mafic rocks preserve a

  11. Effect of silicate solutions on metakaolinite based cementitious material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xue-jun; LI Hua-jian; SUN Heng-hu

    2006-01-01

    High performance metakaolinite based cementitious materials were prepared with metakaolinite as main component, and the different modules of Na and Na-K silicate solutions as diagenetic agent. The results show that the mechanical properties are affected by different silicate solutions, compressive strengths of pastes hydrated for 3 d and 28 d with Na-K silicate solution (The modulus is 1) are about 43.68 and 78.52 MPa respectively. By analyzing the mechanical properties of Metakaolinite based cementitious materials, the diagenetic effect of lower module is better than higher module, and Na-K silicate solution is better than Na silicate solution. The structure of the Na and Na-K silicate solutions is studied with IR and 29Si NMR, the reason of the lower module and Na-K silicate solution improving the mechanical properties is that the low module silicate solution has lower polymeric degree of silicon dioxide, and the higher polymeric degree of silicon oxide tetrahedron(Q4) in Na-K silicate solution is less than Na silicate solution.

  12. Diseases associated with exposure to silica and nonfibrous silicate minerals. Silicosis and Silicate Disease Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Silicosis, a disease of historical importance, continues to occur cryptically today. Its pathogenesis is under ongoing study as new concepts of pathobiology evolve. In this article, the gross and microscopic features of the disease in the lungs and the lesions in lymph nodes and other viscera are described. These tissue changes are then discussed in the context of clinical disease and other possible or established complications of silica exposure (ie, scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, and bronchogenic carcinoma). Silicates are members of a large family of common minerals, some of which have commercial importance. Silicates are less fibrogenic than silica when inhaled into the lungs, but cause characteristic lesions after heavy prolonged exposure. The features of these disease conditions are described herein. Various aspects of the mineralogy and tissue diagnosis of silicosis and lung disease due to silicates are reviewed. An overview of contemporary regulatory considerations is provided.204 references.

  13. Geochemistry and argon thermochronology of the Variscan Sila Batholith, southern Italy: source rocks and magma evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, R.A.; Messina, A.; de Vivo, B.; Russo, S.; Woodruff, L.G.; Sutter, J.F.; Belkin, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Sila batholith is the largest granitic massif in the Calabria-Peloritan Arc of southern Italy, consisting of syn to post-tectonic, calc-alkaline and metaluminous tonalite to granodiorite, and post-tectonic, peraluminous and strongly peraluminous, two-mica??cordierite??Al silicate granodiorite to leucomonzogranite. Mineral 40Ar/39Ar thermochronologic analyses document Variscan emplacement and cooling of the intrusives (293-289 Ma). SiO2 content in the granitic rocks ranges from ???57 to 77 wt%; cumulate gabbro enclaves have SiO2 as low as 42%. Variations in absolute abundances and ratios involving Hf, Ta, Th, Rb, and the REE, among others, identify genetically linked groups of granitic rocks in the batholith: (1) syn-tectonic biotite??amphibole-bearing tonalites to granodiorites, (2) post-tectonic two-mica??Al-silicate-bearing granodiorites to leucomonzogranites, and (3) post-tectonic biotite??hornblende tonalites to granodiorites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns display variable values of Ce/Yb (up to ???300) and generally small negative Eu anomalies. Degree of REE fractionation depends on whether the intrusives are syn- or post-tectonic, and on their mineralogy. High and variable values of Rb/Y (0.40-4.5), Th/Sm (0.1-3.6), Th/Ta (0-70), Ba/Nb (1-150), and Ba/Ta (???50-2100), as well as low values of Nb/U (???2-28) and La/Th (???1-10) are consistent with a predominant and heterogeneous crustal contribution to the batholith. Whole rock ??18O ranges from ???+8.2 to +11.7???; the mafic cumulate enclaves have the lowest ??18O values and the two-mica granites have the highest values. ??18O values for biotite??honblende tonalitic and granodioritic rocks (9.1 to 10.8???) overlap the values of the mafic enclaves and two-mica granodiorites and leucogranites (10.7 to 11.7???). The initial Pb isotopic range of the granitic rocks (206Pb/204Pb ???18.17-18.45, 207Pb/204Pb ???15.58-15.77, 208Pb/204Pb ???38.20-38.76) also indicates the predominance of a crustal source

  14. Structural Control of the Ubinas-Huaynaputina-Ticsani System: A Large, Young Silicic Magmatic System in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Y.; de Silva, S. L.; Salas, G.; Byrnes, J.

    2003-12-01

    The location of magma reservoirs and volcanic centers are commonly controlled by tectonic structures (e.g., Hutton, 1989; Gibbons and Moreno, 2002). In the Central Volcanic Zone, southern Peru, volcanism is mainly associated with the major NNW-SSE sinistral strike slip fault systems underlying the main volcanic arc. However, a group of related silicic volcanoes was recently discovered which crop out beyond the arc; the Ubinas-Huaynaputina-Ticsani system (UHTS). Characterizing its dimension and tectonic influences are crucial in order to evaluate corresponding volcanic hazards. Potentially active fault systems as well as major tectonic features in and around the UHTS were mapped and the structural framework was elucidated. The UHTS is located within a north to south extensional domain housing three fault systems: (1) the arc related NNW-SSE fault system, intersected by (2) a unique N-S en echelon strike slip fault system, and (3) a minor W-E fault system. Identification of confined Cretaceous volcanics known as the Matalaque formation indicated the presence of a narrow graben that developed on the western side of the N-S fault system. Interestingly all volcanic centers are positioned at the intersection of the NNW-SSE faults with the N-S faults. Seismic records revealed the concentration of seismicity around depths ranging between 20 and 33 km. The position of the UHTS is dictated by the intersection of the NNW-SSE and N-S major en echelon strike slip fault systems. We propose the role of the NNW-SSE fault as a deep pathway for magma ascent whereas the N-S strike-slip motion allowed the release of stress and deviation of magma, which scattered and ponded between adjacent NNW-SSE faults at ~30 km depths. Based on the vent distribution, we estimated the size of the silicic magma reservoir as approximately 40 x 60 km; this is a reasonable estimate since the withdrawal of a volume larger than 10 km3 was not significant enough to produce an equivalent caldera collapse

  15. Viscosity of Carbonate-Silicate Melts Using Ultra-High Resolution Falling Sphere Viscometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, D. R.; Kavner, A.; Manning, C. E.; Park, C.; Kono, Y.; Kenney-Benson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonatites are carbon-rich magmas that participate in the deep-Earth carbon cycle, and may be precursors to many types of terrestrial magmatism. [1] Viscosity is a crucial parameter in determining migration rates and behavior of melts from the upper mantle to Earth's surface, but very little is known about the viscosity of carbonate-silicate liquids at conditions relevant to Earth's interior. To examine the viscosity of carbonate-silicate liquids as a function of composition, we performed in situ falling sphere viscosity experiments using a high speed X-ray camera and Paris-Edinburgh press at the HPCAT beamline (Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory). Mixtures from the CaCO3-CaSiO3 (calcite-wollastonite) binary system were used to simulate mantle silicate carbonatites. Samples were loaded using the experimental setup of Yamada et al [2], held at 3 GPa, and heated until the sample was fully molten (between 1350-1650 oC). The high speed camera recorded the falling rate of a platinum sphere placed near the top of the sample chamber, enabling the calculation of terminal velocity and hence viscosity. Results indicate that pure CaCO3 at upper mantle conditions has a very low viscosity of ~0.006 Pa-s, only a little higher than that of water. This viscosity is 2-6 times lower than that of potassium carbonates at similar pressures (2.5-4.0 GPa) but at somewhat lower temperatures (800-1200 oC). [3] Our measured viscosity as a function of increasing silicate content increases along a log-linear trend, reaching 0.256 Pa-s for CaSiO3 liquid. This heavy dependence of viscosity on composition has implications for melt migration processes at different depths, suggesting either viscosity-driven or porosity-driven migration depending on both extent of melting and carbonate content. [1] Dasgupta, R. et al. (2013) Nature 493, 211-215. [2] Yamada, A. et al. (2011) Rev. Sci. Instr. 82, 015103. [3] Dobson, D. et al. (1996) Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 143, 207-215.

  16. Solidification fronts in large magma chambers: insights from the anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The emplacement of hot viscous magma into the cold rigid crust causes a thermal disturbance within both the country rock and the magma. With time, heat loss from the molten interior to the walls causes solidification at the floor, roof and margins of the magma chamber. As is observed in both experiment and theory, in the absence of hydrothermal convection, the majority of heat is lost via conduction through the roof of the intrusion. In basaltic sills and layered mafic intrusions (LMIs), this solidification front is manifest in the deposition of mineral assemblages and compositions that become progressively more evolved from the floor of the intrusion upwards (the 'Layered Series'; LS) and from the roof downwards (the UBS) such that the most chemically evolved rocks are found in the interior of the magma body at a 'Sandwich Horizon'. The formation of a UBS, as typified by the Skaergaard Intrusion, is a natural outcome of the progression of the solidification front from the cold roof to the hot center of the magma chamber. There are, however, a few unique LMIs for which little or no UBS exists. Convection of the molten magma, reinjection and mixing of new magma, compaction of cumulates, and porous flow of interstitial liquid, among other processes, can affect the final location and composition of the most differentiated liquids; but ultimately, all are linked to the nature of heat loss from the magma chamber. In this study, I examine the thermal evolution of several classic LMIs as it is recorded in the extent of the preserved upper solidification front (or Upper Border Series; 'UBS'). For those intrusions that have experienced crystallization at the roof, such as the Skaergaard Intrusion, the development of a UBS reduces the temperature gradient at the roof and effectively slows the rate of heat loss from the main magma body. However, for those intrusions that do not have an UBS, such as the Bushveld Complex, the cooling rate is controlled only by the maximum rate

  17. Laboratory studies of crystal growth in magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, J. E.; Welsch, B. T.; First, E.; Shea, T.

    2012-12-01

    The proportions, compositions, and interrelationships among crystalline phases and glasses in volcanic rocks cryptically record pre-eruptive intensive conditions, the timing of changes in crystallization environment, and the devolatilization history of eruptive ascent. These parameters are recognized as important monitoring tools at active volcanoes and interpreting geologic events at prehistoric and remote eruptions, thus motivating our attempts to understand the information preserved in crystals through an experimental appoach. We are performing laboratory experiments in mafic, felsic, and intermediate composition magmas to study the mechanisms of crystal growth in thermochemical environments relevant to volcanic environments. We target features common to natural crystals in igneous rocks for our experimental studies of rapid crystal growth phenomena: (1) Surface curvature. Do curved interfaces and spongy cores represent evidence of dissolution (i.e., are they corrosion features), or do they record the transition from dendritic to polyhedral morphology? (2) Trapped melt inclusions. Do trapped liquids represent bulk (i.e., far-field) liquids, boundary layer liquids, or something intermediate, depending on individual species diffusivity? What sequence of crystal growth rates leads to preservation of sealed melt inclusions? (3) Subgrain boundaries. Natural phenocrysts commonly exhibit tabular subgrain regions distinguished by small angle lattice misorientations or "dislocation lamellae" and undulatory extinction. Might these crystal defects be produced as dendrites undergo ripening? (4) Clusters. Contacting clusters of polymineralic crystals are the building blocks of cumulates, and are ubiquitous features of mafic volcanic rocks. Are plagioclase and clinopyroxene aligned crystallographically, suggesting an epitaxial (surface energy) relationship? (5) Log-normal size distribution. What synthetic cooling histories produce "natural" distributions of crystal sizes, and

  18. Eddy Flow during Magma Emplacement: The Basemelt Sill, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petford, N.; Mirhadizadeh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, forms part of the Ferrar dolerite Large Igneous Province. Comprising a vertical stack of interconnected sills, the complex provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle macrostructure of a congested magma slurry1. Image-based numerical modelling where the intrusion geometry defines its own unique finite element mesh allows simulations of the flow regime to be made that incorporate realistic magma particle size and flow geometries obtained directly from field measurements. One testable outcome relates to the origin of rhythmic layering where analytical results imply the sheared suspension intersects the phase space for particle Reynolds and Peclet number flow characteristic of macroscopic structures formation2. Another relates to potentially novel crystal-liquid segregation due to the formation of eddies locally at undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. The eddies are transient and mechanical in origin, unrelated to well-known fluid dynamical effects around obstacles where flow is turbulent. Numerical particle tracing reveals that these low Re number eddies can both trap (remove) and eject particles back into the magma at a later time according to their mass density. This trapping mechanism has potential to develop local variations in structure (layering) and magma chemistry that may otherwise not occur where the contact between magma and country rock is linear. Simulations indicate that eddy formation is best developed where magma viscosity is in the range 1-102 Pa s. Higher viscosities (> 103 Pa s) tend to dampen the effect implying eddy development is most likely a transient feature. However, it is nice to think that something as simple as a bumpy contact could impart physical and by implication chemical diversity in igneous rocks. 1Marsh, D.B. (2004), A

  19. Mantle decarbonation and Archean high-Mg magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Garth R.

    1992-10-01

    Magnesium-rich mane to ultramafic extrusions were most common in the Archean and pose interesting petrological problems. The high Mg content of komatiites (>18 wt%, for example, is usually interpreted as indicating an origin at higher temperatures than exist in mantle melting zones in the modern Earth. Current contrasting models for the origin of komatiites in the mantle require either high degrees of melting or lower degrees of melting at great depth. A potential complementary mechanism for Mg enrichment in magmas involves the melting of magnesite-bearing garnet Iherxolite. In this model, the ascending primary mafic or ultramafic magma is enriched in MgO by the loss of some off the CO2 to the adjacent mantle at pressures of ˜2.2 GPa, where the magma becomes saturated with CO2. To generate komatiite in this way from a picritelike parent, for example, requires that the primary magma lose some of its major and trace element components to the adjacent mantle concurrently with the CO2. Production of magnesian magmas by magnesite breakdown may not have required the heat or depth of those produced by other means; this mechanism may help to explain some apparently low Archean geothermal gradients, as well as the contemporaneity of Archean diamonds and komatites. The mantle magnesite could have formed by direct reaction of primordial CO2 or CO with hot, protomantle material during Earth's accretionary period.

  20. Fifty Shades of Grey: Zircon Perspectives on the Timing and Chemistry of Magma Interactions Reflected in the Bishop Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Wooden, J. L.; Baker, J. A.; Charlier, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    The ~0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff eruption in eastern California is an archetypal example of the products of a compositionally stratified magma chamber. Key issues regarding the melt-dominant magma body that have arisen from recent studies include the role of horizontal variability versus vertical stratification, and the nature and timing of a late-stage ingress of compositionally contrasting melt. The latter is reflected in, for example, CL-bright rims on quartz, and Sr- and Ba-rich rims on sanidines, both of which are reported in samples from ignimbrite erupted from vents along the northern caldera rim. Various studies have placed contrasting temporal constraints on assembly and evacuation of the Bishop Tuff magma body and the processes occurring within it from one or two mineral phases. Although the overall crystal specific record is more complex, it has the potential to distinguish between mixing, in-situ crystallisation and other magmatic processes, and resolve the associated timings of these events. Zircon has been widely utilised in the Bishop Tuff and other silicic systems because of its unique records of information about the ages and P-T-X environments of growth. Here we present SHRIMP-RG ion probe data from Bishop Tuff zircons, collected from samples spanning the full eruptive sequence. A combination of age data, textural analysis and trace element analysis is used to yield insights into magma chamber development and the pre-eruptive state of the melt-dominant magma body, as evidenced in material erupted from different vent areas around what became the Long Valley caldera. U-Pb dating of 307 spots from all zones in crystals from all samples yields a strongly unimodal age spectrum, with a mean age of 794+/-3 ka (10 spots rejected, MSWD = 2.0). CL images of the dated zircon suites show the appearance of bright-rimmed zircons in later-erupted ignimbrite packages (accompanied generally by bright-rimmed sanidine and quartz crystals), but with diversity in the

  1. Iron Redox Systematics of Shergottites and Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Danielson, L. R.; Martin, A. M.; Newville, M.; Choi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Martian meteorites record a range of oxygen fugacities from near the IW buffer to above FMQ buffer [1]. In terrestrial magmas, Fe(3+)/ SigmaFe for this fO2 range are between 0 and 0.25 [2]. Such variation will affect the stability of oxides, pyroxenes, and how the melt equilibrates with volatile species. An understanding of the variation of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe for martian magmas is lacking, and previous work has been on FeO-poor and Al2O3-rich terrestrial basalts. We have initiated a study of the iron redox systematics of martian magmas to better understand FeO and Fe2O3 stability, the stability of magnetite, and the low Ca/high Ca pyroxene [3] ratios observed at the surface.

  2. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  3. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  4. Determination of chlorine in silicate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, L.C.

    1959-01-01

    In a rapid accurate method for the determination of chlorine in silicate rocks, the rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate. The sinter cake is leached with water, the resulting solution is filtered, and the filtrate is acidified with nitric acid. Chlorine is determined by titrating this solution with mercuric nitrate solution using sodium nitroprusside as the indicator. The titration is made in the dark with a beam of light shining through the solution. The end point of the titration is found by visually comparing the intensity of this beam of light with that of a similar beam of light in a reference solution.

  5. Nitridosilicates - a significant extension of silicate chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnick, W.; Huppertz, H. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lab. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1997-05-01

    A new dimension in silicate chemistry becomes accessible through substitution of oxygen by nitrogen. Multinary nitridosilicates, such as Ln{sub 3}Si{sub 6}N{sub 11} (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) shown on the right, are built up from SiN{sub 4} tetrahedra into network structures. Owing to the stability of the covalent Si-N bonds and the high degree of condensation, the nitridosilicates show remarkable chemical and thermal stabilities, similar to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. (orig.) 22 refs.

  6. Microbial dissolution of silicate materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzman, D. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-03-26

    The objective of this research was to better understand the role of selected thermophilic bacteria in the colonization and dissolution of silicate minerals, with potential applications to the HDR Project. The demonstration of enhanced dissolution from microbial effects is critically dependent on providing a mineral bait within a media deficient in the critical nutrient found in the mineral (e.g., Fe). Reproducible experimental conditions in batch experiments require agitation to expose mineral powders, as well as nearly similar initial conditions for both inoculated cultures and controls. It is difficult, but not impossible to ensure reproducible conditions with microbes favoring filamentous growth habits.

  7. Efficiency of differentiation in the Skaergaard magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegner, C.; Lesher, C. E.; Holness, M. B.; Jakobsen, J. K.; Salmonsen, L.; Humphreys, M.; Thy, P.

    2011-12-01

    Although it is largely agreed that crystallization occurs inwardly in crystal mushes along the margins of magma chambers, the efficiency and mechanisms of differentiation are not well constrained. The fractionation paradigm hinges on mass exchange between the crystal mush and the main magma reservoir resulting in coarse-grained, refractory (cumulate) rocks of primary crystals, and complementary enrichment of incompatible elements in the main reservoir of magma. Diffusion, convection, liquid immiscibility and compaction have been proposed as mechanisms driving this mass exchange. Here we examine the efficiency of differentiation in basaltic crystal mushes in different regions of the Skaergaard magma chamber. The contents of incompatible elements such as phosphorus and calculated residual porosities are high in the lowermost cumulate rocks of the floor (47-30%) and decrease upsection, persisting at low values in the uppermost two-thirds of the floor rock stratigraphy (~5% residual porosity). The residual porosity is intermediate at the walls (~15%) and highest and more variable at the roof (10-100%). This is best explained by compaction and expulsion of interstitial liquid from the accumulating crystal mush at the floor and the inefficiency of these processes elsewhere in the intrusion. In addition, the roof data imply upwards infiltration of interstitial liquid. Remarkably uniform residual porosity of ~15% for cumulates formed along the walls suggest that their preservation is related to the rheological properties of the mush, i.e. at ≤ 15% porosity the mush is rigid enough to adhere to the wall, while at higher porosity it is easily swept away. We conclude that the efficiency of compaction and differentiation can be extremely variable along the margins of magma chambers. This should be taken into account in models of magma chamber evolution.

  8. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  9. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF SILICATE MUD CONTAMINATION WITH CALCIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  10. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  11. Output rate of magma from active central volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadge, G.

    1980-01-01

    For part of their historic records, nine of the most active volcanoes on earth have each erupted magma at a nearly constant rate. These output rates are very similar and range from 0.69 to 0.26 cu m/s. The volcanoes discussed - Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Fuego, Santiaguito, Nyamuragira, Hekla, Piton de la Fournaise, Vesuvius and Etna - represent almost the whole spectrum of plate tectonic settings of volcanism. A common mechanism of buoyantly rising magma-filled cracks in the upper crust may contribute to the observed restricted range of the rates of output.

  12. Fluid-melt partitioning of sulfur in differentiated arc magmas and the sulfur yield of explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.; Chaudhari, A.

    2016-03-01

    The fluid-melt partitioning of sulfur (DSfluid/melt) in differentiated arc magmas has been experimentally investigated under oxidizing conditions (Re-ReO2 buffer) from 800 to 950 °C at 200 MPa. The starting glasses ranged in composition from trachyte to rhyolite and were synthesized targeting the composition of the residual melt formed after 10-60% crystallization of originally trachy-andesitic, dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas (Masotta and Keppler, 2015). Fluid compositions were determined both by mass balance and by Raman spectroscopy of fluid inclusions. DSfluid/melt increases exponentially with increasing melt differentiation, ranging from 2 to 15 in the trachytic melt, from 20 to 100 in the dacitic and rhyodacitic melts and from 100 to 120 in the rhyolitic melt. The variation of the DSfluid/melt is entirely controlled by the compositional variation of the silicate melt, with temperature having at most a minor effect within the range investigated. Experiments from this study were used together with data from the literature to calibrate the following model that allows predicting DSfluid/melt for oxidized arc magmas: where nbo/t is the non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron, ASI is the alumina saturation index, Al# and Ca# are two empirical compositional parameters calculated in molar units (Al # = XAl2O3/XSiO2 +XTiO2 +XAl2O3 and Ca # = XCaO/XNa2O +XK2O). The interplay between fluid-melt partitioning and anhydrite solubility determines the sulfur distribution among anhydrite, melt and fluid. At increasing melt polymerization, the exponential increase of the partition coefficient and the decrease of anhydrite solubility favor the accumulation of sulfur either in the fluid phase or as anhydrite. On the other hand, the higher anhydrite solubility and lower partition coefficient for less polymerized melts favor the retention of sulfur in the melt. At equilibrium conditions, these effects yield a maximum of the sulfur fraction in the fluid phase for slightly

  13. Copper isotope behavior during extreme magma differentiation and degassing: a case study on Laacher See phonolite tephra (East Eifel, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wörner, Gerhard; Yu, Huimin; Xiao, Yilin

    2016-09-01

    Copper (Cu) isotopic analyses were performed on a set of samples from the Laacher See tephra (LST) (Eifel, Germany) to investigate whether Cu isotopes are fractionated during extreme magma differentiation and degassing. The LST represents a continuous fractional crystallization series from parental basanite through mafic to highly differentiated phonolites. Samples analyzed here include phonolites of variable degrees of differentiation, phonolite-basanite hybrid rocks formed by mixing basanite and phonolite magmas, and basanite-derived mega-crystals (i.e., clinopyroxene, amphibole, phlogopite). In addition, we analyzed a series of mafic parental lavas from surrounding volcanic centers to constrain the Cu isotopic features of the Eifel mantle. Mafic phonolites show strong depletion in Cu compared to their parental basanites from ~50 to ~3 ppm, indicating sulfide fractionation during the basanite-to-phonolite differentiation. Mass balance calculations, based on the most Cu-rich hybrid rock (δ65Cu = -0.21 ‰, [Cu] = 46.2 ppm), show that the parental basanite magmas have δ65Cu of ca. -0.21 ‰, lighter than those of the mafic phonolites (~0.11 ‰). This suggests that sulfide fractionation preferentially removes the lighter Cu isotope (63Cu) in S-saturated magmas. By contrast, all phonolites have a limited range of Cu contents (1.1 to 4.0 ppm) with no systematic variations with S, suggesting that Cu is not controlled by sulfide fractionation during the evolution of mafic to highly differentiated phonolites. The identical δ65Cu values (0.11 ± 0.03 ‰, 2SD, n = 10) of the phonolites, irrespective of highly diverse composition and extents of differentiation, indicate that fractional crystallization of silicates (e.g., plagioclase, sanidine, amphibole, pyroxene, olivine), Fe-Ti-oxides and phosphate (e.g., apatite) generates insignificant Cu isotope fractionation. The lack of correlations between δ65Cu and volatile contents (e.g., S, Cl) in the LST sequence implies

  14. Mixing and mingling in the evolution of andesite dacite magmas; evidence from co-magmatic plutonic enclaves, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Gamble, J. A.; Burt, R. M.; Carroll, L. D.; Shelley, D.

    2001-10-01

    The southeastern side of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand is marked by a line of andesite/dacite/low-silica rhyolite complexes. Co-magmatic plutonic enclaves occur within the lavas of the four youngest complexes: White Island, Motuhora (Whale Island), Edgecumbe and Tauhara. The enclaves range from coarse-grained gabbros, diorites, granodiorites and a syenite to finer-grained dolerites and microdiorites. The more mafic types are generally porphyritic with large phenocrysts of plagioclase, usually with extensive sieve textures in the cores and corroded margins. Most of these enclaves, including the coarser-grained plutonic examples, contain glass and many are miarolitic. Diorites and microdiorites/dolerites predominate at White Island, Motuhora and Edgecumbe; many are porphyritic. Enclaves at Tauhara are more variable; those collected from Hipaua Dome include a range from microdiorites to quartz microdiorites and those from Rubbish Tip Dome include microdiorites, a granodiorite, and a syenite. Most enclaves show textural evidence for disequilibrium with multiple populations of plagioclase and pyroxene. They also show considerable textural variation, even within a thin section, with coarse-grained gabbros/diorites intimately mixed with finer-grained dolerites/microdiorites. Geochemically and isotopically, most enclaves have a similar composition with their host lavas, although some have lower silica contents. Enclaves at Motuhora and Tauhara are isotopically more variable, indicating multiple sources and a more complex petrogenesis. Most diorite/microdiorite enclaves are interpreted to represent parts of a crystal mush formed during fractionation of andesite/dacite magma, and entrained during later rise of magma to the surface. The granodiorite from Rubbish Tip Dome, Tauhara, probably represents part of a silicic magma chamber within the crust that fed the host low-silica rhyolite lava dome. Variability within the enclaves indicates the complexity likely to occur

  15. Cyclic activity at silicic volcanoes: A response to dynamic permeability variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Eggertsson, Gudjon; Ashworth, James; Wall, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Silicic volcanoes exhibit cyclic eruptive activity characterised by effusive (dome growth) to quiescent periods punctuated by short explosive episodes. The latter, characterised by fast emissions of gas and ash into the atmosphere, results from stress release through fracturing and causes significant hazards to the surrounding environment. Understanding the formation, development and closure of fractures as well as their impact on the volcanic system is hence vital for better constraining current models. Here, we present the results of two sets of experiments designed to understand first, the development of permeability through fracturing and second, the timescale over which these fractures can persist in magmas. To characterise the influence of a macro-fracture, the permeability of intact volcanic rocks with a wide porosity range (1-41%) was measured at varying effective pressures (-0.001-30 MPa). We then fractured each sample using the Brazilian disc method to induce a tensile macro-fracture, before measuring the permeability under the same conditions. While our results for intact samples are consistent with previous studies, the results for fractured samples display a distinct permeability-porosity relationship. We show that low porosity samples (18%) that show a less than 1 order of magnitude increase. This suggests that a macro-fracture has the ability to efficiently localise the flow in low porosity rocks by becoming the prevailing structure in a previously micro-fracture-dominated porous network, whereas at higher porosities fluid flow remains controlled by pore connectivity, irrespective of the presence of a fracture. To assess the longevity of fractures in magmas we developed a novel experimental set-up, in which two glass rods were placed in contact for different timescales at high temperatures before being pulled apart to test the tensile strength recovery of the fracture. We show that fracture healing starts within timescales 50-100 times longer than

  16. Important role of magma mixing in generating the Mesozoic monzodioritic-granodioritic intrusions related to Cu mineralization, Tongling, East China: Evidence from petrological and in situ Sr-Hf isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. J.; Chen, B.; Li, Z.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-04-01

    The Mesozoic ore-bearing high-Mg monzodioritic-granodioritic rocks in the Tongling mining district (East China) have been described as having adakitic affinities, and their origin has been attributed to partial melting of delaminated eclogite at depth in the mantle, followed by interaction of the resultant granitic magma with mantle peridotite. Here we present petrological data and in situ Sr isotopic data for zoned plagioclase that are inconsistent with the eclogite-derived model and instead propose a model that involves magma mixing of siliceous crustal melts and basaltic magma that was derived from metasomatized mantle in a back-arc extensional regime. The principal geochemical signatures of these Mesozoic rocks include a high-K calc-alkaline affinity, high values of Mg#, high Sr-Ba abundances, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, εNd(t) = - 13.1 to - 9.0, and ISr = 0.70707-0.70824. The magma mixing model is supported by (1) the common existence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and amphibole, (2) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of embayed high-Ca cores of plagioclase that are distinctly lower than in the euhedral low-Ca overgrowth rims, (3) the negative correlations between whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic ratios, and (4) the significant differences in the values of εHf(t) (- 9.5 to - 26) within different zircons from the same intrusion.

  17. Conduit Magma Storage during the 800 BP Quilotoa Eruption, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, M. H.; Cashman, K. V.; Di Muro, A.; Best, J. A.; Rosi, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Bustillos, J.

    2013-12-01

    The 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa produced two large ignimbrites, U1 (~5.8 km3 DRE) and U3 (~1.8 km3 DRE). These eruptions were separated by a series of much smaller eruptions over one to several weeks, as inferred from 1) the intercalation of secondary pyroclastic and debris flow deposits between U1 and U3, 2) deposits from phreatic explosions from the U1 ignimbrite surface, 3) oxidation of the upper 2 m of U1, and 4) a lack of erosion of the U1 surface. Why did the main phase of the eruption (U1) stall when eruptable magma was available? How did explosive activity stop and restart? We address these questions by examining deposits (U2) emplaced during the 'hiatus' that provide information on the conditions in the conduit and vent area between explosive episodes. The lowest sub-unit, U2a, forms a series of pumiceous surge deposits found only within 5 km of the crater rim. U2b is a vitric-poor, crystal- and lithic-rich fall deposit distributed to about 15 km from the crater. U2c is a thin gray fine ash containing 2-5-mm-diameter rhyolite lapilli that is present within 6 km of the vent. Similar lapilli also occur in the lowermost few centimeters of U3 and appear to be from a dome that exploded as the new magma arrived at the surface; their presence as small ballistic fragments ties U2c to lowermost U3 in time. U2a appears to have been emplaced by episodic surges and weak fallout plumes, whereas U2b and U2c were deposited from a series of sustained eruption columns. Moreover, the lack of U2b grain-size variation with distance suggests that the grain size was determined at the vent, not by transport. FTIR analysis of CO2 and H2O in melt inclusions (MIs) indicates that a deep magma chamber (>400 MPa; ~12 km) fed U1. U2a and U2b MIs plot along vapor isopleths, suggesting equilibration at pressures to about 300 MPa as CO2 outgassed. U2b MIs have lower CO2 than U2a, perhaps indicating continued degassing during the 'hiatus'. MIs from the lower few centimeters of U3 lie along

  18. Stability of foams in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander A.; Sahagian, Dork L.; Kutolin, Vladislav A.

    1993-12-01

    Bubble coalescence and the spontaneous disruption of high-porosity foams in silicate melts are the result of physical expulsion of interpore melt (syneresis) leading to bubble coalescence, and diffusive gas exchange between bubbles. Melt expulsion can be achieved either along films between pairs of bubbles, or along Plateau borders which represent the contacts between 3 or more bubbles. Theoretical evaluation of these mechanisms is confirmed by experimental results, enabling us to quantify the relevant parameters and determine stable bubble size and critical film thickness in a foam as a function of melt viscosity, surface tension, and time. Foam stability is controlled primarily by melt viscosity and time. Melt transport leading to coalescence of bubbles proceeds along inter-bubble films for smaller bubbles, and along Plateau borders for larger bubbles. Thus the average bubble size accelerates with time. In silicate melts, the diffusive gas expulsion out of a region of foam is effective only for water (and even then, only at small length scales), as the diffusion of CO 2 is negligible. The results of our analyses are applicable to studies of vesicularity of lavas, melt degassing, and eruption mechanisms.

  19. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    1994-01-01

    experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...... required days-weeks, both reactions probably being diffusion controlled. Applying the values for specific surface area and site densities for ferrihydrite used by Dzombak & Morel (1990) (600 m2 g-1, 3.4 mumole m-2) the constants pK(al)intr 6.93 +/- 0.12, pK(a2)intr = 8.72 +/- 0.17 and log K(Si) = 3.62 were...... calculated by using the FITEQL optimization routine. Use of the specific surface area actually measured (269 m2 g-1) gave a poorer fit of the experimental data. Due to the slow adsorption of silicate and hence long shaking times, changes in the surface characteristics of the ferrihydrite seem to take place...

  20. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A simplified model for oxide and silicate melts at mantle pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Aaron S.; Asimow, Paul D.; Stevenson, David J.

    2015-08-01

    We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme temperatures and pressures, including deep mantle conditions like those in the early Earth magma ocean. The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) is based on an extension of the hard sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states available to each cation in the liquid. By utilizing approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this method is capable of predicting complex liquid structure and thermodynamics while remaining computationally efficient, requiring only minutes of calculation time on standard desktop computers. This modeling framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. We find that the typical coordination number of the Mg cation evolves continuously upward from 5.25 at 0 GPa to 8.5 at 250 GPa. The results produced by CHaSM are evaluated by comparison with predictions from published first-principles molecular dynamics calculations, indicating that CHaSM is accurately capturing the dominant physics controlling the behavior of oxide melts at high pressure. Finally, we present a simple quantitative model to explain the universality of the increasing Grüneisen parameter trend for liquids, which directly reflects their progressive evolution toward more compact solid-like structures upon compression. This general behavior is opposite that of solid materials, and produces steep adiabatic thermal profiles for silicate melts, thus playing a crucial role in magma ocean evolution.

  1. Mechanics and Timescales of Magma Mixing Inferred by Texture and Petrology of Basalt Inclusions and Host Andesite From the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, M. L.; Browne, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    This study characterizes the texture, mineralogy and phenocryst disequilibrium textures in basaltic inclusions and host andesite lavas and scoria to advance our understanding of the mechanics and timescales of open system magma processes driving the 2006 eruption at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Inclusions account for approximately 1 volume percent in all andesite lithologies emplaced during the explosive, continuous, and effusive eruption phases. In outcrop, quenched basaltic to andesite inclusions (51.3 to 57.3 weight percent SiO2) hosted by andesite lavas (59.1-62.6 weight percent SiO2) range in diameter from 1 cm to over 9 cm, are dark black and characterized by vesicular interiors, quenched and cuspate margins, and porphyritic texture. Inclusion mineralogy is dominated by phenocryst-sized plagioclase with lesser amounts of hornblende, clinopyroxene and olivine, as well as, microphenocrysts-sized plagioclase, hornblende, clinopryoxene, olivine, magnetite, ilmenite and apatite in a glassy, vesicular and acicular groundmass. Intrusion of a hotter, basaltic magma into a cooler silicic magma followed by inclusion formation through mingling processes is evidenced by (1) plagioclase crystal textures displaying (a) oscillatory zoned interiors surrounded by a dusty sieved layer and enclosed by clear, euhedral overgrowth rims, (b) coarsely-sieved interiors characterized by 0.01 mm -0.02 mm diameter melt inclusions and/or similarly sized inclusions of clinopyroxene, orthopryoxene, or hornblende, (2) Anorthite concentration profiles of engulfed host plagioclase crystals displaying contact with a basaltic magma, (3)Fe-Ti oxides from inclusions and low-silica andesite host recording core to rim temperatures ranging from 908°C to 1100°C, indicative of pre- and post- mixing temperatures, respectively, with oxygen fugacity approximately 2 log units above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer. The closest approximation of the basaltic end-member magma composition involved in magma

  2. Magma energy research project: state-of-the-project report, October 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colp, J.L.; Traeger, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    The feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies is investigated. The work done in FY 76, 77, and 78 in the following tasks are summarized; resource location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization and materials compatibility, and energy extraction. (MHR)

  3. Evolution of magma feeding system in Kumanodake agglutinate activity, Zao Volcano, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Yoshinori; Ban, Masao

    2015-10-01

    The Kumanodake agglutinate of Zao Volcano in northeastern Japan consists of pyroclastic surge layers accumulated during the early part of the newest stage of activity (ca. 33 ka to present). Our petrologic study of this agglutinate based on systematically collected samples aims to reveal the evolution of magma feeding system. To understand the magma evolution, we have examined samples from the agglutinate by using petrologic data including, petrography, analysis of minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine), glass compositions, and whole rock major element and trace element (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Rb, Zr, Nb, and Y) compositions. Agglutinate are mixed, medium-K, calc-alkaline olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite (55.2-56.2% SiO2). Results show that the magma feeding system comprised a shallow felsic chamber injected by mafic magma from depth. The felsic magma (59-62% SiO2, 950-990 °C), which was stored at a shallower depth, had orthopyroxene (Mg# = 60-69), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 65-71), and low-An plagioclase (Anca. 58-70). The mafic magma is further divisible into two types: less-differentiated and more-differentiated, designed respectively as an initial mafic magma-1 and a second mafic magma-2. The original mafic magma-1 was olivine (Fo 84) basalt (ca. 48-51% SiO2, 1110-1140 °C). The second mafic magma-2, stored occasionally at 4-6 km depth, was basalt (1070-1110 °C) having Foca. 80 olivine and high-An (Anca. 90) plagioclase phenocrysts. These two magmas mixed (first mixing) to form hybrid mafic magma. The forced injections of the hybrid mafic magmas activated the felsic magma, and these two were mixed (second mixing) shortly before eruptions. The explosivity is inferred to have increased over time because the abundance of large scoria increased. Furthermore, the erupted magma composition became more mafic, which reflects increased percentage of the hybrid mafic magma involved in the second mixing. At the beginning of activity, the mafic magma also acted as a heat

  4. Electrical conductivity of intermediate magmas from Uturuncu Volcano (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Gaillard, Fabrice; Sifre, David

    2015-04-01

    Magmas erupted at Uturuncu volcano (South Bolivia) comes from the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB, Chile-Bolivia), a crustal massive body of 80 km long by 10 km thick located at ~ 35 km depth named. Recent magneto telluric surveys reveal a resistivity lower than 1 ohm.m due to the presence of melt which could result in the reactivation of the volcano. In order to better constrain the resistivity profiles and thus the conditions of magma storage of the APMB, we have performed in situ electrical measurements on natural dacites and andesites from Uturuncu with a 4-wire set up in a piston cylinder and internally heated pressure vessel. The range of temperature (500 to 1300°C), pressure (0.3 to 2 Gpa), and the various water contents covers the respective ranges occurring at natural conditions. The results show that the conductivity increases with the temperature and the water content but slightly decreases with the pressure. Then a model was built from these results so as to help in (i) interpreting the electrical signature of natural magmas, (ii) constraining their conditions (chemical composition, temperature, pressure, water content, melt fraction) from the source to the storage location and (iii) providing information on the interior structure of a volcano and its reservoir.

  5. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  6. Magma plumbing for the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Mattsson, Tobias; Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari; Krumbholz, Michael; Harris, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption on Iceland was located within the Askja fissure swarm but was accompanied by caldera subsidence in the Bárðarbunga central volcano 45 km to the southwest. Geophysical monitoring of the eruption identified a seismic swarm that migrated from Bárðarbunga to the Holuhraun eruption site over the course of two weeks. In order to better understand this lateral connection between Bárðarbunga and Holuhraun, we present mineral textures and compositions, mineral-melt-equilibrium calculations, whole rock and trace element data, and oxygen isotope ratios for selected Holuhraun samples. The Holuhraun lavas are compositionally similar to recorded historical eruptions from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system but are distinct from the historical eruption products of the nearby Askja system. Thermobarometry calculations indicate a polybaric magma plumbing system for the Holuhraun eruption, wherein clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at average depths of ˜17 km and ˜5 km, respectively. Crystal resorption textures and oxygen isotope variations imply that this multilevel plumbing system facilitated magma mixing and assimilation of low-δ18O Icelandic crust prior to eruption. In conjunction with the existing geophysical evidence for lateral migration, our results support a model of initial vertical magma ascent within the Bárðarbunga plumbing system followed by lateral transport of aggregated magma batches within the upper crust to the Holuhraun eruption site.

  7. Crystallization of Magma. CEGS Programs Publication Number 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R. W.

    Crystallization of Magma is one of a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate geology and earth science courses. Through problems and observations based on two sets of experiments, this module leads to an understanding of how an igneous rock can form from molten material. Environmental factors responsible for…

  8. A reverse energy cascade for crustal magma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Paterson, Scott R.; Jellinek, A. Mark

    2017-08-01

    Direct constraints on the ascent, storage and eruption of mantle melts come primarily from exhumed, long-frozen intrusions. These structures, relics of a dynamic magma transport network, encode how Earth's crust grows and differentiates over time. Furthermore, they connect mantle melting to an evolving distribution of surface volcanism. Disentangling magma transport processes from the plutonic record is consequently a seminal but unsolved problem. Here we use field data analyses, scaling theory and numerical simulations to show that the size distribution of intrusions preserved as plutonic complexes in the North American Cordillera suggests a transition in the mechanical response of crustal rocks to protracted episodes of magmatism. Intrusion sizes larger than about 100 m follow a power-law scaling expected if energy delivered from the mantle to open very thin dykes and sills is transferred to intrusions of increasing size. Merging, assimilation and mixing of small intrusions into larger ones occurs until irreversible deformation and solidification dissipate available energy. Mantle magma supply over tens to hundreds of thousands of years will trigger this regime, a type of reverse energy cascade, depending on the influx rate and efficiency of crustal heating by intrusions. Identifying regimes of magma transport provides a framework for inferring subsurface magmatic processes from surface patterns of volcanism, information preservation in the plutonic record, and related effects including climate.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Magma Reservoirs to Interpret Chrono-Chemical Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, O. M.; Harrison, M.; Schmitt, A. K.; Wielicki, M. M.; Tierney, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a 2-D finite difference thermokinetic model to describe the evolution of open-system magma reservoirs incorporating crustal assimilation, melt recharge and fractional crystallization. The model is based on a T-crystallization relationship coupled to a zircon growth model calibrated from zircon solubility and a crustal T-assimilation curve from the EC-RAFC models of Spera and Bohrson (2004). Our model takes into account the latent heat of melting and/or solidification and features temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity. Trace element abundances in the melt are calculated through conservation of mass and isotopic speciation allowing prediction of the distribution of ɛHf values in zircons. Applications to model the evolution of deeply emplaced large granitoids (i.e., ~25km, ~15000 km3) show that steady recharge yields a zircon population that records the full spectrum of ɛHf in the system whereas no recharge yields a much narrower range. . Insights gained from modeling reinforce our view that the relationship between assimilation and geothermal structure can be used to estimate past crustal thickness of convergent margins. Modeling of shallow, initially small, subvolcanic magma reservoirs (i.e., ~7 km, ~200 km3) permits insights into zircon age and compositional variability for large silicic volcanic fields and associated calderas. Thermal modeling indicates that substantial recharge is required to maintain magmatic temperatures in the core of an intrusive complex where zircon remains saturated for periods of 100's of kiloyears. Coupled with previously developed statistical methods, zircon rim-ages predicted by the model were compared to the U-Th rim ages measured from five distinct lava domes of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex erupted between ca. 87 and 120 ka. The fitting constrains the amount of recharge to ~10-3 km3/a between the time of initial intrusion (>500 ka) and the eruption age (75-100 ka). Thus zircons may have the potential to

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of Sulfatian Apatite: Constraints on the Behavior of Sulfur in Calc-Alkaline Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, D.; Essene, E. J.; Luhr, J. F.; Kesler, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Gibbs free energy of hydroxyellestadite [Ca10(SiO4)3(SO4)3(OH)2] was estimated using mineral equilibria applied to analyzed assemblages from the experimental charges of Luhr (1990). The apatite analyses of Peng et al. (1997) were used in conjunction with new analyses of the oxides and silicates in this study. An ideal mixing model was employed for apatite combined with mixing models from MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1994) and Gibbs free energy data from Robie & Hemingway (1995) for the other crystalline phases. The resultant equation of the Gibbs free energy vs. T for hydroxyellestadite is as follows: DG°T(elem) = [2.817(T - 273) - 11831]/1000 kJ/mol, T in K. The calculated entropy for hydroxyellestadite is 1944 J/mol.K at 1073 K and 2151 J/mol.K at 1227 K. Independent estimates of the entropy of hydroxyellestadite obtained with the method of Robinson & Haas (1983) are within 5% of these values. The thermodynamic data on hydroxyellestadite were used to calculate the locus of the reactions: 2Ca10(SiO4)3(SO4)3(OH)2 + 7S2 + 21O2 = 20CaSO4 + 6SiO2 + 2H2O 6Ca10(SiO4)3(SO4)3(OH)2 + 102SiO2 + 20Fe3O4 = 60CaFeSi2O6 + 6H2O + 9S2 + 37O2 2Ca10(SiO4)3(SO4)3(OH)2 + 10Mg2Si2O6 + 14SiO2 = 20CaMgSi2O6 + 2H2O + 3S2 + 9O2 in fO2-fS2 space at fixed P-T. Application of these equilibria to apatite zoned in sulfate from oxidized granitoids reflects a drop in fS2 by more than 1 log unit during its growth. The zoning is interpreted to represent the removal of a magmatic vapor phase during crystallization of these plutons. Removal of sulfur from magmas by hydrothermal fluids is important to the ore-forming process and to the production of acid sulfate aerosols during eruption of oxidized magmas. Preservation of sulfatian apatite may yield data on the sulfidation states of ancient flood basalts such as the Deccan Traps of India and the Parana basalts of Brazil to address the environmental impact of these giant eruptions.

  11. Extensive, water-rich magma reservoir beneath southern Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Kohn, S. C.; Hauri, E. H.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Cassidy, M.

    2016-05-01

    South Soufrière Hills and Soufrière Hills volcanoes are 2 km apart at the southern end of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Their magmas are distinct geochemically, despite these volcanoes having been active contemporaneously at 131-129 ka. We use the water content of pyroxenes and melt inclusion data to reconstruct the bulk water contents of magmas and their depth of storage prior to eruption. Pyroxenes contain up to 281 ppm H2O, with significant variability between crystals and from core to rim in individual crystals. The Al content of the enstatites from Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV) is used to constrain melt-pyroxene partitioning for H2O. The SHV enstatite cores record melt water contents of 6-9 wt%. Pyroxene and melt inclusion water concentration pairs from South Soufriere Hills basalts independently constrain pyroxene-melt partitioning of water and produces a comparable range in melt water concentrations. Melt inclusions recorded in plagioclase and in pyroxene contain up to 6.3 wt% H2O. When combined with realistic melt CO2 contents, the depth of magma storage for both volcanoes ranges from 5 to 16 km. The data are consistent with a vertically protracted crystal mush in the upper crust beneath the southern part of Montserrat which contains heterogeneous bodies of eruptible magma. The high water contents of the magmas suggest that they contain a high proportion of exsolved fluids, which has implications for the rheology of the mush and timescales for mush reorganisation prior to eruption. A depletion in water in the outer 50-100 μm of a subset of pyroxenes from pumices from a Vulcanian explosion at Soufrière Hills in 2003 is consistent with diffusive loss of hydrogen during magma ascent over 5-13 h. These timescales are similar to the mean time periods between explosions in 1997 and in 2003, raising the possibility that the driving force for this repetitive explosive behaviour lies not in the shallow system, but in the deeper parts of a vertically

  12. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano

    2010-05-01

    Pumice and scoria from different eruptive layers of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic products contain mafic minerals consisting of High-Fo olivine and Diopsidic Pyroxene. These phases were crystallized in unerupted trachibasaltic to tephritic magmas, and were brought to surface by large phonolitic/tephri-phonolitic (e.g. Avellino and Pompei) and/or of tephritic and phono-tephritic (Pollena) eruptions. A large set of these mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material and measured for their chemical compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS) and 18O/16O ratios (conventional laser fluorination) to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas at Mt. Vesuvius. Uncontaminated mantle δ18O values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary melts during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). At Mt. Vesuvius, measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas. Trace element composition constrains the near primary nature of the phases. Published data on volatile content of melt inclusions hosted in these crystals reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting that crystal growth occurred in a reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element content of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. Low, nearly primitive δ18O values are observed for olivine from Pompeii eruption, although still

  13. The effects of dissolved CO 2 on the density and viscosity of silicate melts: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgue, Emmanuelle; Richet, Pascal

    2001-11-01

    A potassium silicate liquid with 56.9 mol% SiO 2 (KS 1.3) has been used as a model system to determine at 1 bar the influence of carbon dioxide on the viscosity and density of magma. For the maximum concentration of 3.5 wt% that could be dissolved, the viscosity decreases by two orders of magnitude near the glass transition at around 750 K. For 1 wt% CO 2, the decrease is 1 and only 0.04 log unit at 750 and 1500 K, respectively. Dissolved CO 2 has a composition independent partial molar volume of 25.6±0.8 cm 3/mol in glasses at room temperature, and does not affect the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercooled liquid which is (12.3±0.3)×10 -5 K -1 for CO 2 contents varying from 0.6 to 2.2 wt%. Qualitatively, these effects are similar to those of water. However, the density of dissolved CO 2 varies from about 1.7 to 1.5 g/cm 3 in a 700 K interval above the glass transition, and lowers the density of the glass less than water whose density decreases from 1.5 to 1.2 g/cm 3 under the same conditions. The relevance of these results to natural magma is finally pointed out.

  14. Melt inclusion record of immiscibility between silicate, hydrosaline, and carbonate melts: Applications to skarn genesis at Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulignati, Paolo; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Marianelli, Paola; Sbrana, Alessandro; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2001-11-01

    Foid-bearing syenites and endoskarn xenoliths of the A.D. 472 Vesuvius eruption represent the magma chamber carbonate wall-rock interface. Melt inclusions hosted in crystals from these rocks offer a rare opportunity to depict the formation and the composition of metasomatic skarn-forming fluids at the peripheral part of a growing K-alkaline magma chamber disrupted by an explosive eruption. Four principal types of melt inclusions represent highly differentiated phonolite (type 1), hydrosaline melt (type 3), unmixed silicate salt melts (type 2), and a complex chloride-carbonate melt with minor sulfates (type 4). The high-temperature (700 800 °C) magmatic-derived hydrosaline melt is considered to be the main metasomatic agent for the skarn-forming reactions. The interaction between this melt (fluid) and carbonate wall rocks produces a Na-K-Ca carbonate-chloride melt that shows immiscibility between carbonate and chloride constituents at ˜700 °C in 1 atm experiments. This unmixing can be viewed as a possible mechanism for the origin of carbonatites associated with intrusion-related skarn systems.

  15. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous Ooze Sediments, Ormen Lange Field, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    Skeletal remains of siliceous algae form biogenic fine grained highly porous pelagic siliceous ooze sediments that were found above the reservoir of the Ormen Lange gas field which is located in the southern part of the Norwegian Sea (Figure 1a). The Palaeocene sandstone of the “Egga” Formation i...

  16. Silicate Adsorption in Paddy Soils of Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li-Yuan; LI Hua-Xing; ZHANG Xin-Ming; LU Wei-Sheng; LIU Yuan-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Silicate adsorption in eight paddy soils developed from four different parent materials in Guangdong Province, China was examined to obtain fundamental knowledge of silicate adsorption to improve the efficacy of silicate fertilizer use in these areas. A correlation analysis showed that silicate adsorption did not obey the Langmuir equation (r = -0.664-0.301) but did obey the Freundlich and Temkin equations (P ≤ 0.01, r = 0.885-0.990). When the equilibrium silicate concentration (Ci) was less than 45 mg SiO2 kg-1, the adsorption capacity was in the following decreasing order of paddy soils: basalt-derived > Pearl River Delta sediment-derived > granite-derived > sand-shale-derived. Stepwise regression and path analysis showed that for the investigated paddy soils amorphous MnO and Al2O3 were the two most important materials that affected silicate adsorption. Moreover, as Ci increased, amorphous Al2O3 tended to play a more important role in silicate adsorption, while the effects of amorphous MnO on silicate adsorption tended to decrease.

  17. Crystalline silicates in AGB and post-AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Molster, FJ; LeBertre, T; Lebre, A; Waelkens, C

    1999-01-01

    We discuss ISO spectroscopy of oxygen-rich dust shells surrounding evolved stars. The dust that condenses in the outflows of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch consists mainly of amorphous silicates and simple oxides. For high mass loss rates, crystalline silicates begin to appear at modest abunda

  18. The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; de Koter, A.; Hovenier, J.W.; Keller, L.P.; Markwick-Kemper, F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the composition and shape distribution of silicate dust grains in the interstellar medium. The effects of the amount of magnesium and iron in the silicate lattice are studied in detail. We fit the spectral shape of the interstellar 10 mu m extinction feature as observed towards the ga

  19. The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; de Koter, A.; Hovenier, J.W.; Keller, L.P.; Markwick-Kemper, F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the composition and shape distribution of silicate dust grains in the interstellar medium. The effects of the amount of magnesium and iron in the silicate lattice are studied in detail. We fit the spectral shape of the interstellar 10 mu m extinction feature as observed towards the

  20. Ultrahigh-pressure structure of GeO2 glass with coordination number >6: implications for structure of magma at the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Y.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Ikuta, D.; Shibazaki, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

    2016-12-01

    Silicate magma at the core-mantle boundary is one of the most important components in understanding nature and evolution of the Earth's deep interior. However, structure and properties of silicate magmas at the pressure condition of the core-mantle boundary remain poorly understood, because of experimental challenges. Pioneering work by Murakami and Bass (2010) showed a kink in the pressure dependence of shear-wave velocity in SiO2 glass around 140 GPa, which was interpreted as evidence of ultrahigh pressure structural transition. However, no structural information is available under such high pressures. Here we show new experimental evidence of ultrahigh pressure structural transition in GeO2 glass with Ge-O coordination number (CN) significantly greater than 6, investigated using a newly developed double-stage large volume cell combined with multi-angle energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique for in situ amorphous structure measurement (Kono et al., 2016). The Ge-O coordination number (CN) is found to remain constant at 6 between 22.6 and 37.9 GPa. At higher pressures, CN begins to increase rapidly to 6.4 at 49.4 GPa and reaches 7.4 at 91.7 GPa. The structural change to CN higher than 6 is closely associated with the change in oxygen packing fraction (OPF). This transformation begins when the OPF in GeO2 glass is close to the maximal dense packing state (the Kepler conjecture= 0.74), which provides new insights into structural changes in network-forming glasses and liquids with CN higher than 6 at ultrahigh pressure conditions. For example, extrapolation of OPF-pressure trend in SiO2 glass shows that OPF of SiO2glass reaches to 0.74 around 108 GPa, where structural change to CN higher than 6 is expected. The data imply that silicate magma at the core-mantle boundary may possess ultrahigh-pressure structure with CN higher than 6. References Kono, Y., Kenney-Benson, C., Ikuta, D., Shibazaki, Y., Wang, Y., & Shen, G. (2016). Ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism in

  1. Mezcla de magmas en Vulcanello (Isla Vulcano, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic activity in Vulcano starts about 350 ka ago and continues up to present day with the development of thre main episodes corresponding to the calderas of Piano and La Fossa, and Vulcanello. These cover a compositional range from rhyolitic to trachybasaltic rocks. This lithological diversity is produced by different petrogenetic processes such as fractional crystallization, assimilation coupled to fractional crystallization (AFC, mixing, etc.The eruption of Vulcanello area emitted trachyandesitic materials, including shoshonites and latites. A magma-mixing process is established between trachytes and shoshonites to origine latites. Trachytes and rhyolites are produced by fractional crystallization and by ACF processes (assimilation of sedimentary rocks from trachyandesitic magmas.La actividad volcánica de Isla Vulcano comienzó aproximadamente hace 350.000 años y continúa hasta la actualidad con el desarrollo de tres grandes episodios correspondientes a las caldera de Piano, caldera de Fossa y a Vulcanello, que han emitido piroclastos y coladas de composiciones muy variadas, desde riolitas a traquibasaltos. Esta variedad litológica ha sido relacionada con procesos petrogenéticos tan diversos como cristalización fraccionada, asimilación simultánea con cristalización (ACF, mezcla de magmas, etc.El episodio de Vulcanello emite rocas traquiandesíticas, con composiciones shoshoníticas y latíticas. Un proceso de mezcla de magmas es reconocido entre traquitas y shoshonitas para generar latitas. Traquitas y riolitas son producidas por procesos de cristalización fraccionada simple y por ACF con asimilación de rocas sedimentarias a partir de magmas traquiandesíticos.

  2. Bubble plumes generated during recharge of basaltic magma reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeremy C.; Woods, Andrew W.

    2001-03-01

    CO 2 is relatively insoluble in basaltic magma at low crustal pressures. It therefore exists as a gas phase in the form of bubbles in shallow crustal reservoirs. Over time these bubbles may separate gravitationally from the magma in the chamber. As a result, any new magma which recharges the chamber from deeper in the crust may be more bubble-rich and hence of lower density than the magma in the chamber. Using scaling arguments, we show that for typical recharge fluxes, such a source of low-viscosity, bubble-rich basalt may generate a turbulent bubble plume within the chamber. We also show that the bubbles are typically sufficiently small to have a low Reynolds number and to remain in the flow. We then present a series of analogue laboratory experiments which identify that the motion of such a turbulent bubble-driven line plume is well described by the classical theory of buoyant plumes. Using the classical plume theory we then examine the effect of the return flow associated with such bubble plumes on the mixing and redistribution of bubbles within the chamber. Using this model, we show that a relatively deep bubbly layer of magma may form below a thin foam layer at the roof. If, as an eruption proceeds, there is a continuing influx at the base of the chamber, then our model suggests that the bubble content of the bubbly layer may gradually increase. This may lead to a transition from lava flow activity to more explosive fire-fountaining activity. The foam layer at the top of the chamber may provide a flux for the continual outgassing from the flanks of the volcano [Ryan, Am. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monogr. 91 (1990)] and if it deepens sufficiently it may contribute to the eruptive activity [Vergniolle and Jaupart, J. Geophys. Res. 95 (1990) 2793-3001].

  3. Staged storage and magma convection at Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Fionnuala; Barclay, Jenni

    2016-08-01

    New mineral-melt thermobarometry and mineral chemistry data are presented for basaltic scoriae erupted from the Mbwelesu crater of Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu, during persistent lava lake activity in 2005 and 2007. These data reveal crystallisation conditions and enable the first detailed attempt at reconstruction of the central magma plumbing system of Ambrym volcano. Pressures and temperatures of magma crystallisation at Ambrym are poorly constrained. This study focuses on characterising the magma conditions underlying the quasi-permanent lava lakes at the basaltic central vents, and examines petrological evidence for magma circulation. Mineral-melt equilibria for clinopyroxene, olivine and plagioclase allow estimation of pressures and temperatures of crystallisation, and reveal two major regions of crystallisation, at 24-29 km and 11-18 km depth, in agreement with indications from earthquake data of crustal storage levels at c. 25-29 km and 12-21 km depth. Temperature estimates are 1150-1170 °C for the deeper region, and 1110-1140 °C in the mid-crustal region, with lower temperatures of 1090-1100 °C for late-stage crystallisation. More primitive plagioclase antecrysts are thought to sample a slightly more mafic melt at sub-Moho depths. Resorption textures combined with effectively constant mafic mineral compositions suggest phenocryst convection in a storage region of consistent magma composition. In addition, basalt erupted at Ambrym has predominantly maintained a constant composition throughout the volcanic succession. This, coupled with recurrent periods of elevated central vent activity on the scale of months, suggest frequent magmatic recharge via steady-state melt generation at Ambrym.

  4. Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates in the Far-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A,; Benford, Dominic J.; Dwek, Eli; Henry, Ross M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Silverberg, Robert f.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct interpretation of a vast array of astronomical data relies heavily on understanding the properties of silicate dust as a function of wavelength, temperature, and crystallinity. We introduce the QPASI-T (Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques) project to address the need for high fidelity optical characterization data on the various forms of astronomical dust. We use two spectrometers to provide extinction data for silicate samples across a wide wavelength range (from the near infrared to the millimeter). New experiments are in development that will provide complementary information on the emissivity of our samples, allowing us to complete the optical characterization of these dust materials. In this paper, we present initial results from several materials including amorphous iron silicate, magnesium silicate and silica smokes, over a wide range of temperatures, and discuss the design and operation of our new experiments.

  5. Organic modification of layered silicates. Structural and thermal characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, L.A.S. de A.; Schulte, K. [Polymer Composites, Denickstrasse 15, TU Hamburg-Harburg, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Karthikeyan, C.S.; Nunes, S.P. [Institute of Chemistry, GKSS Research Centre, Max-Planck Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); De Torriani, Iris L. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2005-05-01

    Organic modification of natural and synthetic layered silicates namely montmorillonite and laponite is reported in this work. The modified silicates are being subsequently used in the preparation of nano-composite membranes based on ionomers for fuel cells application. Laponite, an entirely synthetic silicate, was modified using organosiloxanes containing imidazole groups. Two different strategies were adopted for modification: (a) swelling of the silicate in 2-butanone followed by functionalization using the siloxane at room temperature, (b) direct reaction between laponite and the organosiloxane in xylene at 120{sup o}C. Montmorillonite, a natural silicate, was supplied in the alkyl-ammonium form containing -OH groups. The modification of this silicate was conducted following the procedure (b). The structures of both plain and modified silicates were investigated by XRD showing that the interlayer distance (around 17A) was not affected during the functionalization of laponite. However, a noticeable increase in the interlayer distance from 18.0A to 24.5A was observed for the modified montmorillonite. This clearly shows the presence of polysiloxane chains in between the silicate layers. Further characterization showed that the modification of these silicates was in the range between 16% and 23% (molar percentage). TGA was done between 25 and 300{sup o}C in order to study the thermal degradation pattern of the silicates. The amount of adsorbed water could be determined from the results. The functionalization reduced the adsorption of water from 13.5% to 6.8% for laponite and from 8.5% to 4% for montmorillonite.

  6. Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for low-δ18O magmas of the Snake River Plain - Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, T.; Kitajima, K.; Nakashima, D.; Valley, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain - Yellowstone (SRP-Y) hotspot trend is one of the largest known low-δ18O magmatic provinces, yet the timing and distribution of hydrothermal alteration relative to hotspot magmatism remains incompletely understood. Existing models for SRP-Y low-δ18O magma genesis differ regarding the timing of protolith alteration (e.g. Eocene vs. present), depth at which alteration occurs (e.g. 15 km vs. Owyhee volcanic field (LOVF) of east central Oregon to further identify magmatic oxygen isotope trends within the field. These data offer insight into the timing of alteration and the extent of the greater SRP-Y low-δ18O province, as well as the conditions that generate large low-δ18O provinces. 16-14 Ma silicic volcanism in the LOVF is linked to the pre-14 Ma SRP-Y hotspot, with volcanism partially overlapping extension in the north-south trending Oregon-Idaho Graben (OIG). Ion microprobe analyses of zircons from 16 LOVF silicic lavas and tuffs reveal homogeneous zircons on both the single grain and hand sample scales: individual samples have 2 S.D. for δ18O ranging from 0.27 to 0.96‰ (SMOW), and sample averages ranging from 1.8 to 6.0‰, excluding texturally chaotic and/or porous zircons which have δ18O values as low as 0.0‰. All low-δ18O LOVF magmas, including the caldera-forming Tuff of Leslie Gulch and Tuff of Spring Creek, are confined to the OIG, although not all zircons from within the OIG have low δ18O values. The presence and sequence of low-δ18O magmas in the LOVF and adjacent central Snake River Plain (CSRP) cannot be explained by existing caldera subsidence or pre-hotspot source models. These data, however, combined with volumetrically limited low-δ18O material in the adjacent Idaho Batholith and Basin and Range, are consistent with low-δ18O magmas generated by the superposition of high hotspot-derived thermal fluxes on active extensional structures (OIG extension in the LOVF, and Basin and Range rifting in the CSRP) thereby

  7. Disordered Silicates in Space: a Study of Laboratory Spectra of "Amorphous" Silicates

    CERN Document Server

    Speck, Angela K; Hofmeister, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory study of silicate glasses of astrophysically relevant compositions including olivines, pyroxenes and melilites. With emphasis on the classic Si-O stretching feature near 10 microns, we compare infrared spectra of our new samples with laboratory spectra on ostensibly similar compositions, and also with synthetic silicate spectral data commonly used in dust modeling. Several different factors affect spectral features including sample chemistry (e.g., polymerization, Mg/Fe ratio, oxidation state and Al-content) and different sample preparation techniques lead to variations in porosity, density and water content. The convolution of chemical and physical effects makes it difficult to attribute changes in spectral parameters to any given variable. It is important that detailed chemical and structural characterization be provided along with laboratory spectra. In addition to composition and density, we measured the glass transition temperatures for the samples which place upper limits on the ...

  8. Silicate-Iron partitioning of Palladium and Ruthemium up to 110 GPa using nano-X-Ray Fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitgirard, S.; Andrault, D.; Borchert, M.; Appel, K.; Deguen, R.; Mezouar, M.; Villanova, J.

    2012-12-01

    Metal-silicate partitioning of Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) are a key to understand the accretion of the earth and the formation of its core from a silicate magma ocean. So far, all the metal-silicate partitioning studies make use of 'classical' HP-HT techniques, e.g., multi-anvil press, and therefore are limited to PT conditions of the Earth s mantle (max. 25 GPa/2200°C). There is urgent need for experiments at much higher pressures and temperatures (e.g., to simulate conditions of core-mantle boundary) because it remains unclear if determined metal-silicate partition coefficients of HSE can simply be extrapolated to much higher pressures and temperatures. Here, we present first preliminary data on metal-silicate trace element partitioning from a new experimental approach to obtain information at ultra high pressures and temperatures. Synthesis of high pressure melting were performed at beamline ID27 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) using double-side laser-heated diamond-anvil cells (DAC) up to ~110 GPa and 4200 K. Samples are analysed after laser heating by nano-X-Ray Fluorescence at the nano-probe end-station ID22NI (ESRF, France). Samples consist of a CI-mantle glass synthesized using a levitation set-up and contain 1wt % of Pd and Ru. The sample chamber, drilled in a Re gasket, is loaded with a chip of the dopped glass overlapped by a trace element free metal foil (Fe0.9Ni0.1). NaCl is used as a thermal insulator and pressure media, and a ruby sphere is used to measure the pressure. Laser heating was performed at the interface of the chondrite glass and metallic foil until complete melting is observed. Samples were removed of the gasket by dissolving the NaCl medium and placed on a mylar foil for analysis at ID22NI. Very fine map were performed using the 100 x 90 nanometres beam that offers a very high flux of 10e11 photons/s with excitation energy of 29.6 KeV. Quantitative data analysis is currently in progress and other techniques will be used to complement

  9. Interstellar Silicate Dust in the z=0.89 Absorber Towards PKS 1830-211: Crystalline Silicates at High Redshift?

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, Monique C; York, Donald G; Vladilo, Giovanni; Welty, Daniel E; Som, Debopam

    2012-01-01

    We present evidence of a >10-sigma detection of the 10 micron silicate dust absorption feature in the spectrum of the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS 1830-211, produced by a foreground absorption system at redshift 0.886. We have examined more than 100 optical depth templates, derived from both observations of Galactic and extragalactic sources and laboratory measurements, in order to constrain the chemical structure of the silicate dust. We find that the best fit to the observed absorption profile is produced by laboratory crystalline olivine, with a corresponding peak optical depth of tau_10=0.27+/-0.05. The fit is slightly improved upon by including small contributions from additional materials such as silica, enstatite, or serpentine, which suggests that the dust composition may consist of a blend of crystalline silicates. Combining templates for amorphous and crystalline silicates, we find that the fraction of crystalline silicates needs to be at least 95%. Given the rarity of extragalactic sources wit...

  10. Oxygen isotope composition of mafic magmas at Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, L.; Cioni, R.; Boschi, C.; D'Oriano, C.

    2009-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of olivine and clinopyroxene from four plinian (AD 79 Pompeii, 3960 BP Avellino), subplinian (AD 472 Pollena) and violent strombolian (Middle Age activity) eruptions were measured to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas of the last 4000 years of Mt. Vesuvius activity. A large set of mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material of the four eruptions. Crystals were analyzed for their major and trace element compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS), and for 18O/16O ratios. As oxygen isotope composition of uncontaminated mantle rocks on world-wide scale is well constrained (δ18Oolivine = 5.2 ± 0.3; δ18Ocpx = 5.6 ± 0.3 ‰), the measured values can be conveniently used to monitor the effects of assimilation/contamination of crustal rocks in the evolution of the primary magmas. Instead, typically uncontaminated mantle values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary magmas during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). Low δ18O values have been measured in olivine from Pompeii eruption (δ18Oolivine = 5.54 ± 0.03‰), whereas higher O-compositions are recorded in mafic minerals from pumices or scoria of the other three eruptions. Measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas, as also constrained by their trace element compositions. Data on melt inclusions hosted in crystals of these compositions have been largely collected in the past demonstrating that they crystallized from mafic melt, basaltic to tephritic in composition. Published data on volatile content of these melt inclusions reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting

  11. INTERSTELLAR SILICATE DUST IN THE z = 0.89 ABSORBER TOWARD PKS 1830-211: CRYSTALLINE SILICATES AT HIGH REDSHIFT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, 712 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vladilo, Giovanni, E-mail: ALLERM@mailbox.sc.edu [Osservatorio Astonomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2012-03-20

    We present evidence of a >10{sigma} detection of the 10 {mu}m silicate dust absorption feature in the spectrum of the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS 1830-211, produced by a foreground absorption system at redshift 0.886. We have examined more than 100 optical depth templates, derived from both observations of Galactic and extragalactic sources and laboratory measurements, in order to constrain the chemical structure of the silicate dust. We find that the best fit to the observed absorption profile is produced by laboratory crystalline olivine, with a corresponding peak optical depth of {tau}{sub 10} = 0.27 {+-} 0.05. The fit is slightly improved upon by including small contributions from additional materials, such as silica, enstatite, or serpentine, which suggests that the dust composition may consist of a blend of crystalline silicates. Combining templates for amorphous and crystalline silicates, we find that the fraction of crystalline silicates needs to be at least 95%. Given the rarity of extragalactic sources with such a high degree of silicate crystallinity, we also explore the possibility that the observed spectral features are produced by amorphous silicates in combination with other molecular or atomic transitions, or by foreground source contamination. While we cannot rule out these latter possibilities, they lead to much poorer profile fits than for the crystalline olivine templates. If the presence of crystalline interstellar silicates in this distant galaxy is real, it would be highly unusual, given that the Milky Way interstellar matter contains essentially only amorphous silicates. It is possible that the z = 0.886 absorber toward PKS 1830-211, well known for its high molecular content, has a unique star-forming environment that enables crystalline silicates to form and prevail.

  12. Magma Energy Research Project. Project summary, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colp, J.L.; Davis, M.J.; Graeber, E.J.; Hardee, H.C.

    1976-03-01

    The objective of the Magma Energy Research Project now under way at Sandia Laboratories is to investigate the feasibility of extracting energy directly from deeply buried circulating magma sources. Project plans describe a concept whereby a fully closed heat exchanger system is inserted directly into such a magma source to allow the heat energy to be brought to the surface with minimal environmental impact. A summary of previous efforts is given. The achievements and future plans for source location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization, magma materials compatibilities studies, and energy extraction studies are outlined. (LBS)

  13. Volumetric properties of magnesium silicate glasses and supercooled liquid at high pressure by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesher, Charles E.; Wang, Yanbin; Gaudio, Sarah; Clark, Alisha; Nishiyama, Nori; Rivers, Mark; (UCD); (UC)

    2009-06-01

    The volumetric properties of silicate glasses and supercooled liquid are examined at high pressures and temperatures using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and absorption. The high pressure X-ray microtomography (HPXMT) system at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (GeoSoilEnvironCARS 13-BM-D beamline) consists of two opposing anvils compressed within an X-ray-transparent containment ring supported by thrust bearings and loaded using a 250-ton hydraulic press. This system permits the pressure cell to rotate under the load, while collecting radiographs through at least 180{sup o} of rotation. The 13-BM-D beamline permits convenient switching between monochromatic radiation required for radiography and polychromatic radiation for pressure determination by energy dispersive diffraction. We report initial results on several refractory magnesium silicate glasses synthesized by levitation laser heating. Volume changes during room temperature compression of Mg-silicate glasses with 33 mol% and 38 mol% SiO2 up to 11.5 GPa give an isothermal bulk moduli of 93--100 GPa for a K' of 1. These values are consistent with ultrasonic measurements of more silica-rich glasses. The volumetric properties of amorphous MgSiO{sub 3} at 2 GPa were examined during annealing up to 1000 C. We consider the consequences of heating through the glass transition and the implications for thermal expansivity of supercooled liquids at high pressure. Our results illustrate the capabilities of HPXMT for studies of refractory glasses and liquids at high pressure and offer strategies for future studies of liquid densities within the melting interval for magmas in planet interiors.

  14. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, compression.

  15. A Clinopyroxene-Plagioclase Geobarometer for A-type Silicic Volcanic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J.; Iveson, A. A.; Davis, K.; Johnson, T. A.; Gahagan, S.; Ellis, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Constraining the crustal storage depths of magmas is important in understanding volcanism. The reaction: anorthite (pl) = Ca-Tschermak's (cpx) + silica (Q or liq) has a large volume change and hence offers potential as a geobarometer, but has not been extensively exploited as such. One of the chief barriers to its wide application is consistent estimation of melt silica activity for assemblages that lack quartz. We have skirted this problem by confining attention to metaluminous silicic compositions (SiO2 > 60% by weight), for which silica activity during crystallization is presumed to be close to 1, and calibrated the barometer for the range 0 - 2 GPa using the LEPR database and additional experiments from the literature. Additional improvement is obtained by excluding hydrous phase-bearing assemblages. Despite the analytical uncertainties present in older experimental investigations, with knowledge of temperature, and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and host melt compositions, pressures for amphibole- and biotite-free dacites and rhyolites can be estimated to ±0.17 GPa (1 sigma). The limitations of the barometer render it most applicable to intraplate, A-type rhyolites. Application to one such system, the Snake River Plain rhyolites, indicate that both melt-hosted phenocrysts and clinopyroxene-plagioclase aggregate grains found in these rhyolites formed at low pressures, <0.5 GPa. This is consistent with isotopic evidence for a shallow crustal origin for Snake River Plain rhyolites.

  16. Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro Volcanic Range and Ma'alalta volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiart, Pierre; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2005-02-01

    Much of the volcanological work carried out in north Afar (Ethiopia and Eritrea) has focused on the nature of Quaternary basaltic volcanic ranges, which have been interpreted by some as incipient oceanic ridges. However, we show here that comparable volumes of silicic magmas have been erupted in the region. In particular, the virtually undocumented Nabro Volcanic Range, which runs NNE for more than 100 km from the margin of the Danakil Depression to the Red Sea coast, has a subaerial volume of the order of 550 km3, comparable to the volume of the much better known Erta’Ale axial volcanic range. Nabro volcano itself forms part of an enigmatic double caldera structure with a neighbouring volcano, Mallahle. The twin caldera may have formed simultaneously with the eruption of between 20 and 100 km3 of ignimbrite, which is readily identified in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. This may have been the largest explosive eruption in north Afar, and is certain to have deposited a regionally distributed tephra layer which could in the future be located in distal sections as a stratigraphic marker. An integrated analysis of optical and synthetic aperture radar imagery, digital topographic data, field observations and limited geochemical measurements, permits here descriptions and first order inferences about the structure, stratigraphy and compositions of several major volcanoes of the Afar Triangle, and a reappraisal of their regional significance.

  17. Permeability of alkaline magmas: a study from Campi Flegrei, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacci, M.; Bouvet de Maissoneuve, C.; Giordano, D.; Piochi, M.; Degruyter, W.; Bachmann, O.; Mancini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of permeability is of paramount importance for understanding the evolution of magma degassing during pre-, syn- and post-eruptive volcanic processes. Most permeability estimates existing to date refer to magmas of calc-alkaline compositions. We report here the preliminary results of permeability measurements performed on alkali-trachyte products erupted from the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and Monte Nuovo (MTN), two explosive eruptions from Campi Flegrei (CF), an active, hazardous caldera west of Naples, Southern Italy. Darcian (viscous) permeability spans a wide range between 10^-11 and 10^-14 m^2. We observe that the most permeable samples are the scoria clasts from the upper units of MTN; pumice samples from the Breccia Museo facies of CI are instead the least permeable. Non-Darcian (inertial) permeability follows the same trend as Darcian permeability. The first implication of this study is that porosity in alkaline as well as calc-alkaline magmas does not exert a first order control on permeability (e.g. the MTN samples are the most permeable but not the most porous). Second, sample geometry exhibits permeability anisotropy (higher permeability in the direction of vesicle elongation), suggesting stronger degassing in the vertical direction in the conduit. In addition, inertial effects are higher across the sample. As inertial effects are potentially generated by tortuosity (or tortuous vesicle paths), tortuosity is likely higher horizontally than vertically in the conduit. Finally, the measured CF permeability values overlap with those of rhyolitic pumice clasts from the Kos Plateau Tuff (Bouvet de Maisonneuve et al., 2009), together with CI one of the major Quaternary explosive eruptions of the Mediterranean region. This indicates that gas flow is strongly controlled by the geometry of the porous media, which is generated by the bubble dynamics during magma ascent. Therefore, permeability will depend on composition through the rheological properties

  18. Magmas and inclusions of Monte Amiata volcano, Tuscany, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, M.J. van

    1984-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, a Pleistocene volcanic complex in south Tuscany consists mainly of silicic (62-67 wt.% Si02) lavas and domes, many of which contain abundant metamorphic and mafic igneous inclusions. The results of a detailed geochemical and petrological study indicate a bimodal magmatic system where mag

  19. An Overview of the Origin of A-type Silicic Magmatism Along the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Hotspot Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, E. H.; Bindeman, I. N.; Leishman, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Disparate models have been proposed for the origin of A-type rhyolites--a volumetrically minor part of modern terrestrial magmatism. But understanding the origin of A-type granites and rhyolites has significance for understanding the formation of the Earth's first silicic crust and for planetary magmatism--small volumes of such granitic materials have been found in lunar rocks, martian and asteroidal meteorites, and have been speculated to have formed on Venus. On other planets, vertical tectonics and plume-like mantle convection dominate, not the recycling of wet, oxidized plates of lithosphere as on Earth. Thus, understanding the origins of A-type silicic magma is important on multiple levels. Voluminous A-type rhyolite were produced on the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone hotspot track and provide the opportunity to better understand these important silicic magmas. Detailed petrologic studies suggest that most Snake River Plain rhyolites ultimately formed by partially melting of previously emplaced basaltic intrusions rather than by fractional crystallization of basalt or melting of Archean crust. This hypothesis is favored because of the bimodal association of rhyolite and basalt without linking intermediate compositions. In addition, incompatible element ratios (e.g., La/Nb, Pb/Ce), a lack of old zircon antecrysts, low-U inherited zircon, high ɛNd and ɛHf values, high eruption temperatures (1050°C to 850°C), low fO2 (near QFM), and H2O (as low as 1.5%), link the rhyolites to a plume-derived basaltic parent through partial melting with lesser incorporation of the Archean to Mesozoic crust that underlies the plain. Moreover, the contrast with wetter, lower temperature rhyolites that must have formed by direct crustal melting (e.g., Arbon Valley Tuff) strengthens this interpretation. Many of the rhyolites also have low δ18O values that must be produced in two stages: first by partial melting of already hydrothermally altered basalt, and subsequently in single

  20. Behavior of calcium silicate hydrate in aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bin; ZHAO Zhuo; LIU Gui-hua; ZHOU Qiu-sheng; PENG Zhi-hong

    2005-01-01

    Using calcium hydroxide and sodium silicate as starting materials, two kinds of calcium silicate hydrates, CaO · SiO2 · H2O and 2CaO · SiO2 · 1.17H2O, were hydro-thermally synthesized at 120 ℃. The reaction rule of calcium silicate hydrate in aluminate solution was investigated. The result shows that CaO · SiO2 · H2O is more stable than 2CaO · SiO2 · 1.17H2 O in aluminate solution and its stability increases with the increase of reaction temperature but decreases with the increase of caustic concentration. The reaction between calcium silicate hydrate and aluminate solution is mainly through two routes. In the first case, Al replaces partial Si in calcium silicate hydrate, meanwhile 3CaO · Al2 O3 · xSiO2 · (6-2x) H2 O (hydro-garnet) is formed and some SiO2 enters the solution. In the second case, calcium silicate hydrate can react directly with aluminate solution, forming hydro-garnet and Na2O · Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · nH2O (DSP). The desilication reaction of aluminate solution containing silicate could contribute partially to forming DSP.

  1. Deep ocean biogeochemistry of silicic acid and nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J. L.; Simeon, J.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gruber, N.; Key, R. M.; Schlitzer, R.

    2007-03-01

    Observations of silicic acid and nitrate along the lower branch of the global conveyor belt circulation show that silicic acid accumulation by diatom opal dissolution occurs at 6.4 times the rate of nitrate addition by organic matter remineralization. The export of opal and organic matter from the surface ocean occurs at a Si:N mole ratio that is much smaller than this almost everywhere (cf. Sarmiento et al., 2004). The preferential increase of silicic acid over nitrate as the deep circulation progresses from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific is generally interpreted as requiring deep dissolution of opal together with shallow remineralization of organic matter (Broecker, 1991). However, Sarmiento et al. (2004) showed that the primary reason for the low silicic acid concentration of the upper ocean is that the waters feeding the main thermocline from the surface Southern Ocean are depleted in silicic acid relative to nitrate. By implication, the same Southern Ocean processes that deplete the silicic acid in the surface Southern Ocean must also be responsible for the enhanced silicic acid concentration of the deep ocean. We use observations and results from an updated version of the adjoint model of Schlitzer (2000) to confirm that this indeed the case.

  2. The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains

    CERN Document Server

    Min, M; De Koter, A; Hovenier, J W; Keller, L P; Markwick-Kemper, F

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the composition and shape distribution of silicate dust grains in the interstellar medium. The effect of the amount of magnesium in the silicate lattice is studied. We fit the spectral shape of the interstellar 10 mu extinction feature as observed towards the galactic center. We use very irregularly shaped coated and non-coated porous Gaussian Random Field particles as well as a statistical approach to model shape effects. For the dust materials we use amorphous and crystalline silicates with various composition and SiC. The results of our analysis of the 10 mu feature are used to compute the shape of the 20 mu silicate feature and to compare this with observations. By using realistic particle shapes we are, for the first time, able to derive the magnesium fraction in interstellar silicates. We find that the interstellar silicates are highly magnesium rich (Mg/(Fe+Mg)>0.9) and that the stoichiometry lies between pyroxene and olivine type silicates. This composition is not consistent with that o...

  3. Reagentless and calibrationless silicate measurement in oceanic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, William; Lesven, Ludovic; Jońca, Justyna; Barus, Carole; Gourdal, Margaux; Thouron, Danièle; Garçon, Véronique; Comtat, Maurice

    2012-08-15

    Determination of silicate concentration in seawater without addition of liquid reagents was the key prerequisite for developing an autonomous in situ electrochemical silicate sensor (Lacombe et al., 2007) [11]. The present challenge is to address the issue of calibrationless determination. To achieve such an objective, we chose chronoamperometry performed successively on planar microelectrode (ME) and ultramicroelectrode (UME) among the various possibilities. This analytical method allows estimating simultaneously the diffusion coefficient and the concentration of the studied species. Results obtained with ferrocyanide are in excellent agreement with values of the imposed concentration and diffusion coefficient found in the literature. For the silicate reagentless method, successive chronoamperometric measurements have been performed using a pair of gold disk electrodes for both UME and ME. Our calibrationless method was tested with different concentrations of silicate in artificial seawater from 55 to 140×10(-6) mol L(-1). The average value obtained for the diffusion coefficient of the silicomolybdic complex is 2.2±0.4×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), consistent with diffusion coefficient values of molecules in liquid media. Good results were observed when comparing known concentration of silicate with experimentally derived ones. Further work is underway to explore silicate determination within the lower range of oceanic silicate concentration, down to 0.1×10(-6) mol L(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal-silicate partitioning of U: Implications for the heat budget of the core and evidence for reduced U in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Bethany A.; Rahman, Zia; Righter, Kevin; Campbell, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    Earth's core might require an internal heat source, such as radioactive decay, to explain the presence of the magnetic field through geologic time. To investigate whether U would be an important heat source in the core, we performed metal-silicate partitioning experiments of U at P-T (up to 67 GPa and 5400 K) conditions more relevant to a magma ocean scenario than has previously been reported. This study finds the partitioning of U to be strongly dependent on ƒO2, temperature, the S content of the metal and the SiO2 content of the silicate during core-mantle differentiation. Differentiation at mean conditions of 42-58 GPa and 3900-4200 K would put 1.4-3.5 ppb U (2-8 wt% S) in the core, amounting to a maximum of 1.4 (+1/-0.7) TW of heat 4.5 billion years ago. This is likely not enough heat to mitigate early widespread mantle melting. It was also found that U likely exists in the 2+ oxidation state in silicate melts in the deep Earth, a state which has not been previously observed in nature.

  5. The stishovite paradox in the evolution of lower mantle magmas and diamond-forming melts (experiment at 24 and 26 GPa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yu. A.; Spivak, A. V.; Simonova, D. A.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    Experimental studies of phase relations in the oxide-silicate system MgO-FeO-SiO2 at 24 GPa show that the peritectic reaction of bridgmanite controls the formation of stishovite as a primary in situ mineral of the lower mantle and as an effect of the stishovite paradox. The stishovite paradox is registered in the diamond-forming system MgO-FeO-SiO2-(Mg-Fe-Ca-Na carbonate)-carbon in experiments at 26 GPa as well. The physicochemical mechanisms of the ultrabasic-basic evolution of deep magmas and diamondforming media, as well as their role in the origin of the lower mantle minerals and genesis of ultradeep diamonds, are studied.

  6. Functional substitution of coordination polyhedron in crystal structure of silicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶大年; 马哲生; 赫伟; 李哲; 施倪承; D.Pushcharovsky

    2002-01-01

    On the bases of the study of comparative crystal chemistry of silicates it has been concluded that the octahedra and square pyramids of Ti-0 and Zr-O play functional role of tetrahedra of Si-O in the construction of crystal structures. Therefore, those silicates may be named titano-and zircono-silicates. Because of the functional similarity of coordination polyhedra, the structures of cristobalite and feldspar have been compared with those of perovskite and garnet, respectively. As a new concept, the functional replacement of tetrahedra by octahedra and/or pyramids is defined by the authors of this paper for favorable comparison of relative crystal structures.

  7. Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Xu, Lingbo; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2017-09-01

    Er silicate/porous silicon (PS) composites with effective sensitized erbium emission at 1.53 μm have been synthesized on the PS framework. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that the PS is coated by Er silicate in composites. Indirect excitation of Er3+ ion luminescence via energy transfer from PS is confirmed. The temperature dependence of Er-related photoluminescence intensity and lifetime is investigated, which concludes a phonon-mediated energy transfer process. The combination of the PS framework and Er silicate provides a possible strategy for practical silicon-based light sources.

  8. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Giudice

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses were previously characterized. Experimental panels were tested in a limiting oxygen chamber and in a two-foot tunnel. Results displayed a high fire-retardant efficiency using some soluble silicates.

  9. Journal of the Chinese Silicate Society (Selected Articles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    A-A157 497 JOURNAL OF THE CHINESE SILICATE SOCIETY (SELECTED i/i ARTICLES)(U) FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV IWRIGHT-PRT RSON U CLSS..AFE OH 11 JUN 85...7 V- V 17 -, 7Z I T7. k. V.-.’.~. W ~ . FTD-ID(RS)T-0160-85 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION JOURNAL OF THE CHINESE SILICATE SOCIETY... JOURNAL OF THE CHINESE SILICATE SOCIETY D- At"Ibutilonf (Selected Articles) Availability Cadm English pages: 28 Dist ’Avail ald/zr Source: Guisuanyan

  10. Using Intensive Variables to Constrain Magma Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.; Russell, J. K.

    2006-05-01

    In the modern world of petrology, magma source region characterization is commonly the realm of trace element and isotopic geochemistry. However, major element analyses of rocks representing magmatic compositions can also be used to constrain source region charactertistics, which enhance the results of isotopic and trace element studies. We show examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province (NCVP), in the Canadian Cordillera, where estimations of thermodynamic intensive variables are used to resolve different source regions for mafic alkaline magmas. We have taken a non-traditional approach to using the compositions of three groups of mafic, alkaline rocks to characterize the source regions of magmas erupted in the NCVP. Based on measured Fe2O3 and FeO in rocks from different locations, the Atlin volcanic district (AVD), the Fort Selkirk volcanic complex (FSVC), the West Tuya volcanic field, (WTVF), we have estimated oxygen fugacities (fO2) for the source regions of magmas based on the model of Kress and Carmichael (1991) and the computational package MELTS/pMelts (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002). We also have used Melts/pMelts to estimate liquidus conditions for the compositions represented by the samples as well as activities of major element components. The results of our calculations are useful for distinguishing between three presumably different magma series: alkaline basalts, basanites, and nephelinites (Francis and Ludden, 1990; 1995). Calculated intensive variables (fO2, activities SiO2, KAlSiO4, Na2SiO3) show clear separation of the samples into two groups: i) nephelinites and ii) basanites/alkaline basalts. The separation is especially evident on plots of log fO2 versus activity SiO2. The source region for nephelinitic magmas in the AVD is up to 2 log units more oxidized than that for the basanites/basalts as well as having a distinctly lower range of activities of SiO2. Accepting that our assumptions about the magmas

  11. Origin of High-Alumina Basalt, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W

    1964-10-30

    The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are basalt, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina basalt differs from tholeiitic basalt primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the basaltic component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire basaltic portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.

  12. Isotopic evidence for multiple contributions to felsic magma chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Wiebe, R.A.; Krogstad, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    by contemporaneous mafic magmas; the transition between the two now preserved as a zone of chilled mafic sheets and pillows in granite. Mafic components have highly variably isotopic compositions as a result of contamination either at depth or following injection into the magma chamber. Intermediate dikes...... with identical isotopic compositions to more mafic dikes suggest that closed system fractionation may be occurring in deeper level chambers prior to injection to shallower levels. The granitic portion of the pluton has the highest Nd isotopic composition (eNd=+3.0) of plutons in the region whereas the mafic...... lithologies have Nd isotopic compositions (eNd=+3.5) that are the lowest in the region and similar to the granite and suggestive of prolonged interactions and homogenization of the two components. Sr and Nd isotopic data for felsic enclaves are inconsistent with previously suggested models of diffusional...

  13. Sulfate Saturated Hydrous Magmas Associated with Hydrothermal Gold Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, I.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits associated with arc magmatism represent important sulfur anomalies. During degassing of magmatic systems the volatile may transport metals and sulfur and produce deposits. The ultimate origin of the magma-derived sulfur is still uncertain. The Yanacocha high-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit, Peru, is hosted by a Miocene volcanic succession (ca. 16 to 8 Ma). Magmatic rocks are highly oxidized >NNO+2 and show a range of composition from andesite to dacite. Two populations of amphibole occur in the Yanacocha dacitic ignimbrite deposits (~7 and 12 wt% Al2O3). Low Al amphiboles crystallized at ~ 1.5-2 kbar and 800°C (Plag-Hb thermobarometry) in equilibrium with plagioclase and pyroxene. High Al amphiboles only contain inclusions of anhydrite associated with apatite (up to 1.2 wt% SO3), and have a higher Cr2O3 content (up to 1000 ppm). We estimate these amphiboles form near the magma's liquidus at P(H2O)> 3kbar and 950 to 1000°C of a basaltic, basaltic andesite ascending magma. Low Al amphibole presents an REE pattern with negative anomalies in Sr, Ti and Eu, characteristic of plagioclase and titanite fractionation in the magma. High Al amphiboles are less enriched in REE and have no Sr, Ti, or Eu anomaly. Rare crystals of high Al amphibole display a low Al rim marked by higher REE contents compared to the core and a negative Eu anomaly. Magmatic sulfate occurrences have been discovered through the 8 m.y. volcanic sequence. Rounded anhydrite crystals are found included within clinopyroxene and both high and low Al amphibole. The rare high Al amphiboles (from the sample RC6) contain up to ~10 vol.%, ~5-80 micrometer-long anhydrite as irregularly shaped (amoeboid) blebs that do not show crystallographic forms and do not follow host cleavages. Extremely rare sulfide inclusions are found in plagioclase (Brennecka, 2006). The major and trace element contents of Yanacocha magmatic anhydrite have been analyzed by electron microprobe and LA

  14. Water content of primitive low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc: implications for differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritani, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Hirahara, Yuka; Takahashi, Toshiro

    2014-02-01

    The water content of low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate volcano, which is located on the volcanic front of the NE Japan arc, was estimated using multi-component thermodynamic models. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-85) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase phenocrysts. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were primarily derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of a magma chamber. By using thermodynamic calculations with the observed petrological features of the lavas, the water content of the Iwate magma was estimated to be 4-5 wt.%. The high water content of the magma supports the recent consensus that frontal-arc magmas are remarkably hydrous. Using the estimated water content of the Iwate magma, the water content and temperature of the source mantle were estimated. Given that the Iwate magma was derived from a primary magma solely by olivine fractionation, the water content and temperature were estimated to be ~0.7 wt.% and ~1,310 °C, respectively. Differentiation mechanisms of low-K frontal-arc basalt magmas were also examined by application of a thermodynamics-based mass balance model to the Iwate magma. It is suggested that magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily through fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of a magma chamber when it is located at ~200 MPa.

  15. The Effect of Composition and Pressure on the Structure of Carbonate-Silicate Melts Using in situ X-ray Diffuse Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, D. R.; Kavner, A.; Manning, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonatites are carbon-rich magmas that make up a crucial portion of the deep-Earth carbon cycle. During transport from the site of melting, reaction with surrounding mantle and crust can cause significant changes in their carbonate-silicate ratio. However, very little is known about the structure of carbonate-silicate liquids at the high pressures and temperatures where melts originate and metasomatism occurs. To examine how the melt structure of carbonate-silicate binary systems evolves as a function of pressure and composition, we performed in situ X-ray scattering experiments in the Paris-Edinburgh press at HPCAT (Advanced Photon Source). Mixtures from the CaCO3-CaSiO3 and CaCO3-Mg2SiO4 binary systems were used to simulate mantle carbonatites with differing Si:O ratio. Samples were loaded using the experimental setup of Yamada et al [1], and held at 1800 oC and a pressure of either 3 or 6 GPa while energy dispersive X-ray scattering spectra were recorded. Spectra were collected at nine different scattering angles to achieve coverage in reciprocal space up to q = 20 Å-1. Pair distribution functions for pure calcite confirm that carbonates form a simple ionic liquid, as found by previous investigators. [2,3] The silicate portion of carbonate-silicate melts, however, is extensively chain polymerized. This polymerization occurs even in melts containing Mg2SiO4, in which the solid is completely unpolymerized. However, analysis of Si-Si distances reveals that Mg2SiO4-bearing melts likely contain shorter, more distorted chains, while CaSiO3-bearing melts form extended chains with a Si-O-Si angles close to 180o. For silicate-rich mixtures in both systems, the extent of silica polymerization (as measured by the amount of scattering at the Si-Si pair distance of 3.3 Å) moderately increases with increasing carbonate content. Comparing pair distribution functions calculated from 3 and 6 GPa data reveal that pressure moderately increases the degree of polymerization of

  16. Slab melting and magma generation beneath the southern Cascade Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Magma formation in subduction zones is interpreted to be caused by flux melting of the mantle wedge by fluids derived from dehydration of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere. In the Cascade Arc and other hot-slab subduction zones, however, most dehydration reactions occur beneath the forearc, necessitating a closer investigation of magma generation processes in this setting. Recent work combining 2-D steady state thermal models and the hydrogen isotope composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Lassen segment of the Cascades (Walowski et al., 2014; in review) has shown that partial melting of the subducted basaltic crust may be a key part of the subduction component in hot arcs. In this model, fluids from the slab interior (hydrated upper mantle) rise through the slab and cause flux-melting of the already dehydrated MORB volcanics in the upper oceanic crust. In the Shasta and Lassen segments of the southern Cascades, support for this interpretation comes from primitive magmas that have MORB-like Sr isotope compositions that correlate with subduction component tracers (H2O/Ce, Sr/P) (Grove et al. 2002, Borg et al. 2002). In addition, mass balance calculations of the composition of subduction components show ratios of trace elements to H2O that are at the high end of the global arc array (Ruscitto et al. 2012), consistent with the role of a slab-derived melt. Melting of the subducted basaltic crust should contribute a hydrous dacitic or rhyolitic melt (e.g. Jego and Dasgupta, 2013) to the mantle wedge rather than an H2O-rich aqueous fluid. We are using pHMELTS and pMELTS to model the reaction of hydrous slab melts with mantle peridotite as the melts rise through the inverted thermal gradient in the mantle wedge. The results of the modeling will be useful for understanding magma generation processes in arcs that are associated with subduction of relatively young oceanic lithosphere.

  17. Magma genesis, plate tectonics, and chemical differentiation of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Wyllie, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Magma genesis, migration, and eruption have played prominent roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth. Plate tectonics has provided the framework of tectonic environments for different suites of igneous rocks and the dynamic mechanisms for moving masses of rock into melting regions. Petrology is rooted in geophysics. Petrological and geophysical processes are calibrated by the phase equilibria of the materials. The geochemistry of basalts and mantle xenoliths demonstrates that the m...

  18. Experiments on the rheology of vesicle-bearing magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, Alessandro; Ryan, Amy G.; Russell, James K.; Romano, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    We present a series of high temperature uniaxial deformation experiments designed to investigate the effect of bubbles on the magma bulk viscosity. Starting materials having variable vesicularity (φ = 0 - 66%) were synthesized by high-temperature foaming (T = 900 - 1050 ° C and P = 1 bar) of cores of natural rhyolitic obsidian from Hrafntinnuhryggur, Krafla, Iceland. These cores were subsequently deformed using a high-temperature uniaxial press at dry atmospheric conditions. Each experiment involved deforming vesicle-bearing cores isothermally (T = 750 ° C), at constant displacement rates (strain rates between 0.5-1 x 10-4 s-1), and to total strains (ɛ) of 10-40%. The viscosity of the bubble-free melt (η0) was measured by micropenetration and parallel plate methods and establishes a baseline for comparing data derived from experiments on vesicle rich cores. At the experimental conditions, the presence of vesicles has a major impact on the rheological response, producing a marked decrease of bulk viscosity (maximum decrease of 2 log units Pa s) that is best described by a two-parameter empirical equation: log ηBulk = log η0 - 1.47 * [φ/(1-φ)]0.48. Our model provides a means to compare the diverse behaviour of vesicle-bearing melts reported in the literature and reflecting material properties (e.g., analogue vs. natural), geometry and distribution of pores (e.g. foamed/natural vs. unconsolidated/sintered materials), and flow regime. Lastly, we apply principles of Maxwell relaxation theory, combined with our parameterization of bubble-melt rheology, to map the potential onset of non-Newtonian behaviour (strain localization) in vesiculated magmas and lavas as a function of melt viscosity, vesicularity, strain rate, and geological condition. Increasing vesicularity in magmas can initiate non-Newtonian behaviour at constant strain rates. Lower melt viscosity sustains homogeneous Newtonian flow in vesiculated magmas even at relatively high strain rates.

  19. Ecocrítica e erotismo nos poemas de Magma

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Patricia Maria dos Santos; UFRJ

    2013-01-01

    Olga Savary nos mostra, através da poesia registrada no livro Magma, que a força erótica e a interdependência do homem com a Natureza são fatores que regem seu trabalho criativo no que tange a valorização da mulher como um ser que tem domínio de seu próprio corpo e que sabe muito bem o que realmente quer. 

  20. New approach on volatile contents determination in silicate melt inclusions: A coupling X-ray microtomography and geochemical approach in Los Humeros caldera complex (Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creon, L.; Levresse, G.; Carrasco Nuñez, G.

    2016-12-01

    Volatile contents and magma degassing behavior are known to affect the style, frequency, and intensity of near-surface magmatic processes. For this reason, much effort have been devoted to characterize the volatile evolution of shallow magmatic systems to better constrain volcanic history. Silicate melt inclusions (SMI) represent samples of melt that were isolated from the bulk magma at depth, thus preserving the PTX conditions of the pre-eruptive material. SMI are often affected by the formation of a bubble after trapping; this is a natural consequence of the PVTX properties of crystal-melt-volatile systems. Previous workers have recognized that bubble formation is an obstacle, which affects the interpretation of SMI trapping conditions based only on analysis of the glass phase. Indeed, they explained that bubbles can contain a significant percentage of the volatiles, particularly for those with low solubility in the melt (e.g. CO2). In this study, we propose to define the pre-eruptive PTX conditions of Los Humeros magma chamber using SMI from the various eruption events within 460 and 30 Ka. An innovative analytical coupling has been used in order to determine: (1) the volume of the SMI glass and bubble, using high resolution 3D X-ray microtomography; (2) the density and composition of the bubbles, using Raman spectroscopy; (3) the volatile element contents in glass, using NanoSIMS; and, (4) the major elements composition of the glass, using EPMA. The recalculated volatile concentrations of the total SMI (glass + bubble), illustrate clearly that the volatile content determinations using only the glass phase, underestimate drastically the total volatile content and therefore induce significant error on the determination of the pre-eruptive volcanic budget and on the constrain on the volcanic and thermal history. This study had moreover highlighted the complex evolution of Los Humeros composite magma chamber and, gave constrains for geothermal exploration purpose.

  1. Atmosphere-magma ocean modeling of GJ 1132 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Laura; Wordsworth, Robin; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2017-01-01

    GJ 1132 b is a nearby Earth-sized exoplanet transiting an M dwarf, and is amongst the most highly characterizable small exoplanets currently known. Using a coupled atmosphere-magma ocean model, we determine that GJ 1132 b must have begun with more than 5 wt% initial water in order to still retain a water-based atmosphere. We also determine the amount of O2 that can build up in the atmosphere as a result of hydrogen dissociation and loss. We find that the magma ocean absorbs at most ~ 10% of the O2 produced, whereas more than 90% is lost to space through hydrodynamic drag. The results of the model depend strongly on the initial water abundance and the XUV model. The most common outcome for GJ 1132 b from our simulations is a tenuous atmosphere dominated by O2, although for very large initial water abundances, atmospheres with several thousands of bars of O2 are possible. A substantial steam envelope would indicate either the existence of an earlier H2 envelope or low XUV flux over the system's lifetime. A steam atmosphere would also imply the continued existence of a magma ocean on GJ 1132 b. Preliminary modeling with the addition of CO2 gas will be presented.

  2. Search for shallow magma accumulations at Augustine Volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienle, J.; Lalla, D.J.; Pearson, C.F.; Barrett, S.A.

    1979-05-01

    A search was made for shallow magma accumulations beneath Augustine Volcano using primarily three geophysical techniques: (1) temperature and heat flow measurements, (2) active and passive seismic refraction, and (3) three-dimensional modeling of aeromagnetic data. With these studies it was hoped to gain insight into the interval structure of Augustine Volcano, to delineate, if possible, the size and shape of near surface magma bodies and to assess the potential of the volcano as a natural laboratory for hot rock and magma geothermal energy research. Augustine was chosen because it is a very young and very active volcano with several historic eruptions in 1812, 1883, 1935, 1964/64. One of the main targets for the geophysical studies was a summit lava dome of about 0.05 km/sup 3/ volume, extruded in 1963/64 and suspected to still contain considerable residual heat, perhaps be still partially molten years after its intrusion. Five months after the field work in 1975 this dome was exploded in January 1976. One month later, a hot (about 650 to 800/sup 0/C) viscous dome was intruded into the January summit crater.

  3. Dropping stones in magma oceans - Effects of early lunar cratering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    A new methodology is used to calculate the accumulation rate of megaregolith materials for two models of early lunar cratering, both with and without episodes of late cataclysmic cratering. Results show that the pulverization of early rock layers was an important process competing with the formation of a coherent rock lithosphere at the surface of the hypothetical lunar magma ocean. If a magma ocean existed, then its initial cooling was marked by a period of pre-lithospheric chaos in which impacts punched through the initially thin rocky skin, mixing rock fragments with splashed magma. Furthermore, the results show that intense brecciation and pulverization of rock materials must have occurred to a depth of at least tens of kilometers in the first few hundred years of lunar history regardless of whether a 'terminal lunar cataclysm' occurred around 4.0 G.y. ago. The predicted pattern of brecciation and the ages of surviving rock fragments is similar to that actually observed among lunar samples. More reliable dating of basin-forming events and models of rock exhumation and survival are needed in order to understand better the relation between the early intense bombardment of the moon and the samples collected on the moon today.

  4. Influence of Non-Newtonian rheology on magma degassing

    CERN Document Server

    Divoux, Thibaut; Ripepe, Maurizio; Géminard, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Many volcanoes exhibit temporal changes in their degassing process, from rapid gas puffing to lava fountaining and long-lasting quiescent passive degassing periods. This range of behaviors has been explained in terms of changes in gas flux and/or magma input rate. We report here a simple laboratory experiment which shows that the non- Newtonian rheology of magma can be responsible, alone, for such intriguing behavior, even in a stationary gas flux regime. We inject a constant gas flow-rate Q at the bottom of a non-Newtonian fluid column, and demonstrate the existence of a critical flow rate Q* above which the system spontaneously alternates between a bubbling and a channeling regime, where a gas channel crosses the entire fluid column. The threshold Q* depends on the fluid rheological properties which are controlled, in particular, by the gas volume fraction (or void fraction) {\\phi}. When {\\phi} increases, Q* decreases and the degassing regime changes. Non-Newtonian properties of magma might therefore play a...

  5. Magma ascent pathways associated with large mountains on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Kirchoff, Michelle R.; White, Oliver L.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-07-01

    While Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System, the largest mountains seen on Io are created by tectonic forces rather than volcanic construction. Pervasive compression, primarily brought about by subsidence induced by sustained volcanic resurfacing, creates the mountains, but at the same time inhibits magma ascent in vertical conduits (dikes). We superpose stress solutions for subsidence, along with thermal stress, (both from the "crustal conveyor belt" process of resurfacing) in Io's lithosphere with stresses from Io mountain-sized loads (in a shallow spherical shell solution) in order to evaluate magma ascent pathways. We use stress orientation (least compressive stress horizontal) and stress gradient (compression decreasing upwards) criteria to identify ascent pathways through the lithosphere. There are several configurations for which viable ascent paths transit nearly the entire lithosphere, arriving at the base of the mountain, where magma can be transported through thrust faults or perhaps thermally eroded flank sections. The latter is consistent with observations of some Io paterae in close contact with mountains.

  6. The chlorine isotope fingerprint of the lunar magma ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Treiman, Allan H; Guan, Yunbin; Ma, Chi; Eiler, John M; Gross, Juliane; Greenwood, James P; Stolper, Edward M

    2015-09-01

    The Moon contains chlorine that is isotopically unlike that of any other body yet studied in the Solar System, an observation that has been interpreted to support traditional models of the formation of a nominally hydrogen-free ("dry") Moon. We have analyzed abundances and isotopic compositions of Cl and H in lunar mare basalts, and find little evidence that anhydrous lava outgassing was important in generating chlorine isotope anomalies, because (37)Cl/(35)Cl ratios are not related to Cl abundance, H abundance, or D/H ratios in a manner consistent with the lava-outgassing hypothesis. Instead, (37)Cl/(35)Cl correlates positively with Cl abundance in apatite, as well as with whole-rock Th abundances and La/Lu ratios, suggesting that the high (37)Cl/(35)Cl in lunar basalts is inherited from urKREEP, the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean. These new data suggest that the high chlorine isotope ratios of lunar basalts result not from the degassing of their lavas but from degassing of the lunar magma ocean early in the Moon's history. Chlorine isotope variability is therefore an indicator of planetary magma ocean degassing, an important stage in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  7. Earliest detection of magma movements by measuring transient streaming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinawa, Yukio; Matsumoto, Takumi; Iitaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Nakano, Hiroshi; Doi, Takuya; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Naoko; Sato, Sohjun

    Volcanic eruptions are generally preceded by magma intrusion. Volcanic forecasting is sure to make considerable progress if we have a practical means to detect magma movements. Electric potential variations have been observed since April 1999 at Miyake Island, a volcanic island in Japan. Measurements have been conducted by a special long vertical antenna using a steel casing pipe and a short horizontal dipole. Beginning about half a day before as well as at the time period of the largest eruption in 2000 of Miyake-jima volcano on August 18, 2000, conspicuous electric field variations were observed on the horizontal and vertical components in the frequency bands of DC, ULF and ELF/VLF. And several types of anomalies were found to occur in association with different stage of volcanic activities. We suggest that transient self-potential variations are induced by confined ground water pressure fluctuations through interaction between intruding magma and hydrothermal circulation through electro-kinetic effect. Subsurface transient self-potential measurement has been suggested to be useful means for monitoring volcanic eruption and to provide an efficient window for looking into modification of hydrothermal circulation induced by the volcanic activity.

  8. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The role of hydrothermal systems in the thermal evolution of magma chambers is poorly constrained yet likely significant. We analyze trends in mineral composition, vein thickness and overall volumetric fluid flux of the Butte, Montana porphyry Cu-Mo deposit to constrain the role of episodic volatile discharge in the crystallization of the source magma chamber ( 300 km3of silicic magma). An aqueous fluid sourced from injection of porphyritic dikes formed the Butte porphyry Cu network of veins. At least three separate pulses of fluid through the system are defined by alteration envelopes of [1] gray sericite (GS); [2] early-dark micaceous (EDM), pale-green sericite (PGS), and dark-green sericite (DGS); and [3] quartz-molybdenite (Qmb) and barren-quartz. Previous research using geothermometers and geobarometers has found that vein mineral composition, inferred temperatures and inferred pressures vary systematically with depth. Later fluid pulses are characterized by lower temperatures, consistent with progressive cooling of the source. We have digitized previously unused structural data from Butte area drill cores, and applied thermomechanical modeling of fluid release from the source magma chamber through time. Vein number density and vein thickness increase with depth as a clear function of mineralogy and thus primary temperature and pressure. We identify structural trends in the three fluid pulses which seem to imply time evolution of average vein characteristics. Pulses of Qmb-barren quartz and EDM-PGS-DGS (1st and 2nd in time) exhibit increasing vein number density (157 & 95 veins/50m, respectively) and thickness (300mm & 120mm, respectively) as a function of depth. EDM-PGS-DGS has a shallower peak in vein density (800m) than Qmb-barren quartz (>1600m). These data provide the basis for idealized mechanical models of hydrofractures, to predict driving pressures and to compare with existing source temperatures and total fluid volumes in order to estimate the total

  9. 210Pb- 226Ra and 228Ra- 232Th systematics in young arc lavas: implications for magma degassing and ascent rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Black, Stuart; Berlo, Kim

    2004-10-01

    of gas bubbles must be extremely efficient in mafic magma whereas the higher viscosity of more siliceous magmas retards the process and can lead to 210Pb excesses. A possible negative correlation between ( 210Pb/ 226Ra) o and SO 2 emission rate requires further testing but may have implications for future eruptions.

  10. Buffered and unbuffered dike emplacement on Earth and Venus - Implications for magma reservoir size, depth, and rate of magma replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, E. A.; Head, J. W., III

    1993-01-01

    Models of the emplacement of lateral dikes from magma chambers under constant (buffered) driving pressure conditions and declining (unbuffered) driving pressure conditions indicate that the two pressure scenarios lead to distinctly different styles of dike emplacement. In the unbuffered case, the lengths and widths of laterally emplaced dikes will be severely limited and the dike lengths will be highly dependent on chamber size; this dependence suggests that average dike length can be used to infer the dimensions of the source magma reservoir. On Earth, the characteristics of many mafic-dike swarms suggest that they were emplaced in buffered conditions (e.g., the Mackenzie dike swarm in Canada and some dikes within the Scottish Tertiary). On Venus, the distinctive radial fractures and graben surrounding circular to oval features and edifices on many size scales and extending for hundreds to over a thousand km are candidates for dike emplacement in buffered conditions.

  11. Viscosity model for fully liquid silicate melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guo-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for estimating the viscosity of silicate melt as derived in our previous paper is extended to the system containing MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O, which can express the nonlinear variation of activation energy of viscosity with the composition. It is found that the optimized parameters of model which characterize the deforming ability of bonds around non-bridging oxygen decrease with increasing the bond strength of M-O bond expressed by I=2Q/RMz+ + rO2-2 (where Q is the valence of cation M; r is the radius. It is pointed out that viscosity is not only determined by the bond strength, but also by the radius of cation which is defined as the size effect. The radius of cation plays paradox roles in the two factors: smaller radius leads to a stronger bond, thus a higher viscosity; while cations with smaller radius are easier to diffuse when neglecting the interaction force, thus a lower viscosity will be.

  12. Nanostructure of Er3+ doped silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nan; Hou, Kirk; Haines, Christopher D; Etessami, Nathan; Ranganathan, Varadh; Halpern, Susan B; Kear, Bernard H; Klein, Lisa C; Sigel, George H

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrate nanostructural evolution resulting in highly increased photoluminescence in silicates doped with Er3+ ions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging, nano-energy dispersed X-ray (NEDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence analysis confirm the local composition and structure changes of the Er3+ ions upon thermal annealing. We studied two types of amorphous nanopowder: the first is of the composition SiO2/18Al2O3/2Er2O3 (SAE), synthesized by combustion flame-chemical vapor condensation, and the second is with a composition of SiO2/8Y2O3/2Er2O3 (SYE), synthesized by sol-gel synthesis (composition in mol%). Electron diffraction and HRTEM imaging clearly show the formation of nanocrystallites with an average diameter of approximately 8 nm in SAE samples annealed at 1000 degrees C and SYE samples annealed at 1200 degrees C. The volume fraction of the nanocrystalline phase increased with each heat treatment, eventually leading to complete devitrification at 1400 degrees C. Further XRD and NEDX analysis indicates that the nanocrystalline phase has the pyrochlore structure with the formula Er(x)Al(2-x)Si2O7 or Er(x)Y(2-x)Si2O7 and a surrounding silica matrix.

  13. Lateral variation of H2O/K2O ratios in Quaternary Magma of the Northeastern Japan arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, I.

    2012-12-01

    Water plays a fundamental role in the magma genesis beneath subduction zones. In order to estimate a spatial distribution of the density of water flux in the wedge mantle of the Northeastern Japan arc, this study examines a lateral variation of pre-eruptive bulk rock H2O/K2O contents among volcanoes located both in the frontal and in back arc settings. The analytical targets are the frontal volcanoes Nigorikawa (N42.12 E140.45), Zenikame (N41.74 E140.85), Adachi (N38.22 E140.65), and Nanashigure (N40.07 E141.11), and the back arc ones Hijiori (N38.61 E140.17) and Kanpu (N39.93 E139.88). The bulk magmatic H2O content (TH2O) is calculated from a mass balance of hydrogen isotopic ratios among three phases in a batch of magma; dissolved water in melt, excess H2O vapor, and hydrous phenocrysts such as amphiboles (Miyagi and Matsubaya, 2003). Since the amount of H2O in hydrous phenocryst is negligible, the bulk magmatic H2O content can be written as TH2O = (30 XD CD) / (15 - dT + dMW), where dMW is the measured hydrogen isotopic ratio of hydrous phenocrysts, XD is a melt fraction of magma, CD is a water concentration of the melt, and dT is hydrogen isotopic ratios of a bulk magma (assumed to be -50 per-mil). Both XD and CD are estimated from bulk rock chemistry of the sample using the MELTS program (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995). Hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors are assumed to be -15 and -30 per-mil for vapor and hydrous mineral, and vapor and silicate melt, respectively. There observed a clear difference among the H2O/K2O ratios of bulk magmas from the frontal and back arc volcanoes. For instance higher H2O/K2O wt ratios was observed in the frontal volcanoes (Nigorikawa 5.3, Zenikame 11-12, Adachi 8-10, and Nanashigure 4-18), while lower H2O/K2O wt ratios was observed in the back arc ones (Kanpu 0-2.5 and Hijiori 1.4). The lateral variation of H2O/K2O ratios infer the higher water flux through the frontal side of wedge mantle, which can be a potential cause of the

  14. Silicate Urolithiasis during Long-Term Treatment with Zonisamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Taguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicate urinary calculi are rare in humans, with an incidence of 0.2% of all urinary calculi. Most cases were related to excess ingestion of silicate, typically by taking magnesium trisilicate as an antacid for peptic ulcers over a long period of time; however, there also existed unrelated cases, whose mechanism of development remains unclear. On the other hand, zonisamide, a newer antiepileptic drug, is one of the important causing agents of iatrogenic urinary stones in patients with epilepsy. The supposed mechanism is that zonisamide induces urine alkalinization and then promotes crystallization of urine components such as calcium phosphate by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase in renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we report a case of silicate urolithiasis during long-term treatment with zonisamide without magnesium trisilicate intake and discuss the etiology of the disease by examining the silicate concentration in his urine.

  15. Properties of sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jina; Fan Zitian; Zan Xiaolei; Pan Di

    2009-01-01

    The sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating has many advantages,such as low sodium silicate adding quantity,fast hardening speed,high room temperature strength,good collapsibility and certain surface stability. However,it has big moisture absorbability in the air,which would lead to the compression strength and the surface stability of the sand molds being sharply reduced. In this study,the moisture absorbability of the sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating in different humidity conditions and the effect factors were investigated. Meanwhile,the reasons for the big moisture absorbability of the sand were analyzed.Some measures to overcome the problems of high moisture absorbability,bad surface stability and sharply reducing strength in the air were discussed. The results of this study establish the foundation of green and clean foundry technology based on the microwave heating hardening sodium silicate sand process.

  16. Polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites for barrier technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Intelligent Nanomaterials: Processes, Properties, and Applications February 2012/Chapter 13 Polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites for barrier technology Labuschagne, PW, Moolman, S and Maity, A. Corresponding author: PLabusch...

  17. Characterization of iron-phosphate-silicate chemical garden structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Doloboff, Ivria J; White, Lauren M; Stucky, Galen D; Russell, Michael J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-02-28

    Chemical gardens form when ferrous chloride hydrate seed crystals are added or concentrated solutions are injected into solutions of sodium silicate and potassium phosphate. Various precipitation morphologies are observed depending on silicate and phosphate concentrations, including hollow plumes, bulbs, and tubes. The growth of precipitates is controlled by the internal osmotic pressure, fluid buoyancy, and membrane strength. Additionally, rapid bubble-led growth is observed when silicate concentrations are high. ESEM/EDX analysis confirms compositional gradients within the membranes, and voltage measurements across the membranes during growth show a final potential of around 150-200 mV, indicating that electrochemical gradients are maintained across the membranes as growth proceeds. The characterization of chemical gardens formed with iron, silicate, and phosphate, three important components of an early earth prebiotic hydrothermal system, can help us understand the properties of analogous structures that likely formed at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents in the Hadean-structures offering themselves as the hatchery of life.

  18. The crystalline fraction of interstellar silicates in starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, F; Woods, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    We present a model using the evolution of the stellar population in a starburst galaxy to predict the crystallinity of the silicates in the interstellar medium of this galaxy. We take into account dust production in stellar ejecta, and amorphisation and destruction in the interstellar medium and find that a detectable amount of crystalline silicates may be formed, particularly at high star formation rates, and in case supernovae are efficient dust producers. We discuss the effect of dust destruction and amorphisation by supernovae, and the effect of a low dust-production efficiency by supernovae, and find that when taking this into account, crystallinity in the interstellar medium becomes hard to detect. Levels of 6.5-13% crystallinity in the interstellar medium of starburst galaxies have been observed and thus we conclude that not all these crystalline silicates can be of stellar origin, and an additional source of crystalline silicates associated with the Active Galactic Nucleus must be present.

  19. Spinning dust emission from ultrasmall silicates: emissivity and polarization spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem; Lan, Nguyen Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) is an important Galactic foreground of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. It is believed that the AME arises from rotational emission by spinning polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the interstellar medium (ISM). In this paper, we assume that a population of ultrasmall silicate grains may exist in the ISM, and quantify rotational emissivity from these tiny particles and its polarization spectrum. We found that spinning silicate nanoparticles can produce strong rotational emission when those small grains follow a log-normal size distribution. The polarization fraction of spinning dust emission from tiny silicates increases with decreasing the dipole moment per atom ($\\beta$) and can reach $P\\sim 20\\%$ for $\\beta\\sim 0.1$D at grain temperature of 60 K. We identify a parameter space $(\\beta,Y_{Si})$ for silicate nanoparticles in which its rotational emission can adequately reproduce both the observed AME and the polarization of the AME, without violating the ob...

  20. Fractional crystallization of Si-undersaturated alkaline magmas leading to unmixing of carbonatites on Brava Island (Cape Verde) and a general model of carbonatite genesis in alkaline magma suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidendorfer, Daniel; Schmidt, Max W.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2016-05-01

    The carbonatites of Brava Island, Cape Verde hot spot, allow to investigate whether they represent small mantle melt fractions or form through extreme fractionation and/or liquid immiscibility from CO2-bearing silicate magmas. The intrusive carbonatites on Brava Island are part of a strongly silica-undersaturated pyroxenite, ijolite, nephelinite, nepheline syenite, combeite-foiditite, carbonatite series. The major and trace element composition of this suite is reproduced by a model fractionating olivine, clinopyroxene, perovskite, biotite, apatite, titanite, sodalite and FeTi oxides, all present as phenocrysts in the rocks corresponding to their fractionation interval. Fractionation of ~90 wt% crystals reproduces the observed geochemical trend from the least evolved ultramafic dikes (bulk X Mg = 0.64) to syenitic compositions. The modelled fractional crystallization leads to alkali enrichment, driving the melt into the carbonatite-silicate miscibility gap. An initial CO2 content of 4000 ppm is sufficient to saturate in CO2 at the point where the rock record suggests continuing unmixing carbonatites from nephelinites to nepheline syenites after 61 wt% fractionation. Such immiscibility is also manifested in carbonatite and silicate domains on a hand-specimen scale. Furthermore, almost identical primary clinopyroxene, biotite and carbonate compositions from carbonatites and nephelinites to nepheline syenites substantiate their conjugate character and our unmixing model. The modelled carbonatite compositions correspond to the natural ones except for their much higher alkali contents. The alkali-poor character of the carbonatites on Brava and elsewhere is likely a consequence of the release of alkali-rich CO2 + H2O fluids during final crystallization, which cause fenitization in adjacent rocks. We propose a general model for carbonatite generation during alkaline magmatism, where the fractionation of heavily Si-undersaturated, alkaline parent melts results in alkali and

  1. The relative roles of boundary layer fractionation and homogeneous fractionation in cooling basaltic magma chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritani, Takeshi

    2009-06-01

    In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation). In this study, the relative roles of boundary layer fractionation and homogeneous fractionation in basaltic magma bodies were examined using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. Model calculations show that boundary layer fractionation cannot be a dominant fractionation mechanism when magma chambers are located at low pressures (magmatic evolution. On the other hand, boundary layer fractionation can occur effectively when magmas are hydrous (> ~ 2 wt.%), such as arc basalt, and the magma chambers are located at depth (> ~ 100 MPa). Because the melt derived from mush zones is enriched in alkalis and H 2O, crystallization from the main magma is suppressed by mixing with the mush melt as a consequence of depression of the liquidus temperature. Therefore, homogeneous fractionation is more effectively suppressed in magma chambers in which boundary layer fractionation is more active. If magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily by boundary layer fractionation, magmas can remain free of crystals for long periods during magmatic evolution.

  2. Storage and interaction of compositionally heterogeneous magmas from the 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Diana C.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Wallace, Paul J.; Donovan, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Compositional heterogeneity (56–64 wt% SiO2 whole-rock) in samples of tephra and lava from the 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, raises questions about the physical nature of magma storage and interaction beneath this young and frequently active volcano. To determine conditions of magma storage and evolutionary histories of compositionally distinct magmas, we investigate physical and chemical characteristics of andesitic and dacitic magmas feeding the 1986 eruption. We calculate equilibrium temperatures and oxygen fugacities from Fe-Ti oxide compositions and find a continuous range in temperature from 877 to 947°C and high oxygen fugacities (ΔNNO=1–2) for all magmas. Melt inclusions in pyroxene phenocrysts analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis are dacitic to rhyolitic and have water contents ranging from Augustine, and we interpret the mafic endmember to have been intruded from depth. Mixing appears to have continued as magmas ascended towards the vent. We suggest that the physical structure of the magma storage system beneath Augustine contributed to the sustained compositional heterogeneity of this eruption, which is best explained by magma storage and interaction in a vertically extensive system of interconnected dikes rather than a single coherent magma chamber and/or conduit. The typically short repose period (∼10 years) between Augustine's recent eruptive pulses may also inhibit homogenization, as short repose periods and chemically heterogeneous magmas are observed at several volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska.

  3. Determination of reactivity rates of silicate particle-size fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Roberto Lyra Villas Boas

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of sources used for soil acidity correction depends on reactivity rate (RR) and neutralization power (NP), indicated by effective calcium carbonate (ECC). Few studies establish relative efficiency of reactivity (RER) for silicate particle-size fractions, therefore, the RER applied for lime are used. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of silicate materials affected by particle size throughout incubation periods in comparison to lime, and to calculate the RER for silicat...

  4. Rapid reinflation following the 2011-2012 rhyodacite eruption at Cordón Caulle volcano (Southern Andes) imaged by InSAR: Evidence for magma reservoir refill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco; Pritchard, Matthew E.; Basualto, Daniel; Lazo, Jonathan; Córdova, Loreto; Lara, Luis E.

    2016-09-01

    Cordón Caulle is a large fissural volcano that has erupted rhyodacitic magma of the same composition in its past three historical eruptions in 1921, 1960, and 2011-2012. There was significant ground deformation observed before and during the 2011-2012 eruption—here we use C and X band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series results to document posteruptive uplift up to 0.8 m between March 2012 and May 2015, with line-of-sight rates up to 45 cm/yr that have been largely aseismic, along with subsidence in the 2011-2012 lava flow. The 2012 uplift rate is one of the largest for silicic systems and was likely produced by the intrusion of ~0.125 km3 of magma in the same tectonically controlled plumbing system that has been active during the historical eruptions. Nevertheless, the uplift ended before the reservoir refilled with the erupted volume, maybe due to a change in the pressure gradient produced by the 2011-2012 eruption.

  5. Magma Mixing: Why Picrites are Not So Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Oxide gabbros or ferrogabbros are the late, low-temperature differentiates of tholeiitic magma and usually form as cumulates that can have 2-30% of the magmatic oxides, ilmenite and magnetite. They are common in the ocean crust and are likely ubiquitous wherever extensive tholeiitic magmatism has occurred, especially beneath thick lava piles such as at Hawaii, Iceland, oceanic plateaus, island arcs and ancient continental crust. When intruded by hot primitive magma including picrite, the oxide-bearing portions of these rocks are readily partially melted or assimilated into the magma and contribute to it a degree of iron and titanium enrichment that is not reflective of the mantle source of the primitive magma. The most extreme examples of such mixing are meimechites and ferropicrites, but this type of end-member mixing is even common in MORB. To the extent this process occurs, the eruptive picrite cannot be used to estimate compositions of partial melts of mantle rocks, nor their eruptive or potential temperatures, using olivine-liquid FeO-MgO backtrack procedures. Most picrites have glasses with compositions approximating those expected from low-pressure multiphase cotectic crystallization, and olivine that on average crystallized from liquids of nearly those compositions. The hallmark of such rocks is the presence of minerals other than olivine among phenocrysts (plagioclase at Iceland, clinopyroxene at many oceanic islands), Fe- and Ti-rich chromian spinel (ankaramites, ferropicrites and meimichites), and in some cases the presence of iron-rich olivine (hortonolite ~Fo65 in ferropicrites), Ti-rich kaersutitic amphibole and even apatite (meimechites); the latter two derive from late-stage, hydrous and geochemically enriched metamorphic or alkalic assimilants. This type of mixing, however, does not necessarily involve depleted and enriched mixing components. To avoid such mixing, primitive melts have to rise primarily through upper mantle rocks of near-zero melt

  6. Digging into Augustine Volcano's Silicic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Webster, J. D.; Goldoff, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Activity at Augustine Volcano, Alaska, has been marked by intermediate composition domes, flows, and tephras during the Holocene. Erosive lahars associated with the 2006 eruption exposed voluminous rhyolite pumice fall beneath glacial tills. The rhyolite is both petrologically and mineralogically different from more recent eruptions, with abundant amphibole (both calcium-amphiboles and cummingtonite) and quartz, both rare in more recent products. Three distinct lithologies are present, with textural and chemical variations between the three. Fe-Ti oxide equilibria indicate temperatures of ~765°C and oxygen fugacities of NNO +1.5. Melt inclusions indicate that the stratigraphically lowest lithology began crystallizing isobarically at ~260 MPa with the contemporary mixed H2O-CO2 fluid phase becoming progressively H2O-rich. The other lithologies were likely crystallized under more H2O-dominated conditions, as indicated by the presence of cummingtonite. Apatites and melt inclusions have generally lower chlorine contents than more recently erupted material, which is typically high in chlorine. Xenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene in two of the three lithologies contain mafic (basalt to basaltic andesite) melt inclusions that indicate the likelihood of mixing and/or mingling of magmas as an eruption trigger. We interpret the three lithologies as representative of a smaller pumiceous rhyolite eruption, with subsequent extrusion of a rhyodacite banded lava dome or flow. This was followed by a large-scale rhyolitic pumice eruption that entrained portions of the banded flow as lithic inclusions. The unique qualities of this pre-glacial rhyolite and the potential hazards of a similarly large eruption in modern times indicate that further study is warranted.

  7. Friction and Wear Behaviors of Nano-Silicates in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Boshui; Lou Fang; Fang Jianhua; Wang Jiu; Li Jia

    2009-01-01

    Nano-metric magnesium silicate and zinc silicate with particle size of about 50--70nm were prepared in water by the method of chemical deposition. The antiwear and friction reducing abilities of the nano-silicates, as well as their compos-ites with oleie acid tri-ethanolamine (OATEA), were evaluated on a four-ball friction tester. The topographies and tribochemical features of the worn surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). Results show that nano-silicates alone provide poor antiwear and friction reducing abilities in water, but exhibits excellent synergism with OATEA in reducing friction and wear. The synergism in reducing friction and wear between naao-silicates and OATEA does exist almost regardless of particle sizes and species, and may be attributed, on one hand, to the formation of an adsorption film of OATEA, and, on the other hand, to the formation oftdbochemical species of silicon dioxide and iron oxides on the friction surfaces. Tribo-reactions and tribo-adsorptions of nano-silicates and OATEA would produce hereby an effective composite boondary lubrication film, which could efficiently enhance the anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of water.

  8. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. <10 GPa, and in two cases at or near 20 GPa. According to those data, the stronger influences on the distribution coefficient of W are temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity with a relatively slight influence in pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  9. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection process of P. pachyrhizi was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The uredia on leaves of plants sprayed with PS were smaller and more compact than those observed on the leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CS or in soil non-amended with CS (control treatment. On leaves of plants from the control treatment, uredia produced many urediniospores at 9 days after inoculation, and the ASR severity was 15, 8 and 9%, respectively, for plants from control, PS and CS treatments. In conclusion, the spray of PS contributed to reduce the number of uredia per cm² of leaf area and both PS spray and CS resulted in lower ASR symptoms.

  10. Important role of magma mixing in generating the Mesozoic monzodioritic-granodioritic intrusions related to Cu mineralization, Tongling, East China: evidence from petrological and in situ Sr-Hf isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, ChangJian

    2016-04-01

    The Mesozoic ore-bearing high-Mg monzodioritic-granodioritic rocks in the Tongling mining district (East China) have been described as having adakitic affinities, and their origin has been attributed to partial melting of delaminated eclogite at depth in the mantle, followed by interaction of the resultant granitic magma with mantle peridotite. Here we present petrological data and in situ Sr isotopic data for zoned plagioclase that are inconsistent with the eclogite-derived model, and instead propose a model that involves magma mixing of siliceous crustal melts and basaltic magma that was derived from metasomatized mantle by subduction zone fluids in an extensional regime. The principal geochemical signatures of these Mesozoic rocks include a hydrous and high-K calc-alkaline affinity, high values of Mg#, high Sr abundances, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, ɛNd(t)=-13.1 to -9.0, and ISr=0.70707-0.70824. The magma mixing model is supported by (1) the common existence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and hornblende, (2) the increase in Ti and Al(IV) from hornblende cores to rims, and the overgrowths of high-Ca pyroxene around hornblende grains as well, indicative of episode of heating and rejuvenation of the magma chamber as a result of recharge of mafic magma, (3) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of embayed high-Ca cores of plagioclase that are distinctly lower than in the euhedral low-Ca overgrowth rims, (4) negative correlations between whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic ratios, and (5) the significant differences in the values of ɛHf(t) (-9.5 to -26) within different zircons from the same intrusion. We propose that underplating of hydrous basaltic magma from the metasomatized lithospheric mantle in the lower crust resulted in partial melting of the lower crustal rocks (Precambrian TTG gneisses and amphibolite/granulite) under water-saturated conditions, during which plagioclase decomposed, leaving hornblende-rich restites and

  11. Partitioning coefficients between olivine and silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    Variation of Nernst partition coefficients ( D) between olivine and silicate melts cannot be neglected when modeling partial melting and fractional crystallization. Published natural and experimental olivine/liquidD data were examined for covariation with pressure, temperature, olivine forsterite content, and melt SiO 2, H 2O, MgO and MgO/MgO + FeO total. Values of olivine/liquidD generally increase with decreasing temperature and melt MgO content, and with increasing melt SiO 2 content, but generally show poor correlations with other variables. Multi-element olivine/liquidD profiles calculated from regressions of D REE-Sc-Y vs. melt MgO content are compared to results of the Lattice Strain Model to link melt MgO and: D0 (the strain compensated partition coefficient), EM3+ (Young's Modulus), and r0 (the size of the M site). Ln D0 varies linearly with Ln MgO in the melt; EM3+ varies linearly with melt MgO, with a dog-leg at ca. 1.5% MgO; and r0 remains constant at 0.807 Å. These equations are then used to calculate olivine/liquidD for these elements using the Lattice Strain Model. These empirical parameterizations of olivine/liquidD variations yield results comparable to experimental or natural partitioning data, and can easily be integrated into existing trace element modeling algorithms. The olivine/liquidD data suggest that basaltic melts in equilibrium with pure olivine may acquire small negative Ta-Hf-Zr-Ti anomalies, but that negative Nb anomalies are unlikely to develop. Misfits between results of the Lattice Strain Model and most light rare earth and large ion lithophile partitioning data suggest that kinetic effects may limit the lower value of D for extremely incompatible elements in natural situations characterized by high cooling/crystallization rates.

  12. Calc-alkali rocks derived from tholeiite magma in Hakone volcano; pyroxene crystallization trends and pyroxene geothermometry to estimate the magma temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T.

    2012-12-01

    Calc-alkali rocks are widely distributed in the island arcs. The several models of their magma-genesis were proposed by many geoscientists (e.g. Kuno 1950, Osborn 1959, Sakuyama 1981, Tatsumi 2011) on the bases of precise petrological investigations. Crystallization trends of rock forming minerals (pyroxene, feldspar etc.) in the individual lava flow of the hydrous tholeiitic magma are represented by chemical zoning from phenocryst through microphenocryst to the groundmass in each lava. Those trends indicate degassing (or dehydrating) trends of erupted lava (Ishii 1991). Crystallization trend of minerals of hydrous magma in the subvolcanic magma reservoir is represented by core of phenocrysts throughout lava-flow strata in each volcano. Those trends indicate water-enrichment (or hydrating) trend in the magma reservoir. On the bases of the detailed analyses of the pyroxene crystallization sequences as well as estimated magmatic temperatures using pyroxene geothermometer, for calc-alkali rocks from the Central Cone (CC) in the Hakone volcano, the following working hypothesis is suggested, i.e. those calc-alkali rocks are induced by magma mixing between high temperature (about 1120 Degree Centigrade) tholeiite magma and low temperature (about 970 Degree Centigrade) magma, the latter is originated from fractional crystallization of the primitive high temperature hydras island-arc tholeiite magma within magma reservoir under closed environment for water. Reference Ishii, T., 1991. Lava-flow and subvolcanic magma reservoir composition trends in the Ca-poor pyroxenes of Hakone Volcano, Japan. Jour. Petrol., 32, 429-450 Kuno, H., 1950. Petrology of Hakone volcano and the adjacent areas, Japan. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 61, 957-1019. Sakuyama, M., 1981. Petrological study of the Myoko and Kurohime volcanoes, Japan: crystallization sequence and evidence for magma mixing. Jour. Petrol., 22, 553-583. Osborn, E. F., 1959. Role of oxygen pressure in the crystallization and

  13. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of the preeruption growth history of zircons from the 340 ka Whakamaru Ignimbrite, New Zealand: Evidence for >250 k.y. magma residence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stuart J. A.; Fletcher, Ian R.

    1999-11-01

    The Whakamaru group ignimbrites are products of one of the largest caldera-forming eruptions from the central Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, ca. 340 ka. Imaging of zircons separated from low-silica rhyolite pumice from Whakamaru group ignimbrite reveals a complex magmatic crystallization history; some grains contain resorbed cores. Cores and rims of individual zircons were dated using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe. Due to the high U contents of the zircons, 206Pb count rates were sufficiently high to obtain 206Pb/238U ages with precisions of 5% 10% (1 σS) using longer than usual 206Pb+ count times, and this has allowed zircon core and rim ages to be distinguished. Zircon rim and outer growth zone ages range from within 1 σS error of the eruption age to 449 ± 20 ka, whereas zircon cores produced ages to 608 ± 20 ka, indicating magmatic residence times exceeding 250 k.y. for some zircons. The data are consistent with a prolonged evolution of the magma system over hundreds of thousands of years, involving magma replenishment and mixing with residual phases of older silicic magma chambers, in addition to crystal fractionation processes, prior to eruption. The study has shown that 206Pb/238U dating using high-resolution ion microprobe can be used to determine zircon preeruptive growth histories in Quaternary lavas and pyroclastic rocks.

  14. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, G. Lang; Bowring, Samuel A.; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2016-02-01

    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the final eruption. Calculated magmatic

  15. Reconstructing Magma Degassing and Fragmentation: The 1060 CE Plinian Eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetti, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Crozier, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions occurs when the bubble overpressure exceeds some threshold. Because bubble coalescence and ensuing permeable outgassing allow partial release of bubble overpressure, high magma permeabil
ity is thought to adversely affect magma fragmentation and the ability of magma to erupt explosively. We used the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California, to show that this is not necessarily the case. We performed numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and bubble growth to predict the development of magma porosity, permeability, and the built-up of gas pressure inside bubbles. We explicitly took into account permeable outgassing in the model. We used the measured porosity and permeability of the Plinian pyroclasts, together with percolation modeling, to reconstruct the conditions for magma degassing and fragmentation. Our results show that the porosity and permeability of pyroclasts coincide with the conditions required for fragmentation of the erupting magma. The onset of fragmentation occurs when the decompression rate reaches about 2 MPa.s-1, corresponding to a constant melt viscosity of ˜107 Pa.s and a magma porosity of approximately 0.75, conditions met for a mass discharge rate of about 107 kg.s-1, a cross sectional area of about 2,000 m2, and at a depth of approximately 1 km. Pyroclasts formed from magma that fragmented over a depth range of several tens of meters, probably reflecting some degree of lateral variability in magma porosity in the conduit. The model also indicates that, even if the magma was highly permeable at the onset of fragmentation, permeable outgassing did not affect fragmentation. The transition to an effusive activity and the emission of obsidian after the Plinian phase of the Glass Mountain eruption is most probably due to a decrease in decompression rate.

  16. Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, Maxim; Ozerov, Alexey; Kyle, Philip R.; Carr, Michael J.; Nikulin, Alex; Vidito, Christopher; Danyushevsky, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    A series of large caldera-forming eruptions (361-38 ka) transformed Gorely volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, from a shield-type system dominated by fractional crystallization processes to a composite volcanic center, exhibiting geochemical evidence of magma mixing. Old Gorely, an early shield volcano (700-361 ka), was followed by Young Gorely eruptions. Calc-alkaline high magnesium basalt to rhyolite lavas have been erupted from Gorely volcano since the Pleistocene. Fractional crystallization dominated evolution of the Old Gorely magmas, whereas magma mixing is more prominent in the Young Gorely eruptive products. The role of recharge-evacuation processes in Gorely magma evolution is negligible (a closed magmatic system); however, crustal rock assimilation plays a significant role for the evolved magmas. Most Gorely magmas differentiate in a shallow magmatic system at pressures up to 300 MPa, ˜3 wt% H2O, and oxygen fugacity of ˜QFM + 1.5 log units. Magma temperatures of 1123-1218 °C were measured using aluminum distribution between olivine and spinel in Old and Young Gorely basalts. The crystallization sequence of major minerals for Old Gorely was as follows: olivine and spinel (Ol + Sp) for mafic compositions (more than 5 wt% of MgO); clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at ˜5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag) and magnetite at ˜3.5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag + Mt). We show that the shallow magma chamber evolution of Old Gorely occurs under conditions of decompression and degassing. We find that the caldera-forming eruption(s) modified the magma plumbing geometry. This led to a change in the dominant magma evolution process from fractional crystallization to magma mixing. We further suggest that disruption of the magma chamber and accompanying change in differentiation process have the potential to transform a shield volcanic system to that of composite cone on a global scale.

  17. COMPARISON OF SOL-GEL SILICATE COATINGS ON Ti SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA HORKAVCOVÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings contained calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphate. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped into sols and dried and fired. Silicate coatings from the first group were also chemically treated in 10 mol.l-1 solution of sodium hydroxide. All coatings were measured to determine their adhesive and bioactive properties and furthermore the antibacterial properties were tested in the case of first group. Surfaces of the coated substrates were investigated after the firing and after the individual tests with optical and electron microscopy and X-ray microdiffraction. A tape test demonstrated excellent adhesive property of all coatings to the substrate, classified with degree 5. A static in vitro test demonstrated bioactivity of nearly all the coatings. The basic silicate coating from the first group and one type of coating from the second group were identified as inert. Antibacterial properties of silicate coatings containing silver showed to be different when tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. A complete inhibition of the growth of bacteria under our experimental conditions was observed for the coating containing silver and monetite and a partial inhibition of the growth of bacteria for coatings containing silver and silver in combination with brushite.

  18. A sulfur-poor terrestrial core inferred from metal-silicate partitioning experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Terry-Ann; Siebert, Julien; Remusat, Laurent; Menguy, Nicolas; Fiquet, Guillaume

    2017-07-01

    As a siderophile and a volatile element, sulfur's partitioning behavior allows constraints to be placed on processes in the primitive Earth. Sulfur's core-mantle distribution during Earth's accretion has consequences for core content and implications for volatile accretion. In this study, metal-silicate partitioning experiments of sulfur were conducted in a diamond anvil cell at pressures from 46 to 91 GPa and temperatures between 3100 and 4100 K, conditions that are directly relevant to core segregation in a deep magma ocean. The sulfur partition coefficients measured from these experiments are an order of magnitude less than those obtained from extrapolation of previous results to core formation conditions (e.g., Rose-Weston et al., 2009; Boujibar et al., 2014). These measurements challenge the idea that sulfur becomes a highly siderophile element at high pressures and temperatures. A relationship was derived that describes sulfur's partitioning behavior at the pressure-temperature range of core formation. This relationship combined with an accretion model was used to explore the effects of varying impactor sizes and volatile compositions on the sulfur contents of the Earth's core and mantle. The results show that homogeneous delivery of sulfur throughout accretion would overenrich the mantle in sulfur relative to the present day observations of 200 ± 80 ppm (Lorand et al., 2013) unless the bulk Earth sulfur content is lower than its cosmochemical estimate of ∼6400 ppm (e.g., McDonough, 2003). On the other hand, the mantle's sulfur content is matched if sulfur is delivered with large bodies (3 to 10% Earth mass) during the last 20% of Earth's accretion, combined with a chondritic late veneer of 0.5% Earth mass. These results are conditional on the lowered equilibration efficiency of large impactor cores in a terrestrial magma ocean. In each accretion scenario, the core sulfur content remains below ∼2 wt.% in close agreement with cosmochemical estimates and

  19. Zinc and volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    Zinc is a moderately volatile element and a key tracer of volatile depletion on planetary bodies due to lack of significant isotopic fractionation under high-temperature processes. Terrestrial basalts have δ66Zn values similar to some chondrites (+ 0.15 to 0.3‰ where [{66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64ZnJMC-Lyon-1} × 1000]) and elevated Zn concentrations (100 ppm). Lunar mare basalts yield a mean δ66Zn value of +1.4 ± 0.5‰ and have low Zn concentrations (~2 ppm). Late-stage lunar magmatic products, such as ferroan anorthosite, Mg-suite and Alkali suite rocks exhibit heavier δ66Zn values (+3 to +6‰). The heavy δ66Zn lunar signature is thought to reflect evaporative loss and fractionation of zinc, either during a giant impact or in a magma ocean phase.We explore conditions of volatile element loss within a lunar magma ocean (LMO) using models of Zn isotopic fractionation that are widely applicable to planetary magma oceans. For the Moon, our objective was to identify conditions that would yield a δ66Zn signature of ~ +1.4‰ within the mantle, assuming a terrestrial mantle zinc starting composition.We examine two cases of zinc evaporative fractionation: (1) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was completed prior to LMO crystallization and (2) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was concurrent with LMO crystallization. The first case resulted in a homogeneous lunar mantle and the second case yielded a stratified lunar mantle, with the greatest zinc isotopic enrichment in late-stage crystallization products. This latter case reproduces the distribution of zinc isotope compositions in lunar materials quite well.We find that hydrodynamic escape was not a dominant process in losing Zn, but that erosion of a nascent lunar atmosphere, or separation of condensates into a proto-lunar crust are possible. While lunar volatile depletion is still possible as a consequence of the giant impact, this process cannot reproduce the variable δ66Zn found in the Moon. Outgassing

  20. Códigos binarios no lineales en MAGMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalle Arce, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    La finalitat d'aquest projecte és aconseguir representar codis binaris no lineals de manera eficient en un ordinador. Per fer-ho, hem desenvolupat funcions per representar un codi binari a partir del super dual. Hem millorat la funció de càlcul del kernel d'un codi binari, implementada en projectes d'anys anteriors. També hem desenvolupat un paquet software per l'intèrpret MAGMA. Aquest paquet ens proveeix d'eines per al tractament de codis binaris no necessàriament lineals. La finalidad d...

  1. Temporal magma source changes at Gaua volcano, Vanuatu island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumais, Aurélien; Bertrand, Hervé; Chazot, Gilles; Dosso, Laure; Robin, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Gaua Island (also called Santa Maria), from the central part of the Vanuatu arc, consists of a large volcano marked by a caldera that hosts the active Mount Garet summit cone. In this paper, a geochemical study including Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopic compositions of 25 lavas emitted since 1.8 Ma is presented, with a focus on the volcanic products that preceded (old volcanics, main cone and pyroclastic series) and followed (Mount Garet) the caldera forming event. All lavas show an island arc signature with enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Post-caldera lavas define a medium-K calc-alkaline trend, whereas lavas from the former main cone have high-K calc-alkaline compositions. Compared to the pre-caldera volcanic suite, the Mount Garet lavas have similar Th/Nb ( 1.5), 143Nd/144Nd ( 0.51295) and 176Hf/177Hf ( 0.28316) ratios, but higher Ba/La ( 42 vs. 27) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70417 vs. 0.70405) ratios and lower Ce/Pb ( 2.7 vs. 4.6), La/Sm ( 2.5 vs. 4.0) and 206Pb/204Pb (18.105 vs. 18.176) ratios. High Th/Nb and low Nd and Hf isotopic ratios compared to N-MORB suggest the contribution of 2% of subducted sediment melt to the mantle source of Gaua magmas. Most of the observed differences between pre- and post-caldera lavas can be accounted for by the involvement of at least two portions of the mantle wedge, metasomatized by different slab-derived aqueous fluids. In addition, the lower La/Sm (at a given 143Nd/144Nd) ratios of Mount Garet lavas suggest a higher degree of partial melting ( 10-15%) compared to the pre-caldera lavas ( 5%). The Santa Maria Pyroclastic Series (SMPS) eruption probably triggered the caldera collapse, in response to emptying of the magmatic chamber. This event may have allowed new access to the surface for a geoc