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Sample records for volatile organic chemical

  1. Transport and Fate of Volatile Organic Chemical in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lis Wollesen

    Recently much attention has been paid to the behavior of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in the environment. This is due to the fact that the environmental pollution with these hazardous chemicals has drastically increased during the last decades. The present study is limited to consider...

  2. Characterization of volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, V.H.; Bhooshan, B.; Chen, S.B.; Sonenthal, J.S. [Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission is investigating chemical emissions from carpet systems in order to determine whether the emissions may be responsible for the numerous health complaints associated with carpet installation. As part of this effort, a study was conducted to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the air by five major product types of new carpet cushions. Cushion samples were tested in small-volume dynamic chambers over a six-hour exposure period. Airborne VOCs collected on multisorbent samplers were identified using sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A separate chamber method was developed to screen polyurethane cushions for emissions of toluene diisocyanates (TDI). Over 100 VOCs, spanning a broad range of chemical classes, were emitted from 17 carpet cushions. The pattern of emitted VOCs varied between and among product types, which reflects probable differences in manufacturing processes and ingredients. No significant quantities of TDI or formaldehyde were released by any cushions. Emission profiles were characterized for total VOCs and for the predominant individual VOCs. As a group, the synthetic fiber cushion samples emitted the lowest quantities of VOCs. Cushion samples purchased from carpet retailers released lesser amounts of VOCs than samples of the same cushion types obtained directly from the manufacturing mills. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and cleanup criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-09-01

    Soil cleanup criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals, this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria that include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semivolatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:861-869. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  4. Molecular corridors and parameterizations of volatility in the chemical evolution of organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation and aging of organic aerosols (OA proceed through multiple steps of chemical reaction and mass transport in the gas and particle phases, which is challenging for the interpretation of field measurements and laboratory experiments as well as accurate representation of OA evolution in atmospheric aerosol models. Based on data from over 30 000 compounds, we show that organic compounds with a wide variety of functional groups fall into molecular corridors, characterized by a tight inverse correlation between molar mass and volatility. We developed parameterizations to predict the saturation mass concentration of organic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur from the elemental composition that can be measured by soft-ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Field measurement data from new particle formation events, biomass burning, cloud/fog processing, and indoor environments were mapped into molecular corridors to characterize the chemical nature of the observed OA components. We found that less-oxidized indoor OA are constrained to a corridor of low molar mass and high volatility, whereas highly oxygenated compounds in atmospheric water extend to high molar mass and low volatility. Among the nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds identified in atmospheric aerosols, amines tend to exhibit low molar mass and high volatility, whereas organonitrates and organosulfates follow high O : C corridors extending to high molar mass and low volatility. We suggest that the consideration of molar mass and molecular corridors can help to constrain volatility and particle-phase state in the modeling of OA particularly for nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

  5. Micro- and Nanostructured Metal Oxide Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. A.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.; Batra, A. K.; Aggarwal, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications warrant the development of chemical sensors which operate in a variety of environments. This technical memorandum incorporates various kinds of chemical sensors and ways to improve their performance. The results of exploratory investigation of the binary composite polycrystalline thick-films such as SnO2-WO3, SnO2-In2O3, SnO2-ZnO for the detection of volatile organic compound (isopropanol) are reported. A short review of the present status of the new types of nanostructured sensors such as nanobelts, nanorods, nanotube, etc. based on metal oxides is presented.

  6. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  7. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  8. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  9. Sensitivity Enhancement of Metal-Oxide Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John F.

    Metal-oxide chemical sensor technology has been praised as a cheap and efficient method of detecting both reducing and oxidizing gases depending on the metal-oxide's carrier type. The research conducted in this thesis explored methods of enhancing the sensitivity of an n-type metal-oxide material (indium tin oxide, ITO) to a volatile organic compound (VOC) through changes in both device and testing characteristics. Two methods of testing prototype sensors were developed which consisted of short and long-term exposure to ethanol at different temperatures and concentrations. Maximum sensitivity at 2000 ppm was achieved in devices with thin, annealed metal-oxide layers with a high temperature of operation; this sensitivity measurement was achieved using a prolonged exposure test with 100-nm of annealed ITO at an operating temperature of 360°C and yielded a sensitivity of 32.5%. A fabrication process consisting of two lift-off processes for the metal-oxide and contact metal was developed to create the prototype devices. Preliminary characterization on the metal-oxide materials confirmed its thickness, crystallinity / crystal structure, and grain size. In addition to the electrical tests, a future work chemical sensor was thermally and electrically simulated using SolidWorks and Silvaco Atlas, respectively; a proposed fabrication process of the device is also presented, along with a basic outline of future work experiments to further study sensitivity enhancements through other metal-oxide materials, noble catalytic metals, device architecture, and signal processing of proposed electrical testing.

  10. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.

    1994-05-01

    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  11. ISOTOPIC (14C) AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FRACTIONS - PRECURSORS TO OZONE FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important factor in the production of ozone near ground level [3]. Many hydrocarbons originate from auto exhaust. However, a number of VOCs, e.g., isoprene, are known to be natural in origin. To develop reliable models for un...

  12. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Szulczyński; Jacek Gębicki

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric), photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their ...

  13. Control of volatile organic chemical emissions by adsorption onto hydrophobic and organophilic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lee Lai

    With the advent of the Environmental Protection Act 1990, the control of volatile organic chemical (VOC) emissions has become necessary. Complying with regulations may result in additional costs, but these may be alleviated if solvent recovery by means of low pressure drop monoliths is considered. Monoliths, in comparison with traditional packed beds, have a very low pressure drop and high surface areas. The principal aims of the research were to determine the effectiveness of high silica zeolites as adsorbents for the recovery of VOCs and to utilise the zeolites in the monolithic configuration. Silicalite and ZSM-5 were selected as the adsorbents and propane, ethanol and methylene chloride were selected as representative VOCs. The project was divided into two phases. The first was concerned with optimising the chemical formulation of pastes containing a high percentage of silicalite such that they can be extruded to form monolith structures. The second phase of the project involved comparing the equilibrium and kinetic performances of the manufactured monoliths with the performance of an equivalent packed bed containing commercially available silicalite pellets. Multichannel monoliths containing up to 90 % silicalite and with cell densities up to 29 cells/cm and adsorbent wall thicknesses down to 0.6 mm were produced. A square channel monolith having a channel size of 1.0 mm, a wall thickness of 1.0 mm and a cell density of 25 cells/cm was selected for further study due to its relatively high mechanical strength, ease of fabrication, and to the fact that its overall dimensions were comparable with those of an equivalent packed bed. The single component adsorption of VOCs onto high silica zeolites is highly favourable and isotherms of rectangular shape were obtained. The equilibrium capacities for the VOCs were found to be broadly similar for the two adsorbent forms whilst, in their favour for air pollution control applications, the manufactured monoliths were

  14. Assessing the sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry toward a wide array of biogenic volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Vermeuel, Michael; Novak, Gordon; Bertram, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry is a real-time, sensitive and selective measurement technique for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The benefits of CIMS technology make it highly suitable for field measurements that requires fast (10Hz and higher) response rates, such as the study of surface-atmosphere exchange processes by the eddy covariance method. The use of benzene cluster cations as a regent ion was previously demonstrated as a sensitive and selective method for the detection of select biogenic VOCs (e.g. isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) [Kim et al., 2016; Leibrock and Huey, 2000]. Quantitative analysis of atmospheric trace gases necessitates calibration for each analyte as a function of atmospheric conditions. We describe a custom designed calibration system, based on liquid evaporation, for determination of the sensitivity of the benzene-CIMS to a wide range of organic compounds at atmospherically relevant mixing ratios (instrument response for isoprene and a wide range of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. To gain mechanistic insight into the ion-molecule reactions and the role of water vapor and oxygen, we compare our measured sensitivities with a computational analysis of the charge distribution between the analyte, reagent ion and water molecules in the gas phase. These parameters provide insight on the ionization mechanism and provide parameters for quantification of organic molecules measured during field campaigns. References Kim, M. J., M. C. Zoerb, N. R. Campbell, K. J. Zimmermann, B. W. Blomquist, B. J. Huebert, and T. H. Bertram (2016), Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds, Atmos Meas Tech, 9(4), 1473-1484, doi:10.5194/amt-9-1473-2016. Leibrock, E., and L. G. Huey (2000), Ion chemistry for the detection of isoprene and other volatile organic compounds in ambient air, Geophys Res Lett, 27(12), 1719-1722, doi:Doi 10.1029/1999gl010804.

  15. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  16. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  17. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szulczyński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric, photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their metrological parameters—measurement range, limit of detection, measurement resolution, sensitivity and response time—were presented. Moreover, development trends and prospects of improvement of the metrological parameters of these sensors were highlighted.

  18. Direct analysis of volatile organic compounds in foods by headspace extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hurtado, P; Palmer, E; Owen, T; Aldcroft, C; Allen, M H; Jones, J; Creaser, C S; Lindley, M R; Turner, M A; Reynolds, J C

    2017-11-30

    The rapid screening of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by direct analysis has potential applications in the areas of food and flavour science. Currently, the technique of choice for VOC analysis is gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, the long chromatographic run times and elaborate sample preparation associated with this technique have led a movement towards direct analysis techniques, such as selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and electronic noses. The work presented here describes the design and construction of a Venturi jet-pump-based modification for a compact mass spectrometer which enables the direct introduction of volatiles for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Volatile organic compounds were extracted from the headspace of heated vials into the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer using a Venturi pump. Samples were analysed directly with no prior sample preparation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate between different classes of samples. The interface is shown to be able to routinely detect problem analytes such as fatty acids and biogenic amines without the requirement of a derivatisation step, and is shown to be able to discriminate between four different varieties of cheese with good intra and inter-day reproducibility using an unsupervised PCA model. Quantitative analysis is demonstrated using indole standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.395 μg/mL and 1.316 μg/mL, respectively. The described methodology can routinely detect highly reactive analytes such as volatile fatty acids and diamines without the need for a derivatisation step or lengthy chromatographic separations. The capability of the system was demonstrated by discriminating between different varieties of cheese and monitoring the spoilage of meats. © 2017 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass

  19. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  20. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  1. Volatile organic chemical emissions from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2003-09-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials were investigated. Specimens of newly produced SIPs and associated panel adhesives were obtained from two relatively large manufacturers. Additionally, specimens of the oriented strand board (OSB) used as the inner and outer sheathing and the extruded polystyrene core for the SIP were obtained from one manufacturer. Using small-scale chambers, emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and other VOCs from SIPs, OSB and polystyrene were measured over a period of four months and from the adhesives over two months. SIP specimens overlaid by gypsum board panels were also tested over four months. The predominant VOCs emitted by the SIPs included acetic acid, pentanal, hexanal and styrene. The emissions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were relatively low. Acetic acid and the aldehydes derived from the OSB, while styrene derived from the polystyrene. One of the SIPs emitted toluene and methyl acetate. The adhesives primarily emitted a mixture of hydrocarbons. The emission rates of most VOCs from the SIP/gypsum board assemblies were approximately the same or higher than their respective emission rates from the unfinished SIPs. Modeling using VOC emission factors obtained for the SIP/gypsum board assemblies demonstrated the potential for SIP materials to degrade indoor air quality in houses. A field study to investigate VOC concentrations and emission rates in SIP houses relative to closely matched conventionally constructed houses is necessary to determine the actual impacts of SIPs. If significant impacts are observed, to it may be desirable to develop control measures to reduce the emissions of VOCs from SIPs, such as the substitution of lower emitting materials or the use of vapor diffusion barriers.

  2. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  3. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M [Laramie, WY; Sorini-Wong, Susan S [Laramie, WY

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  4. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  5. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their MCLs: Organic Chemicals U.S. Geology Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Information on VOCs in Water ... Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance ...

  6. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Animal Husbandry: Chemical Compositions, Separation of Sources and Animal Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are important sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We used a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) to measure VOC emissions from CAFOs in the Northern Front Range of Colorado during an aircraft campaign (SONGNEX) for regional contributions and from a mobile laboratory sampling for chemical characterizations of individual animal feedlots. The main VOCs emitted from CAFOs include carboxylic acids, alcohols, carbonyls, phenolic species, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing species. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species become more important in terms of odor activity values and NO3 reactivity, respectively. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the increase of ethanol concentrations were primarily associated with feed storage and handling. We apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to attribute the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste. VOC ratios can be potentially used as indicators for the separation of emissions from dairy and beef cattle from the regional aircraft measurements.

  7. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  8. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  9. Use of a gas-sensor array for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOC) in chemically induced cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Patrizia; Powar, Nilesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo; Daunert, Sylvia; Roda, Aldo

    2004-01-01

    An application of gas sensors for rapid bioanalysis is presented. An array of temperature-modulated semiconductor sensors was used to characterize the headspace above a cell culture. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells, able to respond to 17 beta-estradiol by producing a reporter protein, were used as a model system. Yeast cells had the DNA sequence of the human estrogen receptor stably integrated into the genome, and contained expression plasmids carrying estrogen-responsive sequences and the reporter gene lac-Z, encoding the enzyme beta-galactosidase. The sensor-response profiles showed small but noticeable discrimination between cell samples induced with 17 beta-estradiol and non-induced cell samples. The sensor array was capable of detecting changes in the volatile organic compound composition of the headspace above the cultured cells, which can be associated with metabolic changes induced by a chemical compound. This finding suggests the possibility of using cross-selective gas-sensor arrays for analysis of drugs or bioactive molecules through their interaction with cell systems, with the advantage of providing information on their bioavailability.

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  11. Modeling the Human Kinetic Adjustment Factor for Inhaled Volatile Organic Chemicals: Whole Population Approach versus Distinct Subpopulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valcke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of whole- and sub-population-related variabilities on the determination of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF used in risk assessment of inhaled volatile organic chemicals (VOCs. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to a steady-state algorithm to generate population distributions for blood concentrations (CAss and rates of metabolism (RAMs for inhalation exposures to benzene (BZ and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D. The simulated population consisted of various proportions of adults, elderly, children, neonates and pregnant women as per the Canadian demography. Subgroup-specific input parameters were obtained from the literature and P3M software. Under the “whole population” approach, the HKAF was computed as the ratio of the entire population’s upper percentile value (99th, 95th of dose metrics to the median value in either the entire population or the adult population. Under the “distinct subpopulation” approach, the upper percentile values in each subpopulation were considered, and the greatest resulting HKAF was retained. CAss-based HKAFs that considered the Canadian demography varied between 1.2 (BZ and 2.8 (1,4-D. The “distinct subpopulation” CAss-based HKAF varied between 1.6 (BZ and 8.5 (1,4-D. RAM-based HKAFs always remained below 1.6. Overall, this study evaluated for the first time the impact of underlying assumptions with respect to the interindividual variability considered (whole population or each subpopulation taken separately when determining the HKAF.

  12. atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss

    2016-07-01

    organic compounds (VOCs that cannot be ionized with H3O+ ions (e.g., in a PTR-MS or H3O+ CIMS instrument. Here we describe the adaptation of a high-resolution time-of-flight H3O+ CIMS instrument to use NO+ primary ion chemistry. We evaluate the NO+ technique with respect to compound specificity, sensitivity, and VOC species measured compared to H3O+. The evaluation is established by a series of experiments including laboratory investigation using a gas-chromatography (GC interface, in situ measurement of urban air using a GC interface, and direct in situ measurement of urban air. The main findings are that (1 NO+ is useful for isomerically resolved measurements of carbonyl species; (2 NO+ can achieve sensitive detection of small (C4–C8 branched alkanes but is not unambiguous for most; and (3 compound-specific measurement of some alkanes, especially isopentane, methylpentane, and high-mass (C12–C15 n-alkanes, is possible with NO+. We also demonstrate fast in situ chemically specific measurements of C12 to C15 alkanes in ambient air.

  13. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO 2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis, 1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  14. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  15. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary.

  16. Photo-oxidation of low-volatility organics found in motor vehicle emissions: production and chemical evolution of organic aerosol mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Presto, Albert A; Lambe, Andrew T; Hennigan, Christopher J; Donahue, Neil M; Kroll, Jesse H; Worsnop, Douglas R; Robinson, Allen L

    2010-03-01

    Recent research has proposed that low-volatility organic vapors are an important class of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors. Mixtures of low-volatility organics were photo-oxidized in a smog chamber under low- and high-NO(x) conditions. Separate experiments addressed emission surrogates (diesel fuel and motor oil) and single components (n-pentacosane). Both diesel fuel and motor oil are major components of exhaust from diesel engines. Diesel fuel is a complex mixture of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), whereas motor oil is a complex mixture of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). IVOCs exist exclusively in the vapor phase, while SVOCs exist in both the aerosol and vapor phase. Oxidation of SVOC vapors (motor oil and n-pentacosane) creates substantial SOA, but this SOA is largely offset by evaporation of primary organic aerosol (POA). The net effect is a cycling or pumping of SVOCs between the gas and particle phases, which creates more oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) but little new OA mass. Since gas-phase reactions are much faster than heterogeneous ones, the processing of SVOC vapors likely contributes to the production of highly oxidized OA. The interplay between gas-particle partitioning and chemistry also blurs traditional definitions of POA and SOA. Photo-oxidation of diesel fuel (IVOCs) rapidly creates substantial new OA mass, similar to published aging experiments with dilute diesel exhaust. However, aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data indicated that the SOA formed from emission surrogates is less oxidized than either the oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) measured in the atmosphere or SOA formed from the photo-oxidation of dilute diesel exhaust. Therefore, photo-oxidation of IVOCs helps explain the substantial SOA mass produced from aging diesel exhaust, but some component is missing from these emission surrogate experiments that leads to the rapid production of highly oxygenated SOA.

  17. Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Compounds from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam. according to Compound Classes, Plant Organs and Senegalese Sample Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Yoro; Diop, Abdoulaye; Diatta, William; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Costa, Jean; Wélé, Alassane; Paolini, Julien

    2017-01-01

    The chemical diversity of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides growing wild in Senegal was studied according to volatile compound classes, plant organs and sample locations. The composition of fruit essential oil was investigated using an original targeted approach based on the combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) both coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). The volatile composition of Z. zanthoxyloides fruits exhibited relative high amounts of hydrocarbon monoterpenes (24.3 - 55.8%) and non-terpenic oxygenated compounds (34.5 - 63.1%). The main components were (E)-β-ocimene (12.1 - 39%), octyl acetate (11.6 - 21.8%) and decanol (9.7 - 15.4%). The GC and GC/MS profiling of fruit essential oils showed a chemical variability according to geographical locations of plant material. The LC/MS/MS analysis of fruit oils allowed the detection of seven coumarins in trace content. The chemical composition of fruit essential oils was compared with volatile fractions of leaves and barks (root and trunk) from the same plant station. Hexadecanoic acid, germacrene D and decanal were identified as the major constituents of leaves whereas the barks (root and trunk) were dominated by pellitorine (85.8% and 57%, respectively), an atypic linear compound with amide group. The fruit essential oil exhibited interesting antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, particularly the alcohol fraction of the oil. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Benner, Bruce A; Heckert, N Alan; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Vasquez, Y; Villegas, M; Wise, Stephen A; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Calafat, Antonia M; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers' Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers' Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants.

  19. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M.; Benner, Bruce A.; Heckert, N. Alan; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Vasquez, Y.; Villegas, M.; Wise, Stephen A.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers’ Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers’ Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants. PMID:25651899

  20. Evaluating Occupational Exposure to Carcinogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in an Oil-Dependent Chemical Industry: a Case Study on Benzen and Epichlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Negahban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Exposure of workers to carcinogenic compounds in chemical industries during a long period might cause irreversible health effects. This study evaluated workers exposure to benzene and epichlorohydrin in breathing air in one of the oil-dependent chemical industries of Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was performed in one of the oil-dependent chemical industries of south of Iran, winter, 2012. A total of 173 workers were examined in this study. NIOSH 1501 and 1010 methods were used to assess personal exposure to benzene and epichlorohydrin, correspondingly. Collected samples were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry method. Results: Among 346 collected samples, benzene was identified in all cases (100% and epichlorohydrin in 156 samples (45%. A significant difference was found in the mean of exposure to benzene and epichlorohydrin in various workshops (Pvalue 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that work nature of employees in chemical industry affects their exposure to volatile organic compounds in workplace. According to the results, due to the proximity of compounds concentration to the action level, especially benzene and also the workers exposure to less than the maximum limit in the long-term, reducing exposure through appropriate control measures are necessary.

  1. Assessing the distribution of volatile organic compounds using land use regression in Sarnia, "Chemical Valley", Ontario, Canada

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    Luginaah Isaac N

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Land use regression (LUR modelling is proposed as a promising approach to meet some of the challenges of assessing the intra-urban spatial variability of ambient air pollutants in urban and industrial settings. However, most of the LUR models to date have focused on nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. This study aimed at developing LUR models to predict BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene concentrations in Sarnia, 'Chemical Valley', Ontario, and model the intra-urban variability of BTEX compounds in the city for a community health study. Method Using Organic Vapour Monitors, pollutants were monitored at 39 locations across the city of Sarnia for 2 weeks in October 2005. LUR models were developed to generate predictor variables that best estimate BTEX concentrations. Results Industrial area, dwelling counts, and highways adequately explained most of the variability of BTEX concentrations (R2: 0.78 – 0.81. Correlations between measured BTEX compounds were high (> 0.75. Although most of the predictor variables (e.g. land use were similar in all the models, their individual contributions to the models were different. Conclusion Yielding potentially different health effects than nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, modelling other air pollutants is essential for a better understanding of the link between air pollution and health. The LUR models developed in these analyses will be used for estimating outdoor exposure to BTEX for a larger community health study aimed at examining the determinants of health in Sarnia.

  2. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) in a Middle Eastern country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    NMVOCs, emitted from various sources, are of particular interest since they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, PAN and secondary organic aerosols resulting in negative impacts on human health, climate and on the environment. To identify abatement measures, a profound knowledge of emission sources and their composition is a prerequisite. Air pollution in the Middle East region remains difficult to assess and understand because of a lack of ground-based measurements and the limited information on NMVOC chemical speciation and source apportionment. Based on a large database of NMVOC observations obtained in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon (a developing country in the Middle East region, located in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea), the overall objective of this work is to apportion the sources of NMVOCs encountered in Lebanon. First, source profiles were determined with field measurements close to the main potential emitters namely the road transport, gasoline vapour, power generation and solvent uses. The results obtained are compared to other studies held in other regions and are used to assess the emission inventory developed for Lebanon. Secondly, two intensive field campaigns were held in a receptor site in Beirut during summer 2011 and winter 2012 in order to obtain a large time resolved dataset. The PMF analysis of this dataset was applied to apportion anthropogenic sources in this area. In both seasons, combustion (road transport and power generation) and gasoline evaporation, especially in winter, were the main sources contributing to the NMVOCs in Beirut. The results will support model implementation especially by completing the emission inventory established for the year 2010 by Waked et al. 2012 according to the EEA/EMEP guidelines because of the lack of Lebanon-specific emission factor.

  3. Measured and estimated benzene and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions at a major U.S. refinery/chemical plant: Comparison and prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Daniel; Raun, Loren H

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of emissions for processes and point sources at petroleum refineries and chemical plants provide the foundation for many other environmental evaluations and policy decisions. The most commonly used method, based on emission factors, results in unreliable estimates. More information regarding the actual emissions within a facility is necessary to provide a foundation for improving emission factors and prioritizing which emission factors most need improvement. Identification of which emission factors both perform poorly and introduce the largest error is needed to provide such a prioritization. To address this need, benzene and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions within a major chemical plant/refinery were measured and compared with emission factor estimates. The results of this study indicate estimated emissions were never higher and commonly lower than the measured emissions. At one source location, VOC emissions were found to be largely representative of those measured (i.e., the catalytic reformer), but more often, emissions were significantly underestimated (e.g., up to 448 times greater than estimated at a floating roof tank). The sources with both the largest relative error between the estimate and the measurement and the largest magnitude of emissions in this study were a wastewater treatment process, an aromatics concentration unit and benzene extraction unit process area, and two sets of tanks (sets 7 and 8). Emission factors for these sources are priorities for further evaluation and improvement in this chemical plant/refinery. This study presents empirical data that demonstrate the need to validate and improve emission factors. Emission factors needing improvement are prioritized by identifying those that are weak models and introduce the largest error in magnitude of emissions. The results can also be used to prioritize evaluations of the emissions sources and controls, and any operational conditions or erroneous assumptions that may be

  4. The network of plants volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivaldo, Gianna; Masi, Elisa; Taiti, Cosimo; Caldarelli, Guido; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-09-08

    Plants emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is involved in a wide class of ecological functions, as VOCs play a crucial role in plants interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Accordingly, they vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. In this paper, VOCs spontaneously emitted by 109 plant species (belonging to 56 different families) have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed in order to provide an alternative classification of plants species. In particular, by using bipartite networks methodology from Complex Network Theory, and through the application of community detection algorithms, we show that is possible to classify species according to chemical classes such as terpenes and sulfur compounds. Such complex network analysis allows to uncover hidden plants relationships related to their evolutionary and adaptation to the environment story.

  5. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in

  6. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  7. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...

  8. Analysis of the atmospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals based on measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. B.; Salas, L. J.; Chatfield, R. B.; Czech, E.; Fried, A.; Walega, J.; Evans, M. J.; Field, B. D.; Jacob, D. J.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.; Sachse, G.; Crawford, J. H.; Avery, M. A.; Sandholm, S.; Fuelberg, H.

    2004-08-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOC) were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (0.1-12 km) in winter/spring of 2001 (24 February to 10 April). Specifically, these measurements included acetone (CH3COCH3), methylethyl ketone (CH3COC2H5, MEK), methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), propionaldehyde (C2H5CHO), peroxyacylnitrates (PANs) (CnH2n+1COO2NO2), and organic nitrates (CnH2n+1ONO2). Complementary measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), methyl hydroperoxide (CH3OOH), and selected tracers were also available. OVOC were abundant in the clean troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Background mixing ratios were typically highest in the lower troposphere and declined toward the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere. Their total abundance (ΣOVOC) was nearly twice that of nonmethane hydrocarbons (ΣC2-C8 NMHC). Throughout the troposphere, the OH reactivity of OVOC is comparable to that of methane and far exceeds that of NMHC. A comparison of these data with western Pacific observations collected some 7 years earlier (February-March 1994) did not reveal significant differences. Mixing ratios of OVOC were strongly correlated with each other as well as with tracers of fossil and biomass/biofuel combustion. Analysis of the relative enhancement of selected OVOC with respect to CH3Cl and CO in 12 plumes originating from fires and sampled in the free troposphere (3-11 km) is used to assess their primary and secondary emissions from biomass combustion. The composition of these plumes also indicates a large shift of reactive nitrogen into the PAN reservoir thereby limiting ozone formation. A three-dimensional global model that uses state of the art chemistry and source information is used to compare measured and simulated mixing ratios of selected OVOC. While there is reasonable agreement in many cases, measured aldehyde concentrations are significantly larger than

  9. Collection, speciation and aerosol modelling for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Rendall, Kevin Alan Scott

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are collected on the integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) to measure particle loss and collection efficiency. Particle loss increases with increasing flow rate while collection efficiency is a function of alkane volatility. Unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) are then analyzed and quantified using the novel technique supersonic molecular beam gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SMB-GC/MS), to develop accurate inputs in modelling the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Alkanes were segregated by carbon number (NC), number of double bond equivalents (NDBE), and chemical structure. With the most explicit compositional knowledge to date, these mixtures were modelled for their affinity towards formation of SOA. Unsaturated alkanes formed the most and relatively equal amounts of aerosol based on their degree of unsaturation while branched species formed the least. Increasing specificity in chemical structure led to increased computational demands while only general structural motifs were needed to form an accurate picture of aerosol formation.

  10. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Šetka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols.

  11. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šetka, Milena; Drbohlavová, Jana; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC) is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols. PMID:28287435

  12. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šetka, Milena; Drbohlavová, Jana; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC) is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols.

  13. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  14. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kshale

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Isidorov VA, Vinogorova VT, Rafalowski K (2003). HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter. Atm. Environ. 37:4645-4650. Jespersen L (2003). Occurrence and taxonomic characteristics of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae predominant in African indigenous fermented ...

  15. Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćapraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Coşkun, M.

    2012-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Nişantaşı, 34365, İstanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Kağıthane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Kağıthane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of

  16. Volatility of secondary organic aerosol during OH radical induced ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Salo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oxidation of SOA formed from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene by hydroxyl radicals. This paper focuses on changes of particle volatility, using a Volatility Tandem DMA (VTDMA set-up, in order to explain and elucidate the mechanism behind atmospheric ageing of the organic aerosol. The experiments were conducted at the AIDA chamber facility of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT in Karlsruhe and at the SAPHIR chamber of Forchungzentrum Jülich (FZJ in Jülich. A fresh SOA was produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene or limonene and then aged by enhanced OH exposure. As an OH radical source in the AIDA-chamber the ozonolysis of tetramethylethylene (TME was used while in the SAPHIR-chamber the OH was produced by natural light photochemistry. A general feature is that SOA produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene initially was rather volatile and becomes less volatile with time in the ozonolysis part of the experiment. Inducing OH chemistry or adding a new portion of precursors made the SOA more volatile due to addition of new semi-volatile material to the aged aerosol. The effect of OH chemistry was less pronounced in high concentration and low temperature experiments when lower relative amounts of semi-volatile material were available in the gas phase. Conclusions drawn from the changes in volatility were confirmed by comparison with the measured and modelled chemical composition of the aerosol phase. Three quantified products from the α-pinene oxidation; pinonic acid, pinic acid and methylbutanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA were used to probe the processes influencing aerosol volatility. A major conclusion from the work is that the OH induced ageing can be attributed to gas phase oxidation of products produced in the primary SOA formation process and that there was no indication on significant bulk or surface reactions. The presented results, thus, strongly emphasise

  17. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  18. Visual indicator for trace organic volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Neal A; Wendland, Michael S; Trend, John E; Poirier, Richard J; Paolucci, Dora M; Maki, Stephen P; Lyons, Christopher S; Swierczek, Mary J

    2010-03-16

    We describe herein a novel approach for visual indication of trace organic vapors. The sensor utilizes a microporous material within a visual thin film transducer to produce changes in color upon exposure to a very wide range of volatile organic compounds. Visual indication at 5 parts per million (ppm) is demonstrated, with optoelectronic detection achieved to below 50 parts per billion (ppb). Through a thoughtful design of the sensor, we are able to avoid interference from water vapor, a critical attribute needed for practical application.

  19. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  20. Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal fermentation of mezcal in Oaxaca, Mexico. ... ethyl acetate, and acetic acid production, and this practice is more convenient in fall than in spring. Key words: Fermentation, ammonium sulfate, volatile compounds, higher alcohol, gas chromatography, mezcal.

  1. Electrode Reactions Coupled with Chemical Reactions of Oxygen, Water and Acetaldehyde in an Ionic Liquid: New Approaches for Sensing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiaowei; Tang, Yongan; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2017-01-01

    Water and oxygen are ubiquitous present in ambient conditions. This work studies the unique oxygen, trace water and a volatile organic compound (VOC) acetaldehyde redox chemistry in a hydrophobic and aprotic ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy] [NTf2]) by cyclic voltammetry and potential step methods. One electron oxygen reduction leads to superoxide radical formation in the IL. Trace water in the IL acts as a protic species that reacts with the superoxide radical. Acetaldehyde is a stronger protic species than water for reacting with the superoxide radical. The presence of trace water in the IL was also demonstrated to facilitate the electro-oxidation of acetaldehyde, with similar mechanism to that in the aqueous solutions. A multiple-step coupling reaction mechanism between water, superoxide radical and acetaldehyde has been described. The unique characteristics of redox chemistry of acetaldehyde in [Bmpy][NTf2] in the presence of oxygen and trace water can be controlled by electrochemical potentials. By controlling the electrode potential windows, several methods including cyclic voltammetry, potential step methods (single-potential, double-potential and triple-potential step methods) were established for the quantification of acetaldehyde. Instead of treating water and oxygen as frustrating interferents to ILs, we found that oxygen and trace water chemistry in [Bmpy][NTf2] can be utilized to develop innovative electrochemical methods for electroanalysis of acetaldehyde. PMID:29142331

  2. High Throughput Exposure Modeling of Semi-Volatile Chemicals in Articles of Commerce (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical components of consumer products and articles of commerce such as carpet and clothing are key drivers of exposure in the near-field environment. These chemicals include semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), some of which have been shown to alter endocrine functionality...

  3. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. Peat samples originated from two wildlife reserves located near the coast of North Carolina, U.S. Gas and particulate organics were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (~60 %) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. Speciated organic PM2.5 mass was dominated by the following compound classes: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for PM2.5 organic acids including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12 %) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed 2-3 % of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3 % of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Total HAP VOC and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions. This p

  4. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots) and some oxygenated ...

  5. short communication chemical investigation of the volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa. L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GCHVIS and lH NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots) and some ...

  6. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Volatile Organic Compounds Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobri S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the adsorption effect of volatile organic compounds (chloroacetophenone, acetonitrile and hexane towards the change of resistance of CNTs pellet as sensor signal was investigated. CNTs used in this research were synthesized using Floating Catalyst – Chemical Vapor Deposition (FC-CVD method in optimum condition. The synthesized CNTs were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Raman Spectroscopy. The variation of resistance changes towards the tested gases were recorded using a multimeter. CNTs sensor pellet showed good responses towards the tested gases, however, the sensitivity, response time and recovery time of sensor pellet need to be optimized.

  7. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  8. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compounds and plant competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Pierik, Ronald

    2010-03-01

    One of the most important factors to shape plant communities is competition between plants, which impacts on the availability of environmental factors such as light, nutrients and water. In response to these environmental parameters, plants adjust the emission of many different biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs can also elicit responses in neighbouring plants, thus constituting a platform for plant-plant interactions. Here, we review the relationship between BVOC emissions and competition among neighbouring plants. Recent progress indicates that BVOCs can act both as allelochemicals and as neighbour detection signals. It is suggested that BVOCs provide information about neighbouring competitors, such as their identity or growth rate, that classic neighbour detection signals cannot provide. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Elimination of volatile chemicals in disinfectant evaluation procedures by freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P J; Scanlon, M P

    2000-09-01

    Standard methods for the removal or inactivation of disinfectants from reaction mixtures are often unsatisfactory when dealing with high concentrations of particulate organic matter. A method employing freeze drying was developed to eliminate residual disinfectant activity from reaction mixtures. Following the addition of volatile chemicals to sterilized cattle slurry, samples were removed from the mixture, freeze dried, and the dried material was reconstituted with diluent containing Escherichia coli as the test micro-organism to determine if the volatile chemicals had been removed. Twelve chemicals and one commercial disinfectant (Virkon S) were evaluated at different concentrations. The chemicals selected were acetone, ammonium hydroxide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl alcohol, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, isopropyl alcohol, peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite and xylene. Eight chemicals, acetone, ammonium hydroxide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and xylene were removed by freeze drying. The remaining four chemicals and the commercial disinfectant, which were not removed by freeze drying, could not be evaluated by this method.

  11. Volatile Organic Compunds (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change ... organic compounds ( VOCs ) are chemicals that evaporate from a solid or liquid form at room temperature. Some VOCs exist naturally in the environment. Others are manufactured (made by people) and put ...

  12. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  13. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after the... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  14. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to the... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  15. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  17. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds...

  18. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.542 Section 60.542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  19. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On...

  20. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  1. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected petroleum... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  2. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required by § 60.8 has been completed...

  3. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  4. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  5. Spatial variation of volatile organic compounds and carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed variations of ambient volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide (CO) levels in Blantyre City, Malawi. Volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide measurement was done using the Multi-Gas Monitor between August and December, 2010. Rapid urbanization and lack of standard ...

  6. Emissions and Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Semivolatile and Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.; Miracolo, M. A.; Donahue, N. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Organic aerosols are a highly-dynamic system dominated by both variable gas-particle partitioning and chemical evolution. Important classes of organics include semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC, respectively). SVOCs are compounds that exist in both the gas and particle phases at typical atmospheric conditions while IVOC are low-volatility vapors that exist exclusively in the gas phase. Both classes have saturation concentrations that are orders of magnitude lower than volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are the traditional subjects of atmosphere chemistry, such as monoterpenes, alkyl benzenes, etc. The SVOC and IVOC are poorly represented for in current atmospheric chemistry models. Source testing indicates that SVOC and IVOC emissions from biomass combustion, diesel engines and other sources exceed the primary organic aerosol emissions; thus the oxidation of these vapors could serve as a significant source of organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the reactions between OH radicals and SVOCs and IVOCs was investigated in the Carnegie Mellon University smog chamber. Experiments were conducted with n-alkanes and emission surrogates (diesel fuel and lubricating oil). SVOC oxidation produces oxidized organic aerosol but little new organic aerosol mass. This behavior can be explained by the coupled effects of partitioning and aging. Oxidation of SVOC vapors creates low volatility species that partition into the condensed phase; this oxidation also reduces the SVOC vapor concentration which, in turn, requires particle-phase SVOC to evaporate to maintain phase equilibrium. In contrast, oxidation of IVOC results in sustained production of SOA consistent with a reaction with relatively slow kinetics and high mass yield. Aerosol Mass Spectrometer data indicates that the SOA formed from IVOC has a mass spectrum that is quite similar to the oxygenated organic aerosol factor observed in

  7. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  8. Atmospheric transport of persistent semi-volatile organic chemicals to the Arctic and cold condensation in the mid-troposphere – Part 2: 3-D modeling of episodic atmospheric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 3-dimensional global atmospheric transport models for persistent organic pollutants (POPs have been employed to investigate the association between the large-scale atmospheric motions and poleward transports of persistent semi-volatile organic chemicals (SVOCs. We examine the modeled daily air concentration of α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH over a period from 1997 through 1999 during which a number of episodic atmospheric transport events were detected in this modeling study. These events provide modeling evidence for improving the interpretation on the cold condensation effect and poleward atmospheric transport of SVOCs in the mid-troposphere. Two episodic transport events of γ-HCH (lindane to the high Arctic (80–90° N, one from Asian and another from Eurasian sources, are reported in this paper. Both events suggest that the episodic atmospheric transports occurring in the mid-troposphere (e.g. from 3000 m to 5500 m height are driven by atmospheric horizontal and vertical motions. The association of the transport events with atmospheric circulation is briefly discussed. Strong southerly winds, forced by the evolution of two semi-permanent high pressure systems over mid-high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, play an important role in the long-range transport (LRT of HCHs to the high latitudes from its sources. Being consistent with the cold condensation effect and poleward atmospheric transport in a mean meridional atmospheric circulation simulated by a 2-D atmospheric transport model, as reported by the first part of this study, this modeling study indicates that cold condensation is likely occurring more intensively in the mid-troposphere where rapid declining air temperature results in condensed phase of the chemical over and near its source regions and where stronger winds convey the chemical more rapidly to the polar region during the episodic poleward atmospheric transport events.

  9. Truffle volatiles: from chemical ecology to aroma biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splivallo, Richard; Ottonello, Simone; Mello, Antonietta; Karlovsky, Petr

    2011-02-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) are symbiotic fungi that develop underground in association with plant roots. Food connoisseurs describe their scent as sensual, seductive and unique. These mysterious fungi, however, do not produce their aroma for the mere pleasure of humans. Truffle volatiles act as odorant cues for mammals and insects which are thus able to locate the precious fungi underground and spread their spores. They also freely diffuse in the soil and mediate interactions with microorganisms and plant roots, potentially regulating a complex molecular dialogue among soil fauna and flora. The aim of this review is to synthesize 30 yr of research on truffle volatiles, spanning fields of study from chemical ecology to aroma biosynthesis. Specific aspects of truffle volatile ecology and biology will be discussed, including which species have been studied so far and for what purpose, what ecological role has been demonstrated or speculated to exist for specific truffle volatiles, which volatiles are common or unique to certain species and what their biosynthetic route might be. Future challenges in truffle aroma research will also be addressed, focusing on how high-throughput post-genomic technologies may advance our understanding of truffle aroma biosynthesis and chemical ecology.

  10. 76 FR 18893 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... volatile organic compound (VOC) rule. These rule revisions specify compliance dates for subject facilities... approved offset lithographic and letterpress printing volatile organic compound (VOC) rule for approval... ``Control of volatile organic compound emissions from offset lithographic printing and letterpress printing...

  11. Extraction optimization and pixel-based chemometric analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter; Tomasi, Giorgio; Kristensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (semi-VOCs) are found in complex mixtures, and at low concentrations in groundwater. Chemical fingerprint analysis of groundwater is therefore challenging, as it is necessary to obtain high enrichment factors for compounds with a wide range of properties. In this s......Semi-volatile organic compounds (semi-VOCs) are found in complex mixtures, and at low concentrations in groundwater. Chemical fingerprint analysis of groundwater is therefore challenging, as it is necessary to obtain high enrichment factors for compounds with a wide range of properties...

  12. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three floral stages of a fig-wasp dependency mechanism: receptive, post pollinator and interfloral. Of 28 compounds detected, transcaryophyllene with trans-β-farnesene were the most important at the receptor stage, trans-caryophyllene was the most abundant at the post-pollinator stage, and isoprene was the most abundant in the interfloral stage. Alpinia kwangsiensis presents two morphologies for the reproductive parts of the flower. The "anaflexistyle" morphology has the flower style lowered in the

  13. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderman, Chris J; Kaufman, Phillip E; Booth, Matthew M; Bernier, Ulrich R

    2017-09-01

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cycles that include dog heartworm disease vectored by mosquitoes, however the host VOCs utilized by vectors are not well known. Herein we present a novel method that sampled VOCs from a dog host. A Tenax TD stainless steel tube was held near a dog's fur and skin, which collected VOCs that were later desorbed and tentatively identified using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrospectrometer (GC-MS). Background air chemicals were subtracted from the dog sample, resulting in 182 differentiated compounds, a majority of which were identified by ionization fragmentation patterns. Four dogs were sampled and shared 41 of the identified chemicals. VOCs were representative of aliphatics, aromatics, aldehydes, alcohols and carboxylic acids. This chemical characterization method has the potential to identify both individuals and breeds of dogs in addition to other potential uses such as disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Binding of Volatile Organic Compounds to Edible Biopolymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2016-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatography was used to study the influence of the composition and structure of different edible polymers (polysaccharides, vegetable fibers, and animal protein gelatin) on the binding of essential oil components. The retention of volatile organic compounds on biopolymers was shown to depend on their molecule structure and the presence, type, and position of a functional group. The maximum extent of the binding was observed for nonpolar terpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and the minimum extent was observed for alcohols. The components of essential oils were adsorbed due mostly to hydrophobic interactions. It was shown that the composition and structure of a compound, its physico-chemical state, and the presence of functional groups influence the binding. Gum arabic and guar gum were found to bind nonpolar compounds to a maximum and minimum extent, respectively. It was demonstrated the minimum adsorption ability of locust bean gum with respect to all studied compounds.

  15. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Tables S3 and S4 list emission factors in g/kg of speciated volatile and particulate organic compounds emitted from peat burning. Peat samples...

  16. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in indoor air quality investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, L.; Clausen, Geo; Berglund, B.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air, usually called TVOC (total volatile organic compounds), has been measured using different definitions and techniques which yield different results. This report recommends a definition of TVOC referring to a specified range of VOCs...... for characterizing indoor pollution and for improving source control as required from the points of view of health, comfort, energy efficiency and sustainability. (C) Indoor Air (1997)....

  17. Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles.

  18. Chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements from two megacity field studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The volatilities of different chemical species in ambient aerosols are important but remain poorly characterized. The coupling of a recently developed rapid temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD, operated in the range 54–230°C with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS during field studies in two polluted megacities has enabled the first direct characterization of chemically-resolved urban particle volatility. Measurements in Riverside, CA and Mexico City are generally consistent and show ambient nitrate as having the highest volatility of any AMS standard aerosol species while sulfate showed the lowest volatility. Total organic aerosol (OA showed volatility intermediate between nitrate and sulfate, with an evaporation rate of 0.6%·K−1 near ambient temperature, although OA dominates the residual species at the highest temperatures. Different types of OA were characterized with marker ions, diurnal cycles, and positive matrix factorization (PMF and show significant differences in volatility. Reduced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, a surrogate for primary OA, POA, oxygenated OA (OOA, a surrogate for secondary OA, SOA, and biomass-burning OA (BBOA separated with PMF were all determined to be semi-volatile. The most aged OOA-1 and its dominant ion, CO2+, consistently exhibited the lowest volatility, with HOA, BBOA, and associated ions for each among the highest. The similar or higher volatility of HOA/POA compared to OOA/SOA contradicts the current representations of OA volatility in most atmospheric models and has important implications for aerosol growth and lifetime. A new technique using the AMS background signal was demonstrated to quantify the fraction of species up to four orders-of-magnitude less volatile than those detectable in the MS mode, which for OA represent ~5% of the non-refractory (NR OA signal. Our results strongly imply that all OA types should be considered

  19. Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudareva, Natalia; Klempien, Antje; Muhlemann, Joëlle K; Kaplan, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize an amazing diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that facilitate interactions with their environment, from attracting pollinators and seed dispersers to protecting themselves from pathogens, parasites and herbivores. Recent progress in -omics technologies resulted in the isolation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of many volatiles and contributed to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in VOC formation. In this review, we largely focus on the biosynthesis and regulation of plant volatiles, the involvement of floral volatiles in plant reproduction as well as their contribution to plant biodiversity and applications in agriculture via crop-pollinator interactions. In addition, metabolic engineering approaches for both the improvement of plant defense and pollinator attraction are discussed in light of methodological constraints and ecological complications that limit the transition of crops with modified volatile profiles from research laboratories to real-world implementation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

  1. Organics, Isotopes, and Volatiles in Gale Crater Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Solid samples analyzed by the Curiosity rover on the long traverse from the Gale crater floor to the flanks of Mt. Sharp spread a range of environments from fluvial to lacustrine to eolian, and span 100 m of stratigraphic thickness. The diverse chemical and isotopic composition of organic compounds and inorganic volatiles revealed in these samples analyzed over a period of more than 2 Mars years is described with an emphasis on the search for organics, the chemical environments and physical-chemical processes that respectively preserve or destroy organics, and unexpectedly large variations in H, S, and Cl isotopes. In addition to a set of aromatic and aliphatic chorine containing organic compounds thermally released from the Cumberland mudstone drilled early in the mission compounds [Freissinet et al., 2015], additional S-containing organics have been identified in the Mojave drill sample in the Pahrump Hills section that was characterized in detail over a 5 month period. This set of S and Cl containing compounds is definitively identified by gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) analyses. In addition, fragments of other organic compounds are evident in the evolved gas analysis (EGA) experiments implemented by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument and utilization of SAM's derivatization agent has revealed the presence of high molecular weight compounds. Two factors complicate the search for organic compounds preserved from ancient Mars. First the nearly ubiquitous oxychlorine compounds such as perchlorates decompose on heating in the SAM ovens in the EGA experiments and there is evidence that the hot O2 released combusts organic compounds to produce CO2. Secondly, the cosmic radiation that penetrates through the thin Mars atmosphere meters into the surface transforms near surface organic compounds over time. Fortunately, the SAM mass spectrometer can measure spallogenic (3He and 21Ne) and neutron-capture (36Ar) noble gases to secure an estimate of the

  2. SCREENING PROCESSED MILK FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adaptation of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response' Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) method 8261 to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matriz exhibits a strong affinity for o...

  3. Enantiomer distribution of major chiral volatile organic compounds in selected types of herbal honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pažitná, Alexandra; Džúrová, Jana; Spánik, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    In this article, volatile organic compounds in 14 honey samples (rosemary, eucalyptus, orange, thyme, sage, and lavender) were identified. Volatile organic compounds were extracted using a solid phase microextraction method followed by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry analysis. The studied honey samples were compared based on their volatile organic compounds composition. In total, more than 180 compounds were detected in the studied samples. The detected compounds belong to various chemical classes such as terpenes, alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, norisoprenoids, benzene and furane derivatives, and organic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen heteroatom. Ten chiral compounds (linalool, trans-linalool oxide, cis-linalool oxide, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, hotrienol, and four stereoisomers of lilac aldehydes) were selected for further chiral separation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Aerosol hygroscopcity, volatility and chemical composition between the Pearl River Delta Region and Okinawa: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.; Tan, H.; Zhao, J.; Hatakeyama, S.; Mochida, M.; Kondo, Y.; Xu, H.; Li, F.; Shimada, K.; Deng, Y.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol physical and chemical properties play important roles in affecting visibility and cloud formation, and the direct and indirect effects of Earth's radiative forcing. It is hence vital to understand aerosol properties in order to assess impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles. Aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility and chemical composition were measured at an urban site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of China and at a marine site in Okinawa of Japan in November 2014 and November 2016, respectively. A hygroscopic/volatile tandem differential mobility analyzer (H/V-TDMA) and aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) were used to measure hygroscopicity/volatility and chemical composition respectively during the campaign. Aerosol particles were apportioned to more complex emission sources in the PRD than in Okinawa, resulting in about an order of magnitude higher number concentrations of particles (10nm-400nm) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements show much higher total non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The two sites represent distinctly different chemical compositions in the total NR-PM1: organics was dominant in the PRD, while sulfate is the major component in Okinawa, reflecting different emission sources. The V-TDMA measurements showed almost no non-volatile (NV) species in 40-300nm particles, while particles in the same size range might contain black carbon or low volatile organics in the PRD. Size-resolved particles hygroscopicity and mixing state between the two measurement sites are also compared in the presentation.

  5. Organic and volatile elements in the solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remusat L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrites and comets have accreted primitive materials from the early solar system. Those materials include organics, water and other volatile components. The most primitive chondrites and comets have undergone few modifications on their respective parent bodies and can deliver to laboratories components that were present at the origin of the protosolar nebula. Here I present a review of the organic material and volatile components that have been studied in the most primitive chondrites, and the last data from the stardust mission about the cometary record. This paper focuses on materials that can be studied in laboratories, by mass spectrometry, ion probes or organic chemistry techniques.

  6. Can clouds enhance long-range transport of low volatile, ionizable and surface-active chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric partitioning and transport of low volatile organic compounds is strongly influenced by the presence of water (e.g. clouds) and its deposition velocity (e.g. rainfall, snow). It was identified that the assumption of continuous rainfall underestimates the residence time and the transport...... potential of non-volatile substances. The liquid water content of clouds and the high specific surface of frozen or liquid cloud droplets can significantly contribute to the total activity capacity (i.e. the capacity to sorb chemicals) of the atmosphere for non-volatile, ionizable and surface active...... substances. A modified version of the regional multimedia activity model for ionics MAMI, including twolayered atmosphere with atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower/middle troposphere (LMT), interface partitioning, intermittent rainfall and variable cloud coverage was applied to a selection of ten low...

  7. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. Peat samples originated from two wildlife reserves located near the coast of North Carolina, U.S. Gas and particula...

  8. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.

    2016-09-01

    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  9. Chemical composition of volatile oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Rao, Lingamallu Jaganmohan; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2002-01-01

    The hydro-distilled volatile oil of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) buds was analyzed using GC and GC-MS for the first time. Thirty-four compounds representing approximately 98% of the oil was characterized. It consists of terpene hydrocarbons (78%) and oxygenated terpenoids (9%). alpha-Bergamotene (27.38%) and alpha-copaene (23.05%) are found to be the major compounds. A comparison of the chemical composition of the oil was made with that of flowers and fruits.

  10. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H. [comp.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  11. Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho

  12. A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel A.; Kleist, Einhard

    2014-01-01

    Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar...... the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene α-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form......-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air...

  13. 76 FR 41086 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ...) a new rule for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from reinforced plastic..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: June 24, 2011. Susan Hedman... Organic Compound Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Operations Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  14. Volatile organic compounds adsorption using different types of adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimanmes Chanayotha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbents were synthesized from coconut shell, coal and coke by pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process. These synthesized materials were used as adsorbents in adsorption test to determine the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs namely, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and Alkanes standard solution (C8-C20. The adsorption capacities of both synthesized adsorbents and commercial grade adsorbents (Carbotrap™ B and Carbotrap™ C were also compared. It was found that adsorbent A402, which was produced from coconut shell, activated with 40% (wt. potassium hydroxide and at activating temperature of 800°C for 1 hr, could adsorb higher amount of both HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane than other synthesized adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent A402 in adsorbing HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane were 77.87% and 50.82% respectively. These adsorption capabilities were 79.73% and 70.07% of the adsorption capacity of the commercial adsorbent Carbotrap™ B respectively. All three types of the synthesized adsorbent (A402, C302, C402 showed the capability to adsorb alkanes standard solution through the range of C8-C20 . However, their adsorption capacities were high in a specific range of C10-C11. The result from the isotherm plot was indicated that surface adsorption of synthesized adsorbent was isotherm type I while the surface adsorption of commercial adsorbent was isotherm type III.

  15. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies.

  16. Screening for emphysema via exhaled volatile organic compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristescu, S.M.; Gietema, H.A.; Blanchet, L.M.; Kruitwagen, C.L.J.J.; Munnik, P.; Klaveren, R.J.J. van; Lammers, J.W.; Buydens, L.; Harren, F.J.M.; Zanen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema risk groups are well defined and screening allows for early identification of disease. The capability of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to detect emphysema, as found by computed tomography (CT) in current and former heavy smokers

  17. Screening for emphysema via exhaled volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Cristescu (S.); H.A. Gietema (Hester); L. Blanchet (Lionel); C.L.J.J. Kruitwagen (Cas); P. Munnik (P.); R.J. van Klaveren (Rob); J.-W.J. Lammers (Jan-Willem); L.M.C. Buydens (Lutgarde); F.J.M. Harren (F. J M); P. Zanen (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema risk groups are well defined and screening allows for early identification of disease. The capability of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to detect emphysema, as found by computed tomography (CT) in current and former heavy

  18. Volatile organic compounds of whole grain soft winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aroma from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an indicator of grain soundness and also an important quality attribute of grain foods. To identify the inherent VOCs of wheat grain unaffected by fungal infestation and other extrinsic factors, grains of nine soft wheat varieties were collected at...

  19. Influence of volatile organic compounds on Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in a diverse range of ecological interactions. Due to their low molecular weight, lipophilic nature, and high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, they can serve as airborne signaling molecules that are capable of mediating inter and intraspecies com...

  20. Air quality status of volatile organic compounds in health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile organic compounds are considered to be air toxins that affect human health. They have great influence on the troposphere because they affect the formation of ozone. Ambient air samples were collected from indoor and outdoor of five health and financial institution microenvironments. Passive sampling method with ...

  1. Quantifying the volatility of organic aerosol in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K.; Khlystov, Andrey; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Grieshop, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The volatility of organic aerosols (OA) has emerged as a property of primary importance in understanding their atmospheric life cycle, and thus abundance and transport. However, quantitative estimates of the thermodynamic (volatility, water solubility) and kinetic parameters dictating ambient-OA gas-particle partitioning, such as saturation concentrations (C∗), enthalpy of evaporation (ΔHvap), and evaporation coefficient (γe), are highly uncertain. Here, we present measurements of ambient-OA volatility at two sites in the southeastern US, one at a rural setting in Alabama dominated by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in June-July 2013, and another at a more anthropogenically influenced urban location in North Carolina during October-November 2013. These measurements applied a dual-thermodenuder (TD) system, in which temperature and residence times are varied in parallel to constrain equilibrium and kinetic aerosol volatility properties. Gas-particle partitioning parameters were determined via evaporation kinetic model fits to the dual-TD observations. OA volatility parameter values derived from both datasets were similar despite the fact that measurements were collected in distinct settings and seasons. The OA volatility distributions also did not vary dramatically over the campaign period or strongly correlate with OA components identified via positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometer data. A large portion (40-70 %) of measured ambient OA at both sites was composed of very-low-volatility organics (C∗ ≤ 0.1 µg m-3). An effective ΔHvap of bulk OA of ˜ 80-100 kJ mol-1 and a γe value of ˜ 0.5 best describe the evaporation observed in the TDs. This range of ΔHvap values is substantially higher than that typically assumed for simulating OA in atmospheric models (30-40 kJ mol-1). TD data indicate that γe is on the order of 0.1 to 0.5, indicating that repartitioning

  2. A two-dimensional volatility basis set: 1. organic-aerosol mixing thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Donahue

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop the thermodynamic underpinnings of a two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS employing saturation mass concentration (Co and the oxygen content (O:C to describe volatility, mixing thermodynamics, and chemical evolution of organic aerosol. The work addresses a simple question: "Can we reasonably constrain organic-aerosol composition in the atmosphere based on only two measurable organic properties, volatility and the extent of oxygenation?" This is an extension of our earlier one-dimensional approach employing volatility only (C* = γ Co, where γ is an activity coefficient. Using available constraints on bulk organic-aerosol composition, we argue that one can reasonably predict the composition of organics (carbon, oxygen and hydrogen numbers given a location in the Co – O:C space. Further, we argue that we can constrain the activity coefficients at various locations in this space based on the O:C of the organic aerosol.

  3. A Monte-Carlo Analysis of Organic Volatility with Aerosol Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2017-04-01

    A newly developed box model, MATRIX-VBS, includes the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework in an aerosol microphysical scheme MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state), which resolves aerosol mass and number concentrations and aerosol mixing state. The new scheme advanced the representation of organic aerosols in models by improving the traditional and simplistic treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile and with a fixed size distribution. Further development includes adding the condensation of organics on coarse mode aerosols - dust and sea salt, thus making all organics in the system semi-volatile. To test and simplify the model, a Monte-Carlo analysis is performed to pin point which processes affect organics the most under varied chemical and meteorological conditions. Since the model's parameterizations have the ability to capture a very wide range of conditions, all possible scenarios on Earth across the whole parameter space, including temperature, humidity, location, emissions and oxidant levels, are examined. The Monte-Carlo simulations provide quantitative information on the sensitivity of the newly developed model and help us understand how organics are affecting the size distribution, mixing state and volatility distribution at varying levels of meteorological conditions and pollution levels. In addition, these simulations give information on which parameters play a critical role in the aerosol distribution and evolution in the atmosphere and which do not, that will facilitate the simplification of the box model, an important step in its implementation in the global model GISS ModelE as a module.

  4. MATRIX-VBS (v1.0): implementing an evolving organic aerosol volatility in an aerosol microphysics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2017-02-01

    The gas-particle partitioning and chemical aging of semi-volatile organic aerosol are presented in a newly developed box model scheme, where its effect on the growth, composition, and mixing state of particles is examined. The volatility-basis set (VBS) framework is implemented into the aerosol microphysical scheme MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state), which resolves mass and number aerosol concentrations and in multiple mixing-state classes. The new scheme, MATRIX-VBS, has the potential to significantly advance the representation of organic aerosols in Earth system models by improving upon the conventional representation as non-volatile particulate organic matter, often also with an assumed fixed size distribution. We present results from idealized cases representing Beijing, Mexico City, a Finnish forest, and a southeastern US forest, and investigate the evolution of mass concentrations and volatility distributions for organic species across the gas and particle phases, as well as assessing their mixing state among aerosol populations. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the intermediate-volatility range, while they remain in the particle phase in the low-volatility range. Their volatility distribution at any point in time depends on the applied emission factors, oxidation by OH radicals, and temperature. We also compare against parallel simulations with the original scheme, which represented only the particulate and non-volatile component of the organic aerosol, examining how differently the condensed-phase organic matter is distributed across the mixing states in the model. The results demonstrate the importance of representing organic aerosol as a semi-volatile aerosol, and explicitly calculating the partitioning of organic species between the gas and particulate phases.

  5. MATRIX-VBS (v1.0): Implementing an Evolving Organic Aerosol Volatility in an Aerosol Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    The gas-particle partitioning and chemical aging of semi-volatile organic aerosol are presented in a newly developed box model scheme, where its effect on the growth, composition, and mixing state of particles is examined. The volatility-basis set (VBS) framework is implemented into the aerosol microphysical scheme MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state), which resolves mass and number aerosol concentrations and in multiple mixing-state classes. The new scheme, MATRIX-VBS, has the potential to significantly advance the representation of organic aerosols in Earth system models by improving upon the conventional representation as non-volatile particulate organic matter, often also with an assumed fixed size distribution. We present results from idealized cases representing Beijing, Mexico City, a Finnish forest, and a southeastern US forest, and investigate the evolution of mass concentrations and volatility distributions for organic species across the gas and particle phases, as well as assessing their mixing state among aerosol populations. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the intermediate-volatility range, while they remain in the particle phase in the low-volatility range. Their volatility distribution at any point in time depends on the applied emission factors, oxidation by OH radicals, and temperature. We also compare against parallel simulations with the original scheme, which represented only the particulate and non-volatile component of the organic aerosol, examining how differently the condensed-phase organic matter is distributed across the mixing states in the model. The results demonstrate the importance of representing organic aerosol as a semi-volatile aerosol, and explicitly calculating the partitioning of organic species between the gas and particulate phases.

  6. Chemical generation of volatile species of copper - Optimization, efficiency and investigation of volatile species nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoukal, Jakub; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří; Musil, Stanislav

    2017-07-18

    This work is a comprehensive study on chemical generation of volatile species (VSG) of copper for analytical atomic spectrometry. VSG was carried out in a flow injection mode in a special arrangement of the generator. Atomization in a diffusion flame atomizer (DF) with atomic absorption spectrometry detection was mostly used for VSG optimization. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was utilized to investigate generation efficiencies and feasibility of VSG system for ultratrace analysis. Concentration of individual reagents, namely of nitric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and various reaction modifiers, was optimized with respect to generation efficiency. Triton X-100 and Antifoam B were chosen as the best combination of the modifiers owing to sixfold increase in sensitivity, decrease of tailing of measured signals and long-term repeatability. The addition of 500 μg L(-1) of Ag was found crucial to maintain identical generation efficiency at low concentrations of Cu. This phenomenon was ascribed to the change in the size of generated species. The release and generation efficiency were accurately determined as 56-58 and 31-32%, respectively. The contribution of co-generated aerosol to release and generation efficiency measured by means of Cs and Ba was found negligible, only 0.40 and 0.13%, respectively, which underlines highly efficient VSG of Cu. The nature of volatile species was investigated by various approaches. The results cannot provide the decisive evidence. However, experiments with the DF, ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the generated species are not volatile in the true sense but that they are strongly associated with fine aerosol co-generated during VSG. Cu clusters or nanoparticles of very small size (< 10 nm) are presumed but the formation of metastable copper hydride cannot be conclusively excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation for secondary organic aerosols – Part 3: Influence of the chemical composition on the hygroscopic properties and volatile fractions of aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of varying levels of water mixing ratio, r, during the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene on the SOA hygroscopicity and volatility was investigated. The reaction proceeded and aerosols were generated in a mixing chamber and the hygroscopic characteristics of the SOA were determined with the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS and a Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc. In parallel, a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS located downstream of a thermodenuder (TD sampling from the mixing chamber, to collect mass spectra of particles from the volatile and less-volatile fractions of the SOA. Results showed that both hygroscopic growth and the volatile fraction of the SOA increased with increases in r inside the mixing chamber during SOA generation. An effective density of 1.40 g cm−3 was observed for the generated SOA when the reaction proceeded with r>1 g kg−1. Changes in the concentrations of the fragment CO2+ and the sum of CxHyOz+ (short name CHO and CxHy+ (short name CH fragments as measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were used to estimate changes in the oxidation level of the SOA with reaction conditions, using the ratios CO2+ to CH and CHO to CH. Under humid conditions, both ratios increased, corresponding to the presence of more oxygenated functional groups (i.e., multifunctional carboxylic acids. This result is consistent with the α-pinene ozonolysis mechanisms which suggest that water interacts with the stabilized Criegee intermediate. The volatility and the hygroscopicity results show that SOA generation via ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of water vapour (r<16.9 g kg−1 leads to the formation of more highly oxygenated compounds that are more

  8. Size-dependence of volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon content in phytoplankton cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRuiz-Halpern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SOC, measured as exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC, was quantified in 9 phytoplanktonic species that spanned 4 orders of magnitude in cell volume, by disrupting the cells and quantifying the gaseous organic carbon released. EDOC content varied 4 orders of magnitude, from 0.0015 to 14.12 pg C cell-1 in the species studied and increased linearly with increasing phytoplankton cell volume following the equation EDOC (pg C cell-1 = -2.35 x cellular volume (CV, µm3 cell-1 0.90 (± 0.3, with a slope (0.90 not different from 1 indicating a constant increase in volatile carbon as the cell size of phytoplankton increased. The percentage of EDOC relative to total cellular carbon was small but varied 20 fold from 0.28 % to 5.17 %, and no obvious taxonomic pattern in the content of EDOC was appreciable for the species tested. The cell release rate of EDOC is small compared to the amount of carbon in the cell and difficult to capture. Nonetheless, the results point to a potential flux of volatile and semivolatile phytoplankton-derived organic carbon to the atmosphere that has been largely underestimated and deserves further attention in the future.

  9. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants impact atmosphere and climate. The species-specific emissions, and thereby the atmospheric impact, of many plant species are still unknown. Knowledge of BVOC emission from arctic plants is particularly limited. The vast area...... hermaphroditum, Salix glauca, Salix arctophila and Betula nana using the dynamic enclosure technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sampling occurred three times: in late June/early July, in mid-July and in early August. E. hermaphroditum...

  10. Quantitative estimates of the volatility of ambient organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Cappa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the sensitivity of organic aerosol (OA, and its components mass to changes in temperature were recently reported by Huffman et al.~(2009 using a tandem thermodenuder-aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS system in Mexico City and the Los Angeles area. Here, we use these measurements to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol volatility within the framework of absorptive partitioning theory using a kinetic model of aerosol evaporation in the TD. OA volatility distributions (or "basis-sets" are determined using several assumptions as to the enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap. We present two definitions of "non-volatile OA," one being a global and one a local definition. Based on these definitions, our analysis indicates that a substantial fraction of the organic aerosol is comprised of non-volatile components that will not evaporate under any atmospheric conditions; on the order of 50–80% when the most realistic ΔHvap assumptions are considered. The sensitivity of the total OA mass to dilution and ambient changes in temperature has been assessed for the various ΔHvap assumptions. The temperature sensitivity is relatively independent of the particular ΔHvap assumptions whereas dilution sensitivity is found to be greatest for the low (ΔHvap = 50 kJ/mol and lowest for the high (ΔHvap = 150 kJ/mol assumptions. This difference arises from the high ΔHvap assumptions yielding volatility distributions with a greater fraction of non-volatile material than the low ΔHvap assumptions. If the observations are fit using a 1 or 2-component model the sensitivity of the OA to dilution is unrealistically high. An empirical method introduced by Faulhaber et al. (2009 has also been used to independently estimate a volatility distribution for the ambient OA and is found to give results consistent with the

  11. A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel A; Kleist, Einhard; Sipilä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Pullinen, Iida; Springer, Monika; Rubach, Florian; Tillmann, Ralf; Lee, Ben; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Andres, Stefanie; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Rissanen, Matti; Jokinen, Tuija; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kurtén, Theo; Nielsen, Lasse B; Jørgensen, Solvejg; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Canagaratna, Manjula; Maso, Miikka Dal; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wahner, Andreas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F

    2014-02-27

    Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene α-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form at significant mass yield in the gas phase and condense irreversibly onto aerosol surfaces to produce secondary organic aerosol, helping to explain the discrepancy between the observed atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol and that reported by many model studies. We further demonstrate how these low-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air quality and climate effects of biogenic emissions generally.

  12. Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

  13. Effects of organic solutes properties on the volatilization processes from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Kung; Chao, Huan-Ping; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu

    2004-01-01

    Effects of organic solutes properties, including Henry's law constant (H), molecular weight (M), molar volume at normal boiling point (Vb), and solubility (S), on the usefulness of rate estimation by reference to a reference substance (i.e., reference substance concept) and on the evaporation rate were investigated by measuring the volatilization rate constant of organic solutes under different environmental conditions, including mixing and surfactants. It was found that if benzene was used as a reference substance, the ratio of the solute rate to that of benzene (F) becomes insensitive to water mixing, whether the solute possessed high or low Henry's law constant. In the presence of surfactants, however, the F value changes sharply as the solute solubility decreases. For benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), the F values are essentially constant irrespective of the presence of other chemicals (including organic compounds, surfactants, and salinity) and of the variation in temperature. On the other hand, the volatilization rates are closely related to molecular weight (solubility) in the existence of mixing (surfactants). Three different approaches, i.e., mass-transport theory, modified Knudsen equation, and reaction rate concept, were used to evaluate the dependence of solute volatilization rates on solute properties. It was concluded that the interaction between solute properties and environmental parameters might play a key role in the volatilization process of organic solutes under different environmental conditions.

  14. Chemical composition of volatile constituents from the leaves of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile compounds oils play a significant role in perfumery, cosmetic, medicinal and pharmaceutical industries. In our protracted research for new useful essential oils, a volatile oil from Aloe ferox was obtained by prolonged hydrodistillation. This volatile oil was subjected to GC/MS analysis to identify the major constituents ...

  15. Chemical composition of volatile constituents from the leaves of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... Volatile compounds oils play a significant role in perfumery, cosmetic, medicinal and pharmaceutical industries. In our protracted research for new useful essential oils, a volatile oil from Aloe ferox was obtained by prolonged hydrodistillation. This volatile oil was subjected to GC/MS analysis to identify.

  16. Exposure to volatile organic compounds in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouf, Ryan F; Virji, M Abbas; Saito, Rena; Henneberger, Paul K; Simcox, Nancy; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2014-09-01

    To identify and summarise volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure profiles of healthcare occupations. Personal (n=143) and mobile area (n=207) evacuated canisters were collected and analysed by a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to assess exposures to 14 VOCs among 14 healthcare occupations in five hospitals. Participants were volunteers identified by their supervisors. Summary statistics were calculated by occupation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the 14 analyte inputs to five orthogonal factors and identify occupations that were associated with these factors. Linear regressions were used to assess the association between personal and mobile area samples. Exposure profiles differed among occupations; ethanol had the highest geometric mean (GM) among nursing assistants (∼4900 and ∼1900 µg/m(3), personal and area), and 2-propanol had the highest GM among medical equipment preparers (∼4600 and ∼2000 µg/m(3), personal and area). The highest total personal VOC exposures were among nursing assistants (∼9200 µg/m(3)), licensed practical nurses (∼8700 µg/m(3)) and medical equipment preparers (∼7900 µg/m(3)). The influence of the PCA factors developed from personal exposure estimates varied by occupation, which enabled a comparative assessment of occupations. For example, factor 1, indicative of solvent use, was positively correlated with clinical laboratory and floor stripping/waxing occupations and tasks. Overall, a significant correlation was observed (r=0.88) between matched personal and mobile area samples, but varied considerably by analyte (r=0.23-0.64). Healthcare workers are exposed to a variety of chemicals that vary with the activities and products used during activities. These VOC profiles are useful for estimating exposures for occupational hazard ranking for industrial hygienists as well as epidemiological studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  17. Can exhaled volatile organic compounds predict asthma exacerbations in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Dillys; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Rosias, Philippe; Muris, Jean; Dallinga, Jan; Dompeling, Edward; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan

    2017-03-01

    Asthma control does not yet meet the goals of asthma management guidelines. Non-invasive monitoring of airway inflammation may help to improve the level of asthma control in children. (1) To identify a set of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that is most predictive for an asthma exacerbation in children. (2) To elucidate the chemical identity of predictive biomarkers. In a one-year prospective observational study, 96 asthmatic children participated . During clinical visits at 2 month intervals, asthma control, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, lung function (FEV1, FEV1/VC) and VOCs in exhaled breath were determined by means of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Random Forrest classification modeling was used to select predictive VOCs, followed by plotting of receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves). An inverse relationship was found between the predictive power of a set of VOCs and the time between sampling of exhaled breath and the onset of exacerbation. The sensitivity and specificity of the model predicting exacerbations 14 days after sampling were 88% and 75%, respectively. The area under the ROC-curve was 90%. The sensitivity for prediction of asthma exacerbations within 21 days after sampling was 63%. In total, 7 VOCs were selected for the classification model: 3 aldehydes, 1 hydrocarbon, 1 ketone, 1 aromatic compound, and 1 unidentified VOC. VOCs in exhaled breath showed potential for predicting asthma exacerbations in children within 14 days after sampling. Before using this in clinical practice, the validity of predicting asthma exacerbations should be studied in a larger cohort.

  18. Semi-volatile organic pollutants in Jordanian surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya R. Tahboub

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Jordan relies heavily on rainwater stored in reservoirs because it has extremely limited alternative water resources. These reservoirs are essential for drinking water and irrigation, so monitoring their water quality is extremely important. In this study we monitored 55 semi-volatile organic chemicals (SVOCs in monthly samples from the Zarqa River and three reservoirs between April and August 2010, and also screened the samples for non-target pollutants. Twelve SVOCs were detected and quantified at King Talal Dam followed by ten at Zarqa River and four each at Wadi Al-Arab and Mujib dams. Phenol and phthalate esters were detected at wide range concentrations (0.01–25 μg/L in all water samples. Phenol has the highest level at the Zarqa River (18.5 ± 5.5 μg/L followed by King Talal (12.5 ± 2.5 μg/L and Wadi Al-Arab (2.5 ± 0.63 μg/L. Phthalate esters (total were detected at the Zarqa River, King Talal, Wadi Al-Arab, and Mujib dams at levels 3.85, 3.75, 1.03 and 0.12 μg/L. Other contaminants, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, were detected at low concentrations in the King Talal Dam reservoir and Zarqa River samples. Two non-targeted phosphate plasticizers, tri-n-butylphosphate and tris(2-chloroethylphosphate were identified in the July and August Zarqa River samples. A comparison study reveals that SVOC pollution of surface water in Jordan is within acceptable international limits, but long-term monitoring programs should be implemented.

  19. 75 FR 82363 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound... printing volatile organic compound (VOC) rule for approval into the Ohio State Implementation Plan (SIP..., Volatile organic compounds. Dated: December 17, 2010. Bharat Mathur, Acting Regional Administrator, Region...

  20. 75 FR 24404 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile refinishing rules to all persons in Indiana who sell or..., Volatile organic compounds. Dated: March 31, 2010. Walter W. Kovalick Jr., Acting Regional Administrator... revisions extend the applicability of Indiana's approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile...

  1. 75 FR 57390 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... definition of ``volatile organic compounds'' (VOCs) found at Alabama Administrative Code (AAC) section 335-3... recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: September 3, 2010. A. Stanley Meiburg, Acting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: Volatile Organic...

  2. 75 FR 8246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Plan (SIP) several volatile organic compound (VOC) control rules. The purpose of these rules is to... requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: January 14, 2010. Walter W. Kovalick Jr., Acting Regional... several volatile organic compound rules for approval into the Indiana State Implementation Plan for the...

  3. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from...

  4. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  5. Methods in Plant Foliar Volatile Organic Compounds Research

    OpenAIRE

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, N.; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant?plant and plant?insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas...

  6. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachina, A.

    2008-07-01

    Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activities in urban and industrial areas cause environmental problems such as air quality degradation, respiratory diseases, climate change, global warming, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major air pollutants, emitted largely by industry, transportation and households. Many VOCs are toxic, and some are considered to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. A wide spectrum of VOCs is readily oxidized photocatalytically. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) over titanium dioxide may present a potential alternative to air treatment strategies currently in use, such as adsorption and thermal treatment, due to its advantageous activity under ambient conditions, although higher but still mild temperatures may also be applied. The objective of the present research was to disclose routes of chemical reactions, estimate the kinetics and the sensitivity of gas-phase PCO to reaction conditions in respect of air pollutants containing heteroatoms in their molecules. Deactivation of the photocatalyst and restoration of its activity was also taken under consideration to assess the practical possibility of the application of PCO to the treatment of air polluted with VOCs. UV-irradiated titanium dioxide was selected as a photocatalyst for its chemical inertness, non-toxic character and low cost. In the present work Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was mostly used. In transient studies platinized TiO{sub 2} was also studied. The experimental research into PCO of following VOCs was undertaken: - methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the basic oxygenated motor fuel additive and, thus, a major non-biodegradable pollutant of groundwater; - tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary product of MTBE hydrolysis and PCO; - ethyl mercaptan (ethanethiol) as one of the reduced sulphur pungent air pollutants in the pulp-and-paper industry; - methylamine (MA) and dimethylamine (DMA) as the amino compounds often

  7. New graphene fiber coating for volatile organic compounds analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Guo, XiaoXi; Wang, ShuLing; Wang, XueLan; Zhou, YanPing; Xu, Hui

    2014-10-15

    In the work, a novel graphene-based solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of trace amount of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. The graphene fiber coating was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal reduction reaction. The fiber with porous and wrinkled structure exhibited excellent extraction efficiency toward eight studied volatile organic compounds (two n-alkanes, five n-aldehydes and one aromatic compound). Meanwhile, remarkable thermal and mechanical stability, long lifespan and low cost were also obtained for the fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method provided low limits of detection (1.0-4.5ngL(-1)), satisfactory reproducibility (3.8-13.8%) and acceptable recoveries (93-122%). The method was applied successfully to the analysis of breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy individuals. The unique advantage of this approach includes simple setup, non-invasive analysis, cost-efficient and sufficient sensitivity. The proposed method supply us a new possibility to monitor volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  9. Effects of NOx on the volatility of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene photooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lu; Kollman, Matthew S.; Song, Chen; Shilling, John E.; Ng, L. N.

    2014-01-28

    The effects of NOx on the volatility of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from isoprene photooxidation are investigated in environmental chamber experiments. Two types of experiments are performed. In HO2-dominant experiments, organic peroxy radicals (RO2) primarily react with HO2. In mixed experiments, RO2 reacts through multiple pathways. The volatility and oxidation state of isoprene SOA is sensitive to and displays a non-linear dependence on NOx levels. When initial NO/isoprene ratio is approximately 3 (ppbv:ppbv), SOA are shown to be most oxidized and least volatile, associated with the highest SOA yield. A High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is applied to characterize the key chemical properties of aerosols. While the composition of SOA in mixed experiments does not change substantially over time, SOA become less volatile and more oxidized as oxidation progresses in HO2-dominant experiments. Analysis of the SOA composition suggests that the further reactions of organic peroxides and alcohols may produce carboxylic acids, which might play a strong role in SOA aging.

  10. A novel inlet system for online chemical analysis of semi-volatile submicron particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, P.; Müller, M.; D'Anna, B.; Wisthaler, A.

    2015-03-01

    We herein present a novel modular inlet system designed to be coupled to low-pressure gas analyzers for online chemical characterization of semi-volatile submicron particles. The "chemical analysis of aerosol online" (CHARON) inlet consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes, an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation combined with an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. The denuder was measured to remove gas-phase organics with an efficiency > 99.999% and to transmit particles in the 100-750 nm size range with a 75-90% efficiency. The measured average particle enrichment factor in the subsampling flow from the aerodynamic lens was 25.6, which is a factor of 3 lower than the calculated theoretical optimum. We coupled the CHARON inlet to a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) which quantitatively detects most organic analytes and ammonia. The combined CHARON-PTR-ToF-MS setup is thus capable of measuring both the organic and the ammonium fraction in submicron particles in real time. Individual organic compounds can be detected down to levels of 10-20 ng m-3. Two proof-of-principle studies were carried out for demonstrating the analytical power of this new instrumental setup: (i) oxygenated organics and their partitioning between the gas and the particulate phase were observed from the reaction of limonene with ozone and (ii) nicotine was measured in cigarette smoke particles demonstrating that selected organic target compounds can be detected in submicron particles in real time.

  11. A two-dimensional volatility basis set – Part 2: Diagnostics of organic-aerosol evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Donahue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the use of a two-dimensional volatility-oxidation space (2-D-VBS to describe organic-aerosol chemical evolution. The space is built around two coordinates, volatility and the degree of oxidation, both of which can be constrained observationally or specified for known molecules. Earlier work presented the thermodynamics of organics forming the foundation of this 2-D-VBS, allowing us to define the average composition (C, H, and O of organics, including organic aerosol (OA based on volatility and oxidation state. Here we discuss how we can analyze experimental data, using the 2-D-VBS to gain fundamental insight into organic-aerosol chemistry. We first present a well-understood "traditional" secondary organic aerosol (SOA system – SOA from α-pinene + ozone, and then turn to two examples of "non-traditional" SOA formation – SOA from wood smoke and dilute diesel-engine emissions. Finally, we discuss the broader implications of this analysis.

  12. Volatile Chemicals of Adults and Nymphs of the Eucalyptus Pest, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila B. C. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumastocoris peregrinus is an introduced “true bug” that is now a severe pest in Eucalyptus plantations of various Southern Hemisphere countries. The semiochemicals of thaumastocorids are completely unknown. Therefore, volatile chemicals from T. peregrinus nymphs and adults were identified as possible leads for pheromones potentially useful for control. The contents of nymphal exocrine glands, which are shed at molting, were identified from extracts of exuviae. Adults lack functional metathoracic scent glands that are characteristic of most heteropterans; however, both males and females possess a glandular-appearing hold-fast organ that they quickly extrude posteriorly when disturbed. Whole body hexane extracts from males and females were prepared by freezing the insects in a flask so that they extruded the hold-fast organ, and then they were extracted with hexane. Volatiles from nymphal exuviae included benzaldehyde, octanol, (E-2-octenol, octanoic acid, decanal, and hexanoic acid. Adult volatiles included 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl butyrate and 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl butyrate.

  13. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ingrid J.; Black, Robert R.; Geron, Chris D.; Aurell, Johanna; Hays, Michael D.; Preston, William T.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOCs and SVOCs) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. The peat samples originated from two National Wildlife Refuges on the coastal plain of North Carolina, U.S.A. Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (∼60%) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. In the fine particle mass (PM2.5), the following organic compound classes were dominant: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for the organic acids in PM2.5 including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12%) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed to 2-3% of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3% of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Total HAP VOC and particulate PAH emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions.

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2008-07-07

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site’s 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and

  15. Volatile organic compounds emitted byTrichodermaspecies mediate plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha; Yap, Melanie; Behringer, Gregory; Hung, Richard; Bennett, Joan W

    2016-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are applied as biofungicides and biofertilizers to agricultural soils to enhance crop growth. These filamentous fungi have the ability to reduce plant diseases and promote plant growth and productivity through overlapping modes of action including induced systemic resistance, antibiosis, enhanced nutrient efficiency, and myco-parasitism. Trichoderma species are prolific producers of many small metabolites with antifungal, antibacterial, and anticancer properties. Volatile metabolites of Trichoderma also have the ability to induce resistance to plant pathogens leading to improved plant health. In this study, Arabidopsis plants were exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by growing cultures of Trichoderma from 20 strains, representing 11 different Trichoderma species. We identified nine Trichoderma strains that produced plant growth promoting VOCs. Exposure to mixtures of VOCs emitted by these strains increased plant biomass (37.1-41.6 %) and chlorophyll content (82.5-89.3 %). Trichoderma volatile-mediated changes in plant growth were strain- and species-specific. VOCs emitted by T . pseudokoningii (CBS 130756) were associated with the greatest Arabidopsis growth promotion. One strain, T. atroviride (CBS 01-209), in our screen decreased growth (50.5 %) and chlorophyll production (13.1 %). Similarly, tomatoes exposed to VOCs from T. viride (BBA 70239) showed a significant increase in plant biomass (>99 %), larger plant size, and significant development of lateral roots. We also observed that the tomato plant growths were dependent on the duration of the volatile exposure. A GC-MS analysis of VOCs from Trichoderma strains identified more than 141 unique compounds including several unknown sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and tetraterpenes. Plants grown in the presence of fungal VOCs emitted by different species and strains of Trichoderma exhibited a range of effects. This study demonstrates that the blend of volatiles

  16. Responses of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to cadaveric volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Flies of the Calliphoridae Family are the most forensically important insects because of their abundance on the decedent during the first minutes following death. Necrophagous insects are attracted at a distance by a decomposing body, through the use of volatile chemical cues. We tested the possible attractive role of some volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by decaying cadavers, on male and female of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Two complementary approaches were used. Electroantennography (EAG) allowed identifying the semiochemicals that are detected by the olfactory system of L. sericata. Dose-response tests with EAG showed that dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and butan-1-ol elicited the highest responses. Behavioral assays showed that, among the VOCs tested, DMDS and butan-1-ol are attractive for L. sericata, while the other VOCs are repulsive or do not cause any behavior. Our results may have potential implications in a better understanding of attractiveness of blowflies toward a corpse. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Volatility and hygroscopicity of aging secondary organic aerosol in a smog chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tritscher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA during (photo-chemical aging processes was investigated in a smog chamber. Fresh SOA from ozonolysis of 10 to 40 ppb α-pinene was formed followed by aging with OH radicals. The particles' volatility and hygroscopicity (expressed as volume fraction remaining (VFR and hygroscopicity parameter κ were measured in parallel with a volatility and hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS was used for the chemical characterization of the aerosol. These measurements were used as sensitive parameters to reveal the mechanisms possibly responsible for the changes in the SOA composition during aging. A change of VFR and/or κ during processing of atmospheric aerosols may occur either by addition of SOA mass (by condensation or by a change of SOA composition leading to different aerosol properties. The latter may occur either by heterogeneous reactions on the surface of the SOA particles, by condensed phase reactions like oligomerization or by an evaporation – gas-phase oxidation – recondensation cycle. The condensation mechanism showed to be dominant when there is a substantial change in the aerosol mass by addition of new molecules to the aerosol phase with time. Experiments could be divided into four periods based on the temporal evolution (qualitative changes of VFR, κ and organic mass: O3 induced condensation, ripening, and OH induced chemical aging first with substantial mass gain and then without significant mass gain.

    During the O3 induced condensation the particles' volatility decreased (increasing VFR while the hygroscopicity increased. Thereafter, in the course of ripening volatility continued to decrease, but hygroscopicity stayed roughly constant. After exposing the SOA to OH radicals an OH induced chemical aging with substantial mass gain started resulting in the production of at least 50 % more SOA mass

  18. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Mycotoxins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Bennett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  19. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan W; Inamdar, Arati A

    2015-09-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that "volatoxin" might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  20. Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2015-02-15

    Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan W.; Inamdar, Arati A.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties. PMID:26402705

  2. Measurements of chlorinated volatile organic compounds emitted from office printers and photocopiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pośniak, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Office devices can release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) partly generated by toners and inks, as well as particles of paper. The aim of the presented study is to identify indoor emissions of volatile halogenated organic compounds into the office workspace environment. Mixtures of organic pollutants emitted by seven office devices, i.e. printers and copiers, were analyzed by taking samples in laboratory conditions during the operation of these appliances. Tests of volatile organic compound emissions from selected office devices were conducted in a simulated environment (test chamber). Samples of VOCs were collected using three-layered thermal desorption tubes. Separation and identification of organic pollutant emissions were made using thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Test chamber studies indicated that operation of the office printer and copier would contribute to the significant concentration level of VOCs in typical office indoor air. Among the determined volatile halogenated compounds, only chlorinated organic compounds were identified, inter alia: trichloroethylene - carcinogenic - and tetrachloroethylene - possibly carcinogenic to human. The results show that daily exposure of an office worker to chemical factors released by the tested printing and copying units can be variable in terms of concentrations of VOCs. The highest emissions in the test chamber during printing were measured for ethylbenzene up to 41.3 μg m(-3), xylenes up to 40.5 μg m(-3) and in case of halogenated compounds the highest concentration for chlorobenzene was 6.48 μg m(-3). The study included the comparison of chamber concentrations and unit-specific emission rates of selected VOCs and the identified halogenated compounds. The highest amount of total VOCs was emitted while copying with device D and was rated above 1235 μg m(-3) and 8400 μg unit(-1) h(-1) on average.

  3. A Monte-Carlo Analysis of Organic Aerosol Volatility with Aerosol Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C. Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    A newly developed box model scheme, MATRIX-VBS, includes the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework in an aerosol microphysical scheme MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state), which resolves aerosol mass and number concentrations and aerosol mixing state. The new scheme advanced the representation of organic aerosols in Earth system models by improving the traditional and simplistic treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile and with a fixed size distribution. Further development includes adding the condensation of organics on coarse mode aerosols - dust and sea salt, thus making all organics in the system semi-volatile. To test and simplify the model, a Monte-Carlo analysis is performed to pin point which processes affect organics the most under which chemical and meteorological conditions. Since the model's parameterizations have the ability to capture a very wide range of conditions, from very clean to very polluted and for a wide range of meteorological conditions, all possible scenarios on Earth across the whole parameter space, including temperature, location, emissions and oxidant levels, are examined. The Monte-Carlo simulations provide quantitative information on the sensitivity of the newly developed model and help us understand how organics are affecting the size distribution, mixing state and volatility distribution at varying levels of meteorological conditions and pollution levels. In addition, these simulations give information on which parameters play a critical role in the aerosol distribution and evolution in the atmosphere and which do not, that will facilitate the simplification of the box model, an important step in its implementation in the global model.

  4. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  5. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nga Lee; Brown, Steven S.; Archibald, Alexander T.; Atlas, Elliot; Cohen, Ronald C.; Crowley, John N.; Day, Douglas A.; Donahue, Neil M.; Fry, Juliane L.; Fuchs, Hendrik; Griffin, Robert J.; Guzman, Marcelo I.; Herrmann, Hartmut; Hodzic, Alma; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Jimenez, José L.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Lee, Ben H.; Luecken, Deborah J.; Mao, Jingqiu; McLaren, Robert; Mutzel, Anke; Osthoff, Hans D.; Ouyang, Bin; Picquet-Varrault, Benedicte; Platt, Ulrich; Pye, Havala O. T.; Rudich, Yinon; Schwantes, Rebecca H.; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Stutz, Jochen; Thornton, Joel A.; Tilgner, Andreas; Williams, Brent J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2017-02-01

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry-climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in instrumentation and models, and in organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry. Building on this current understanding, the second half of the review outlines impacts of NO3-BVOC chemistry on air quality and climate, and suggests critical research needs to better constrain this interaction to improve the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models.

  6. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Nga Lee; Brown, Steven S.; Archibald, Alexander T.; Atlas, Elliot; Cohen, Ronald C.; Crowley, John N.; Day, Douglas A.; Donahue, Neil M.; Fry, Juliane L.; Fuchs, Hendrik; Griffin, Robert J.; Guzman, Marcelo I.; Herrmann, Hartmut; Hodzic, Alma; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Jimenez, José L.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Lee, Ben H.; Luecken, Deborah J.; Mao, Jingqiu; McLaren, Robert; Mutzel, Anke; Osthoff, Hans D.; Ouyang, Bin; Picquet-Varrault, Benedicte; Platt, Ulrich; Pye, Havala O. T.; Rudich, Yinon; Schwantes, Rebecca H.; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Stutz, Jochen; Thornton, Joel A.; Tilgner, Andreas; Williams, Brent J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models.

    This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in instrumentation and models, and in organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry. Building on this current understanding, the second half of the review outlines impacts of NO3-BVOC chemistry on air quality and climate, and suggests critical research needs to better constrain this interaction to improve the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models.

  7. A microfluidic device for open loop stripping of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Benjamin Z; Dittrich, Petra S

    2013-03-01

    The detection of volatile organic compounds is of great importance for assessing the quality of water. In this contribution, we describe a miniaturized stripping device that allows fast online detection of organic solvents in water. The core component is a glass microfluidic chip that facilitates the creation of an annular-flowing stream of water and nitrogen gas. Volatile compounds are transferred efficiently from the water into the gas phase along the microfluidic pathway at room temperature within less than 5 s. Before exiting the microchip, the liquid phase is separated from the enriched gas phase by incorporating side capillaries through which the hydrophilic water phase is withdrawn. The gas phase is conveniently collected at the outlet reservoir by tubing. Finally, a semiconductor gas sensor analyzes the concentration of (volatile) organic compounds in the nitrogen gas. The operation and use of the stripping device is demonstrated for the organic solvents THF, 1-propanol, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzaldehyde, and methanol. The mobile, inexpensive, and continuously operating system with liquid flow rates in the low range of microliters per minute can be connected to other detectors or implemented in chemical production line for process control.

  8. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  9. Colorimetric Polydiacetylene-Aerogel Detector for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolai, Susmita; Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Beglaryan, Stella S; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Zeiri, Leila; Jelinek, Raz

    2017-01-25

    A new hybrid system comprising polydiacetylene (PDA), a chromatic conjugated polymer, embedded within aerogel pores has been constructed. The PDA-aerogel powder underwent dramatic color changes in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), facilitated through infiltration of the gas molecules into the highly porous aerogel matrix and their interactions with the aerogel-embedded PDA units. The PDA-aerogel composite exhibited rapid color/fluorescence response and enhanced signals upon exposure to low VOC concentrations. Encapsulation of PDA derivatives displaying different headgroups within the aerogel produced distinct VOC-dependent color transformations, forming a PDA-aerogel "artificial nose".

  10. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  11. Modelling of organic aerosols over Europe (2002–2007 using a volatility basis set (VBS framework: application of different assumptions regarding the formation of secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new organic aerosol module has been implemented into the EMEP chemical transport model. Four different volatility basis set (VBS schemes have been tested in long-term simulations for Europe, covering the six years 2002–2007. Different assumptions regarding partitioning of primary organic aerosol and aging of primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic carbon (S/IVOC species and secondary organic aerosol (SOA have been explored. Model results are compared to filter measurements, aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS data and source apportionment studies, as well as to other model studies. The present study indicates that many different sources contribute significantly to organic aerosol in Europe. Biogenic and anthropogenic SOA, residential wood combustion and vegetation fire emissions may all contribute more than 10% each over substantial parts of Europe. This study shows smaller contributions from biogenic SOA to organic aerosol in Europe than earlier work, but relatively greater anthropogenic SOA. Simple VBS based organic aerosol models can give reasonably good results for summer conditions but more observational studies are needed to constrain the VBS parameterisations and to help improve emission inventories. The volatility distribution of primary emissions is one important issue for further work. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from biogenic sources are also highly uncertain and need further validation. We can not reproduce winter levels of organic aerosol in Europe, and there are many indications that the present emission inventories substantially underestimate emissions from residential wood combustion in large parts of Europe.

  12. Volatile organic compounds associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo; Coronado, Lorena M; Garrido, Anette C; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Spadafora, Carmenza

    2017-05-02

    In order to identify new ways to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, efforts have been made to understand how insects are attracted to humans. Vector-host interaction studies have shown that several volatile compounds play an important role in attracting mosquitoes to human targets. A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPME GC-MS) analysis of the volatile organic composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and supernatants of ultracentrifugation (SNUs) was carried out in Plasmodium falciparum-infected cultures with high and low parasitemias. A list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was obtained from the EVs of both infected and uninfected RBCs with 1,2,3-Propanetriol, diacetate (diacetin) increased in the infected EVs, regardless of the parasitemia of the culture. The supernatant analysis, however, gave off 56 VOCs, with pentane 2,2,4-trimethyl being present in all the SNUs of uninfected erythrocytes but absent from the parasite-infected ones. Standing out in this study was hexanal, a reported insect attractant, which was the only VOC present in all samples from SNUs from infected erythrocytes and absent from uninfected ones, suggesting that it originates during parasite infection. The hexanal compound, reportedly a low-level component found in healthy human samples such as breath and plasma, had not been found in previous analyses of P. falciparum-infected patients or cultures. This compound has been reported as an Anopheles gambiae attractant in plants. While the compound could be produced during infection by the malaria parasite in human erythrocytes, the A. gambiae attraction could be used by the parasite as a strategy for transmission.

  13. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species.

  14. Emission rates of selected volatile organic compounds from skin of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

    2014-05-15

    Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) coupled with solid phase micro-extraction as pre-concentration method (SPME) was applied to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human skin. A total of 64 C4-C10 compounds were quantified in skin emanation of 31 healthy volunteers. Amongst them aldehydes and hydrocarbons were the predominant chemical families with eighteen and seventeen species, respectively. Apart from these, there were eight ketones, six heterocyclic compounds, six terpenes, four esters, two alcohols, two volatile sulphur compounds, and one nitrile. The observed median emission rates ranged from 0.55 to 4,790 fmol cm(-2)min(-1). Within this set of analytes three volatiles; acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and acetaldehyde exhibited especially high emission rates exceeding 100 fmol cm(-2)min(-1). Thirty-three volatiles were highly present in skin emanation with incidence rates over 80%. These species can be considered as potential markers of human presence, which could be used for early location of entrapped victims during Urban Search and Rescue Operations (USaR). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnosing gastrointestinal illnesses using fecal headspace volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel K; Leggett, Cadman L; Wang, Kenneth K

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from stool are the components of the smell of stool representing the end products of microbial activity and metabolism that can be used to diagnose disease. Despite the abundance of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane that have already been identified in human flatus, the small portion of trace gases making up the VOCs emitted from stool include organic acids, alcohols, esters, heterocyclic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, and alkanes, among others. These are the gases that vary among individuals in sickness and in health, in dietary changes, and in gut microbial activity. Electronic nose devices are analytical and pattern recognition platforms that can utilize mass spectrometry or electrochemical sensors to detect these VOCs in gas samples. When paired with machine-learning and pattern recognition algorithms, this can identify patterns of VOCs, and thus patterns of smell, that can be used to identify disease states. In this review, we provide a clinical background of VOC identification, electronic nose development, and review gastroenterology applications toward diagnosing disease by the volatile headspace analysis of stool. PMID:26819529

  16. Identification of volatile organic compounds in human cerumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Thaler, Erica; Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

    2014-03-15

    We report here the initial examination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human earwax (cerumen). Recent studies link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11) to the production of different types of axillary odorants and cerumen. ABCC11 encodes an ATP-driven efflux pump protein that plays an important function in ceruminous apocrine glands of the auditory canal and the secretion of axillary odor precursors. The type of cerumen and underarm odor produced by East Asians differ markedly from that produced by non-Asians. In this initial report we find that both groups emit many of the same VOCs but differ significantly in the amounts produced. The principal odorants are volatile organic C2-to-C6 acids. The physical appearance of cerumen from the two groups also matches previously reported ethnic differences, viz., cerumen from East Asians appears dry and white while that from non-Asians is typically wet and yellowish-brown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosing gastrointestinal illnesses using fecal headspace volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel K; Leggett, Cadman L; Wang, Kenneth K

    2016-01-28

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from stool are the components of the smell of stool representing the end products of microbial activity and metabolism that can be used to diagnose disease. Despite the abundance of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane that have already been identified in human flatus, the small portion of trace gases making up the VOCs emitted from stool include organic acids, alcohols, esters, heterocyclic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, and alkanes, among others. These are the gases that vary among individuals in sickness and in health, in dietary changes, and in gut microbial activity. Electronic nose devices are analytical and pattern recognition platforms that can utilize mass spectrometry or electrochemical sensors to detect these VOCs in gas samples. When paired with machine-learning and pattern recognition algorithms, this can identify patterns of VOCs, and thus patterns of smell, that can be used to identify disease states. In this review, we provide a clinical background of VOC identification, electronic nose development, and review gastroenterology applications toward diagnosing disease by the volatile headspace analysis of stool.

  18. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  19. Recent methods for the determination of volatile and non-volatile organic compounds in natural and purified drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchet, A; Legrand, M F; Arpino, P; Dilettato, D

    1991-01-02

    Four analytical protocols for the extraction and preconcentration of organic residues in natural or purified drinking water were investigated and compared: closed loop stripping analysis; simultaneous extraction-distillation; purge and trap analysis; continuous liquid-liquid extraction. Organic extracts were submitted to a variety of separation and identification techniques. Volatiles were determined by conventional capillary column gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, using triple-stage quadrupole instruments. Non-volatile and thermally labile molecules were investigated by several different techniques (high-temperature gas chromatography, capillary column supercritical fluid chromatography, pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermospray liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and conventional fast-atom bombardment with tandem mass spectrometry). Several samples recently examined in the laboratory provide examples of this multitechnique approach for a more complete knowledge of the organic carbon distribution in water-dissolved organic matter, taking into account organic substances with widely different volatilities, polarities and thermal stabilities.

  20. Chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements from two megacity field studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huffman, J. A; Docherty, K. S; Aiken, A. C; Cubison, M. J; Ulbrich, I. M; DeCarlo, P. F; Sueper, D; Jayne, J. T; Worsnop, D. R; Ziemann, P. J; Jimenez, J. L

    2009-01-01

    ...) with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) during field studies in two polluted megacities has enabled the first direct characterization of chemically-resolved urban particle volatility...

  1. Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from arctic ecosystems are scarcely studied and the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions even less so. BVOCs are emitted from all living organisms and play a role for atmospheric chemistry. The major part of BVOCs derives from plants...... growing seasons, low temperatures and low statured plants, occurs at twice the speed of the global average. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns have consequences for soil, plant species distribution, plant biomass and reproductive success. Emission and production of BVOCs are temperature...... that canopy surfaces temperatures should be used in BVOC models instead of air temperatures obtained from weather stations. BVOC emissions will likely increase significantly in a future warmer climate due to the direct effect of temperature, but also due to the indirect effect of more plants biomass. Thus...

  2. Anodic alumina coating for extraction of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Zou, LiangYuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a facile and highly sensitive solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. For the purpose, a highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina coating was prepared by a two-step anodic oxidization method based on aluminum substrate. To have a good knowledge of the fiber, some features were characterized and the results indicate that the coating has several advantages, including excellent chemical and thermal stability, high mechanical strength, large surface area and good extraction performance. In addition, some parameters related to extraction efficiency were also studied. Under the optimal conditions, the coating was used to quantitatively extract volatile organic compounds. Good linearity and wide linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9933 to 0.9999. The detection limits of benzene homologues, aldehydes and ketones were between 0.7 and 3.4 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations (n=5) ranged from 1.8 to 15.0%. Satisfied recovery (89-115%) was obtained at two spiked concentration levels. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled vapor samples of lung cancer patients and the controls, and the results were statistically analyzed with Independent-Sample T Test. The proposed method exhibits some outstanding merits, including convenience, non-invasion, low cost and sensitivity. It provides a potential tool for rapid detection of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Volatile organics off-gassed among tobacco-exposed clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Zhe

    2011-10-15

    This work evaluates the characteristics of short-term release of volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals from clothing fabrics that are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Various fabrics were concurrently exposed to ETS in a controlled facility, and the chemicals off-gassed were sampled using solid phase micro-extraction coupled with GC/MS analysis. Toluene-reference concentration (TRC) was calculated for nine selected chemicals and compared. The number of chemicals identified from ETS-exposed fabrics ranged from 13 (polyester and acetate) to 32 (linen). All fabrics off-gassed formaldehyde, tetradecanoic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid, while seven out of eight fabrics emitted furfural, benzonitrile, naphthalene and decanal. Natural fibers of plant origin (cotton and linen) off-gassed higher concentrations (TRC>100 μg/l) of chemicals that have low molecular weight (~100 or less) than did natural fibers of animal origin (wool and silk) and synthetic fibers. Conversely, wool and silk off-gassed more chemicals that are of high molecular weight (>200), such as TDA (TRC>100 μg/l) and n-HDA (TRC>500 μg/l), than did other fabrics. Fabric structure (for a particular material) significantly affects chemical off-gassing. Cotton typically used for polo shirt (knitted) off-gassed significantly (p<0.05) higher TRC for chemicals with molecular weight of ~100 (such as furfural) than did other cottons of woven style. The dyeing of fabric (white vs. black) had a limited effect on emission, while increasing contact time with ETS increased the intensity of chemical emissions. The mean TRC for cotton exposed for 12 min was nearly doubled than those exposed for 8min, but no difference existed for polyester. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Secondary organic aerosol formation from intermediate-volatility organic compounds: cyclic, linear, and branched alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-21

    Intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) are an important class of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors that have not been traditionally included in chemical transport models. A challenge is that the vast majority of IVOCs cannot be speciated using traditional gas chromatography-based techniques; instead they are classified as an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that is presumably made up of a complex mixture of branched and cyclic alkanes. To better understand SOA formation from IVOCs, a series of smog chamber experiments was conducted with different alkanes, including cyclic, branched, and linear compounds. The experiments focused on freshly formed SOA from hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated reactions under high-NO(x) conditions at typical atmospheric organic aerosol concentrations (C(OA)). SOA yields from cyclic alkanes were comparable to yields from linear alkanes three to four carbons larger in size. For alkanes with equivalent carbon numbers, branched alkanes had the lowest SOA mass yields, ranging between 0.05 and 0.08 at a C(OA) of 15 μg m(-3). The SOA yield of branched alkanes also depends on the methyl branch position on the carbon backbone. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data indicate that the SOA oxygen-to-carbon ratios were largely controlled by the carbon number of the precursor compound. Depending on the precursor size, the mass spectrum of SOA produced from IVOCs is similar to the semivolatile-oxygenated and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol factors derived from ambient data. Using the new yield data, we estimated SOA formation potential from diesel exhaust and predict the contribution from UCM vapors to be nearly four times larger than the contribution from single-ring aromatics and comparable to that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after several hours of oxidation at typical atmospheric conditions. Therefore, SOA from IVOCs may be an important contributor to urban OA and should be included in SOA models; the yield data

  5. First Characterisation of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Banana Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhal, Chadi; De Clerck, Caroline; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Levicek, Carolina; Boullis, Antoine; Kaddes, Amine; Jijakli, Haïssam M.; Verheggen, François; Massart, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in term of worldwide fruit production, and has economical and nutritional key values. The Cavendish cultivars correspond to more than 90% of the production of dessert banana while cooking cultivars are widely consumed locally around the banana belt production area. Many plants, if not all, produce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) as a means of communication with their environment. Although flower and fruit VOCs have been studied for banana, the VOCs produced by the plant have never been identified despite their importance in plant health and development. A volatile collection methodology was optimized to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of VOCs analysis from banana plants. We have identified 11 VOCs for the Cavendish, mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene (87.90 ± 11.28 ng/μl), methyl salicylate (33.82 ± 14.29) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (29.60 ± 11.66), and 14 VOCs for the Pacific Plantain cultivar, mainly (Z,E)-α-farnesene (799.64 ± 503.15), (E,E)-α-farnesene (571.24 ± 381.70) and (E) β ocimene (241.76 ± 158.49). This exploratory study paves the way for an in-depth characterisation of VOCs emitted by Musa plants. PMID:28508885

  6. First Characterisation of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Banana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhal, Chadi; De Clerck, Caroline; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Levicek, Carolina; Boullis, Antoine; Kaddes, Amine; Jijakli, Haïssam M; Verheggen, François; Massart, Sébastien

    2017-05-16

    Banana (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in term of worldwide fruit production, and has economical and nutritional key values. The Cavendish cultivars correspond to more than 90% of the production of dessert banana while cooking cultivars are widely consumed locally around the banana belt production area. Many plants, if not all, produce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) as a means of communication with their environment. Although flower and fruit VOCs have been studied for banana, the VOCs produced by the plant have never been identified despite their importance in plant health and development. A volatile collection methodology was optimized to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of VOCs analysis from banana plants. We have identified 11 VOCs for the Cavendish, mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene (87.90 ± 11.28 ng/μl), methyl salicylate (33.82 ± 14.29) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (29.60 ± 11.66), and 14 VOCs for the Pacific Plantain cultivar, mainly (Z,E)-α-farnesene (799.64 ± 503.15), (E,E)-α-farnesene (571.24 ± 381.70) and (E) β ocimene (241.76 ± 158.49). This exploratory study paves the way for an in-depth characterisation of VOCs emitted by Musa plants.

  7. Evaluation of fungicidal activity and identification of volatile organic compounds released by Trichoderma viride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana Cristina Sinuco León; Andrés Camilo Pérez Cortés; Nubia Carmenza Moreno Sarmiento

    2017-01-01

    ... processing.Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a biologically relevant class of secondary metabolites, since they are suspected of playing a crucial role in the communication between microorganisms...

  8. 40 CFR 60.112b - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds... for Volatile Organic Liquid Storage Vessels (Including Petroleum Liquid Storage Vessels) for Which... organic compounds (VOC). (a) The owner or operator of each storage vessel either with a design capacity...

  9. 78 FR 78726 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., Volatile organic compounds. Dated: December 6, 2013. Susan Hedman, Regional Administrator, Region 5. 40 CFR... Organic Compound Emission Control Measures for Industrial Solvent Cleaning for Northwest Indiana AGENCY... approving a request from the Indiana Department of Environmental Management to revise its volatile organic...

  10. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Loon Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  11. Microbes and associated soluble and volatile chemicals on periodically wet household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel I; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Misztal, Pawel K; De Cassia Pessotti, Rita; Behie, Scott W; Tian, Yilin; Goldstein, Allen H; Lindow, Steven E; Nazaroff, William W; Taylor, John W; Traxler, Matt F; Bruns, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common and frequently wet surfaces in a residential setting: kitchen sink and bathroom shower. Microbial communities were studied using culture-dependent and independent techniques, including targeting RNA for amplicon sequencing. Volatile and soluble chemicals from paired samples were analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques to explore the links between the observed microbiota and chemical exudates. Microbial analysis revealed a rich biological presence on the surfaces exposed in kitchen sinks and bathroom shower stalls. Microbial composition, matched for DNA and RNA targets, varied by surface type and sampling period. Bacteria were found to have an average of 25× more gene copies than fungi. Biomass estimates based on qPCR were well correlated with measured total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Abundant VOCs included products associated with fatty acid production. Molecular networking revealed a diversity of surface-borne compounds that likely originate from microbes and from household products. Microbes played a role in structuring the chemical profiles on and emitted from kitchen sinks and shower stalls. Microbial VOCs (mVOCs) were predominately associated with the processing of fatty acids. The mVOC composition may be more stable than that of microbial communities, which can show temporal and spatial variation in their responses to changing environmental conditions. The mVOC output from microbial metabolism on kitchen sinks and bathroom showers should be apparent through careful

  12. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z. L.; Visser, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Ng, N. L.

    2016-02-01

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as rBC in the atmosphere. Although the atomic O : C ratio of OOA is substantially larger than that of solid fuel OA and

  13. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 d...

  14. [Definition and Control Indicators of Volatile Organic Compounds in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Che, Fei; Zhao, Guo-hua; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most complex of a wide range of pollutants that harms human health and ecological environment. However, various countries around the world differ on its definition and control indicators. Its definition, control indicators and monitoring methods of our country and local standards were also different. Based on detailed analysis of the definitions and control indicators of VOCs, the recommendations were proposed: the definition of VOCs should be different according to the different concerns between "air quality management" and "pollution emissions management"; base on different control way from production source, technological process, terminal emission, total discharge control, the control indicators system consists of 10 indicators; to formulate industry VOCs emissions standards, the most effective control way and indicators should be chosen according to characteristics of production process, way of VOCs emissions and possible control measures, etc.

  15. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  16. Catabolism of volatile organic compounds influences plant survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Patricia Y; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2013-12-01

    Plants emit a diverse array of phytogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The production and emission of VOCs has been an important area of research for decades. However, recent research has revealed the importance of VOC catabolism by plants and VOC degradation in the atmosphere for plant growth and survival. Specifically, VOC catabolism and degradation have implications for plant C balance, tolerance to environmental stress, plant signaling, and plant-atmosphere interactions. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of VOC catabolism and degradation, propose experiments for investigating VOC catabolism, and suggest ways to incorporate catabolism into VOC emission models. Improving our knowledge of VOC catabolism and degradation is crucial for understanding plant metabolism and predicting plant survival in polluted environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Volatile Organic Compound Optical Fiber Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Arregui

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC detection is a topic of growing interest withapplications in diverse fields, ranging from environmental uses to the food or chemicalindustries. Optical fiber VOC sensors offering new and interesting properties whichovercame some of the inconveniences found on traditional gas sensors appeared over twodecades ago. Thanks to its minimum invasive nature and the advantages that optical fiberoffers such as light weight, passive nature, low attenuation and the possibility ofmultiplexing, among others, these sensors are a real alternative to electronic ones inelectrically noisy environments where electronic sensors cannot operate correctly. In thepresent work, a classification of these devices has been made according to the sensingmechanism and taking also into account the sensing materials or the different methods offabrication. In addition, some solutions already implemented for the detection of VOCsusing optical fiber sensors will be described with detail.

  18. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Pressley, S.; Allwine, Eugene J.; Westberg, Halvor; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2005-10-19

    Direct measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that include all anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in urban areas are a missing requirement to evaluate emission inventories and constrain current photochemical modelling practices. Here we demonstrate the use of micrometeorological techniques coupled with fast-response sensors to measure urban VOC fluxes from a neighborhood of Mexico City, where the spatial variability of surface cover and roughness is high. Fluxes of olefins, methanol, acetone, toluene and C2-benzenes were measured and compared with the local gridded emission inventory. VOC fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal pattern with a strong relationship to vehicular traffic. Recent photochemical modeling results suggest that VOC emissions are significantly underestimated in Mexico City1, but the measured VOC fluxes described here indicate that the official emission inventory2 is essentially correct. Thus, other explanations are needed to explain the photochemical modelling results.

  19. Microtrapping of volatile organic compounds with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-sorbent traps referred to as microtraps serve as integrated concentration-injection devices for continuousmonitoring in gas phase streams. The application of carbon nanotubes as unique sorbents for the fabrication of microtrapsfor the nano-scale adsorption/desorption of volatile organic molecules is presented in this paper. The microtrap applicationrequires high adsorption capacity as well as easy desorbability; the latter being critical for injection mode of these integrateddevices. The micro-sorbent characteristics of single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for gas phase adsorption/desorptionof several volatile organic compounds like DCM, ethanol and benzene etc. has been studied. The nonporous nature of carbonnanotubes (CNTs eliminates the mass transfer resistance related to diffusion into pore structures, thus allowing easydesorbability. At the same time, their high aspect ratios lead to large breakthrough volumes. As compared to a commercialsorbent carbopackTM, the breakthrough volume was as much as an order of magnitude higher in the CNTs, while the higherrate of desorption measured as the peak width at half height of the desorption band was found nearly eight times lower (i.e.,0.26 seconds with SWNT and 1.89 seconds with carbopackTM. The trapping and desorption characteristics of single andmulti walled nanotubes were found to be comparable. We also found that the presence of disordered carbon impurities,which could be removed by controlled oxidative annealing, could greatly degrade the performance of CNTs. This researchhas suggested that CNTs can be used in micro-sorbent traps and surprisingly enhance the efficiency of the integrated concentration-injection devices. Consequently, this will open the doors to the application of high-capacity, CNTs-based sorbentsas a better alternative to conventional sorbent in continuous monitoring devices.

  20. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  1. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased demands in industry. For example, there is a requirement in the pharmaceutical industry for a higher number of a novel chemical entities to be produced, which requires chemists to employ a number of resources to reduce time for the production of compounds. Also, microwaves are used in the food industry, as well as in the pyrolysis of waste materials, sample preparation, the solvent extraction of natural products and the hydrolysis of proteins and peptides.

  2. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhe Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma, non-volatile (taste and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012. Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

  3. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of "Valencia" Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; McCollum, Greg; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Widmer, Wilbur W; Luzio, Gary; Cameron, Randall

    2016-01-04

    Florida "Valencia" oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

  4. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; McCollum, Greg; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Luzio, Gary; Cameron, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy. PMID:28231099

  5. Heterogeneous reactions of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Zhongming; Huang, Dao

    2013-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of central importance in the atmosphere because of their close relation to air quality and climate change. As a significant sink for VOCs, the fate of VOCs via heterogeneous reactions may explain the big gap between field and model studies. These reactions play as yet unclear but potentially crucial role in atmospheric processes. In order to better evaluate this reaction pathway, we present the first specific review for the progress of heterogeneous reaction studies on VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, organic acids, alcohols, and so on. Our review focuses on the processes for heterogeneous reactions of VOCs under varying experimental conditions, as well as their implications for trace gas and HOx budget, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, physicochemical properties of aerosols, and human health. Finally, we propose the future direction for laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs that should be carried out under more atmospherically relevant conditions, with a special emphasis on the effects of relative humidity and illumination, the multicomponent reaction systems, and reactivity of aged and authentic particles. In particular, more reliable uptake coefficients, based on the abundant elaborate laboratory studies, appropriate calibration, and logical choice criterion, are urgently required in atmospheric models.

  6. Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile coffee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2010-05-12

    The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation.

  7. Removal of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds via Photocatalytic Oxidation: A Short Review and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are ubiquitous in indoor environments. Inhalation of VOCs can cause irritation, difficulty breathing, and nausea, and damage the central nervous system as well as other organs. Formaldehyde is a particularly important VOC as it is even a carcinogen. Removal of VOCs is thus critical to control indoor air quality (IAQ. Photocatalytic oxidation has demonstrated feasibility to remove toxic VOCs and formaldehyde from indoor environments. The technique is highly-chemical stable, inexpensive, non-toxic, and capable of removing a wide variety of organics under light irradiation. In this paper, we review and summarize the traditional air cleaning methods and current photocatalytic oxidation approaches in both of VOCs and formaldehyde degradation in indoor environments. Influencing factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deactivation and reactivations of the photocatalyst are discussed. Aspects of the application of the photocatalytic technique to improve the IAQ are suggested.

  8. Chemical components and biological activities of volatile oil of Kaempferia galanga Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latthya Atsawajaruwan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil of dried rhizome of Kaempferia galanga obtained by water distillation was determined for its chemical components using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major chemical constituents were identified as ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (31.77%, methylcinnamate (23.23%, carvone (11.13%, eucalyptol (9.59% and pentadecane (6.41%, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil was tested against various microbes using agar disc diffusion method with the inhibition zones from 8.0- 31.0 mm. Brine shrimp toxicity of volatile oil exhibited an EC50 value of 26.84 μg/ml; whereas the volatile oil was inactive for antioxidant activity (IC50 >100 μg/ml.

  9. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  10. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Oil of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Al-Fatimi; Martina Wurster; Ulrike Lindequist

    2016-01-01

    In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. By hydrodistillation extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against five bacteria strains and two types of fungi strains, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution...

  11. 40 CFR 60.112a - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). 60.112a Section 60.112a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Commenced After May 18, 1978, and Prior to July 23, 1984 § 60.112a Standard for volatile organic compounds...

  12. 40 CFR 60.312 - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). 60.312 Section 60.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Surface Coating of Metal Furniture § 60.312 Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) On and...

  13. 40 CFR 60.112 - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). 60.112 Section 60.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... After June 11, 1973, and Prior to May 19, 1978 § 60.112 Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC...

  14. 75 FR 57412 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... ``volatile organic compounds'' (VOCs) found at Alabama Administrative Code section 335-3-1-.02(gggg... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to...

  15. 40 CFR 60.542a - Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542a Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.542a Section 60.542a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  16. 78 FR 11119 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of trans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AQ38 Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to revise the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for purposes of preparing state implementation plans (SIPs) to attain the national ambient air quality...

  17. Screening analysis of volatile organic contaminants in commercial inorganic coagulants used for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael; Jiang, Jia-Qian; Maier, Matthias

    2009-10-01

    A method for quality screening is suggested to detect volatile impurities in inorganic coagulants that are used for drinking water treatment. Static headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (HS-GCMS) is sensitive and selective to detect volatiles in low concentrations. This study has discovered that volatile organic impurities are detectable in ferric and aluminium-based coagulants which are used for drinking water treatment. For ferric chloride, 2-propanol was detected at a level of 17-24 microg ml(-1), acetone at 0.7-1.7 microg ml(-1), 1,1,1-trichloroacetone at 0.02-0.04 microg ml(-1), trichloromethane at 0.01-0.02 microg ml(-1) and toluene at 0.01-0.12 microg ml(-1). For ferric chloride sulfate, acetone was detected at a level of 0.12 microg ml(-1), 1,1,1-trichloroacetone at 0.06-0.08 microg ml(-1), trichloromethane at 0.13-0.23 microg ml(-1), bromodichloromethane at 0.04-0.06 microg ml(-1) and dibromochloromethane at 0.04-0.05 microg ml(-1). For aluminium hydroxide chloride, only trichloromethane was detectable, but below the method detection limits (MDL). Although the concentrations of these impurities in commercial coagulants are low, this observation is important and should have impact on water industries for them to pay attention to the chemicals they are using for drinking water production.

  18. No evidence of volatile chemicals regulating reproduction in a multiple queen ant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coston, Duncan J.; Gill, Richard J.; Hammond, Robert L.

    2011-07-01

    Efficient cooperation in eusocial insect colonies requires effective communication, and there is abundant evidence of non-volatile chemicals playing a role in regulating reproduction within colonies. In contrast, there have been fewer studies investigating the role of volatile chemicals. This study investigated the potential role of volatile chemicals in regulating queen reproduction either by directly inhibiting queen reproduction or by honestly signalling queen fecundity to workers. We tested this using multiple queen colonies of the ant ( Leptothorax acervorum) from a functionally monogynous population where one queen monopolizes all reproduction. Nine colonies, each with an established laying queen, were split to produce two colony fragments—one containing the reproducing queen (group 1) and one containing only previously non-reproducing queens (group 2). Each group was separated by a fine wire mesh preventing physical contact, but allowing volatile chemical contact. In each group 2 fragment, we found that a single formerly non-reproductive queen commenced reproduction and that the rate of egg laying and maximum number of eggs recorded did not significantly differ between groups 1 and 2, results that do not support volatile chemicals as playing a role in regulating queen reproduction. Instead, our findings suggest that physical contact is necessary to maintain functional monogyny.

  19. [Research advances on volatile organic compounds emission inventory of plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun-Fei; Li, Yan-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Reference to relative literatures in recent years, model building and calculation on volatile organic compound (VOC) emission inventory of plants were summarized in different spatial scales, the total annual VOC emission amounts from Vegetation in China are in the range from 12.4 Tg x a(-1) to 28.4 Tg x a(-1). For garden plants in Beijing, the annual VOC emissions are approximately 38 500 tons C in 2000. Furthermore, in order to determine reduction strategies for Beijing urban atmospheric major pollutants, the contribution of garden plant VOC emissions to the ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was presented, compared to garden plant in the same period, the largest contribution to ozone formation comes from aromatic hydrocarbons and olefin which are exhausted from anthropogenic activity, besides, the aromatic hydrocarbons exhausted from anthropogenic activity is also a main contribution source for the potential formation of SOA. In the meantime, it is suggested to focus on emission control of VOCs which are emitted from urban anthropogenic sources.

  20. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from Trembleya phlogiformis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trembleya phlogiformis DC., Melastomataceae, is a shrub whose leaves are used as a dye for dyeing wool and cotton. The present article aimed to carry out the morphological description of the species, to study the chemical composition of volatile oils from the leaves and flowers and the seasonal variability from the leaves during a year. Macroscopic characterization was carried out with the naked eye and with a stereoscopic microscope. Volatile oils were isolated by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of the volatile oil of T. phlogiformis flowers were: n-heneicosane (33.5%, phytol (12.3%, n-tricosane (8.4% and linoleic acid (6.1%. It was verified the existence of a large chemical variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. phlogiformis over the months, with the majority compound (oleic alcohol, ranging from 5.7 to 26.8% present in all samples. A combination of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the existence of three main clusters, probably related to the seasons. The results suggested that the volatile oils of T. phlogiformis leaves possess high chemical variability, probably related to variation associated with rainfall and the variation in the behavior of specimens throughout the year. This research provides insights for future studies on the volatile oils obtained from the T. phlogiformis leaves and flowers, mainly related to biological markers of applications monitored in the leaves and flowers of this species.

  1. Very volatile organic compounds: an understudied class of indoor air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T

    2016-02-01

    Very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs), as categorized by the WHO, are an important subgroup of indoor pollutants and cover a wide spectrum of chemical substances. Some VVOCs are components of products commonly used indoors, some result from chemical reactions and some are reactive precursors of secondary products. Nevertheless, there is still no clear and internationally accepted definition of VVOCs. Current approaches are based on the boiling point, and the saturation vapor pressure or refer to analytical procedures. A significant problem is that many airborne VVOCs cannot be routinely analyzed by the usually applied technique of sampling on Tenax TA® followed by thermal desorption GC/MS or by DNPH-sampling/HPLC/UV. Some VVOCs are therefore often neglected in indoor-related studies. However, VVOCs are of high significance for indoor air quality assessment and there is need for their broader consideration in measurement campaigns and material emission testing. © 2014 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Arctic Vegetation under Climate Change – Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions and Leaf Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schollert, Michelle

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation are highly reactive non-methane hydrocarbons which participate in oxidative reactions in the atmosphere prolonging the lifetime of methane and contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The BVOC...

  3. Datasets used in the manuscript titled "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms and organic aerosol"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data used in the manuscript "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic...

  4. Influence of volatile organic compounds of varnish-and-paint materials on the workers organism on the industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г.І. Архіпова

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In article describes the reasons of air contamination in working area of endustrial enterprises, defines main ways of incoming and mechanism of action of volatile organic compounds of paintwork material on the organisms of workers.

  5. Measurement and estimated health risks of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    A variety of radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals have been released in effluent streams and discharged to waste disposal facilities during the nuclear materials production period at the Hanford Site. Extensive environmental surveillance for radioactive materials has occurred at Hanford; however, only limited information is available on the types and concentrations of organic pollutants potentially present. This report describes work performed to provide the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project with representative air concentration data for volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) volatile organic compound sampling methods evaluated for Hanford Site use were carbon-based adsorbent traps (TO-2) and Summa air canisters (TO-14). Polychlorinated biphenyls were sampled using USEPA method (TO-4), which uses glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam adsorbent beds to collect the PCBs. This report also presents results for environmental surveillance samples collected for volatile organic compound and PCB analyses from 1990 to 1993. All measured air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PCBs were well below applicable maximum allowable concentration standards for air contaminants. Because of the lack of ambient air concentration standards, a conservative estimate is provided of the potential human health impacts from exposure to the ambient air concentrations measured on the Hanford Site.

  6. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  7. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  8. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from large furniture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furuta, Mitsuko; Shibatsuji, Masayoshi; Jinno, Hideto; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which may cause a hazardous influence on human being such as sick building (sick house) syndrome, has become a serious problem. In this study, VOCs emitted from nine pieces of home furniture, three sets of dining tables, three sets of chest of drawers and three sofas, were analyzed as potential sources of indoor air pollution by large chamber test method (JIS A 1911). Based on the emission rates of total VOC (TVOC), the impacts on the indoor TVOC was estimated by the sample model with a volume of 20 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment values were exceeded the provisional target value for indoor air (400 microg/m3) in three sets of dining tables, one set of chest of drawer and one sofa. The estimated increment of formaldehyde were exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m3) in one set of dining table, two sets of chest of drawers and one sofa. These results revealed that VOC emissions from furniture may influence significantly indoor air quality. Also, in this study, to establish the alternative method for large chamber test methods, emission rates from representative three parts of furniture unit were evaluated using the small chamber and emission rate from full-sized furniture was predicted. Emission rates of TVOC and formaldehyde predicted by small chamber test were 3-46% and 6-252% of the data obtained using large chamber test, respectively.

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Murphy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC made using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS aboard the UK Facility for Atmospheric Airborne Measurements during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA campaign. Observations were made during approximately 85 h of flying time between 17 July and 17 August 2006, above an area between 4° N and 18° N and 3° W and 4° E, encompassing ocean, mosaic forest, and the Sahel desert. High time resolution observations of counts at mass to charge (m/z ratios of 42, 59, 69, 71, and 79 were used to calculate mixing ratios of acetonitrile, acetone, isoprene, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, and benzene respectively using laboratory-derived humidity-dependent calibration factors. Strong spatial associations between vegetation and isoprene and its oxidation products were observed in the boundary layer, consistent with biogenic emissions followed by rapid atmospheric oxidation. Acetonitrile, benzene, and acetone were all enhanced in airmasses which had been heavily influenced by biomass burning. Benzene and acetone were also elevated in airmasses with urban influence from cities such as Lagos, Cotonou, and Niamey. The observations provide evidence that both deep convection and mixing associated with fair-weather cumulus were responsible for vertical redistribution of VOC emitted from the surface. Profiles over the ocean showed a depletion of acetone in the marine boundary layer, but no significant decrease for acetonitrile.

  10. Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese eucalyptus forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

    2001-07-01

    Emission to the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Eucalyptus globulus was studied in the laboratory with young specimen, and in the field with adult trees. Eucalyptus emits both monoterpenes and isoprene. The leaves of young trees emit at higher rates than the leaves of adult trees. The emission of isoprene is highly predominant during the day. The emission of isoprene is dependent on temperature and solar radiation. The emission rate follows the Guenther algorithm if a based emission factor of 32 {mu}gg{sub dw} {sup -1}h{sup -1} is used, increasing with temperature, to a maximum at 40{sup o}C. At higher temperatures there is a decrease in the emission rate. The main C{sub 10} emitted is 1,8-cineol. Cineol emissions increase exponentially with temperature, and are also seasonally dependent. Application of the emission algorithm to the Portuguese eucalyptus forests shows that during summer isoprene and monoterpene emissions by eucalyptus are of the same order of anthropogenic VOC production. Furthermore, in certain regions, in the center-north of Portugal, where eucalyptus forests are predominant, isoprene emissions can reach an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic production of VOCs during daytime periods in July and August. (Author)

  11. Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

    2014-10-01

    Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of volatile organic compounds from bacteria on nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, You-Yao; Lu, Hao; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Li, Guo-Hong

    2015-09-01

    The five studied bacterial strains could produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that kill nematodes. Based on their 16S rRNA sequences, these strains were identified as Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Wautersiella falsenii, Proteus hauseri, Arthrobacter nicotianae, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. The bacterial VOCs were extracted using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and subsequently identified by GC/MS analysis. The VOCs covered a wide range of aldehydes, ketones, alkyls, alcohols, alkenes, esters, alkynes, acids, ethers, as well as heterocyclic and phenolic compounds. Among the 53 VOCs identified, 19 candidates, produced by different bacteria, were selected to test their nematicidal activity (NA) against Caenorhabditis elegans and Meloidogyne incognita. The seven compounds with the highest NAs were acetophenone, S-methyl thiobutyrate, dimethyl disulfide, ethyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate, nonan-2-one, 1-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, and butyl isovalerate. Among them, S-methyl thiobutyrate showed a stronger NA than the commercial insecticide dimethyl disulfide. It was reported for the first time here that the five bacterial strains as well as S-methyl thiobutyrate, ethyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate, 1-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, and butyl isovalerate possess NA. These strains and compounds might provide new insights in the search for novel nematicides. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  14. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  15. Measurements of volatile organic compounds over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. G.; Oram, D. E.; Reeves, C. E.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we describe measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) made using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) aboard the UK Facility for Atmospheric Airborne Measurements during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) campaign. Observations were made during approximately 85 h of flying time between 17 July and 17 August 2006, above an area between 4° N and 18° N and 3° W and 4° E, encompassing ocean, mosaic forest, and the Sahel desert. High time resolution observations of counts at mass to charge (m/z) ratios of 42, 59, 69, 71, and 79 were used to calculate mixing ratios of acetonitrile, acetone, isoprene, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, and benzene respectively using laboratory-derived humidity-dependent calibration factors. Strong spatial associations between vegetation and isoprene and its oxidation products were observed in the boundary layer, consistent with biogenic emissions followed by rapid atmospheric oxidation. Acetonitrile, benzene, and acetone were all enhanced in airmasses which had been heavily influenced by biomass burning. Benzene and acetone were also elevated in airmasses with urban influence from cities such as Lagos, Cotonou, and Niamey. The observations provide evidence that both deep convection and mixing associated with fair-weather cumulus were responsible for vertical redistribution of VOC emitted from the surface. Profiles over the ocean showed a depletion of acetone in the marine boundary layer, but no significant decrease for acetonitrile.

  16. Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-12-01

    Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  17. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent and an urban site (North Kensington, London. The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  18. Volatile organic compounds emissions from gasoline and diesel powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vega, E; Sanchez, G; Reyes, E; Arriaga, J. L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Chow, J; Watson, J; Egami, R [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this research, volatile organic compound emissions were characterized from gasoline and diesel vehicles. Sampling campaigns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were designed and carried out in tunnels, crossroads, and truck and bus terminals. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography getting more than 250 different compounds, being more or less 60 of them the 80% of all the emissions. The most abundant are the two carbon compounds, as a result of the combustion, and compounds related to fuels compositions, like isopentane, xylenes, toluene among others. The profiles obtained in tunnels and crossroads were very similar with the exception of the 3 and 4 carbon compounds, which were found in bigger proportion in the profiles at crossroads. This may probably be due to the blend with the ambient air. The profiles corresponding to trucks and buses have a smaller content of two carbon compounds and a bigger content of xylenes, toluene and ethylbenzene. The variations in the proportions of the compounds allow differentiating the profiles of vehicles using gasoline and diesel. [Spanish] En este trabajo se caracterizaron las emisiones de compuestos organicos volatiles provenientes de vehiculos a gasolina y a diesel. Para ello, se disenaron diversas campanas de muestreo en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico, en tuneles, cruceros y estaciones de camiones de carga y autobuses. Las muestras se analizaron con cromatografia, de gases obteniendose mas de 250 compuestos distintos, de los cuales aproximadamente 60 corresponden a mas del 80% de las emisiones. Los compuestos mas abundantes son los de dos carbonos, resultado de la combustion, y 4 carbonos que se encontraron en mayor proporcion en los perfiles de cruceros, lo cual se debe probablemente a la mezcla con el aire ambiente. Los perfiles correspondientes a camiones de carga y autobuses tienen un menor contenido de compuestos de dos carbonos y un mayor contenido de xilenos, tolueno y etilbenceno. Estas

  19. Estimating exposure to volatile organic compounds from municipal water-supply systems: use of a better computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, M M; Maslia, M L; Ulirsch, G V; Reyes, J J

    1996-01-01

    The Southington, Connecticut, water-supply system is characterized by a distribution network that contains more than 1 700 pipeline segments of varying diameters and construction materials, more than 186 mi (299 km) of pipe, 9 groundwater extraction wells capable of pumping more than 4 700 gal/min (0.2965 m3/s), and 3 municipal reservoirs. Volatile organic compounds, which contaminated the underlying groundwater reservoir during the 1970s, contaminated the water-supply system and exposed the town's residents to volatile organic chemicals. We applied a computational model to the water-supply system to characterize and quantify the distribution of volatile organic compounds in the pipelines, from which we estimated the demographic distribution of potential exposure to the town's residents. Based on results from modeling analyses, we concluded the following: (a) exposure to volatile organic compound contamination may vary significantly from one census block to another, even when these census blocks are adjacent to each other within a specified radius; (b) maximum spatial spread of contamination in a water-distribution system may not occur under peak demand conditions, and, therefore, maximum spatial distribution of the exposed population also may not correspond to peak demand conditions, and (c) use of the proposed computational model allows for a more refined and rigorous methodology with which to estimate census-block-level contamination for exposure assessment and epidemiologic investigations.

  20. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds in permeable ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The Edison Environmental Center (EEC) has a research and demonstration permeable parking lot comprised of three different permeable systems: permeable asphalt, porous concrete and interlocking concrete permeable pavers. Water quality and quantity analysis has been ongoing since January, 2010. This paper describes a subset of the water quality analysis, analysis of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) to determine if hydrocarbons were in water infiltrated through the permeable surfaces. SVOCs were analyzed in samples collected from 11 dates over a 3 year period, from 2/8/2010 to 4/1/2013.Results are broadly divided into three categories: 42 chemicals were never detected; 12 chemicals (11 chemical test) were detected at a rate of less than 10% or less; and 22 chemicals were detected at a frequency of 10% or greater (ranging from 10% to 66.5% detections). Fundamental and exploratory statistical analyses were performed on these latter analyses results by grouping results by surface type. The statistical analyses were limited due to low frequency of detections and dilutions of samples which impacted detection limits. The infiltrate data through three permeable surfaces were analyzed as non-parametric data by the Kaplan-Meier estimation method for fundamental statistics; there were some statistically observable difference in concentration between pavement types when using Tarone-Ware Comparison Hypothesis Test. Additionally Spearman Rank order non-parame

  1. Detection of Volatile Organics Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Array System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON, LAWRENCE F.; BARTHOLOMEW, JOHN W.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; COLBURN, CHRISTOPHER W.; CROOKS, R.M.; MARTINEZ, R.F.; OSBOURN, GORDON C.; RICCO, A.J.; STATON, ALAN W.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.

    1999-10-14

    A chemical sensing system based on arrays of surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines has been developed for identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The individual SAW chemical sensors consist of interdigital transducers patterned on the surface of an ST-cut quartz substrate to launch and detect the acoustic waves and a thin film coating in the SAW propagation path to perturb the acoustic wave velocity and attenuation during analyte sorption. A diverse set of material coatings gives the sensor arrays a degree of chemical sensitivity and selectivity. Materials examined for sensor application include the alkanethiol-based self-assembled monolayer, plasma-processed films, custom-synthesized conventional polymers, dendrimeric polymers, molecular recognition materials, electroplated metal thin films, and porous metal oxides. All of these materials target a specific chemical fi.mctionality and the enhancement of accessible film surface area. Since no one coating provides absolute analyte specificity, the array responses are further analyzed using a visual-empirical region-of-influence (VERI) pattern recognition algorithm. The chemical sensing system consists of a seven-element SAW array with accompanying drive and control electronics, sensor signal acquisition electronics, environmental vapor sampling hardware, and a notebook computer. Based on data gathered for individual sensor responses, greater than 93%-accurate identification can be achieved for any single analyte from a group of 17 VOCs and water.

  2. A Novel Inlet System for On-line Chemical Analysis of Semi-Volatile Submicron Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisthaler, A.; Eichler, P.; Müller, M.; D'anna, B.

    2014-12-01

    We herein present the concept of a novel modular inlet system that allows using gas-phase analyzers for on-line chemical characterization of semi-volatile submicron particles. The "Chemical analysis of aerosol on-line" (CHARON) inlet consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes, an aerodynamic lens for particle enrichment in the sampling flow and a thermo-desorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. We coupled the CHARON inlet to a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) which quantitatively detects most organic analytes and ammonia. The combined set-up measures submicron organic and ammonium nitrate/sulfate particles online. Proof-of-principle studies were carried out for demonstrating the analytical power of the new set-up in analyzing primarily emitted and secondarily generated particles. A promising future application is the study of the partitioning of organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase.

  3. Microcantilever sensors coated with a sensitive polyaniline layer for detecting volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, C; Leite, F L; Manzoli, A; Sandovall, R D; Fatibello, O; Herrmann, P S P

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a silicon cantilever sensor coated with a conducting polymer layer. The mechanical response (deflection) of the bimaterial (the coated microcantilever) was investigated under the influence of several volatile compounds-methanol, ethanol, acetone, propanol, dichloroethane, toluene and benzene. The variations in the deflection of the coated and uncoated microcantilevers when exposed to volatile organic compounds were evaluated, and the results indicated that the highest sensitivity was obtained with the coated microcantilever and methanol. The uncoated microcantilever was not sensitive to the volatile organic compounds. An increase in the concentration of the volatile organic compound resulted in higher deflections of the microcantilever sensor. The sensor responses were reversible, sensible, rapid and proportional to the volatile concentration.

  4. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  5. Effect of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the volatile chemical profile of Shiraz wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitener, M. E.B.; Stanstrup, J.; Carlin, S.

    2017-01-01

    with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), had on the volatile chemical profile of Shiraz wine. Methods and Results: Shiraz grape must was inoculated with monocultures of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which were allowed to ferment until 2% v/v ethanol concentration was reached at which point, SC was added to complete...... the alcoholic fermentation. The control was SC in monoculture. The final wines were subjected to solid phase microextraction-GC × GC-time of flight-MS to evaluate the untargeted volatile metabolite profile of each treatment. Each fermentation produced a unique chemical profile. The LT–SC sequential fermentation...... was the most significantly different from the control primarily in the ester, alcohol and terpene profile. The KA–SC sequential fermentation had the highest amount of volatile acidity, and the PK–SC sequential fermentation had a relatively high amount of acetaldehyde and a few esters. The MP–SC sequential...

  6. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the megacity of Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paciga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 µg m−3 and another 35–40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs with effective saturation concentrations C* of 10−3–0.1 µg m−3 and ELVOCs C* less or equal than 10−4 µg m−3, respectively. The winter cooking OA (COA was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs with C* in the 1–100 µg m−3 range and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %, LVOCs (25 % and ELVOCs (30 %. The volatility of marine OA (MOA was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 % and LVOCs (30 %. Finally, combining the bulk average O : C ratios and volatility distributions of the various factors, our results are placed into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS framework. The OA factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct

  7. Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air...... a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and volatile organic compound. Such sensing technology can be used to screen for relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas phase. This sensor...... array is inexpensive, and can potentially be produced as single use disposable....

  8. Peat fires and air quality: volatile organic compounds and particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D; Hinwood, A L; Horwitz, P

    2009-07-01

    There are numerous localized peat deposits on the Swan Coastal Plain, an urban and rural bioregion otherwise dominated by wetland ecosystems in southwestern Australia. Hydrological change is significant in the bioregion: urban development encroaches on wetlands, groundwater extraction provides the city population with most of its water, and rainfall declines will not recharge aquifers in the future. The wetland processes which contribute to the formation of these peat deposits have therefore changed and are becoming vulnerable to fire events with residents increasingly exposed to peat smoke. There is an imperative to characterise this peat smoke to determine if exposures are harmful or toxic, and opportunities to do so in this setting arise due to the absence of bushfire smoke which has confounded other international studies. We have measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate concentrations from an opportunistic assessment of two peat fires. SUMMA canister grab samples and a portable GCMS were used to determine the VOCs with high 1h benzene concentrations of 16 and 30 ppm v/v. PM10 and PM2.5 particulate data were collected using an Osiris continuous analyser with 24h concentrations recorded at varying time periods (within a 5 months timeframe) ranging from 1h maximums of between 23-37 microgm(-3) for PM10 and 50.5-106 microgm(-3) for PM2.5. While the 24h averages were generally below national air quality standards, elevated 1h concentrations were observed on numerous occasions and on most days. Given the proximity of residential development to many peat deposits, a drying climate and the increased risk of arson in peri-urban environments, the health impacts of exposure to peat smoke need to be determined and if necessary measures developed to prevent exposure (which would include maintaining wetland sediment integrity so as to reduce its vulnerability to fire).

  9. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  10. Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzeela Khalid

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate volatile organic compounds (VOCs emanating from urine samples to determine whether they can be used to classify samples into those from prostate cancer and non-cancer groups. Participants were men referred for a trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy because of an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA level or abnormal findings on digital rectal examination. Urine samples were collected from patients with prostate cancer (n = 59 and cancer-free controls (n = 43, on the day of their biopsy, prior to their procedure. VOCs from the headspace of basified urine samples were extracted using solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Classifiers were developed using Random Forest (RF and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA classification techniques. PSA alone had an accuracy of 62-64% in these samples. A model based on 4 VOCs, 2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol, pentanal, 3-octanone, and 2-octanone, was marginally more accurate 63-65%. When combined, PSA level and these four VOCs had mean accuracies of 74% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. With repeated double cross-validation, the mean accuracies fell to 71% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. Results from VOC profiling of urine headspace are encouraging and suggest that there are other metabolomic avenues worth exploring which could help improve the stratification of men at risk of prostate cancer. This study also adds to our knowledge on the profile of compounds found in basified urine, from controls and cancer patients, which is useful information for future studies comparing the urine from patients with other disease states.

  11. Stable carbon isotope ratios of ambient aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kornilova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of mixing ratios and stable carbon isotope ratios of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC in the atmosphere were made in Toronto (Canada in 2009 and 2010. Consistent with the kinetic isotope effect for reactions of aromatic VOC with the OH radical the observed stable carbon isotope ratios are on average significantly heavier than the isotope ratios of their emissions. The change of carbon isotope ratio between emission and observation is used to determine the extent of photochemical processing (photochemical age,  ∫ [OH]dt of the different VOC. It is found that  ∫ [OH]dt of different VOC depends strongly on the VOC reactivity. This demonstrates that for this set of observations the assumption of a uniform  ∫ [OH]dt for VOC with different reactivity is not justified and that the observed values for  ∫ [OH]dt are the result of mixing of VOC from air masses with different values for  ∫ [OH]dt. Based on comparison between carbon isotope ratios and VOC concentration ratios it is also found that the varying influence of sources with different VOC emission ratios has a larger impact on VOC concentration ratios than photochemical processing. It is concluded that for this data set the use of VOC concentration ratios to determine  ∫ [OH]dt would result in values for  ∫ [OH]dt inconsistent with carbon isotope ratios and that the concept of a uniform  ∫ [OH]dt for an air mass has to be replaced by the concept of individual values of an average  ∫ [OH]dt for VOC with different reactivity.

  12. Volatilization of low vapor pressure--volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) during three cleaning products-associated activities: Potential contributions to ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E; Bennett, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    There have been many studies to reduce ozone formation mostly from volatile organic compound (VOC) sources. However, the role of low vapor pressure (LVP)-VOCs from consumer products remains mostly unexplored and unaddressed. This study explores the impact of high production volume LVP-VOCs on ozone formation from three cleaning products-associated activities (dishwashing, clothes washing, and surface cleaning). We develop a model framework to account for the portion available for ozone formation during the use phase and from the down-the-drain disposal. We apply experimental studies that measured emission rates or models that were developed for estimating emission rates of organic compounds during the use phase. Then, the fraction volatilized (fvolatilized) and the fraction disposed down the drain (fdown-the-drain) are multiplied by the portion available for ozone formation for releases to the outdoor air (fO3|volatilized) and down-the-drain (fO3|down-the-drain), respectively. Overall, for chemicals used in three specific cleaning-product uses, fvolatilized is less than 0.6% for all studied LVP-VOCs. Because greater than 99.4% of compounds are disposed of down the drain during the use phase, when combined with fO3|volatilized and fO3|down-the-drain, the portion available for ozone formation from the direct releases to outdoor air and the down-the-drain disposal is less than 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the impact of the studied LVP-VOCs on ozone formation is very sensitive to what occurs during the use phase and suggest the need for future research on experimental work at the point of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Pioneer Plastics , Inc., Dixon, KY, USA) were used. Monobasic sodium phosphate (Fisher Scientific Chemical Co., Fairlawn, NJ) and adenine (Sigma...Johnson, grown in Cuba, Flavour Fragr. J. 17, 1-4. [89] M. Miyazava, S. Nagai and T. Oshima (2008). Volatile components of the straw of Oryza

  14. Seasonal variation in chemical composition, aroma volatiles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TSS and TA showed strong relationships with most of the chemical indices, each showing significantly (p < 0.05) strong correlations with phenolic components as well as with the antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH) measured. There were no significant (p < 0.05) seasonal effects on juice absorbance (colouration) and TA ...

  15. Volatile organic compounds in ventilated critical care patients: a systematic evaluation of cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppe, Tobias; Lorenz, Dominik; Wachowiak, Mario; Maurer, Felix; Meiser, Andreas; Groesdonk, Heinrich; Fink, Tobias; Sessler, Daniel I; Kreuer, Sascha

    2017-08-22

    Expired gas (exhalome) analysis of ventilated critical ill patients can be used for drug monitoring and biomarker diagnostics. However, it remains unclear to what extent volatile organic compounds are present in gases from intensive care ventilators, gas cylinders, central hospital gas supplies, and ambient air. We therefore systematically evaluated background volatiles in inspired gas and their influence on the exhalome. We used multi-capillary column ion-mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) breath analysis in five mechanically ventilated critical care patients, each over a period of 12 h. We also evaluated volatile organic compounds in inspired gas provided by intensive care ventilators, in compressed air and oxygen from the central gas supply and cylinders, and in the ambient air of an intensive care unit. Volatiles detectable in both inspired and exhaled gas with patient-to-inspired gas ratios compounds. A total of 76 unique MCC-IMS signals were detected, with 39 being identified volatile compounds: 73 signals were from the exhalome, 12 were identified in inspired gas from critical care ventilators, and 34 were from ambient air. Five volatile compounds were identified from the central gas supply, four from compressed air, and 17 from compressed oxygen. We observed seven contaminating volatiles with patient-to-inspired gas ratios Volatile organic compounds can be present in gas from central hospital supplies, compressed gas tanks, and ventilators. Accurate assessment of the exhalome in critical care patients thus requires frequent profiling of inspired gases and appropriate normalisation of the expired signals.

  16. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Oil of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al-Fatimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. By hydrodistillation extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against five bacteria strains and two types of fungi strains, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using DPPH assay. Four volatile compounds representing 90.5% of the total oil were identified. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by 1-octen-3-ol (amyl vinyl carbinol 1 (73.6% followed by 1-octen-3-ol acetate 2 (12.4%, phenylacetaldehyde 3 (3.0% and 6-camphenol 4 (1.5%. The results showed that the Gram-positive bacteria species are more sensitive to the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as Candida albicans. Moreover, the oil exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. This first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of G. pfeifferi volatile oil makes its pharmaceutical uses rational and provides a basis in the biological and phytochemical investigations of the volatile oils of Ganodermataceae species.

  17. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Oil of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fatimi, Mohamed; Wurster, Martina; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2016-04-28

    In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. By hydrodistillation extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against five bacteria strains and two types of fungi strains, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using DPPH assay. Four volatile compounds representing 90.5% of the total oil were identified. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by 1-octen-3-ol (amyl vinyl carbinol) 1 (73.6%) followed by 1-octen-3-ol acetate 2 (12.4%), phenylacetaldehyde 3 (3.0%) and 6-camphenol 4 (1.5%). The results showed that the Gram-positive bacteria species are more sensitive to the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as Candida albicans . Moreover, the oil exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. This first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of G. pfeifferi volatile oil makes its pharmaceutical uses rational and provides a basis in the biological and phytochemical investigations of the volatile oils of Ganodermataceae species.

  18. A push-pull test to measure root uptake of volatile chemicals from wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew C; Jaffé, Peter R

    2013-04-02

    This paper introduces a novel modification of the single-well "push-pull" test that uses nonvolatile and multiple volatile tracers to investigate the transport and root uptake kinetics of volatile chemicals in saturated soils. This technique provides an estimate of potential volatilization fluxes without relying on enclosure-based measurements. The new push-pull methodology was validated with mesocosm experiments, and bench-scale hydroponic measurements were performed to develop an empirical relationship for scaling root uptake rates between chemicals. A new modeling approach to interpret data using sulfur hexafluoride and helium as dual volatile tracers was developed and shown to decrease errors relative to existing analytical techniques that utilize bromide as a conservative tracer. Root uptake of the volatile tracers was diffusion-limited, and uptake rate constants (kv) in vegetated experimental mesocosms ranged from 0.021 ± 9.0 × 10(-4) h(-1) for CFC-12 to 2.41 ± 0.98 h(-1) for helium. Hydroponic and mesocosm experiments demonstrate that the molecular diameter is a robust empirical predictor of kv.

  19. Volatile organic compound (VOC) determination in working atmospheres; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles (VOC) en ambiente laboral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A; Corrales C, Deyanira [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes, in a synthesized way, the implementation and application of procedures based on the normativity related to the subject of the volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds VOC), that allow to sample, quantify and evaluate the present contamination in the working atmosphere of a refinery due to the fugitive emissions of VOC and other substances. In accordance with the corresponding normativity, more than 189 organic compounds denominated dangerous air polluting agents (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP) can be found in a working atmosphere, but they are the 11 main HAP that can be found in a refinery. In the present article the work made for the sampling and quantification of 5 of the 11 dangerous polluting agents of the air: benzene, toluene, xylene, iso-octane and naphthalene. [Spanish] El presente trabajo describe, de manera sintetizada, la implementacion y aplicacion de procedimientos basados en la normatividad relacionada al tema de los compuestos organicos volatiles (Volatil Organic Compounds, VOC), que permiten muestrear, cuantificar y evaluar la contaminacion presente en el ambiente laboral de una refineria debido a las emisiones fugitivas de VOC y otras sustancias. De acuerdo con la normatividad correspondiente, mas de 189 compuestos organicos denominados contaminantes peligrosos del aire (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP), pueden ser encontrados en un ambiente laboral, pero son 11 los principales HAP que pueden ser hallados en una refineria. En el presente articulo se informa el trabajo realizado para el muestreo y cuantificacion de 5 de los 11 contaminantes peligrosos del aire: benceno, tolueno, xileno, iso-octano y naftaleno.

  20. Phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from the endophyte Hypoxylon anthochroum strain Blaci isolated from Bursera lancifolia (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Benítez, Á; Medina-Romero, Y M; Sánchez-Fernández, R E; Lappe-Oliveras, P; Roque-Flores, G; Duarte Lisci, G; Herrera Suárez, T; Macías-Rubalcava, M L

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the phytotoxic, antifungal and antioomycete activity; and, determine the chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile metabolites produced by the endophyte Hypoxylon anthochroum strain Blaci isolated from Bursera lancifolia. Based on its macro- and micro-morphological features, the strain Blaci was identified as Nodulisporium sp.; partial analysis of its ITS1-5.8-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence revealed the identity of the teleomorphic stage of the fungus as H. anthochroum. Phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of VOCs, and culture medium and mycelium organic extracts from H. anthochroum Blaci were determined by simple and multiple antagonism bioassays, and gas phase and agar dilution bioassays respectively. The volatile and semi-volatile metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. VOCs from a 5-day H. anthochroum strain Blaci culture caused the inhibition of seed germination, root elongation and seedling respiration on Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Panicum miliaceum, Trifolium pratense and Medicago sativa. In addition, extracts, phenylethyl alcohol and eucalyptol main compounds present in the VOCs and extract displayed a high phytotoxic activity, inhibiting the three physiological processes on the four test plants in a concentration-dependent manner. The results revealed that H. anthochroum strain Blaci produces a mixture of VOCs. These VOCs showed a strong phytotoxic activity on seed germination, root elongation, and seedling respiration of four plants and slightly affected the growth of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Also, the culture medium and mycelium extracts of H. anthochroum showed a high phytotoxic activity on the four test plants and, generally, the culture medium extract was more phytotoxic than the mycelium extracts. This work firstly reports the phytotoxic activity of volatile and semi-volatile compounds produced by the endophyte H. anthochroum strain Blaci on seed

  1. Preliminary assessment of a model to predict mold contamination based on microbial volatile organic compound profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouf, Ryan F; Schuckers, Stephanie A; Rossner, Alan

    2010-08-01

    Identification of mold growth based on microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) may be a viable alternative to current bioaerosol assessment methodologies. A feed-forward back propagation (FFBP) artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to correlate MVOCs with bioaerosol levels in built environments. A cross-validation MATLAB script was developed to train the ANN and produce model results. Entech Bottle-Vacs were used to collect chemical grab samples at 10 locations in northern NY during 17 sampling periods from July 2006 to August 2007. Bioaerosol samples were collected concurrently with chemical samples. An Anderson N6 impactor was used in conjunction with malt extract agar and dichloran glycerol 18 to collect viable mold samples. Non-viable samples were collected with Air-O-Cell cassettes. Chemical samples and bioaerosol samples were used as model inputs and model targets, respectively. Previous researchers have suggested the use of MVOCs as indicators of mold growth without the use of a pattern recognition program limiting their success. The current proposed strategy implements a pattern recognition program making it instrumental for field applications. This paper demonstrates that FFBP ANN may be used in conjunction with chemical sampling in built environments to predict the presence of mold growth. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of Volatile Organic Compounds as an Alternative for Destructive Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Ojala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions is a necessity of today. The catalytic treatment has already proven to be environmentally and economically sound technology for the total oxidation of the VOCs. However, in certain cases, it may also become economical to utilize these emissions in some profitable way. Currently, the most common way to utilize the VOC emissions is their use in energy production. However, interesting possibilities are arising from the usage of VOCs in hydrogen and syngas production. Production of chemicals from VOC emissions is still mainly at the research stage. However, few commercial examples exist. This review will summarize the commercially existing VOC utilization possibilities, present the utilization applications that are in the research stage and introduce some novel ideas related to the catalytic utilization possibilities of the VOC emissions. In general, there exist a vast number of possibilities for VOC utilization via different catalytic processes, which creates also a good research potential for the future.

  3. [Environmental monitoring of volatile organic compounds and metallic elements in two analysis laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonzi, Roberto; De Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in analytical chemistry laboratories is somewhat tricky because exposure levels are highly variable and the number of toxic compounds, often used in combination, may be very high. This study was designed to evaluate airborne levels of VOCs and metallic elements associated to inhalable dusts in two Italian labs. The airborne levels of VOCs and elements fell well below the occupational exposure limit values recorded in the Italian law (D.lgs. 81/2008, Allegato XXXVIII) and the TLV-TWA from the list of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The determination of measurable levels of toxic and potentially carcinogenic compounds in office rooms may be of interest for personnel not specifically engaged to handle chemicals.

  4. Chemical composition of the semi-volatile grains of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Peter; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bieler, André; Calmonte, Ursina; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fuselier, Stefan; Gasc, Sébastien; Gombosi, Tamas; Jäckel, Annette; Korth, Axel; Le Roy, Lena; Mall, Urs; Rème, Henri; Rubin, Martin; Tzou, Chia-Yu

    2017-04-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft (Glassmeier et al., 2007) has been in orbit of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) since August 2014. On board is the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) instrument suite (Balsiger et al., 2007). ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers, the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) and the Reflectron-type Time-Of-Flight (RTOF) (Scherer et al., 2006), as well as the COmet Pressure Sensor (COPS). ROSINA is designed to detect and monitor the neutral gas and thermal plasma environment in the comet's coma by in situ investigation. The two mass spectrometers have high dynamic ranges and complement each other with high mass resolution (DFMS) and high time resolution and large mass range (RTOF). Especially the unprecedented sensitivity and mass resolution of DFMS together with the large mass range of RTOF allow determining precisely light species (e.g. isotopologues) as well as detecting heavy organic species. The pressure sensor COPS measures total gas densities, bulk velocities, and gas temperatures. ROSINA has been collecting data on the composition of the coma and activity of the comet from 3.5 AU to pericentre and out again to 3.5 AU. The Rosetta mission presents a unique opportunity to directly sample the parent species in the thin cometary atmosphere of a Kuiper-belt object at distances in excess of 2.5 AU from the Sun all the way to the pericentre of the cometary orbit at 1.24 AU. The ROSINA experiment continuously measured the chemical composition of the gases in the cometary coma. Occasionally, a dust grain of cometary origin enters the ion source of a ROSINA instrument where the volatile part evaporates since these ion sources are hot. We will report on the first measurements of the volatile inventory of such dust grains. Volatile release from cometary dust grains was observed with all three ROSINA instruments on several occasions. Because the volatile content of such a dust

  5. Color Coding Organic Chemicals for Inventory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, V. P.; George, Babu

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system in which organic chemicals are recoded for inventory control and reshelving purposes. The system works well in undergraduate organic chemistry or biology laboratories but can be expanded to handle a larger and more complicated inventory. (JN)

  6. PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE CALCIUM FUNCTION IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELLS BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic solvents such as toluene (TOL) and trichloroethylene perturb nervous system function and share characteristic effects with other central nervous system depressants such as anesthetic gasses, ethanol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recently, mechanistic studies...

  7. Volatile Organic Compounds Sensing Using Optical Fibre Long Period Grating with Mesoporous Nano-Scale Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hromadka, Jiri; Korposh, Sergiy; Partridge, Matthew; James, Stephen; Davis, Frank; Crump, Derrick; Tatam, Ralph

    2017-01-01

      A long period grating (LPG) modified with a mesoporous film infused with a calixarene as a functional compound was employed for the detection of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their mixtures...

  8. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  9. Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds as a screening tool for detection of Tuberculosis in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Keywords: bovine tuberculosis; Mycobacterium bovis; breath analysis; volatile organic compound; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; NaNose • Introduction: This presentation describes two studies exploring the use of breath VOCs to identify Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. • Methods: ...

  10. Fact Sheets for the Architectural Coating Rule for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 1998 fact sheet with information regarding the National Volatile Organic Compounds Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings Rule. This page also contains information on applicability and compliance for this rule.

  11. Multiscale Modelling Approach for a Fungal Biofilter Unit for the Hydrophobic Abatement of Volatile Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara-Fernández, A.; Rebolledo-Castro, J.; Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Currently, biofiltration has become a viable and potential alternative for the treatment of airstreams with low concentrations of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can employ to this end, diverse microorganisms (such as, bacteria, fungal or microbial consortia, etc.) growing...

  12. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

  13. Indoor Semi-volatile Organic Compounds (i-SVOC) Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    i-SVOC Version 1.0 is a general-purpose software application for dynamic modeling of the emission, transport, sorption, and distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor environments.

  14. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

  15. PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE Ca2+ CHANNEL FUNCTION BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms underlying the acute neurophysiological and behavioral effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain to be elucidated. However, the function of neuronal ion channels is perturbed by VOCs. The present study examined effects of toluene (TOL), trichloroethylene ...

  16. Simultaneous analysis of phytohormones, phytotoxins, and volatile organic compounds in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Eric A; Engelberth, Juergen; Alborn, Hans T; O'Donnell, Phillip; Sammons, Matt; Toshima, Hiroaki; Tumlinson, James H

    2003-09-02

    Phytohormones regulate the protective responses of plants against both biotic and abiotic stresses by means of synergistic or antagonistic actions referred to as signaling crosstalk. A bottleneck in crosstalk research is the quantification of numerous interacting phytohormones and regulators. The chemical analysis of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid is typically achieved by using separate and complex methodologies. Moreover, pathogen-produced phytohormone mimics, such as the phytotoxin coronatine (COR), have not been directly quantified in plant tissues. We address these problems by using a simple preparation and a GC-MS-based metabolic profiling approach. Plant tissue is extracted in aqueous 1-propanol and mixed with dichloromethane. Carboxylic acids present in the organic layer are methylated by using trimethylsilyldiazomethane; analytes are volatilized under heat, collected on a polymeric absorbent, and eluted with solvent into a sample vial. Analytes are separated by using gas chromatography and quantified by using chemical-ionization mass spectrometry that produces predominantly [M+H]+ parent ions. We use this technique to examine levels of COR, phytohormones, and volatile organic compounds in model systems, including Arabidopsis thaliana during infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, corn (Zea mays) under herbivory by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) after mechanical damage, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during drought stress. Numerous complex changes induced by pathogen infection, including the accumulation of COR, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid illustrate the potential and simplicity of this approach in quantifying signaling crosstalk interactions that occur at the level of synthesis and accumulation.

  17. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer.

  18. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  19. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kamila; Podmore, Ian

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer. PMID:26317039

  20. Screening of Natural Organic Volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. Honey: Coumarin and Vomifoliol as Nonspecific Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Malenica Staver

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v, solvent B: dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%–24.2% in both extracts (dominant in solvent B and coumarin (0.3%–2.4% from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A and headspace (0.9%–1.8% were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey’s botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  1. Microextraction techniques for the determination of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds from plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Wang, Juan; Li, Donghao

    2013-10-17

    Vegetables and fruits are necessary for human health, and traditional Chinese medicine that uses plant materials can cure diseases. Thus, understanding the composition of plant matrix has gained increased attention in recent years. Since plant matrix is very complex, the extraction, separation and quantitation of these chemicals are challenging. In this review we focus on the microextraction techniques used in the determination of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (such as esters, alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, sesquiterpene, phenols, acids, plant secondary metabolites and pesticides) from plants (e.g., fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, tree leaves, etc.). These microextraction techniques include: solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), single drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME), and gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE). We have taken into consideration papers published from 2008 to the end of January 2013, and provided critical and interpretative review on these techniques, and formulated future trends in microextraction for the determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds from plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Speciation of volatile organic compound emissions for regional air quality modeling of particulate matter and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Scholtz, M. T.; Taylor, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new classification scheme for the speciation of organic compound emissions for use in air quality models is described. The scheme uses 81 organic compound classes to preserve both net gas-phase reactivity and particulate matter (PM) formation potential. Chemical structure, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, freezing point/boiling point, and solubility data were used to create the 81 compound classes. Volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic compounds are included. The new classification scheme has been used in conjunction with the Canadian Emissions Processing System (CEPS) to process 1990 gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound emissions data for summer and winter conditions for a domain covering much of eastern North America. A simple postprocessing model was used to analyze the speciated organic emissions in terms of both gas-phase reactivity and potential to form organic PM. Previously unresolved compound classes that may have a significant impact on ozone formation include biogenic high-reactivity esters and internal C6-8 alkene-alcohols and anthropogenic ethanol and propanol. Organic radical production associated with anthropogenic organic compound emissions may be 1 or more orders of magnitude more important than biogenic-associated production in northern United States and Canadian cities, and a factor of 3 more important in southern U.S. cities. Previously unresolved organic compound classes such as low vapour pressure PAHs, anthropogenic diacids, dialkyl phthalates, and high carbon number alkanes may have a significant impact on organic particle formation. Primary organic particles (poorly characterized in national emissions databases) dominate total organic particle concentrations, followed by secondary formation and primary gas-particle partitioning. The influence of the assumed initial aerosol water concentration on subsequent thermodynamic calculations suggests that hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds may form external

  3. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  4. A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

  5. Volatile organic compound emission factors from roadside measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Hiroto; Minami, Shigeki; Hanai, Yoshimichi; Fushimi, Akihiro

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a significant role in the generation of urban photochemical smog. In addition, some VOCs, such as benzene, are harmful to human health. In Japan, motor vehicles are the dominant source of VOCs. Therefore, it is important to determine the emission of VOCs from vehicles in order to estimate human risk and the production mechanisms of photochemical smog. In this study, we estimated emission factors with a methodology that considered the following points: (1) real-world emissions, (2) individual VOCs, (3) low vehicle speeds, (4) low investigation cost, and (5) user-friendly methodology. Samples were collected approximately 5 m from each side of National Route No. 467 in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Sampling consisted of twelve 1-h sampling periods at three points on three dates: 21 February 2003 (7:00-19:00), 13 May 2003 (7:00-19:00), and 13 September 2003 (8:00-20:00). The samples were analyzed using GC/FID and GC/MS. In addition, information on vehicle types, traffic volumes, and weather conditions was collected from beside the road. Emission factors of individual VOCs were estimated from the measured data by running the CALINE4 dispersion model as an inverse model. The average speed of all vehicles was 22 km h -1; 81.3% of all vehicles were light-duty vehicles, 12.3% were heavy-duty vehicles, and 6.5% were motorcycles. We estimated the emission factors of 34 individual VOCs. The emission factors for all vehicles combined averaged over all sampling days ranged from 0.25 to 51 mg vehicle -1 km -1. The emission factors of benzene and toluene were 5.2 and 17 mg vehicle -1 km -1, respectively. In addition, the estimated emission factors were compared with those estimated from other recent studies. The emission factors for light-duty vehicles (LDVs), heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs), and motorcycles separately were also estimated by using a non-negative least squares method. However, these emission factors were found to be unreliable for

  6. Spatial variation of volatile organic compounds and carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-12

    May 12, 2013 ... Rapid urbanization in developing countries has led to increased air pollution due to increased vehicular and industrial emissions (Fenger, 1999; Akimoto, 2003). Examples of atmospheric pollutants include volatile orga- nic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO). The use of fossil fuels (for example ...

  7. Volatility of source apportioned wintertime organic aerosol in the city of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvaris, Evangelos E.; Florou, Kalliopi; Karnezi, Eleni; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Gkatzelis, Georgios I.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-06-01

    The volatility distribution of ambient organic aerosol (OA) and its components was measured during the winter of 2013 in the city of Athens combining a thermodenuder (TD) and a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of both the ambient and the thermodenuder AMS-spectra resulted in a four-factor solution for the OA, namely: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), cooking OA (COA), and oxygenated OA (OOA). The thermograms of the four factors were analyzed and the corresponding volatility distributions were estimated using the volatility basis set (VBS). All four factors included compounds with a wide range of effective volatilities from 10 to less than 10-4 μg m-3 at 298 K. Almost 40% of the HOA consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) with the semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) representing roughly 30%, while the remaining 30% consisted of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs). BBOA was more volatile than the HOA factor on average, with 10% ELVOCs, 40% LVOCs, and 50% SVOCs. 10% of the COA consisted of ELVOCs, another 65% LVOCs, and 50% SVOCs. Finally, the OOA was the least volatile factor and included 40% ELVOCs, 25% LVOCs, and 35% SVOCs. Combining the volatility distributions and the O:C ratios of the various factors, we placed our results in the 2D-VBS analysis framework of Donahue et al. (2012). HOA and BBOA are in the expected region but also include an ELVOC component. COA is in similar range as HOA, but on average is half an order of magnitude more volatile. The OOA in these wintertime conditions had a moderate O:C ratio and included both semi-volatile and extremely low volatility components. The above results are sensitive to the assumed values of the effective vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. A reduction of the accommodation coefficient by an order of magnitude or the reduction of the vaporization enthalpy by 20 kJ mol-1

  8. Factorization methods applied to characterize the sources of volatile organic compounds in Montreal, Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Porada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study objective was to assemble emission characteristics of the sources of the ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs and to elaborate methods of organizing them into the sources’ chemical profiles. Material and Methods: The UNMIX – sensor modeling method from the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA – was used to process the VOC concentration data acquired over the years 2000–2009 for 175 VOC species in 4 air quality monitoring stations in Montreal, Quebec. Results: The method enabled to assess VOC emissions from the typically distributed sources existing in urban environment and VOC occurrences characterizing the local, or point-like, sources. The distributed sources were inextricably associated with hydrocarbons from exhaust, heavier hydrocarbons from contaminated urban soil, fugitive evaporations of gasoline and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG, leakage from the industrial and commercial use of solvents, and the inert, ozone depleting gases permeating urban atmosphere. The sources’ profiles were charted involving 60–120 VOC species per source. Spatial distribution of the sources was examined. Conclusions: The UNMIX application and the source profiling methods, by building robust chemical profiles of VOC sources, provided information that can be used to assign the measured VOC emissions to physical sources. This, in turn, provides means of assessing the impact of environmental policies, on one hand, and of industrial activities on the other hand on VOC air pollution.

  9. Diurnal and seasonal variability of gasoline-related volatile organic compound emissions in Riverside, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Drew R; Harley, Robert A; Miller, Angela M; Goldstein, Allen H

    2009-06-15

    On- and off-road mobile sources are the dominant contributors to urban anthropogenic volatile organic compound (AVOC) emissions. Analyses of gasoline samples from California for both summer and winter indicate significant differences in liquid fuel and vapor chemical composition due to intentional seasonal adjustments. Ambient concentrations of 55 VOCs were measured via in situ gas chromatography in the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR) during both summer and fall. A chemical mass balance analysis was used to differentiate vapor pressure-driven VOC emissions from other motor vehicle-related emissions such as tailpipe exhaust. Overall, fuel vapor emissions accounted for 31 +/- 2% of gasoline-related VOC in Riverside; California's emission factor model similarly estimates 31% of gasoline-related VOC emissions are fuel vapor. The diurnal pattern of vapor pressure-driven VOC source contributions is relatively stable around 10 microg/m3, while whole gasoline (i.e., tailpipe) contributions peak at approximately 60 microg/m3 during the morning commute. There is no peak in whole gasoline source contributions during the afternoon, due to rapid dilution associated with high mixing heights and wind speeds in the Riverside area. The relationship between estimated gasoline-related VOC and observed carbon monoxide concentrations in this study is similar to California's 2005 emission inventory; we calculated a VOC to CO mass ratio of 0.086 +/- 0.006 (95% CI) compared to 0.097 in the emission inventory for all gasoline-related sources.

  10. Geographical traceability of Italian white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) by the analysis of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioacchini, Anna Maria; Menotta, Michele; Guescini, Michele; Saltarelli, Roberta; Ceccaroli, Paola; Amicucci, Antonella; Barbieri, Elena; Giomaro, Giovanna; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2008-10-01

    Results are presented that were obtained on the geographic traceability of the white truffle Tuber magnatum Pico. Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was employed to characterize the volatile profile of T. magnatum white truffle produced in seven geographical areas of Italy. The main components of the volatile fraction were identified using SPME-GC/MS. Significant differences in the proportion of volatile constituents from truffles of different geographical areas were detected. The results suggest that, besides genetic factors, environmental conditions influence the formation of volatile organic compounds. The mass spectra of the volatile fraction of the samples were used as fingerprints to characterize the geographical origin. Next, stepwise factorial discriminant analysis afforded a limited number of characteristic fragment ions that allowed a geographical classification of the truffles studied.

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Bubonium imbricatum volatile oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKIM ALILOU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Bubonium imbricatum, an endemic plant of southern Morocco, was analysed. GC-MS showed 51 compounds, representing 60.2% of the total oil. Thymol isobutyrate (18.3% and 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (16.2% were the major constituents of the oil. The oil was tested for antifungal activity in mycelial growth inhibition tests in vitro against three agricultural pathogenic fungi: Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum and Botrytis cinerea. The oil at 1000 ppm was highly effective against mycelial growth of P. digitatum with 99% inhibition. For P. expansum and B. cinerea the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition at 1000 ppm was respectively 87.2% and 87.8%. At 2000 ppm the oil was 100% effective in controlling mycelial growth of all three fungi. B. imbricatum essential oil was also tested at different concentrations on citrus fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Nules inoculated with P. digitatum (105 conidia ml-1. The oil had a fungistatic or fungicidal effect on C. reticulata.

  12. RT-MATRIX: Measuring Total Organic Carbon by Photocatalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inevitably accumulate in enclosed habitats such as the International Space Station and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a result of human metabolism, material off-gassing, and leaking equipment. Some VOCs can negatively affect the quality of the crew's life, health, and performance; and consequently, the success of the mission. Air quality must be closely monitored to ensure a safe living and working environment. Currently, there is no reliable air quality monitoring system that meets NASA's stringent requirements for power, mass, volume, or performance. The ultimate objective of the project -- the development of a Real-Time, Miniaturized, Autonomous Total Risk Indicator System (RT.MATRIX).is to provide a portable, dual-function sensing system that simultaneously determines total organic carbon (TOC) and individual contaminants in air streams.

  13. Effects of rigorous emission controls on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Rongrong; Li, Yaqi; Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong; Zeng, Liming

    2016-07-01

    102 volatile organic compound (VOC) species were measured online using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at an urban site in Beijing in 11 August to 3 September 2015, when a series of rigorous air quality control measures were implemented in Beijing city and neighbouring provinces. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify emission sources from 1h averaged values of VOC data. Based on the online VOC data and the PMF analysis results, the effectiveness of different control measures were investigated. The PMF results were compared with an emission inventory data. Results show that the rigorous air quality restrictions implemented were successful. The averaged ambient VOC mixing ratios during the emission control period and non-control period were 27.53 and 45.42ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 40%. Alkanes were the most abundant chemical group in the two periods, followed by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Almost all quantified VOC species decreased during the control period. Tracers of industrial sources and vehicle exhaust reduced most, including some halocarbons, esters and aromatics. Eight sources were resolved by online PMF analysis for ambient VOCs in Beijing. Contributions of those sources varied significantly during the control and non-control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicle-related sources were most reduced, followed by solvent utilization. Reductions of vehicle-related sources, solvent utilization, secondary formation, fuel combustion, and biogenic were responsible for 65%, 19%, 10%, 5%, and 1% of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Both PMF results and emission inventory data indicated that the control measure on traffic was very effective in reducing ambient VOCs in Beijing, with the emission reductions of about 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sniffing on microbes: diverse roles of microbial volatile organic compounds in plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitas, Vasileios; Kim, Hye-Seon; Bennett, Joan W; Kang, Seogchan

    2013-08-01

    Secreted proteins and metabolites play diverse and critical roles in organismal and organism-environment interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) can travel far from the point of production through the atmosphere, porous soils, and liquid, making them ideal info-chemicals for mediating both short- and long-distance intercellular and organismal interactions. Critical ecological roles for animal- and plant-derived VOC in directing animal behaviors and for VOC as a language for plant-to-plant communication and regulators of various physiological processes have been well documented. Similarly, microbial VOC appear to be involved in antagonism, mutualism, intra- and interspecies regulation of cellular and developmental processes, and modification of their surrounding environments. However, the available knowledge of how microbial VOC affect other organisms is very limited. Evidence supporting diverse roles of microbial VOC with the focus on their impact on plant health is reviewed here. Given the vast diversity of microbes in nature and the critical importance of microbial communities associated with plants for their ecology and fitness, systematic exploration of microbial VOC and characterization of their biological functions and ecological roles will likely uncover novel mechanisms for controlling diverse biological processes critical to plant health and will also offer tangible practical benefits in addressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  15. Behavioural and Genetic Evidence for C. elegans' Ability to Detect Volatile Chemicals Associated with Explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Liao; Andrew Gock; Michelle Michie; Bethany Morton; Alisha Anderson; Stephen Trowell

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: W...

  16. Transient receptor potential channels encode volatile chemicals sensed by rat trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lübbert

    Full Text Available Primary sensory afferents of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia constantly transmit sensory information depicting the individual's physical and chemical environment to higher brain regions. Beyond the typical trigeminal stimuli (e.g. irritants, environmental stimuli comprise a plethora of volatile chemicals with olfactory components (odorants. In spite of a complete loss of their sense of smell, anosmic patients may retain the ability to roughly discriminate between different volatile compounds. While the detailed mechanisms remain elusive, sensory structures belonging to the trigeminal system seem to be responsible for this phenomenon. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the activation of the trigeminal system by volatile chemicals, we investigated odorant-induced membrane potential changes in cultured rat trigeminal neurons induced by the odorants vanillin, heliotropyl acetone, helional, and geraniol. We observed the dose-dependent depolarization of trigeminal neurons upon application of these substances occurring in a stimulus-specific manner and could show that distinct neuronal populations respond to different odorants. Using specific antagonists, we found evidence that TRPA1, TRPM8, and/or TRPV1 contribute to the activation. In order to further test this hypothesis, we used recombinantly expressed rat and human variants of these channels to investigate whether they are indeed activated by the odorants tested. We additionally found that the odorants dose-dependently inhibit two-pore potassium channels TASK1 and TASK3 heterologously expressed In Xenopus laevis oocytes. We suggest that the capability of various odorants to activate different TRP channels and to inhibit potassium channels causes neuronal depolarization and activation of distinct subpopulations of trigeminal sensory neurons, forming the basis for a specific representation of volatile chemicals in the trigeminal ganglia.

  17. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Green leaf volatiles (GLVs are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1–5 TgC yr−1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  18. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, A.; Kleinman, L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Fast, J.

    2010-06-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ('ROB') and Grieshop et al. (2009) ('GRI') are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2-4 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively

  19. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA, their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007 ("ROB" and Grieshop et al. (2009 ("GRI" are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2–4 times with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009, both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40–60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively

  20. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, Alma; Jimenez, Jose L.; Madronich, Sasha; Canagaratna, M. R.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2010-06-21

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of traditional anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors. In this study, the 3D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to explicitly include the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. For the first time, 3D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, but also against and oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3-6 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The production from anthropogenic and biomass burning

  1. Profiling of volatile organic compounds released from individual intact juvenile and mature citrus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Jones, Shelley E

    2017-01-01

    Plants release volatiles to communicate with each other and to attract or repel insects. The methods used to collect volatiles are varied. Here, we describe a simple solvent-less, solid phase microextraction-based method to collect the volatiles released from intact citrus leaves. We were able to collect up to 39 volatiles from both juvenile and mature leaves. Our results indicated that juvenile leaves produced both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, and while mature leaves continued to produce a variety of monoterpenes, their release of sesquiterpenes decreased dramatically. The finding that juvenile leaves emitted higher levels of sesquiterpenes while mature leaves released mostly monoterpenes suggests that younger leaves of plants may be involved in a more complex chemical communication system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The Atmospheric Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds Through Hydrogen Shift Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Hasse Christian

    In this thesis the unimolecular hydrogen transfer reactions (H-shift) in peroxy and acyl peroxy radicals derived from the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) have been investigated. A unimolecular isomerization reaction where a hydrogen atom is moved internally within...... the reaction rate constants of the H-shift reactions. The autoxidation of volatile organic compounds is an important oxidation mechanism that produces secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and recycles hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The autoxidation cycle produces a second generation peroxy radical (OOQOOH) through...

  3. Comparison of two common adsorption materials for thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of biogenic volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcillo, Andrea; Jakimovska, Viktorija; Widdig, Anja; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2017-09-08

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly collected from gaseous samples by adsorption to materials such as the porous polymer Tenax TA. Adsorbed compounds are subsequently released from these materials by thermal desorption (TD) and separated then by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization (FID) or mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Tenax TA is known to be particularly suitable for non-polar to semipolar volatiles, however, many volatiles from environmental and biological samples possess a rather polar character. Therefore, we tested if the polymer XAD-2, which so far is widely used to adsorb organic compounds from aqueous and organic solvents, could provide a broader coverage for (semi)polar VOCs during gas-phase sampling. Mixtures of volatile compounds covering a wide range of volatility (bp. 20-256°C) and different chemical classes were introduced by liquid spiking into sorbent tubes with one of the two porous polymers, Tenax TA or XAD-2, and analyzed by TD/GC-MS. At first, an internal standard mixture composed of 17 authentic standards was used to optimize desorption temperature with respect to sorbent degradation and loading time for calibration. Secondly, we tested the detectability of a complex standard mixture composed of 57 volatiles, most of them common constituents of the body odor of mammals. Moreover, the performance of XAD-2 compared with Tenax TA was assessed as limit of quantitation and linearity for the internal standard mixture and 33 compounds from the complex standard mixture. Volatiles were analyzed in a range between 0.01-∼250ng/tube depending on the compound and material. Lower limits of quantitation were between 0.01 and 3 ng±0.9). Interestingly, we found different kinetics for compound adsorption with XAD-2, and a partially better sensitivity in comparison with Tenax TA. For these analytes, XAD-2 might be recommended as an alternative of Tenax TA for TD/GC-MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatility dependence of Henry's law constants of condensable organics: Application to estimate depositional loss of secondary organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.; Knote, C.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Tyndall, G.

    2014-07-01

    The water solubility of oxidation intermediates of volatile organic compounds that can condense to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is largely unconstrained in current chemistry-climate models. We apply the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere to calculate Henry's law constants for these intermediate species. Results show a strong negative correlation between Henry's law constants and saturation vapor pressures. Details depend on precursor species, extent of photochemical processing, and NOx levels. Henry's law constants as a function of volatility are made available over a wide range of vapor pressures for use in 3-D models. In an application using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) over the U.S. in summer, we find that dry (and wet) deposition of condensable organic vapors leads to major reductions in SOA, decreasing surface concentrations by ~50% (10%) for biogenic and ~40% (6%) for short chain anthropogenic precursors under the considered volatility conditions.

  5. Monitoring Volatile Organic Tank Waste Using Cermet Microsensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward G. Gatliff, Ph.D.; Laura R. Skubal, Ph.D.; Michael C. Vogt, Ph.D.

    2006-03-13

    Presently, very few inexpensive technologies exist in the marketplace that can determine the contents of tank waste or monitor the chemistry of tank constituents in near-real time. The research addressed this problem by developing and assessing ceramic-metallic based microsensors for determining the constituents of a liquid organic storage tank by examining the gases in the headspace of the tank. Overall, the WBO and YSZ sensors responded well to the chemicals in this study. Responses to various concentrations were distinguishable visually. This is a clear indication that pattern recognition tools will be effective in resolving the constituents and concentrations. In tests, such as the test with acetophenone, one sensor, the WBO sensor is not extremely effective. However, the other sensor, the YSZ sensor, is effective in resolving the concentrations. This supports the need to use an array of sensors, as one sensor may be reactive to a compound while another may not. In the course of this research, several interesting phenomena surfaced. New sensors, that were fabricated but not used in a contaminant gas, seemed to function more effectively and predictably if a ?conditioning? step was imposed upon them prior to use in square wave voltammetry. A conditioning step consists of running cyclic voltammetry prior to running square wave voltammetry. This step tends to ?cleanse? the sensor surface by providing a full -1.0 V to +1.0V sweep and both oxidizing and reducing compounds on the sensor surface. [Note: squarewave voltammetry will simply oxidize or reduce compounds ? it will not induce both reactions.] This sweep is essential for recovery between samples.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Breath of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Stefan; Raguse, Jan D; Pfitzner, Dorothee; Preissner, Robert; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Saskia

    2017-12-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of detecting signature volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Study Design Prospective cohort pilot study. Setting University hospital. Subjects and Methods Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, emitted volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients before and after curative surgery (n = 10) were compared with those of healthy subjects (n = 4). It was hypothesized that certain volatile organic compounds disappear after surgical therapy. A characteristic signature of these compounds for diseased patients was compiled and validated. Results Breath analyses revealed 125 volatile organic compounds in patients with oral cancer. A signature of 8 compounds that were characteristic for patients with oral cancer could be detected: 3 from this group presented were absent after surgery. Conclusion The presented results confirmed the hypothesis of an absence of cancer-associated volatile organic compounds in the breath after therapy. In this pilot study, we proved the feasibility of this test approach. Further studies should be initiated to establish protocols for usage in a clinical setting.

  7. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  8. Evaluation of NO+ reagent ion chemistry for online measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Veres, Patrick R.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-07-01

    NO+ chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NO+ CIMS) can achieve fast (1 Hz and faster) online measurement of trace atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that cannot be ionized with H3O+ ions (e.g., in a PTR-MS or H3O+ CIMS instrument). Here we describe the adaptation of a high-resolution time-of-flight H3O+ CIMS instrument to use NO+ primary ion chemistry. We evaluate the NO+ technique with respect to compound specificity, sensitivity, and VOC species measured compared to H3O+. The evaluation is established by a series of experiments including laboratory investigation using a gas-chromatography (GC) interface, in situ measurement of urban air using a GC interface, and direct in situ measurement of urban air. The main findings are that (1) NO+ is useful for isomerically resolved measurements of carbonyl species; (2) NO+ can achieve sensitive detection of small (C4-C8) branched alkanes but is not unambiguous for most; and (3) compound-specific measurement of some alkanes, especially isopentane, methylpentane, and high-mass (C12-C15) n-alkanes, is possible with NO+. We also demonstrate fast in situ chemically specific measurements of C12 to C15 alkanes in ambient air.

  9. Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A

    2014-02-01

    The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease.

  10. Volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath in a healthy population: effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareño-Esteban, José Javier; Muñoz-Lucas, M Ángeles; Carrillo-Aranda, Belén; Maldonado-Sanz, José Ángel; de Granda-Orive, Ignacio; Aguilar-Ros, Antonio; Civera-Tejuca, Concepción; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos; Callol-Sánchez, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are the main causes of oxidative stress. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath is an indirect method of measuring the level of oxidative stress that occurs in the airways caused by tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the production of VOC, in a clinically healthy population. Exhaled breath from 89 healthy volunteers, divided into three groups (non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers) was analysed. Samples were collected using Bio-VOC® devices and transferred to universal desorption tubes. Chemical compounds were analysed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We analysed hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, nonanoic acid and propanoic acid, all identified by retention time and mass spectra referenced in the NIST 08 mass spectral library; confirmation was carried out using reference standards of the pure chemical compound. These VOC were found in very low concentrations. Only nonanal showed significant quantitative and qualitative statistical differences among the study groups. Nonanal concentration is dependent on smoking, but is independent of the amount of tobacco consumed, age and gender. Nonanal in exhaled breath is associated with tobacco consumption, current or previous. Nonanal is a sub-product of the destruction of the cell membrane, and its finding may be indicative of cell damage in smokers. This result appears in many farmers who smoke. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. River water quality analysis via headspace detection of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Johnny Jock Lee; Nishi, Phyllis Jacqueline; Chong, Gabriel Eng Wee; Wong, Martin Gideon; Chua, Hong Siang; Persaud, Krishna; Ng, Sing Muk

    2017-03-01

    Human civilization has intensified the interaction between the community and the environment. This increases the threat on the environm ent for being over exploited and contaminated with m anmade products and synthetic chemicals. Of all, clean water is one of the resources that can be easily contaminated since it is a universal solvent and of high mobility. This work reports the development and optimization of a water quality monitoring system based on metal oxide sensors. The system is intended to a ssist the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in water sources online and onsite. The sampling mechanism was based on contactless mode, where headspace partial pressure of the VOCs formed above the water body in a close chamber was drawn for detection at the sensor platform. Pure toluene was used as standard to represent the broad spectrum of VOCs, and the sensor dynamic range was achieved from 1-1000 ppb. Several sensing parameters such as sampling time, headspace volume, and sensor recovery were s tudied and optimized. Besides direct detection of VOC contaminants in the water, the work has also been extended to detect VOCs produced by microbial communities and to c orrelate the size of the communities with the reading of V OCs recorded. This can serve to give b etter indication of water quality, not only on the conce ntration of VOCs c ontamination from chemicals, but also the content of microbes, which some can have severe effect on human health.

  12. UNMIX Methods Applied to Characterize Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds in Toronto, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Porada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available UNMIX, a sensor modeling routine from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, was used to model volatile organic compound (VOC receptors in four urban sites in Toronto, Ontario. VOC ambient concentration data acquired in 2000–2009 for 175 VOC species in four air quality monitoring stations were analyzed. UNMIX, by performing multiple modeling attempts upon varying VOC menus—while rejecting the results that were not reliable—allowed for discriminating sources by their most consistent chemical characteristics. The method assessed occurrences of VOCs in sources typical of the urban environment (traffic, evaporative emissions of fuels, banks of fugitive inert gases, industrial point sources (plastic-, polymer-, and metalworking manufactures, and in secondary sources (releases from water, sediments, and contaminated urban soil. The remote sensing and robust modeling used here produces chemical profiles of putative VOC sources that, if combined with known environmental fates of VOCs, can be used to assign physical sources’ shares of VOCs emissions into the atmosphere. This in turn provides a means of assessing the impact of environmental policies on one hand, and industrial activities on the other hand, on VOC air pollution.

  13. 78 FR 11583 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Tennessee: Revisions to Volatile Organic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Organic Compound Definition AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... compounds excluded from the definition of ``Volatile Organic Compound'' (VOC). EPA is approving this SIP... is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic...

  14. A four-fold interpenetrated metal-organic framework as a fluorescent sensor for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Li, Yang; Chang, Ze; Chen, Long; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-10-14

    A four-fold interpenetrated three dimensional (3D) metal-organic framework, [Cd2(tppe)(bpdc)2(H2O)]·solvent (1), was synthesized with a tetraphenylethene (TPE)-based ligand, 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)ethene (TPPE). This complex exhibits intense blue luminescence and is sensitive to toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  15. Comparison of receptor models for source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Yu; Dai Wei [Department of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shao Min [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: mshao@pku.edu.cn; Liu Ying; Lu Sihua [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key to reducing ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Several receptor models have been developed to apportion sources, but an intercomparison of these models had not been performed for VOCs in China. In the present study, we compared VOC sources based on chemical mass balance (CMB), UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models. Gasoline-related sources, petrochemical production, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were identified by all three models as the major contributors, with UNMIX and PMF producing quite similar results. The contributions of gasoline-related sources and LPG estimated by the CMB model were higher, and petrochemical emissions were lower than in the UNMIX and PMF results, possibly because the VOC profiles used in the CMB model were for fresh emissions and the profiles extracted from ambient measurements by the two-factor analysis models were 'aged'. - VOCs sources were similar for three models with CMB showing a higher estimate for vehicles.

  16. Aqueous organic chemistry in the atmosphere: sources and chemical processing of organic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, V Faye

    2015-02-03

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that aqueous chemical processes occurring in cloud droplets and wet atmospheric particles are an important source of organic atmospheric particulate matter. Reactions of water-soluble volatile (or semivolatile) organic gases (VOCs or SVOCs) in these aqueous media lead to the formation of highly oxidized organic particulate matter (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) and key tracer species, such as organosulfates. These processes are often driven by a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and therefore their accurate representation in models is important for effective air quality management. Despite considerable progress, mechanistic understanding of some key aqueous processes is still lacking, and these pathways are incompletely represented in 3D atmospheric chemistry and air quality models. In this article, the concepts, historical context, and current state of the science of aqueous pathways of SOA formation are discussed.

  17. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Wang, Zhifang; Qiao, Xi; Li, Zhenjing; Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Huang, Yufang; Cui, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Streptomyces sp. TD-1 was identified as Streptomyces alboflavus based on its morphological characteristics, physiological properties, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The antifungal activity of the volatile-producing S. alboflavus TD-1 was investigated. Results showed that volatiles generated by S. alboflavus TD-1 inhibited storage fungi Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillum citrinum in vitro. GC/MS analysis revealed that 27 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified from the volatiles of S. alboflavus TD-1 mycelia, among which the most abundant compound was 2-methylisoborneol. Dimethyl disulfide was proved to have antifungal activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation in vitro. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the neurotoxicities between volatile organic compounds and fragrant organic compounds on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and primary cultured rat neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasue; Ohtani, Kohei; Imajo, Akinori; Izu, Hanae; Nakamura, Hitomi; Shiraishi, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of the solvents. n-Octanal, nonanal, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, which are used catalyzers or intermediates of chemical reactions, are released into the environment. Essential oils have the functions of self-defense, sterilization, and antibiosis in plants. When volatile organic compounds enter the body, there is the possibility that they will pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and affect the central nervous system (CNS). However, the direct effects of volatile organic compounds on neural function and their toxicities are still unclear. We compared the toxicities of n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with those of five naturally derived fragrant organic compounds (FOCs), linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and n-phenethyl alcohol. MTT assay of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells showed that the IC50 values of linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol were 1.33, 2.3, >5, >5, and 2.39 mM, respectively, and the IC50 values of toluene, n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were 850, 37.2, 8.31 and 15.1 μM, respectively. FOCs showed lower toxicities than those of VOCs. These results indicate that FOCs are safer than other compounds.

  20. Comparison of the neurotoxicities between volatile organic compounds and fragrant organic compounds on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and primary cultured rat neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of the solvents. n-Octanal, nonanal, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, which are used catalyzers or intermediates of chemical reactions, are released into the environment. Essential oils have the functions of self-defense, sterilization, and antibiosis in plants. When volatile organic compounds enter the body, there is the possibility that they will pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB and affect the central nervous system (CNS. However, the direct effects of volatile organic compounds on neural function and their toxicities are still unclear. We compared the toxicities of n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with those of five naturally derived fragrant organic compounds (FOCs, linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and n-phenethyl alcohol. MTT assay of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells showed that the IC50 values of linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol were 1.33, 2.3, >5, >5, and 2.39 mM, respectively, and the IC50 values of toluene, n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were 850, 37.2, 8.31 and 15.1 μM, respectively. FOCs showed lower toxicities than those of VOCs. These results indicate that FOCs are safer than other compounds.

  1. Modeling the mass transfer of semi-volatile organics in combustion aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odum, J.R.; Kamens, R.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The atmospheric transport and fate of airborne organic compounds are highly dependent upon which phase or phases (i.e., gas or particle or gas/particle) the compound exists. Recently Rounds and Pankow developed a radial pore-diffusion model to simulate the mass transfer of semi-volatile organics in and out of combustion aerosols. Preliminary results from their model and other recent discoveries suggest that many types of combustion aerosols may be coated with a liquid organic layer and that diffusion of semi-volatile organics through this layer impedes rapid mass transfer of these compounds. Therefore a radial diffusion model was developed to describe the mass transfer of semi-volatile organics into and out of combustion aerosols. The model combustion aerosol consists of a solid carbon core that is surrounded by a viscous, liquid-like, organic layer. Diffusion takes place only within the organic layer and is controlled by mass transfer at the particle surface. Modeling of semi-volatiles requires the tuning of two separate parameters: a diffusion coefficient and a surface mass transfer coefficient. Preliminary testing of the model on the uptake of deuterated pyrene by diesel exhaust aerosol at 25 C suggests that diffusion coefficients for PAH are on the order of 10{sup {minus}15} cm{sup 2}/sec and that surface mass transfer coefficients for pyrene are on the order of 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec.

  2. Investigation of volatile organic biomarkers derived from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Rina PM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains a need for techniques that improve the sensitive detection of viable Plasmodium falciparum as part of diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in clinical studies and usual-care management of malaria infections. A non-invasive breath test based on P. falciparum-associated specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs could fill this gap and provide insights into parasite metabolism and pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether VOCs are present in the headspace above in vitro P. falciparum cultures. Methods A novel, custom-designed apparatus was developed to enable efficient headspace sampling of infected and non-infected cultures. Conditions were optimized to support cultures of high parasitaemia (>20% to improve the potential detection of parasite-specific VOCs. A number of techniques for VOC analysis were investigated including solid phase micro-extraction using two different polarity fibres, and purge and trap/thermal desorption, each coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Each experiment and analysis method was performed at least on two occasions. VOCs were identified by comparing their mass spectra against commercial mass spectral libraries. Results No unique malarial-specific VOCs could be detected relative to those in the control red blood cell cultures. This could reflect sequestration of VOCs into cell membranes and/or culture media but solvent extractions of supernatants and cell lysates using hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate also showed no obvious difference compared to control non-parasitized cultures. Conclusions Future in vivo studies analysing the breath of patients with severe malaria who are harbouring a parasite biomass that is significantly greater than achievable in vitro may yet reveal specific clinically-useful volatile chemical biomarkers.

  3. Photodegradation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles as a Source of Small, Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecha, Kurtis T; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2016-09-20

    We investigated the photodegradation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles by near-UV radiation and photoproduction of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) from various types of SOA. We used a smog chamber to generate SOA from α-pinene, guaiacol, isoprene, tetradecane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene under high-NOx, low-NOx, or ozone oxidation conditions. The SOA particles were collected on a substrate, and the resulting material was exposed to several mW of near-UV radiation (λ ∼ 300 nm) from a light-emitting diode. Various OVOCs, including acetic acid, formic acid, acetaldehyde, and acetone were observed during photodegradation, and their SOA-mass-normalized fluxes were estimated with a Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). All the SOA, with the exception of guaiacol SOA, emitted OVOCs upon irradiation. Based on the measured OVOC emission rates, we estimate that SOA particles would lose at least ∼1% of their mass over a 24 h period during summertime conditions in Los Angeles, California. This condensed-phase photochemical process may produce a few Tg/year of gaseous formic acid, the amount comparable to its primary sources. The condensed-phase SOA photodegradation processes could therefore measurably affect the budgets of both particulate and gaseous atmospheric organic compounds on a global scale.

  4. [Analysis on the chemical compositions of the volatile oil from ultramicro-powder and common grinding powder of Cinnamomum cassia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Nu-Yun; Liu, Qiang

    2008-03-01

    To analyse and compare the chemical compositions in the volatile oil from Utramicro-powder and Common Grinding Powder of Cinnamomum. The volatile oil was extracted by steam-stilling and analyzed by GC-MS. The relative content of each component was calculated by area normalization method. 34 and 19 peaks were isolated from Ultramicro-powder and Common Grinding Powder of Cinnamomum respectively. All of them were identified. The chemical components of the volatile oil from Ultramicro-powder and Common Grinding Powder of Cinnamomum are reported, the results here provides scientific proof for the application in external preparation of Cinnamomum.

  5. Physico-chemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Francisca; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Jujube fruit is eaten mostly fresh, but may be dried (Chinese dates and tea) or processed into confectionary recipes in bread, cakes, compotes, and candy. Given that the quality of jujube available on the market differs on account of various factors such as geographical environment, cultivar, processing conditions, and storage conditions, and that, for consumers, flavour and nutrition properties of jujube represent the major parameters in determining the quality of jujube, the main goal of this study were to determine the main physico-chemical properties of jujube fruits, sugars and organic acids profiles, protein, mineral constituents, volatile composition and sensory profile of jujube fruits. This would allow breeders to select cultivars with higher levels of nutrients and also enable increasing dietary intake by consumers. Investigations showed that jujube fruit weight ranged from 4.8 to 29.3 g fruit(-1) . Four sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and four organic acids (citric, malic, ascorbic and succinic acids) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography in jujube fruits. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. Fifteen volatiles compounds were found in the aroma profile of jujube fruits (nine were aldehydes, three terpenes, one ester, one ketone and one linear hydrocarbon). The results showed that Spanish jujube cultivars studied are a good source of vitamin C, and they have a low content of Na. The jujube cultivar with the most appreciated quality by consumers was GAL; the GAL fruits were sweet, crunchy, and had high intensities of jujube ID and apple flavour a long after-taste. Therefore, jujube grown in Spain has a great potential to be exploited for functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Volatiles, color characteristics and other physico-chemical parameters of commercial Moroccan honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio G; Vlahopoulou, Gina; Atzei, Alessandro; Mannu, Alberto; Zrira, Saadia; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Seven commercial Moroccan honeys were considered for chemical characterisation. Volatile fraction, total polyphenols content, antioxidant and antiradical activities were evaluated by employing different analytical methodologies. Several physical parameters such as refractive index, pH, water content, solids content and colour were measured. Volatile fraction revealed an abundant presence of cis- and trans-linalool oxide in the seven studied samples. The presence of high levels of compounds related to the Maillard reaction, like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, could be the result of thermal treatments used to liquefy commercial honeys or of long storage times. The CIE L*a*b*C*(ab)h°(ab) chromatic coordinates confirmed the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, showing L* values lower than the common values found for honey of similar typologies.

  7. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Cécile; Sauvage, Stéphane; Gros, Valérie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Salameh, Thérèse; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Baisnée, Dominique; Bonsang, Bernard; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    More than 7000 atmospheric measurements of over 60 C2 - C16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted at a background site in Cyprus during a 1-month intensive field campaign held in March 2015. This exhaustive dataset consisted of primary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs, including a wide range of source-specific tracers, and oxygenated VOCs (with various origins) that were measured online by flame ionization detection-gas chromatography and proton transfer mass spectrometry. Online submicron aerosol chemical composition was performed in parallel using an aerosol mass spectrometer. This study presents the high temporal variability in VOCs and their associated sources. A preliminary analysis of their time series was performed on the basis of independent tracers (NO, CO, black carbon), meteorological data and the clustering of air mass trajectories. Biogenic compounds were mainly attributed to a local origin and showed compound-specific diurnal cycles such as a daily maximum for isoprene and a nighttime maximum for monoterpenes. Anthropogenic VOCs as well as oxygenated VOCs displayed higher mixing ratios under the influence of continental air masses (i.e., western Asia), indicating that long-range transport significantly contributed to the VOC levels in the area. Source apportionment was then conducted on a database of 20 VOCs (or grouped VOCs) using a source receptor model. The positive matrix factorization and concentration field analyses were hence conducted to identify and characterize covariation factors of VOCs that were representative of primary emissions as well as chemical transformation processes. A six-factor PMF solution was selected, namely two primary biogenic factors (relative contribution of 43 % to the total mass of VOCs) for different types of emitting vegetation; three anthropogenic factors (short-lived combustion source, evaporative sources, industrial and evaporative sources; 21 % all together), identified as being either of local origin

  8. CCN activity and volatility of β-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of smog chamber experiments, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA generated from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene was characterized by determining the CCN derived hygroscopicity parameter, κCCN, from experimental data. Two types of CCN counters, operating at different temperatures, were used. The effect of semi-volatile organic compounds on the CCN activity of SOA was studied using a thermodenuder.

    Overall, SOA was only slightly CCN active (with κCCN in the range 0.001–0.16, and in dark experiments with no OH scavenger present, κCCN decreased when particles were sent through the thermodenuder (with a temperature up to 50 °C.

    SOA was generated under different experimental conditions: In some experiments, an OH scavenger (2-butanol was added. SOA from these experiments was less CCN active than SOA produced in experiments without an OH scavenger (i.e. where OH was produced during ozonolysis. In other experiments, lights were turned on, either without or with the addition of HONO (OH source. This led to the formation of more CCN active SOA.

    SOA was aged up to 30 h through exposure to ozone and (in experiments with no OH scavenger present to OH. In all experiments, the derived κCCN consistently increased with time after initial injection of β-caryophyllene, showing that chemical ageing increases the CCN activity of β-caryophyllene SOA. κCCN was also observed to depend on supersaturation, which was explained either as an evaporation artifact from semi-volatile SOA (only observed in experiments lacking light exposure or, alternatively, by effects related to chemical composition depending on dry particle size.

    Using the method of Threshold Droplet Growth Analysis it was also concluded that the activation kinetics of the SOA do not differ significantly from calibration ammonium sulphate aerosol for

  9. Sensory and Physiological Effects on Humans of Combined Exposures to Air Temperatures and Volatile Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Liu, Zunyong; Jørgensen, Anne Hempel

    1993-01-01

    Ten healthy humans were exposed to combinations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air temperature (0 mg/m3 and 10 mg/m3 of a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds and 18, 22 and 26° C). Previously demonstrated effects of VOCs and thermal exposures were replicated. For the first time nasal...... cross-sectional areas and nasal volumes, as measured by acoustic rhinometry, were shown to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing VOC exposure. Temperature and pollutant exposures affected air quality, the need for more ventilation, skin humidity on the forehead, sweating, acute sensory...... indoor air concentrations of VOCs should depend on room air temperature....

  10. Volatile organic compounds emitted from fungal-rotting beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    OpenAIRE

    Thakeow, Prodepran; Weißbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Chemo-communication is an important mode of interaction within ecosystem. The living organism in the ecosystem can deliver signals to conspecifics, to co-organisms, and unintentionally to their enemies, by emitting the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. There are some insect-fungi-associations displaying interesting relationships. For example, some bark beetle species (PAINE et al. 1997) introduce fungi into the conifers during the attack process. Fungi take advantage by ass...

  11. The role of volatile organic compounds in the assessment of indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Ingegerd [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry and Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1999-07-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to assess and evaluate the relevance of air pollutants, especially volatile organic compounds (VOC), for indoor air quality (IAQ) in non industrial environments. Another attempt is to find out whether indoor-air VOC may be linked to human health and sensory effects. The experiments included the development of a method to sample and analyze VOC in indoor air (adsorptive sampling/ gas chromatographic separation/mass spectrometric identification) as well as the application of this method in studies of adsorption/desorption of VOC in building materials and ventilation systems, and the occurrence and behavior of VOC in healthy and sick buildings. The method developed is well suited for indoor air VOC analysis, especially for the fine division in temporal intervals needed for the assessment of VOC in occupied rooms. The empirical results show that there is a continuous interplay, regarding VOC and semi volatile organic compounds (SVOC), between indoor materials and indoor air, between ventilation components and supply air, as well as among indoor materials. The results also show that there is an accumulation indoors of outdoor compounds, that are brought indoors by ventilation supply or by materials, such as clothes. Comparatively new statistical pattern analyses were applied to data obtained from indoor air VOC analyses in different locations in a sick and a healthy preschool. The results indicate that this approach may offer an opportunity to distinguish among different buildings and among different locations within buildings with regard to the indoor air composition of VOC. Although promising, further studies of the link between chemical pattern and sensory effects are needed. In a psychophysical experiment, it was shown that formaldehyde at the very low concentrations typical for indoor-air VOC could reliably be scaled with regard to perceived intensity and sensory detection thresholds be determined. Two methods of formaldehyde

  12. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Larsen, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest-host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

  13. Development of leaching tests for non-volatile organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, G.D.; Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of our research was to investigate the processes that control the leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic contaminants with an aqueous solubility that varies over more than 5 orders of magnitude. The obtained insight in the leaching processes is used as the basis for an ''availability'' leaching test that is intended to indicate the maximum amount of the organic contaminants that can be leached from soil or waste materials. This presentation is largely based on work performed in the framework of two EU projects on the development of leaching tests for organic contaminants, and on groundwater risk assessment at contaminated sites. (orig.)

  14. Volatile fatty acid cycling in organic-rich marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Francis J.; Martens, Christopher S.

    1982-09-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) apparent turnover rates were determined by measuring whole sediment VFA concentrations and the corresponding reaction rate constants. The following ranges of VFA concentrations were measured in Cape Lookout Bight, N.C. sediments (μmole·l s-1): acetate 54-660, propionate 1-24, butyrate iso-butyrate <0.5-6. Apparent turnover rates measured over a one-year period ranged from 18-600 μmole·l s-1·h -1 for acetate and 0.7-7 μmole·l s-1·h -1 for the carboxyl carbon of propionate. Methane production was observed only with acetate and only in sulfatedepleted sediments; total acetate turnover attained approximately the same maximum value in both sulfate-reducing and sulfate-depleted sediments. Apparent turnover rates for acetate and propionate appeared to be controlled by similar factors: in sulfate-reducing (surface) sediments the turnover rates were stimulated by autumn storm-mediated deposition/resuspension events; in deeper sulfate-depleted sediments the turnover rates followed changes in the ambient temperature. Changes in VFA poolsizes were proportionally much larger than changes in corresponding rate constants. The ratio of CO 2 to CH 4 produced from acetate vs. depth suggested that non-methanogenic bacteria accounted for 60% of the acetate turnover in sulfate-depleted sediments. VFA concentrations were much lower in N.C. continental slope mud than in Cape Lookout sediments; acetate was the only VFA detectable throughout the top 40 cm of the slope sediments. The estimated production rate of CO 2 from acetate decreased rapidly with depth. The surface rate was approximately 20 times less than that measured at similar temperatures in sulfate-reducing Cape Lookout sediments.

  15. Productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Surface Waters from Reactions with Atmospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances; Bell, Thomas; Yang, Mingxi

    2017-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is a key atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and air pollutant. In marine environments, some atmospheric ozone is lost by reactions with aqueous compounds (e.g. dissolved organic material, DOM, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and iodide) near the sea surface. These reactions also lead to formations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Removal of O3 by the ocean remains a large uncertainty in global and regional chemical transport models, hampering coastal air quality forecasts. To better understand the role of the ocean in controlling O3 concentrations in the coastal marine atmosphere, we designed and implemented a series of laboratory experiments whereby ambient surface seawater was bubbled with O3-enriched, VOC-free air in a custom-made glass bubble equilibration system. Gas phase concentrations of a range of VOCs were monitored continuously over the mass range m/z 33 - 137 at the outflow of the bubble equilibrator by a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Gas phase O3 was also measured at the input and output of the equilibrator to monitor the uptake due to reactions with dissolved compounds in seawater. We observed consistent productions of a variety of VOCs upon reaction with O3, notably isoprene, aldehydes, and ketones. Aqueous DMS is rapidly removed from the reactions with O3. To test the importance of dissolved organic matter precursors, we added increasing (milliliter) volumes of Emiliania huxleyi culture to the equilibrator filled with aged seawater, and observed significant linear increases in gas phase concentrations of a number of VOCs. Reactions between DOM and O3 at the sea-air interface represent a potentially significant source of VOCs in marine air and a sink of atmospheric O3.

  16. Characteristics and reactivity of volatile organic compounds from non-coal emission sources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiusheng; Yan, Yulong; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Yiqiang; Chen, Laiguo; Wang, Yuhang

    2015-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled from non-coal emission sources including fuel refueling, solvent use, industrial and commercial activities in China, and 62 target species were determined by gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Based on the results, source profiles were developed and discussed from the aspects of composition characteristics, potential tracers, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) diagnostic ratios and chemical reactivity. Compared with vehicle exhausts and liquid fuels, the major components in refueling emissions of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline and diesel were alkenes and alkanes. Oppositely, aromatics were the most abundant group in emissions from auto-painting, book binding and plastic producing. Three groups contributed nearly equally in printing and commercial cooking emissions. Acetone in medical producing, chloroform and tetrachloroethylene in wet- and dry-cleaning, as well as TEX in plastic producing etc. were good tracers for the respective sources. BTEX ratios showed that some but not all VOCs sources could be distinguished by B/T, B/E and B/X ratios, while T/E, T/X and E/X ratios were not suitable as diagnostic indicators of different sources. The following reactivity analysis indicated that emissions from gasoline refueling, commercial cooking, auto painting and plastic producing had high atmospheric reactivity, and should be controlled emphatically to prevent ozone pollution, especially when there were large amounts of emissions for them.

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  18. Field observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange in red oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellin, Luca; Algarra Alarcon, Alberto; Herdlinger-Blatt, Irina; Sanchez, Juaquin; Biasioli, Franco; Martin, Scot T.; Loreto, Francesco; McKinney, Karena A.

    2017-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by forests strongly affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere. While the emission of isoprenoids has been largely characterized, forests also exchange many oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs), including methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and acetaldehyde, which are less well understood. We monitored total branch-level exchange of VOCs of a strong isoprene emitter (Quercus rubra L.) in a mixed forest in New England, where canopy-level fluxes of VOCs had been previously measured. We report daily exchange of several oVOCs and investigated unknown sources and sinks, finding several novel insights. In particular, we found that emission of MEK is linked to uptake of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), a product of isoprene oxidation. The link was confirmed by corollary experiments proving in vivo detoxification of MVK, which is harmful to plants. Comparison of MEK, MVK, and isoprene fluxes provided an indirect indication of within-plant isoprene oxidation. Furthermore, besides confirming bidirectional exchange of acetaldehyde, we also report for the first time direct evidence of benzaldehyde bidirectional exchange in forest plants. Net emission or deposition of benzaldehyde was found in different periods of measurements, indicating an unknown foliar sink that may influence atmospheric concentrations. Other VOCs, including methanol, acetone, and monoterpenes, showed clear daily emission trends but no deposition. Measured VOC emission and deposition rates were generally consistent with their ecosystem-scale flux measurements at a nearby site.

  19. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  20. Evaluation of Bio-VOC Sampler for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Harshman, Sean W; Garrison, Catherine E; Dershem, Victoria L; Phillips, Jeffrey B; Grigsby, Claude C; Ott, Darrin K

    2014-09-29

    Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath has been used to determine exposures of humans to chemicals. Prior to analysis of VOCs, breath samples are often collected with canisters or bags and concentrated. The Bio-VOC breath sampler, a commercial sampling device, has been recently introduced to the market with growing use. The main advantage for this sampler is to collect the last portion of exhaled breath, which is more likely to represent the air deep in the lungs. However, information about the Bio-VOC sampler is somewhat limited. Therefore, we have thoroughly evaluated the sampler here. We determined the volume of the breath air collected in the sampler was approximately 88 mL. When sampling was repeated multiple times, with the succeeding exhalations applied to a single sorbent tube, we observed linear relationships between the normalized peak intensity and the number of repeated collections with the sampler in many of the breath VOCs detected. No moisture effect was observed on the Tenax sorbent tubes used. However, due to the limitation in the collection volume, the use of the Bio-VOC sampler is recommended only for detection of VOCs present at high concentrations unless repeated collections of breath samples on the sampler are conducted.

  1. Volatility-resolved source apportionment of primary and secondary organic aerosol over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Fountoukis, Christos; Charalampidis, Panagiotis; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-10-01

    A three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions, PMCAMx) was applied over Europe combined with a source apportionment algorithm, the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT), in order to quantify the sources which contribute to the primary and secondary organic aerosol (OA) during different seasons. The PSAT algorithm was first extended to allow the quantification of the sources of OA as a function of volatility. The most significant OA sources during May were biogenic, while during February residential wood combustion and during September wildfires dominated. The contributions of the various sources have strong spatial dependence. Wildfires were significant OA sources (38% of the OA) for Russia during September, but had a much lower impact (5%) in Scandinavia. The above results are in general consistent with the findings of the CARBOSOL project for selected sites in Europe. For remote sites such as Finokalia in Crete, more than 90% of the OA has undergone two or more generations of oxidation for all seasons. This highly processed oxidized OA is predicted to also dominate over much of Europe during the summer and fall. The first generation SOA is predicted to represent 20-30% of the OA in central and northern Europe during these photochemically active periods.

  2. Microorganisms and volatile organic compounds in airborne dust from damp residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Kihlström, E; Lagesson, V; Wessén, B; Szponar, B; Larsson, L; Tagesson, C

    2004-04-01

    Airborne dust samples from damp (n = 9) and control (n = 9) residences were analyzed for microorganisms (molds and bacteria), bacterial markers (3-hydroxy fatty acids and muramic acid), and adsorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The number of mold species was greater in the damp residences than in the controls (23 vs.18) and nine mold species were found only in damp residences. The levels of 3-hydroxy fatty acids and muramic acid correlated better in damp residences than in controls, indicating that damp conditions affect the bacterial flora of airborne dust. Identifications made by culture and microscopy of the major molds found, i.e. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillum, coincided with the identification of VOCs known to be produced by these species. A number of additional VOCs irritating to the skin, eyes, or respiratory tract were also found. The results from this pilot study illustrate the diversity of microorganisms and VOCs present in the indoor environment and suggest that analysis of airborne dust may help to assess human exposure to microorganisms and chemical compounds.

  3. Biodegradation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Effects on Biodegradability under Co-Existing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants that are found in contaminated sites, particularly in developed countries such as Japan. Various microorganisms that degrade individual VOCs have been reported, and genomic information related to their phylogenetic classification and VOC-degrading enzymes is available. However, the biodegradation of multiple VOCs remains a challenging issue. Practical sites, such as chemical factories, research facilities, and illegal dumping sites, are often contaminated with multiple VOCs. In order to investigate the potential of biodegrading multiple VOCs, we initially reviewed the biodegradation of individual VOCs. VOCs include chlorinated ethenes (tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), and chlorinated methanes (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane). We also summarized essential information on the biodegradation of each kind of VOC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with the microorganisms that are involved in VOC-degrading pathways. Interactions among multiple VOCs were then discussed based on concrete examples. Under conditions in which multiple VOCs co-exist, the biodegradation of a VOC may be constrained, enhanced, and/or unaffected by other compounds. Co-metabolism may enhance the degradation of other VOCs. In contrast, constraints are imposed by the toxicity of co-existing VOCs and their by-products, catabolite repression, or competition between VOC-degrading enzymes. This review provides fundamental, but systematic information for designing strategies for the bioremediation of multiple VOCs, as well as information on the role of key microorganisms that degrade VOCs. PMID:28904262

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-21

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for "green" buildings and the use of "environmentally friendly" products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m³, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  5. Assessment of volatile organic compounds from banana Terra subjected to different alcoholic fermentation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely CAPOBIANGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Banana characteristics could provide yeast growth and support the action of yeast to produce beverages. The effects of enzymatic treatment, centrifugation, commercial yeast and two selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using the fermented banana Terra. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were determined by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the condition employing enzymatic treatment, centrifugation and wet commercial yeast provided maximum ethanol yield (86% and effiency (98%. Twenty-two compounds of distinct chemical classes were analysed including alcohols, esters, acids and aldehydes. The concentrations of the VOCs differed depending on the fermentation condition and were more influenced by using different yeasts. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.056 to 2.694 mg L–1 and 0.057 to 2.904 mg L–1 respectively. Among the most prevalent VOCs the higher alcohols ranged from 353 to 1017 mg per 100 mL of anhydrous alcohol. The fermented banana studied showed a composition similar to other fermented fruit pulps.

  6. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  7. Volatile fatty acids production from sewage organic matter by combined bioflocculation and anaerobic fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Keesman, K.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Temmink, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at exploring the feasibility of a combined process bioflocculation to concentrate sewage organic matter and anaerobic fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA). Bioflocculation, using a high-loaded aerobic membrane bioreactor (HL-MBR), was operated at an HRT of 1 h and an SRT

  8. Treatment of volatile organic contaminants in a vertical flow filter: Relevance of different removal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Reger, D.; Schmidt, A.; Jechalke, S.; Reiche, N.; Martínez-Lavanchy, P.M.; Rosell, M.; Van Afferden, M.; Maier, U.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical flow filters and vertical flow constructed wetlands are established wastewater treatment systems and have also been proposed for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates the removal processes of volatile organic compounds in a pilot-scale vertical flow filter.

  9. Emission of volatile organic compounds during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitris P; Ham, Robert K; Park, Jae K

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW). A laboratory experiment was conducted using organic components of MSW that were decomposed under controlled aerobic conditions. Mixed paper primarily produced alkylated benzenes, alcohols and alkanes. Yard wastes primarily produced terpenes, alkylated benzenes, ketones and alkanes, while food wastes primarily produced sulfides, acids and alcohols. Among 13 aromatic VOCs found in MSW composting facilities, toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, p-isopropyl toluene, and naphthalene were in the largest amounts. Unseeded mixed paper, seeded mixed paper, seeded yard wastes, unseeded yard wastes, seeded food wastes and unseeded food wastes produced approximately 6.5, 6.1, 2.1, 0.83, 2.5 and 0.33 mg of 13 volatile and semi-volatile aromatic organic compounds combined, respectively, per dry kg. All VOCs were emitted early during the composting process and their production rates decreased with time at thermophilic temperatures.

  10. Early Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis by Fecal Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meij, Tim G. J.; van der Schee, Marc P. C.; Berkhout, Daan J. C.; van de Velde, Mirjam E.; Jansen, Anna E.; Kramer, Boris W.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Andriessen, Peter; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Niemarkt, Hendrik J.; de Boer, Nanne K. H.

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis by electronic nose (eNose) allows for early detection of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In 3 neonatal intensive care units, fecal samples of infants born at gestational age ≤ 30 weeks were collected daily, up to the 28th

  11. EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

  12. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  13. Volatile organic compound emmission rates from mixed deciduous and coniferous foest in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; A. B. Guenther; P. Harley; D. Helmig; L. Klinger; L. Vierling; P. Zimmerman; C. Geron

    1999-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds {VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regions of the world to understand regional and global impacts and to implement possible...

  14. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on Gypsum Wallboard and Ceiling tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum found in water-damaged buildings to characterize the microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions profile while growing on gypsum wallboard (W) and ceiling tile (C) coupons. The inoculated coupons with their sub...

  15. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  16. Determination of source contributions to ambient volatile organic compound concentrations in Berlin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijsse, T.R.; Oss, R.F. van; Lenschow, P.

    1999-01-01

    During three measuring campaigns in June, July, and August 1996, volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were measured at a rural background site, a city residential site, and a street site in Berlin. In addition, samples were taken near relevant sources of VOCs. The measurements covered the

  17. Process engineering versus product engineering - A case study on volatile organic compounds removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Vilela, T.; Pereira, P.

    2005-01-01

    Three solutions for removing the dangerous volatile organic compound (VOC) xylene from an industrial coating process are presented and compared. Two of them are based on classical process engineering principles, i.e., development of separation-cleaning methods such as incineration and adsorption...

  18. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage storages and feed lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An initial volatile organic compound (VOC) emission model for silage sources, developed using experimental data from previous studies, was incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM), a whole-farm simulation model used to assess the performance, environmental impacts, and economics of ...

  19. Sensory eye irritation in humans exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne Hempel; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in a controlled eyes-only exposure study of human sensory irritation in ocular mucosal tissue. The authors investigated dose-response properties and the additive effects of three mixtures of volatile organic compounds. The dose-response relationships for these mixtures...

  20. A quick screening method for sorption effects of volatile organic compounds on indoor materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, J.F. van der

    1998-01-01

    Sorption effects of a number of combinations of indoor materials and volatile organic compounds have been investigated. A limited number of experiments have been conducted to investigate the influence of parameters such as the adsorption time, the desorption time, the concentration of the pollutants

  1. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  2. Emission of volatile organic compounds as affected by rate of application of cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle manure can serve as a valuable nutrient source for crop production. However, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) following land application may pose a potential off-site odor concern. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of land application method, N- application...

  3. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  4. Analysis of selected volatile organic compounds at background level in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntsasa, Napo; Tshilongo, James; Lekoto, Goitsemang

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are measured globally at urban air pollution monitoring and background level at specific locations such as the Cape Point station. The urban pollution monitoring is legislated at government level; however, the background levels are scientific outputs of the World Meteorological Organisation Global Atmospheric Watch program (WMO/GAW). The Cape Point is a key station in the Southern Hemisphere which monitors greenhouse gases and halocarbons, with reported for over the past decade. The Cape Point station does not have the measurement capability VOC's currently. A joint research between the Cape Point station and the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) objective is to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds listed in the GAW program. NMISA is responsible for development, maintain and disseminate primary reference gas mixtures which are directly traceable to the International System of Units (SI) The results of some volatile organic compounds which where sampled in high pressure gas cylinders will be presented. The analysis of samples was performed on the gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector and mass selective detector (GC-FID/MSD) with a dedicate cryogenic pre-concentrator system. Keywords: volatile organic compounds, gas chromatography, pre-concentrator

  5. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  6. Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) at a remote tropical forest site in central Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessermeier, J.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Andreae, P.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Frattoni, M.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Guenther, J.; Greenberg, J.P.; Castro Vasconcellos, De P.; Tavares, T.; Artaxo, P.

    2000-01-01

    According to recent assessments, tropical woodlands contribute about half of all global natural non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Large uncertainties exist especially about fluxes of compounds other than isoprene and monoterpenes. During the Large-Scale Biosphere/Atmosphere

  7. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM DESERT VEGETATION OF THE SOUTHWESTERN U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen common plant species in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the western United States were tested for emissions of biogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Only two of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates of 10 µgCg−1 ...

  8. Pilot study: volatile organic compounds as a diagnostic marker for head and neck tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmutzhard, Joachim; Rieder, Josef; Deibl, Martina; Schwentner, Ilona M.; Schmid, Stefan; Lirk, Philip; Abraham, Irene; Gunkel, Andreas R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) has undergone a rapid development. In this pilot study, patients with HNSCC were tested with a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry in order to establish a minimal invasive screening method. Overall in a period of 2 years, 22

  9. Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Bromberg, L.; Rutledge, G.C.; Hatton, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and aliphatic isophorone diisocyanate as the hard segments and butanediol and

  10. MODELING OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A resistance-in-series model was used to study the pervaporation of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-water mixtures. Permeation experiments were carried out for four membranes: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyether-block-polyamides (PEBA), polyurethane (PUR) and sil...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater was studied. A shell-and-tube heat-exchange type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluen...

  12. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

  14. Influence of cultivation parameters on the composition of volatile compounds and physico-chemical characteristics of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, François; Barboni, Toussaint; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2013-02-01

    The effect of four cultivation parameters (post-maturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °C and input of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers) on the physico-chemical characteristics and composition of volatile compounds in kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated. Five physico-chemical parameters were selected, namely, pH, total acidity, dry matter, conductivity and refractive index. To our knowledge, no published data are available concerning the influence of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers on the volatile compounds and physico-chemical parameters in kiwi fruit. Except for total acidity, these parameters were only weakly influenced by cultivation parameters. The concentrations of five main volatile compounds [hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, hexan-2-ol, ethyl butyrate and hexanol] were also measured using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This work showed that the total content of volatile compounds decreased with post-maturity harvest date and storage period of 3 months. In contrast, the input levels of nitrogen and potassium had little effect on the concentrations of volatile components This study demonstrates a high degree of difference in the physiochemical parameters and volatile composition of kiwi fruit, depending on the harvest date, the time of storage and the input of fertilisers. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. An automated system for use in collecting volatile chemicals released from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, R R; Manukian, A

    1994-03-01

    A system is described for the collection of volatiles produced by plants that minimizes stress on the plant in an environment that is free from chemical impurities. Air entering a volatile collection chamber containing a plant is purified using a nonwoven fabric media infused with charcoal. A multitasking, computer-automated system is described that can simultaneously collect volatilized chemicals from plants as well as monitor and record environmental conditions associated with those collections. Collection of up to 16 samples can be made in varying sampling order, flow rates, and user-specified time periods, without disturbing the sampling environment. During the same time period, this system is capable of simultaneously monitoring up to eight environmental parameters using any type of sensor with electrical signal outputs. A multiport base assembly was designed to fit around the base of the plant permitting air samples to be collected at the bottom of the chamber. The chamber can pass ambient light so the plant may follow its natural photocycles. The entire system can be configured for continuous laboratory duty or portable field use by utilizing components that run on DC voltages. For the purpose of testing the system's performance, we determined the periodicity of the release of volatiles from red and yellow flowering four o'clock plants,Mirabilis jalaba (Nyctaginaceae). The major chemical released from four o'clocks was identified as ocimene. The onset of release occurred between 1400 and 1600 hr and increased with time with maximum amount of ocimene released during 1800-2000 hr, followed by a decrease in emission. No ocimene was detected after 2400 hr. Determination of the amount of ocimene released per flower was calculated for the 1800- to 2000-hr time period. Based on the number of open flowers during the 1800- to 2000-hr period, yellow four o'clock's released 80.9 (±7.3 SD) ng/hr/flower, while the red flowers released 51.9 (±7.0 SD) ng/hr/flower.

  16. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Louvaris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009 for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60–75 % of the cooking OA (COA at concentrations around 500 µg m−3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs, 20–30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs, and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs. The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol−1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06–0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  17. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvaris, Evangelos E.; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-10-01

    A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009) for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA) volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD) and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA) produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60-75 % of the cooking OA (COA) at concentrations around 500 µg m-3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs), 20-30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol-1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06-0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  18. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

    2013-10-01

    Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and

  19. Estimation of volatile organic compound emissions for Europe using data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Koohkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs over western Europe for the year 2005 are estimated via inverse modelling by assimilation of in situ observations of concentration and then subsequently compared to a standard emission inventory. The study focuses on 15 VOC species: five aromatics, six alkanes, two alkenes, one alkyne and one biogenic diene. The inversion relies on a validated fast adjoint of the chemical transport model used to simulate the fate and transport of these VOCs. The assimilated ground-based measurements over Europe are provided by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP network. The background emission errors and the prior observational errors are estimated by maximum-likelihood approaches. The positivity assumption on the VOC emission fluxes is pivotal for a successful inversion, and this maximum-likelihood approach consistently accounts for the positivity of the fluxes. For most species, the retrieved emissions lead to a significant reduction of the bias, which underlines the misfit between the standard inventories and the observed concentrations. The results are validated through a forecast test and a cross-validation test. An estimation of the posterior uncertainty is also provided. It is shown that the statistically consistent non-Gaussian approach based on a reliable estimation of the errors offers the best performance. The efficiency in correcting the inventory depends on the lifetime of the VOCs and the accuracy of the boundary conditions. In particular, it is shown that the use of in situ observations using a sparse monitoring network to estimate emissions of isoprene is inadequate because its short chemical lifetime significantly limits the spatial radius of influence of the monitoring data. For species with a longer lifetime (a few days, successful, albeit partial, emission corrections can reach regions hundreds of kilometres away from the stations. Domain-wide corrections of the

  20. Characterization of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in cleaning reagents and air fresheners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Yan; Chan, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. In this study, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) method was applied for the determination of BVOCs compositions in three categories of cleaning products including floor cleaners (FC), kitchen cleaners (KC) and dishwashing detergents (DD), and also air fresheners (AF). The analysis results demonstrated that chemical composition and concentration of individual BVOC varied broadly with household products in the view of their different functions and scents as indicated on the labels. The concentration of total BVOCs for sample FC1 was the highest up to 4146.0 μg g -1, followed by FC2 of 264.6 μg g -1, FC4 of 249.3 μg g -1 and FC3 of 139.2 μg g -1. D-limonene was the most abundant detected BVOCs in KC samples with the chemical composition varying from 19.6 ± 1.0 to 1513.0 ± 37.1 μg g -1. For dishwashing detergents, only D-limonene was detected and quantified. The BVOCs compositions of air freshener samples are much more complicated. It was estimated that the consumption of floor cleaners contributed 51% of the total BVOCs amount indoors in Hong Kong, followed by air fresheners 42%, kitchen cleaners 5% and dishwashing detergents 2%.

  1. Differentiating a Diverse Range of Volatile Organic Compounds with Polyfluorophore Sensors Built on a DNA Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Samain, Florent; Dai, Nan; Kool, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Oligodeoxyfluorosides (ODFs) are short DNA-like oligomers in which DNA bases are replaced with fluorophores. A preliminary study reported that some sequences of ODFs were able to respond to a few organic small molecules in the vapor phase, giving a change in fluorescence. Here we follow up on this finding by investigating a larger range of volatile organic analytes, and a considerably larger set of sensors. A library of tetramer ODFs of 2401 different sequences was prepared using combinatoria...

  2. Behavioural and genetic evidence for C. elegans' ability to detect volatile chemicals associated with explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-09-07

    Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles.

  3. Role of roasting conditions in the profile of volatile flavor chemicals formed from coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2009-07-08

    The volatile chemicals in dichloromethane extracts from green coffee beans, roasted at 230 degrees C for 12 min (light), at 240 degrees C for 14 min (medium), at 250 degrees C for 17 min (city), or at 250 degrees C for 21 min (French), were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 52 volatile compounds identified, the major compounds were 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfuryl alcohol, and 6-methyl-3,5-dihydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one in light-roasted beans; furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and gamma-butyrolactone in medium-roasted beans; furfuryl alcohol, gamma-butyrolactone, and 2-acetylpyrrole in city-raosted beans; and gamma-butyrolactone, furfuryl alcohol, and catechol in French-roasted beans. Furfural derivatives and furanones were yielded in relatively high concentrations under mild roasting conditions and then reduced at higher roasting intensities. More pyridines and pyrroles were formed by high roasting intensities than by mild roasting intensities. Chlorogenic acid degradation products, phenols, and a lactone were produced more by high roasting intensities than by low roasting intensities. The results of the present study suggest that controlling the roasting conditions according to the formation of particular chemicals can prepare a roasted coffee with preferable flavor.

  4. Behavioural and genetic evidence for C. elegans' ability to detect volatile chemicals associated with explosives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles.

  5. Volatile compounds from organic and conventional passion fruit (Passiflora edulis F. Flavicarpa pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Serrão Macoris

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compositions from organic and conventional passion fruit pulps produced in Brazil were investigated. The pulps were also physicochemically characterized. The volatile compounds from the headspace of the passion fruit pulp were stripped to a Porapak Q trap for 2 hours; they were eluted with 300 µL of dichloromethane, separated by gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection and identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pulps conformed to the requirements of the Brazilian legislation, indicating they were suitable to be industrialized and consumed. A total of 77 compounds were detected in the headspace of the passion fruit pulps - 60 of which were identified, comprising 91% of the total chromatogram area. The major compounds were the following: ethyl butanoate, 52% and 57% of the total relative area of the chromatogram for the organic and conventional passion fruit pulps, respectively; ethyl hexanoate, 22% and 9%, respectively; and hexyl butanoate, 2% and 5%, respectively. The aroma of the organic passion fruit pulp is mainly related to the following volatile compounds: ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, β-myrcene and D-limonene. The conventional passion fruit pulp presented methyl butanoate, butyl acetate, hexanal, 1-butanol, butyl butanoate, trans-3-hexenyl acetate, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, butyl hexanoate, hexyl butanoate, 3-hexenyl butanoate and 3-hexenyl hexanoate as the main volatile compounds for aroma.

  6. Ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjing; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major precursors for ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), both of which greatly harm human health and significantly affect the Earth's climate. We simultaneously estimated ozone and SOA formation from anthropogenic VOCs emissions in China by employing photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) values and SOA yields. We gave special attention to large molecular species and adopted the SOA yield curves from latest smog chamber experiments. The estimation shows that alkylbenzenes are greatest contributors to both ozone and SOA formation (36.0% and 51.6%, respectively), while toluene and xylenes are largest contributing individual VOCs. Industry solvent use, industry process and domestic combustion are three sectors with the largest contributions to both ozone (24.7%, 23.0% and 17.8%, respectively) and SOA (22.9%, 34.6% and 19.6%, respectively) formation. In terms of the formation potential per unit VOCs emission, ozone is sensitive to open biomass burning, transportation, and domestic solvent use, and SOA is sensitive to industry process, domestic solvent use, and domestic combustion. Biomass stoves, paint application in industrial protection and buildings, adhesives application are key individual sources to ozone and SOA formation, whether measured by total contribution or contribution per unit VOCs emission. The results imply that current VOCs control policies should be extended to cover most important industrial sources, and the control measures for biomass stoves should be tightened. Finally, discrepant VOCs control policies should be implemented in different regions based on their ozone/aerosol concentration levels and dominant emission sources for ozone and SOA formation potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Molecular Properties and Fate of Organic Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-14

    Chemosphere 1988, 17, 2207-2218. (26) Fendler, J.H.; Gasowski, G.L. J. Ora. Chem. 1968, 33, 1965-??? (27) Fessenden , R.J.; Fessenden , J.S. Organic Chemistry ...CAHs. MOLECULAR PROPERTIES AND FATE OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS ANDERS W. ANDREN DAVID E. ARMSTRONG DAVID L. SEDLAK WATER CHEMISTRY PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF...C. L.; Helman. W. P.: Ross, A. 96,5274-5275. B. J. Ph vs. Chem. Ref. Data 1988. 17, 513-886. (22) Fessenden . R. J.; Fessenden . J. S. Organic Chemist

  8. Age matters: the effects of volatile organic compounds emitted by Trichoderma atroviride on plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha; Hung, Richard; Yap, Melanie; Bennett, Joan W

    2015-06-01

    Studying the effects of microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on plant growth is challenging because the production of volatiles depends on many environmental factors. Adding to this complexity, the method of volatile exposure itself can lead to different responses in plants and may account for some of the contrasting results. In this work, we present an improved experimental design, a plate-within-a-plate method, to study the effects of VOCs produced by filamentous fungi. We demonstrate that the plant growth response to VOCs is dependent on the age of the plant and fungal cultures. Plants exposed to volatiles emitted by 5-day-old Trichoderma atroviride for 14 days exhibited inhibition, while plants exposed to other exposure conditions had growth promotion or no significant change. Using GC-MS, we compared fungal volatile emission of 5-day-old and 14-day-old T. atroviride. As the fungi aged, a few compounds were no longer detected, but 24 new compounds were discovered.

  9. Remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with membrane separation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Weng, Huan-xin; Chen, Huan-lin; Gao, Cong-jie

    2002-04-01

    Membrane separation, a new technology for removing VOCs including pervaporation, vapor permeation, membrane contactor, and membrane bioreactor was presented. Comparing with traditional techniques, these special techniques are an efficient and energy-saving technology. Vapor permeation can be applied to recovery of organic solvents from exhaust streams. Membrane contactor could be used for removing or recovering VOCs from air or wastewater. Pervaporation and vapor permeation are viable methods for removing VOCs from wastewater to yield a VOC concentrate which could either be destroyed by conventional means, or be recycled for reuse.

  10. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  11. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  12. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

  13. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  14. Organic Aerosol Volatility Parameterizations and Their Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigaridis, Konsta; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their importance and ubiquity in the atmosphere, organic aerosols are still very poorly parameterized in global models. This can be explained by two reasons: first, a very large number of unconstrained parameters are involved in accurate parameterizations, and second, a detailed description of semi-volatile organics is computationally very expensive. Even organic aerosol properties that are known to play a major role in the atmosphere, namely volatility and aging, are poorly resolved in global models, if at all. Studies with different models and different parameterizations have not been conclusive on whether the additional complexity improves model simulations, but the added diversity of the different host models used adds an unnecessary degree of variability in the evaluation of results that obscures solid conclusions.

  15. Unipolar resistive switching in metal oxide/organic semiconductor non-volatile memories as a critical phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Meskers, Stefan C. J., E-mail: s.c.j.meskers@tue.nl [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rocha, Paulo R. F. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Gomes, Henrique L. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Leeuw, Dago M. de [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-11-28

    Diodes incorporating a bilayer of an organic semiconductor and a wide bandgap metal oxide can show unipolar, non-volatile memory behavior after electroforming. The prolonged bias voltage stress induces defects in the metal oxide with an areal density exceeding 10{sup 17 }m{sup −2}. We explain the electrical bistability by the coexistence of two thermodynamically stable phases at the interface between an organic semiconductor and metal oxide. One phase contains mainly ionized defects and has a low work function, while the other phase has mainly neutral defects and a high work function. In the diodes, domains of the phase with a low work function constitute current filaments. The phase composition and critical temperature are derived from a 2D Ising model as a function of chemical potential. The model predicts filamentary conduction exhibiting a negative differential resistance and nonvolatile memory behavior. The model is expected to be generally applicable to any bilayer system that shows unipolar resistive switching.

  16. Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Murphy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08. Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8 can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m−3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m−3 and O:C (predicted O:C = 0.78 accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1 the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA aging rate constant, (2 assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3 the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4 heterogeneous chemistry, (5 the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6 biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, a low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging, keeping in mind that this study does not consider

  17. Validation of thermodesorption method for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds adsorbed on wafer surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayeck, Nathalie; Gligorovski, Sasho; Poulet, Irène; Wortham, Henri

    2014-05-01

    To prevent the degradation of the device characteristics it is important to detect the organic contaminants adsorbed on the wafers. In this respect, a reliable qualitative and quantitative analytical method for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds which can adsorb on wafer surfaces is of paramount importance. Here, we present a new analytical method based on Wafer Outgassing System (WOS) coupled to Automated Thermal Desorber-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (ATD-GC-MS) to identify and quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from 6", 8" and 12" wafers. WOS technique allows the desorption of organic compounds from one side of the wafers. This method was tested on three important airborne contaminants in cleanroom i.e. tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). In addition, we validated this method for the analysis and quantification of DEP, TCEP and TCPP and we estimated the backside organic contamination which may contribute to the front side of the contaminated wafers. We are demonstrating that WOS/ATD-GC-MS is a suitable and highly efficient technique for desorption and quantitative analysis of organophosphorous compounds and phthalate ester which could be found on the wafer surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Vapor Sensing Using Dual Channel Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shannon; Schoefer, Sebastian; Sharma, Deepak; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a field-effect chemical sensing device architecture in which two semiconducting channels are employed, one of which is exposed to the analyte and is chemically sensitive. The second channel (usually silicon) is used for signal transduction/amplification. Such sensors work can work in many device modes including one that can be described as a ``chemical memory mode''. For the chemically sensitive channel, several classes of materials can be employed including small molecule organic semiconductors, conjugated polymers, and inorganic oxides such as SnOx. With organic semiconductor channels, it is possible to demonstrate charge trapping of volatile organic molecules with significant dipole moments such as ketones and alcohols. We will describe the physics of operation of such sensors in various modes and also outline how the selectivity/sensitivity can be enhanced by incorporating organic receptors.

  19. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-02-01

    High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

  20. Analysis of Organic Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fermented Stinky Tofu Using SPME with Different Fiber Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  1. Increase in volatilization of organic compounds using air sparging through addition in alcohol in a soil-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Huan-Ping; Hsieh, Lin-Han Chiang; Tran, Hai Nguyen

    2018-02-15

    This study developed a novel method to promote the remediation efficiency of air sparging. According to the enhanced-volatilization theory presented in this study, selected alcohols added to groundwater can highly enhance the volatilization amounts of organic compounds with high Henry's law constants. In this study, the target organic compounds consisted of n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. n-pentanol, n-hexanol, and n-heptanol were used to examine the changes in the volatilization amounts of organic compounds in the given period. Two types of soils with high and low organic matter were applied to evaluate the transport of organic compounds in the soil-water system. The volatilization amounts of the organic compounds increased with increasing alcohol concentrations. The volatilization amounts of the test organic compounds exhibited a decreasing order: n-heptanol>n-hexanol>n-pentanol. When 10mg/L n-heptanol was added to the system, the maximum volatilization enhancement rate was 18-fold higher than that in distilled water. Samples of soil with high organic matter might reduce the volatilization amounts by a factor of 5-10. In the present study, the optimal removal efficiency for aromatic compounds was approximately 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling the volatile and organic content of Enceladus' ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Lunine, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    A variety of Cassini data on Enceladus suggest that the jets of material spraying out of the south polar region of this Saturnian moon are connected to a regional or global ocean below an icy crust -- an ocean in contact with a rocky core [1, 2, 3]. In this study we construct models of the mineralogical and elemental composition of Enceladus' rocky core so as to predict the abundance of species that may provide more detail on the extent of hydrothermal evolution of the ocean and its interaction with the rocky core. Using equations of state of the relevant material, the models are made consistent with the values of the gravity coefficients [1]. We investigate the amount of organic molecules (amino acids and fatty acids) as well as the amount of 40Ar that could be present in Enceladus' deep ocean and, therefore, in the icy grains expelled into space. Some models show that the conditions in Enceladus rocky core can be very similar to those existing in the Earth's oceanic crust, suggesting that all of Enceladus rocky core would have been leached over the age of the solar system. The amount of 40Ar dissolved in the ocean provides constraints on the amount of K in the building blocks of Enceladus, the amount of leaching of the silicate fraction, and the extent of the ocean. Based on chondritic abundances for K, we have calculated that the total potential of 40Ar is about 5.6x1012 kg. We also investigate the amount of organic material that would have been concentrated in the ocean. The Murchison meteorite contains about 60 ppm of amino acids, mainly glycine [4]. Assuming that all the rocky core has been leached by water, the modelled concentration of amino acids exceeds 150 ppm. Carboxylic acids were detected in the Asuka carbonaceous chondrites in Antarctica with values, for example, of 90 nmol/g of benzoic acid. Assuming this value, about 35 ppm of benzoic acid would be present in Enceladus' ocean. The concentrations are larger if the ocean is not global, but rather

  3. Computing chemical organizations in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centler, Florian; Kaleta, Christoph; di Fenizio, Pietro Speroni; Dittrich, Peter

    2008-07-15

    Novel techniques are required to analyze computational models of intracellular processes as they increase steadily in size and complexity. The theory of chemical organizations has recently been introduced as such a technique that links the topology of biochemical reaction network models to their dynamical repertoire. The network is decomposed into algebraically closed and self-maintaining subnetworks called organizations. They form a hierarchy representing all feasible system states including all steady states. We present three algorithms to compute the hierarchy of organizations for network models provided in SBML format. Two of them compute the complete organization hierarchy, while the third one uses heuristics to obtain a subset of all organizations for large models. While the constructive approach computes the hierarchy starting from the smallest organization in a bottom-up fashion, the flux-based approach employs self-maintaining flux distributions to determine organizations. A runtime comparison on 16 different network models of natural systems showed that none of the two exhaustive algorithms is superior in all cases. Studying a 'genome-scale' network model with 762 species and 1193 reactions, we demonstrate how the organization hierarchy helps to uncover the model structure and allows to evaluate the model's quality, for example by detecting components and subsystems of the model whose maintenance is not explained by the model. All data and a Java implementation that plugs into the Systems Biology Workbench is available from http://www.minet.uni-jena.de/csb/prj/ot/tools.

  4. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the volatile oils of leaves and flowers of Lantana camara L. cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Abdei-Halim, Azza S; Al-Ghadban, Al-Mewafy A

    2005-08-01

    GC and GC/MS analysis of the hydrodistilled volatile oils of the leaves and flowers of Lantana camara L. cv. flava (Verbenaceae) cultivated in Egypt revealed both qualitative and quantitative variations. Experimentally, twenty-nine and twenty-two components were identified in the volatile oils of leaves and flowers representing 91.91% and 95.24% of the total composition of both oils respectively. The major constituents of the leaves volatile oil were caryophyllene (9.76%), cineol (9.37%) and pinene (8.15%). The flowers volatile oils were caryophyllene (18.20%), humulene (12.22 %) and bicyclegermacrene (10.33%). Comparing the chemical composition of the volatile oils of the leaves and flowers of L. canara cv., flava from different origins, seasons and even experimental conditions revealed that there are significant qualitative and quantitative variations. The larvicidal effect of the volatile oils of L. camara cv., flava leaves and flowers of was tested against the maturation of Musca domestica L. larvae in the laboratory at concentrations (0.0125%, 0.025%. 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%). They showed mortality rate ranged from 80%- 100%. On the other hand, 10-20% of the developed pupae emerged to adults. Adults' fecundity was in larvae given a concentration of 0.0125%. In conclusion, the volatile oils of the leaves and flowers of L. camara cv., flava can be safely recommended in controlling M. domestica 3rd stage larvae.

  5. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Debevec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 7000 atmospheric measurements of over 60 C2 − C16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs were conducted at a background site in Cyprus during a 1-month intensive field campaign held in March 2015. This exhaustive dataset consisted of primary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs, including a wide range of source-specific tracers, and oxygenated VOCs (with various origins that were measured online by flame ionization detection–gas chromatography and proton transfer mass spectrometry. Online submicron aerosol chemical composition was performed in parallel using an aerosol mass spectrometer. This study presents the high temporal variability in VOCs and their associated sources. A preliminary analysis of their time series was performed on the basis of independent tracers (NO, CO, black carbon, meteorological data and the clustering of air mass trajectories. Biogenic compounds were mainly attributed to a local origin and showed compound-specific diurnal cycles such as a daily maximum for isoprene and a nighttime maximum for monoterpenes. Anthropogenic VOCs as well as oxygenated VOCs displayed higher mixing ratios under the influence of continental air masses (i.e., western Asia, indicating that long-range transport significantly contributed to the VOC levels in the area. Source apportionment was then conducted on a database of 20 VOCs (or grouped VOCs using a source receptor model. The positive matrix factorization and concentration field analyses were hence conducted to identify and characterize covariation factors of VOCs that were representative of primary emissions as well as chemical transformation processes. A six-factor PMF solution was selected, namely two primary biogenic factors (relative contribution of 43 % to the total mass of VOCs for different types of emitting vegetation; three anthropogenic factors (short-lived combustion source, evaporative sources, industrial and evaporative sources; 21 % all together, identified

  6. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  7. Antennal olfactory responses of adult meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, to volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacinto Salvatore Germinara

    Full Text Available The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae is a commonly found vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (1987 strain subspecies pauca associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome" in Italy. To contribute to the knowledge of the adult P. spumarius chemoreceptivity, electroantennographic (EAG responses of both sexes to 50 volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and ketones, terpenoids, and aromatics were recorded. Measurable EAG responses were elicited by all compounds tested. In both sexes, octanal, 2-octanol, 2-decanone, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, and vanillin elicited the strongest antennal amplitude within the chemical groups of aliphatic saturated aldehydes, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic acetates and aromatics, respectively. Male and female EAG responses to sulcatol, (±linalool, and sulcatone were higher than those to other terpenoinds. In both sexes, the weakest antennal stimulants were phenethyl alcohol and 2-pentanone. Sexual differences in the EAG amplitude were found only for four of test compounds suggesting a general similarity between males and females in antennal sensitivity. The olfactory system of both sexes proved to be sensitive to changes in stimulus concentration, carbon chain length, and compound structure. Compounds with short carbon chain length (C5-C6 elicited lower EAG amplitudes than compounds with higher carbon chain length (C9-C10 in all classes of aliphatic hydrocarbons with different functional groups. The elucidation of the sensitivity profile of P. spumarius to a variety of VOCs provides a basis for future identification of behaviorally-active compounds useful for developing semiochemical-based control strategies of this pest.

  8. Studying the fate of non-volatile organic compounds in a commercial plasma air purifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Stefan [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Seiler, Cornelia; Gerecke, Andreas C. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Hächler, Herbert [University of Zürich, Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, National Centre for Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Listeria (NENT), CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Hilbi, Hubert [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Max von Pettenkofer-Institut, D-80336 München (Germany); Frey, Joachim [University of Bern, Institute for Veterinary Bacteriology, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Weidmann, Simon; Meier, Lukas; Berchtold, Christian [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato, E-mail: zenobi@org.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Degradation of environmental toxins, a protein, and bioparticles were studied. • A commercial air purifier based on a cold plasma was used. • Passage through the device reduced the concentration of the compounds/particles. • Deposition inside the plasma air purifier was the main removal process. -- Abstract: Degradation of non-volatile organic compounds–environmental toxins (methyltriclosane and phenanthrene), bovine serum albumin, as well as bioparticles (Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis)–in a commercially available plasma air purifier based on a cold plasma was studied in detail, focusing on its efficiency and on the resulting degradation products. This system is capable of handling air flow velocities of up to 3.0 m s{sup −1} (3200 L min{sup −1}), much higher than other plasma-based reactors described in the literature, which generally are limited to air flow rates below 10 L min{sup −1}. Mass balance studies consistently indicated a reduction in concentration of the compounds/particles after passage through the plasma air purifier, 31% for phenanthrene, 17% for methyltriclosane, and 80% for bovine serum albumin. L. pneumophila did not survive passage through the plasma air purifier, and cell counts of aerosolized spores of B. subtilis and B. anthracis were reduced by 26- and 15-fold, depending on whether it was run at 10 Hz or 50 Hz, respectively. However rather than chemical degradation, deposition on the inner surfaces of the plasma air purifier occured. Our interpretation is that putative “degradation” efficiencies were largely due to electrostatic precipitation rather than to decomposition into smaller molecules.

  9. Relative toxicity for indoor semi volatile organic compounds based on neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kevin; Baumont, Emmanuel; Glorennec, Philippe; Bonvallot, Nathalie

    2017-09-05

    Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) are contaminants commonly found in dwellings as a result of their use as plasticizers, flame retardants, or pesticides in building materials and consumer products. Many SVOCs are suspected of being neurotoxic, based on mammal experimentation (impairment of locomotor activity, spatial learning/memory or behavioral changes), raising the question of cumulative risk assessment. The aim of this work is to estimate the relative toxicity of such SVOCs, based on neuronal death. SVOCs fulfilling the following conditions were included: detection frequency >10% in dwellings, availability of data on effects or mechanism of action for neurotoxicity, and availability of dose-response relationships based on cell viability assays as a proxy of neuronal death. Benchmark concentration values (BMC) were estimated using a Hill model, and compared to assess relative toxicity. Of the 58 SVOCs selected, 28 were suspected of being neurotoxic in mammals, and 21 have been documented as inducing a decrease in cell viability in vitro. 13 have at least one dose-response relationship that can be used to derive a BMC based on a 10% fall in neuronal viability. Based on this in vitro endpoint, PCB-153 appeared to be the most toxic compound, having the lowest BMC10 (0.072μM) and diazinon the least toxic compound, having the highest BMC10 (94.35μM). We showed that experimental designs (in particular choice of cell lines) had a significant influence on BMC calculation. For the first time, the relative in vitro toxicity of 13 indoor contaminants belonging to different chemical families has been assessed on the basis of neuronal cell viability. Lack of comparable toxicity datasets limits the number of SVOCs that can be included. More standardized protocols in terms of cell lines, species and exposure duration should be developed with a view to cumulative risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the OP3 field study of rainforest atmospheric chemistry, above-canopy fluxes of isoprene, monoterpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds were made by virtual disjunct eddy covariance from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest in Malaysia. Approximately 500 hours of flux data were collected over 48 days in April–May and June–July 2008. Isoprene was the dominant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from the forest, accounting for 80% (as carbon of the measured emission of reactive carbon fluxes. Total monoterpene emissions accounted for 18% of the measured reactive carbon flux. There was no evidence for nocturnal monoterpene emissions and during the day their flux rate was dependent on both light and temperature. The oxygenated compounds, including methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde, contributed less than 2% of the total measured reactive carbon flux. The sum of the VOC fluxes measured represents a 0.4% loss of daytime assimilated carbon by the canopy, but atmospheric chemistry box modelling suggests that most (90% of this reactive carbon is returned back to the canopy by wet and dry deposition following chemical transformation. The emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes, normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR, were 1.6 mg m−2 h−1 and 0.46mg m−2 h−1 respectively, which was 4 and 1.8 times lower respectively than the default value for tropical forests in the widely-used MEGAN model of biogenic VOC emissions. This highlights the need for more direct canopy-scale flux measurements of VOCs from the world's tropical forests.

  11. Low concentration volatile organic pollutants removal in combined adsorber-desorber-catalytic reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from numerous emission sources is of crucial importance due to more rigorous demands on air quality. Different technologies can be used to treat the VOCs from effluent gases: absorption, physical adsorption, open flame combustion, thermal and catalytic incineration. Their appropriateness for the specific process depends on several factors such as efficiency, energy consumption, secondary pollution, capital investments etc. The distinctive features of the catalytic combustion are high efficiency and selectivity toward be­nign products, low energy consumption and absence of secondary polluti­on. The supported noble catalysts are widely used for catalytic incineration due to their low ignition temperatures and high thermal and chemical stability. In our combined system adsorption and desorption are applied in the spouted bed with draft tube (SBDT unit. The annular zone, loaded with sorbent, was divided in adsorption and desorption section. Draft tube enabled sorbent recirculation between sections. Combustion of desorbed gases to CO2 and water vapor are realized in additive catalytic reactor. This integrated device provided low concentrations VOCs removal with reduced energy consumption. Experiments were conducted on a pilot unit of 220 m3/h nominal capacity. The sorbent was activated carbon, type K81/B - Trayal Corporation, Krusevac. A sphere shaped commercial Pt/Al2O3 catalyst with "egg-shell" macro-distribution was used for the investigation of xylene deep oxidation. Within this paper the investigations of removal of xylene vapors, a typical pollutant in production of liquid pesticides, in combined adsorber/desorber/catalytic reactor system is presented.

  12. D/H Isotope Ratio Measurements of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisehen, Thomas; Bühler, Fred; Koppmann, Ralf; Krebsbach, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of isotope ratios in atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) is a reliable method to allocate their sources, to estimate atmospheric residence times and investigate physical and chemical processes on various temporal and spatial scales. Most investigations yet focus on carbon isotope ratios. Certainly more detailed information can be gained by the ratio of deuterium (D) to hydrogen (H) in VOC, especially due to the high mass ratio. Combining measurements of carbon and hydrogen isotopes could lead to considerable improvement in our understanding of atmospheric processes. For this purpose we set up and thoroughly characterised a gas chromatograph pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometer to measure the D/H ratio in atmospheric VOC. From a custom-made gas standard mixture VOC were adsorbed on Tenax®TA which has the advantage that CO2 is not preconcentrated when measuring ambient air samples. Our results show that the pyrolysis method has significant impact on the D/H ratios. A pyrolysis temperature of at least 1723 K and conditioning of the ceramic tube on a regular basis is essential to obtain reproducible D/H isotope ratios. For an independent comparison D/H ratios of the pure VOC used in the gas standard were determined using elemental analysis by Agroisolab (Jülich, Germany). Comparisons of 10 VOC show perfect agreement within the standard deviations of our measurements and the errors given by Agroisolab, e.g. for n-pentane, toluene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone and n-octane. A slight mean difference of 5.1 o was obtained for n-heptane while significant mean differences of 15.5 o and 20.3 o arose for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and isoprene, respectively. We further demonstrate the stability of our system and show that the sample preparation does not affect the isotope ratios. Moreover the applicability of our system to ambient air samples is demonstrated.

  13. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Controlled Environment: Ethylene Gas Measurement Studies on Radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Suk Bin

    2001-01-01

    Volatile organic compound(VOC), ethylene gas, was characterized and quantified by GC/FID. 20-50 ppb levels were detected during the growth stages of radish. SPME could be a good analytical tool for the purpose. Low temperature trapping method using dry ice/diethyl ether and liquid nitrogen bath was recommended for the sampling process for GC/PID and GC/MS analysis.

  14. Understanding Exposures to Volatile and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini

    2016-01-01

    Humans spend most of their time indoors, in residences and commercial buildings. In this thesis, I evaluate exposures to volatile (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor environments. I use a combination of literature review and evaluation, mechanistic modeling, and skin-wipe collection and analysis to develop an understanding of the role of indoor air as an exposure medium for inhalation and passive dermal uptake of pollutants. This dissertation explores three related res...

  15. Chemical characterization and antioxidant potential of volatile oil from an edible seaweed Porphyra tenera (Kjellman, 1897).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Lee, Se-Weon; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Jae Gyu; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-04-14

    Porphyra tenera (Kjellman, 1897) is the most common eatable red seaweed in Asia. In the present study, P. tenera volatile oil (PTVO) was extracted from dried P. tenera sheets that were used as food by the microwave hydrodistillation procedure, after which the characterization of its chemical constituents was done by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy and its antioxidant potential was evaluated by a number of in vitro biochemical assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. A total of 30 volatile compounds comprising about 99.4% of the total volume were identified, of which trans-beta-ionone (20.9%), hexadecanoic acid (9.2%) and 2,6-nonadienal (8.7%) were present in higher quantities. PTVO exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity by DPPH scavenging (44.62%), NO scavenging (28.45%) and superoxide scavenging (54.27%) at 500 µg/mL. Similarly, it displayed strong ABTS radical scavenging (IC50 value of 177.83 µg/mL), hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 value of 109.70 µg/mL), and moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity (IC50 value of 231.80 µg/mL) and reducing power (IC0.5 value of 126.58 µg/mL). PTVO exhibited strong antioxidant potential in a concentration dependent manner and the results were comparable with the BHT and α-tocopherol, taken as the reference standard compounds (positive controls). Taken together, PTVO with potential bioactive chemical compounds and strong antioxidant activity could be utilized in the cosmetic industries for making antioxidant rich anti-aging and sun-screen lotion and in the food sector industries as food additives and preservatives.

  16. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.

  17. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.. The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.

  18. Chemical Fingerprinting of the Fragrant Volatiles of Nineteen Indian Cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae

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    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil compositions of total nineteen cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae species viz. C. martinii (Roxb. Wats. var. motia Burk., C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud, C. winterinus Jowitt., C. pendulus Nees ex Steud. and a hybrid of C. khasianus (Hack Stapf. ex Bor and C. pendulus Nees ex Steud. were examined and compared using capillary GC and GC-MS . The analysis led to the identification of 48 constituents forming 90.1% to 99.7% of their total oil compositions with monoterpenoids (78.9% to 97.4% as the most exclusive constituents. The comparative results showed considerable variation in the qualitative and quantitative compositions of essential oils from nineteen different cultivars of the studied Cymbopogon species. On the basis of chemical similarity the cultivars of genus Cymbopogon was divided into five chemical variants/groups within two series viz. Citrati and Rusae. The volatile profile of existing cultivars of Cymbopogon are useful for their commercial utilization as they possess range of essential oils and aroma chemicals used in perfumery, flavour, pharmaceutical and other allied industries. Moreover, the marker constituents in their essential oils may be utilized as an important tool in oil authentication.

  19. Biocide effects of volatile organic compounds produced by potential biocontrol rhizobacteria on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa eGiorgio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Six rhizobacteria isolated from common bean and able to protect bean plants from the common bacterial blight causal agent, were in vitro evaluated for their potential antifungal effects toward different plant pathogenic fungi, mostly soil-borne. By dual culture assays, the above bacteria resulted producing diffusible and volatile metabolites which inhibited the growth of the majority of the pathogens under study. In particular, the latter substances highly affected the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains, one of which was selected for further studies either on mycelium or sclerotia.Gas chromatographic analysis of the bacterial volatiles led to the identification of an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Time course studies showed the modification of the VOCs profile along a period of 5 days. In order to evaluate the single detected VOC effects on fungal growth, some of the pure compounds were tested on S. sclerotiorum mycelium and their minimal inhibitory quantities were determined. Similarly, the minimal inhibitory quantities on sclerotia germination were also defined. Moreover, observations by light and transmission electron microscopes highlighted hyphae cytoplasm granulation and ultrastructural alterations at cell organelles, mostly membranes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The membranes appeared one of the primary targets of bacterial volatiles, as confirmed by haemolytic activity observed for the majority of pure VOCs. However, of interest is the alteration observed on mitochondria as well.

  20. Analysis of volatile organic compound from Elaeis guineensis inflorescences planted on different soil types in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Fahmi, M. H.; Ahmad Bukhary, A. K.; Norma, H.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    The main attractant compound for Eleidobius kamerunicus to male spikelet Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) were determined by analyzing volatile organic compound extracted from E. guineenses inflorescences planted on different soil types namely peat soil, clay soil and sandy soil. Anthesizing male oil palm inflorescences were randomly choosen from palm aged between 4-5 years old age. Extraction of the volatiles from the oil palm inflorescences were performed by Accelerated Solvent Extraction method (ASE). The extracted volatile compound were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of ten identified compound, estragole was found to be a major compound in sandy soil (37.49%), clay soil (30.71%) and peat soil (27.79%). Other compound such as 9,12-octadecadieonic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid were found as major compound in peat soil (27.18%) and (7.45%); sandy soil (14.15 %) and (9.31%); and clay soil (30.23%) and (4.99%). This study shows that estragole was the predominant volatile compound detected in oil palm inflorescences with highly concentrated in palm planted in sandy soil type.

  1. Detection of volatile organic compounds indicative of human presence in the air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Geier, Brian A; Fan, Maomian; Gogate, Sanjay A; Rinehardt, Sage A; Watts, Brandy S; Grigsby, Claude C; Ott, Darrin K

    2015-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds were collected and analyzed from a variety of indoor and outdoor air samples to test whether human-derived compounds can be readily detected in the air and if they can be associated with human occupancy or presence. Compounds were captured with thermal desorption tubes and then analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Isoprene, a major volatile organic compound in exhaled breath, was shown to be the best indicator of human presence. Acetone, another major breath-borne compound, was higher in unoccupied or minimally occupied areas than in human-occupied areas, indicating that its majority may be derived from exogenous sources. The association of endogenous skin-derived compounds with human occupancy was not significant. In contrast, numerous compounds that are found in foods and consumer products were detected at elevated levels in the occupied areas. Our results revealed that isoprene and many exogenous volatile organic compounds consumed by humans are emitted at levels sufficient for detection in the air, which may be indicative of human presence. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min Ryu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields.

  3. Two volatile organic compounds trigger plant self-defense against a bacterial pathogen and a sucking insect in cucumber under open field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-05-08

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields.

  4. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  5. Development of an In-Fiber Nanocavity Towards Detection of Volatile Organic Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Arregui

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A fiber optic sensor for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs detection has beendeveloped and characterized for some organic gasses. The sensor is based on a novelvapochromic material, which is able to change its optical properties in presence of organicvapors in a reversely way. A nano Fabry Perot is constructed onto a cleaved ended opticalfiber pigtail by Electrostatic Self Assembly method (ESA, doping this structure with thevapochromic material. Employing a reflection scheme, a change in the intensity modulatedreflected signal at 850 nm have been registered. The response of the sensor has beenevaluated for five different VOCs, and a deeper study has been made for vapors of threedifferent alcohols.

  6. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  7. Formation of organic aerosol in the Paris region during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign: evaluation of the volatility-basis-set approach within the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulations with the chemistry transport model CHIMERE are compared to measurements performed during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation summer campaign in the Greater Paris region in July 2009. The volatility-basis-set approach (VBS is implemented into this model, taking into account the volatility of primary organic aerosol (POA and the chemical aging of semi-volatile organic species. Organic aerosol is the main focus and is simulated with three different configurations with a modified treatment of POA volatility and modified secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation schemes. In addition, two types of emission inventories are used as model input in order to test the uncertainty related to the emissions. Predictions of basic meteorological parameters and primary and secondary pollutant concentrations are evaluated, and four pollution regimes are defined according to the air mass origin. Primary pollutants are generally overestimated, while ozone is consistent with observations. Sulfate is generally overestimated, while ammonium and nitrate levels are well simulated with the refined emission data set. As expected, the simulation with non-volatile POA and a single-step SOA formation mechanism largely overestimates POA and underestimates SOA. Simulation of organic aerosol with the VBS approach taking into account the aging of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC shows the best correlation with measurements. High-concentration events observed mostly after long-range transport are well reproduced by the model. Depending on the emission inventory used, simulated POA levels are either reasonable or underestimated, while SOA levels tend to be overestimated. Several uncertainties related to the VBS scheme (POA volatility, SOA yields, the aging parameterization, to emission input data, and to simulated OH levels can be responsible for

  8. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Lumholdt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest–host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

  9. [Rapid determination of volatile organic compounds in workplace air by protable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H B; Su, C J; Tang, H F; Ruan, Z; Liu, D H; Wang, H; Qian, Y L

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To establish a method for rapid determination of 47 volatile organic compounds in the air of workplace using portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS). Methods: The mixed standard gas with different concentration levels was made by using the static gas distribution method with the high purity nitrogen as dilution gas. The samples were injected into the GC-MS by a hand-held probe. Retention time and characteristic ion were used for qualitative analysis,and the internal standard method was usd for quantitation. Results: The 47 poisonous substances were separated and determined well. The linear range of this method was 0.2-16.0 mg/m(3),and the relative standard deviation of 45 volatile ovganic compounds was 3.8%-15.8%. The average recovery was 79.3%-119.0%. Conclusion: The method is simple,accurate,sensitive,has good separation effect,short analysis period, can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds in the workplace, and also supports the rapid identification and detection of occupational hazards.

  10. Analysis of build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics on urban roads in gold coast, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Yigitcanlar, Tan

    2011-01-01

    Urban water quality can be significantly impaired by the build-up of pollutants such as heavy metals and volatile organics on urban road surfaces due to vehicular traffic. Any control strategy for the mitigation of traffic related build-up of heavy metals and volatile organic pollutants should be based on the knowledge of their build-up processes. In the study discussed in this paper, the outcomes of a detailed experimental investigation into build-up processes of heavy metals and volatile organics are presented. It was found that traffic parameters such as average daily traffic, volume over capacity ratio and surface texture depth had similar strong correlations with the build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics. Multicriteria decision analyses revealed that that the 1-74 microm particulate fraction of total suspended solids (TSS) could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate heavy metals in build-up and this same fraction of total organic carbon could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate volatile organics build-up. In terms of pollutants affinity, TSS was found to be the predominant parameter for particulate heavy metals build-up and total dissolved solids was found to be the predominant parameter for the potential dissolved particulate fraction in heavy metals buildup. It was also found that land use did not play a significant role in the build-up of traffic generated heavy metals and volatile organics.

  11. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  12. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Air Contained in Canisters by Method TO-15, SOP No. HW-31 Revision 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is designed to offer the data reviewer guidance in determining the validity of analytical data from the analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in air samples taken in canisters and analyzed by method TO-15.

  13. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  14. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1999-September 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Senus, Michael P.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from November 1999 through September 2000. The report describes the differences between years with below normal and normal precipitation, the effects of seasons, tide stages, and location on volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water, and provides estimates of volatile organic concentration loads to the tidal Gunpowder River. Eighty-four environmental samples from 20 surface-water sites were analyzed. As many as 13 different volatile organic compounds were detected in the samples. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples ranged from below the reporting limit of 0.5 micrograms per liter to a maximum of 50.2 micrograms per liter for chloroform. Chloroform was detected most frequently, and was found in 55 percent of the environmental samples that were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (46 of 84 samples). Carbon tetrachloride was detected in 56 percent of the surface-water samples in the tidal part of the creek (34 of 61 samples), but was only detected in 3 of 23 samples in the nontidal part of the creek. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was detected in 43 percent of the tidal samples (26 of 61 samples), but was detected at only two nontidal sites and only during November 1999. Three samples were collected from the tidal Gunpowder River about 300 feet from the mouth of Canal Creek in May 2000, and none of the samples contained volatile organic compound concentrations above detection levels. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water were highest in the reaches of the creek adjacent to the areas with the highest known levels of ground-water contamination. The load of total volatile organic compounds from Canal Creek to the Gunpowder River is approximately 1.85 pounds per day (0

  15. Assessment of indoor levels of volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide in schools in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, Layla

    2018-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3-C6), aromatic (C6-C9), halogenated (C1-C7), and oxygenated (C2-C9) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait. The concentrations of indoor air pollutants revealed hot spots (science preparation rooms, science laboratories, arts and crafts classes/paint rooms, and woodworking shops/decoration rooms where local sources contributed to the buildup of pollutants in each school. The most abundant VOC pollutant was chlorodifluoromethane (R22; ClF2CH), which leaked from air conditioning (AC) systems due to improper operation and maintenance. The other copious VOCs were alcohols and acetone at different locations due to improper handling of the chemicals and their excessive uses as solvents. Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were measured, and these levels reflected the performance of HVAC systems; a specific rate or lack of ventilation affected the IAQ. Recommendations are proposed to mitigate the buildup of indoor air pollutants at school sites. Indoor air quality in elementary schools has been a subject of extreme importance due to susceptibility and sensibility of children to air pollutants. The schools were selected based on their surrounding environment especially downwind direction from the highly industrialized zone in Kuwait. Extensive sampling from different sites in four schools for comprehensive VOCs and

  16. Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser.

  17. Volatile organic compounds and Photobacterium phosphoreum associated with spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged raw pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Timo T.; Dalgaard, Paw; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile organic compounds was monitored in association with sensory quality, bacterial concentrations and culture-independent microbial community analyses in raw pork loin and pork collar during storage under high-oxygen modified atmosphere at +4°C. Of the 48 volatile compounds...... detected in the pork samples, the levels of acetoin, diacetyl and 3-methyl-1-butanol had the highest correlations with the sensory scores and bacterial concentrations. These compounds accumulated in all of the four monitored lots of non-sterile pork but not in the sterilized pork during chilled storage...... with high proportion of Photobacterium spp. were associated with accumulation of acetoin, diacetyl and 3-methyl-1-butanol in meat, but these compounds did not explain all the off-odors reported in sensory analyses....

  18. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment...... and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC–(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50–130%) and precisions (2–23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six...... NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg−1, though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg−1). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results...

  19. Study of the influence of temperature the venting depollution process of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA-ALINA BRUSTUREAN; JEAN CARRÉ; DELIA PERJU; TEODOR TODINCA

    2006-01-01

    Venting is one of the most used in situ remediation methods for unsaturated soils contaiminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC). The development of mathematical models and their validation by means of experimental results allowed the identification of the main parameters which influence the soil depollution process. The influence of temperature on the venting depollution process of soils polluted with volatile organic compounds was studied in this investigation. It was found that the de...

  20. Influence of climate and land use change on spatially resolved volatilization of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from background soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, Jiří; Komprdová, Klára; Sáňka, Milan; Možný, Martin; Nizzetto, Luca

    2013-07-02

    The subject of this study is the assessment of the influence of climate and land use change on the potential re-emission of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from background and agricultural soils. A deterministic spatially and temporally explicit model of the air-surface exchange was created, fed with distributed data of soil and atmospheric concentrations from real measurements, and run under various scenarios of temperature and land use change for a case study area representative of central European conditions. To describe land use influence, some important features were implemented including effect of plowing, influence of land cover, temperature of soil, and seasonal changes of air layer stability. Results show that volatilization of pesticides from soil largely exceeded dry gas deposition in most of the area. Agricultural soils accounted for more than 90% of the total re-emissions both because of the generally higher soil fugacities (higher loads of chemicals and relatively low organic carbon content), but also due to physical characteristics and land management practices enhancing the dynamics of the exchange. An increase of 1 °C in air temperature produced an increase of 8% in the averaged total volatilization flux, however this effect can be neutralized by a change of land use of 10% of the arable lands to grassland or forest, which is consistent with projected land use change in Europe. This suggests that future assessment of climate impact on POP fate and distribution should take into consideration land use aspects.

  1. Emission of odorous volatile organic compounds from a municipal manure treatment plant and their removal using a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yan-Di; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal manure treatment facilities are considered as a major nuisance issue for operators and nearby residents. In this study, up to 71 odorous VOCs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at the manure treatment plant. These compounds can be classified into five different categories, including alkanes, olefins, aromatics, volatile organosulphur compounds and terpenes. Toluene, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl sulphide, xylene and ethylbenzene were the five most abundant pollutants. A pilot-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) was employed to treat the complex odorous gases. Correlation analysis showed that the removal efficiency (RE) of the BTF was related with the molecular weight and chemical structure of contaminants. Higher than 85% of REs could be reached for aromatic, terpenes and most alkanes compounds after 180 days of operation. Comparatively, most olefins and partial alkanes compounds with a molecular weight lower than 70 were not removed easily. The REs of these compounds ranged from 0% to 94%, and the average removal efficiency (RE) was only about 33.3%.

  2. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative screening for volatile organic compounds in human blood using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottzein, Anne Kathrin; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-04-01

    A fast and simple screening procedure using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) in full-scan mode for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) is presented. The development of a fast and simple screening technique for the simultaneous determination of various volatiles is of great importance, because of their widespread use, frequent occurrence in forensic toxicological questions and the fact that there is often no hint on involved substances at the crime scene. To simulate a screening procedure, eight VOC with different chemical characteristics were chosen (isoflurane, halothane, hexane, chloroform, benzene, isooctane, toluene and xylene). To achieve maximum sensitivity, variables that influence the SPME process, such as type of fiber, extraction and desorption temperature and time, agitation and additives were optimized by preliminary studies and by means of a central composite design. The limits of detection and recoveries ranged from 2.9 microg/l (xylene) to 37.1 microg/l (isoflurane) and 7.9% (chloroform) to 61.5% (benzene), respectively. This procedure can be used to answer various forensic and toxicological questions. The short time taken for the whole analytical procedure may make its eventual adoption for routine analysis attractive. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Oscar; Pérez, Ana M; Vaillant, Fabrice

    2009-03-01

    Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar content, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), and total polyphenolic and ascorbic acid content. Carotenoid and volatile compound identification was also done. The samples showed sucrose, glucose, and fructose content of 1.6 +/- 0.3, 0.68 +/- 0.05, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 g/100 g, respectively. Total titratable acidity was 2.63 +/- 0.07 g citric acid equivalent / 100 g and total soluble solids amounted to 9.1 +/- 0.5 degrees Brix. H-ORAC value was 17 +/- 1 micromol Trolox equivalent /g, total polyphenolic content was 48 +/- 3 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g and ascorbic acid content was 12.5 +/- 0.0 mg/100 g. Carotenoid content of the whole fruit and pulp was 33.3 +/- 0.6 and 7.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g, respectively. The predominant carotenoid among the compounds identified in the whole fruit was beta-carotene. Ten volatile compounds were identified in naranjillapulp, the predominant being methyl butanoate. The chemical composition of naranjilla cultivated in Costa Rica does not seem to differ from that previously reported in studies at different locations.

  5. Analyses of volatile organic compounds and refractory organic residues coming from the heating of interstellar ice analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danger Grégoire

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We use Very High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for analyses of the soluble fraction of yellow stuff produced in laboratory. Their analyses show that they are composed of molecules with high molecular weight (m/z>4000. Fragmentations suggest that grafted molecules constitute a part of them. Hexamethylenetetramine derivatives have also been detected. First results and further analytical developments will be presented to facilitate the understanding of the residue composition and of its chemical evolution. Furthermore, we present for the first time the concept of the VAHIIA project which concerns the analysis of volatiles coming from the heating of interstellar ice analogues.

  6. Using chemical organization theory for model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Christoph; Richter, Stephan; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The increasing number and complexity of biomodels makes automatic procedures for checking the models' properties and quality necessary. Approaches like elementary mode analysis, flux balance analysis, deficiency analysis and chemical organization theory (OT) require only the stoichiometric structure of the reaction network for derivation of valuable information. In formalisms like Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), however, information about the stoichiometric coefficients required for an analysis of chemical organizations can be hidden in kinetic laws. First, we introduce an algorithm that uncovers stoichiometric information that might be hidden in the kinetic laws of a reaction network. This allows us to apply OT to SBML models using modifiers. Second, using the new algorithm, we performed a large-scale analysis of the 185 models contained in the manually curated BioModels Database. We found that for 41 models (22%) the set of organizations changes when modifiers are considered correctly. We discuss one of these models in detail (BIOMD149, a combined model of the ERK- and Wnt-signaling pathways), whose set of organizations drastically changes when modifiers are considered. Third, we found inconsistencies in 5 models (3%) and identified their characteristics. Compared with flux-based methods, OT is able to identify those species and reactions more accurately [in 26 cases (14%)] that can be present in a long-term simulation of the model. We conclude that our approach is a valuable tool that helps to improve the consistency of biomodels and their repositories. All data and a JAVA applet to check SBML-models is available from http://www.minet.uni-jena.de/csb/prj/ot/tools. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sánchez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities.

  8. Detection, composition and treatment of volatile organic compounds from waste treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities.

  9. (Semi)volatile organic compounds and microbiological entities in snow during OASIS Barrow 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P.; Kos, G.

    2009-12-01

    Gregor Kos (1), Nafissa Adechina (2), Dwayne Lutchmann (2) , Roya Mortazavi, and Parisa Ariya* (1), (2) (1) McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada (2) McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada an active medium for the deposition of (semi-)volatile (bio)organic compounds. We collected surface snow samples during the OASIS Barrow campaign in March 2009 for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (SPME-GC/MS). Additioal gab samples were taken for analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air. More over, we analyzed for microbial species in air and snow. Identifed organic compounds covered a wide range of functionalities andmolecular weigts, including oxygenated reactive speces such as aldehydes (e.g., hexanal to decanal), alcohols (e.g., hexanol, octanol) and aromatic species (e.g., methyl- and ethylbenzenes). Quantification data for selected aromatic species are presented with concentrations in the upper ng/L range. We will present our preliminary data on microbiological species, and will discuss the potential mplications of the results for organic snow chemistry.

  10. The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Chuang, Wayne K; Gordon, Hamish; Heinritzi, Martin; Yan, Chao; Molteni, Ugo; Ahlm, Lars; Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Wagner, Robert; Simon, Mario; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Williamson, Christina; Craven, Jill S; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, Joao; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Dias, Antònio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Gysel, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Möhler, Ottmar; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Piel, Felix M; Miettinen, Pasi; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomè, Antònio; Virtanen, Annele; Wagner, Andrea C; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Riipinen, Ilona; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-05-26

    About half of present-day cloud condensation nuclei originate from atmospheric nucleation, frequently appearing as a burst of new particles near midday. Atmospheric observations show that the growth rate of new particles often accelerates when the diameter of the particles is between one and ten nanometres. In this critical size range, new particles are most likely to be lost by coagulation with pre-existing particles, thereby failing to form new cloud condensation nuclei that are typically 50 to 100 nanometres across. Sulfuric acid vapour is often involved in nucleation but is too scarce to explain most subsequent growth, leaving organic vapours as the most plausible alternative, at least in the planetary boundary layer. Although recent studies predict that low-volatility organic vapours contribute during initial growth, direct evidence has been lacking. The accelerating growth may result from increased photolytic production of condensable organic species in the afternoon, and the presence of a possible Kelvin (curvature) effect, which inhibits organic vapour condensation on the smallest particles (the nano-Köhler theory), has so far remained ambiguous. Here we present experiments performed in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions that investigate the role of organic vapours in the initial growth of nucleated organic particles in the absence of inorganic acids and bases such as sulfuric acid or ammonia and amines, respectively. Using data from the same set of experiments, it has been shown that organic vapours alone can drive nucleation. We focus on the growth of nucleated particles and find that the organic vapours that drive initial growth have extremely low volatilities (saturation concentration less than 10(-4.5) micrograms per cubic metre). As the particles increase in size and the Kelvin barrier falls, subsequent growth is primarily due to more abundant organic vapours of slightly higher volatility (saturation concentrations of 10(-4.5) to 10

  11. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rosales Aranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive technique based on resistivity measurements in soils. After the detection of hydrocarbons contaminated areas, boreholes with continuous coring were performed in a petrol station located in Murcia Region (Spain. The drillholes reached depths down to 10 m and soil samples were taken from each meter of the drilling. The optimization in the soil samples handling and storage, for both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds determinations, was achieved by designing a soil sampler to minimize volatilization losses and in order to avoid the manual contact with the environmental samples during the sampling. The preservation of soil samples was performed according to Europe regulations and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations into two kinds of glass vials. Moreover, it has been taken into account the determination techniques to quantify the hydrocarbon pollution based on Gas Chromatography with different detectors and headspace technique to reach a liquid-gas equilibrium for volatile analyses.

  12. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and validation of a portable gas phase standard generation and calibration system for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Veres; J. B. Gilman; J. M. Roberts; W. C. Kuster; C. Warneke; I. R. Burling; J. de Gouw

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of an accurate, portable, dynamic calibration system for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Mobile Organic Carbon Calibration System (MOCCS) combines the production of gas-phase VOC standards using permeation or diffusion sources with quantitative total organic carbon (TOC) conversion on a palladium surface to CO2 in the presence of...

  14. Halogenated hydrocarbon pesticides and other volatile organic contaminants provide analytical challenges in global trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia T; Fahrenholtz, Svea; Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver

    2010-04-01

    Protection against infestation of a container cargo by alien species is achieved by mandatory fumigation with pesticides. Most of the effective fumigants are methyl and ethyl halide gases that are highly toxic and are a risk to both human health and the environment. There is a worldwide need for a reliable and robust analytical screening procedure for these volatile chemicals in a multitude of health and environmental scenarios. We have established a highly sensitive broad spectrum mass spectrometry method combined with thermal desorption gas chromatography to detect, identify and quantify volatile pesticide residues. Using this method, 1201 random ambient air samples taken from freight containers arriving at the biggest European ports of Hamburg and Rotterdam were analyzed over a period of two and a half years. This analytical procedure is a valuable strategy to measure air pollution from these hazardous chemicals, to help in the identification of pesticides in the new mixtures/formulations that are being adopted globally and to analyze expired breath samples after suspected intoxication in biomonitoring.

  15. Speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs in a pine forest during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. H. Chan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding organic composition of gases and particles is essential to identifying sources and atmospheric processing leading to organic aerosols (OA, but atmospheric chemical complexity and the analytical techniques available often limit such analysis. Here we present speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs using a novel dual-use instrument (SV-TAG-AMS deployed at Manitou Forest, CO, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011 campaign. This instrument provides on-line speciation of ambient organic compounds with 2 h time resolution. The species in this volatility range are complex in composition, but their chemical identities reveal potential sources. Observed compounds of biogenic origin include sesquiterpenes with molecular formula C15H24 (e.g., β-caryophyllene and longifolene, which were most abundant at night. A variety of other biogenic compounds were observed, including sesquiterpenoids with molecular formula C15H22, abietatriene and other terpenoid compounds. Many of these compounds have been identified in essential oils and branch enclosure studies but were observed in ambient air for the first time in our study. Semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and alkanes were observed with highest concentrations during the day and the dependence on temperature suggests the role of an evaporative source. Using statistical analysis by positive matrix factorization (PMF, we classify observed S/IVOCs by their likely sources and processes, and characterize them based on chemical composition. The total mass concentration of elutable S/IVOCs was estimated to be on the order of 0.7 µg m−3 and their volatility distributions are estimated for modeling aerosol formation chemistry.

  16. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds emission profiles from hot road bitumens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2014-07-01

    A procedure for the investigation and comparison of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission profiles to the atmosphere from road bitumens with various degrees of oxidation is proposed. The procedure makes use of headspace analysis and gas chromatography with universal as well as selective detection, including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The studies revealed that so-called vacuum residue, which is the main component of the charge, contains variable VOC concentrations, from trace to relatively high ones, depending on the extent of thermal cracking in the boiler of the vacuum distillation column. The VOC content in the oxidation product, so-called oxidized paving bitumen, is similarly varied. There are major differences in VOC emission profiles between vacuum residue and oxidized bitumens undergoing thermal cracking. The VOC content in oxidized bitumens, which did not undergo thermal cracking, increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumens. The studies revealed that the total VOC content increases from about 120 ppm for the raw vacuum residue to about 1900 ppm for so-called bitumen 35/50. The amount of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the volatile fraction of fumes of oxidized bitumens increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumen and constitutes from 0.34% to 3.66% (w/w). The contribution of volatile nitrogen compounds (VNCs) to total VOC content remains constant for the investigated types of bitumens (from 0.16 to 0.28% (w/w) of total VOCs). The results of these studies can also find use during the selection of appropriate bitumen additives to minimize their malodorousness. The obtained data append the existing knowledge on VOC emission from oxidized bitumens. They should be included in reports on the environmental impact of facilities in which hot bitumen binders are used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  18. Volatile organic compound emissions from arctic vegetation highly responsive to experimental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Kramshøj, Magnus; Lindwall, Frida; Schollert, Michelle; Svendsen, Sarah H.; Valolahti, Hanna

    2017-04-01

    Arctic areas are experiencing amplified climate warming that proceeds twice as fast as the global temperature increase. The increasing temperature is already causing evident alterations, e.g. changes in the vegetation cover as well as thawing of permafrost. Climate warming and the concomitant biotic and abiotic changes are likely to have strong direct and indirect effects on emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from arctic vegetation. We used long-term field manipulation experiments in the Subarctic, Low Arctic and High Arctic to assess effects of climate change on VOC emissions from vegetation communities. In these experiments, we applied passive warming with open-top chambers alone and in combination with other experimental treatments in well-replicated experimental designs. Volatile emissions were sampled in situ by drawing air from plant enclosures and custom-built chambers into adsorbent cartridges, which were analyzed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in laboratory. Emission increases by a factor of 2-5 were observed under experimental warming by only a few degrees, and the strong response seems universal for dry, mesic and wet ecosystems. In some cases, these vegetation community level responses were partly due to warming-induced increases in the VOC-emitting plant biomass, changes in species composition and the following increase in the amount of leaf litter (Valolahti et al. 2015). In other cases, the responses appeared before any vegetation changes took place (Lindwall et al. 2016) or even despite a decrease in plant biomass (Kramshøj et al. 2016). VOC emissions from arctic ecosystems seem more responsive to experimental warming than other ecosystem processes. We can thus expect large increases in future VOC emissions from this area due to the direct effects of temperature increase, and due to increasing plant biomass and a longer growing season. References Kramshøj M., Vedel-Petersen I., Schollert M., Rinnan

  19. Evaluation of the kinetic oxidation of aqueous volatile organic compounds by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Hartog, Niels

    2014-07-01

    The use of permanganate solutions for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a well-established groundwater remediation technology, particularly for targeting chlorinated ethenes. The kinetics of oxidation reactions is an important ISCO remediation design aspect that affects the efficiency and oxidant persistence. The overall rate of the ISCO reaction between oxidant and contaminant is typically described using a second-order kinetic model while the second-order rate constant is determined experimentally by means of a pseudo first order approach. However, earlier studies of chlorinated hydrocarbons have yielded a wide range of values for the second-order rate constants. Also, there is limited insight in the kinetics of permanganate reactions with fuel-derived groundwater contaminants such as toluene and ethanol. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the oxidation kinetics of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene in an aqueous potassium permanganate solution. The overall second-order rate constants were determined directly by fitting a second-order model to the data, instead of typically using the pseudo-first-order approach. The second-order reaction rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) for TCE, toluene, and ethanol were 8.0×10(-1), 2.5×10(-4), and 6.5×10(-4), respectively. Results showed that the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach in several previous studies produced biased estimates of the second-order rate constants. In our study, this error was expressed as a function of the extent (P/N) in which the reactant concentrations deviated from the stoichiometric ratio of each oxidation reaction. The error associated with the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach is negatively correlated with the P/N ratio and reached up to 25% of the estimated second-order rate constant in some previous studies of TCE oxidation. Based on our results, a similar relation is valid for the other volatile

  20. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found

  2. An analytical system for the measurement of stable hydrogen isotopes in ambient volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisehen, T.; Bühler, F.; Koppmann, R.; Krebsbach, M.

    2015-10-01

    Stable isotope measurements in atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an excellent tool to analyse chemical and dynamical processes in the atmosphere. While up to now isotope studies of VOCs in ambient air have mainly focussed on carbon isotopes, we herein present a new measurement system to investigate hydrogen isotope ratios in atmospheric VOCs. This system, consisting of a gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-P-IRMS) and a pre-concentration system, was thoroughly characterised using a VOC test mixture. A precision of better than 9 ‰ (in δ 2H) is achieved for n-pentane, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), n-heptane, 4-methyl-pentane-2-one (4-methyl-2-pentanone), methylbenzene (toluene), n-octane, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. A comparison with independent measurements via elemental analysis shows an accuracy of better than 9 ‰ for n-pentane, n-heptane, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene and n-octane. Above a minimum required pre-concentrated compound mass the obtained δ 2H values are constant within the standard deviations. In addition, a remarkable influence of the pyrolysis process on the isotope ratios is found and discussed. Reliable measurements are only possible if the ceramic tube used for the pyrolysis is sufficiently conditioned, i.e. the inner surface is covered with a carbon layer. It is essential to verify this conditioning regularly and to renew it if required. Furthermore, influences of a necessary H3+ correction and the pyrolysis temperature on the isotope ratios are discussed. Finally, the applicability to measure hydrogen isotope ratios in VOCs at ambient levels is demonstrated with measurements of outside air on 5 different days in February and March 2015. The measured hydrogen isotope ratios range from -136 to -105 ‰ forn-pentane, from -86 to -63 ‰ for toluene, from -39 to -15 ‰ for ethylbenzene, from -99 to -68 ‰ for m/p-xylene and from -45 to -34 ‰ for o-xylene.

  3. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  4. Speciation of anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds: a global gridded data set for 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Brook, Rosie; Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Schieberle, Christian; Dore, Chris; Guizzardi, Diego; Muntean, Marilena; Schaaf, Edwin; Friedrich, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) include a large number of chemical species which differ significantly in their chemical characteristics and thus in their impacts on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. It is important that chemical transport models (CTMs) simulate the chemical transformation of the different NMVOC species in the troposphere consistently. In most emission inventories, however, only total NMVOC emissions are reported, which need to be decomposed into classes to fit the requirements of CTMs. For instance, the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides spatially resolved global anthropogenic emissions of total NMVOCs. In this study the EDGAR NMVOC inventory was revised and extended in time and in sectors. Moreover the new version of NMVOC emission data in the EDGAR database were disaggregated on a detailed sector resolution to individual species or species groups, thus enhancing the usability of the NMVOC emission data by the modelling community. Region- and source-specific speciation profiles of NMVOC species or species groups are compiled and mapped to EDGAR processes (detailed resolution of sectors), with corresponding quality codes specifying the quality of the mapping. Individual NMVOC species in different profiles are aggregated to 25 species groups, in line with the common classification of the Global Emissions Initiative (GEIA). Global annual grid maps with a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° for the period 1970-2012 are produced by sector and species. Furthermore, trends in NMVOC composition are analysed, taking road transport and residential sources in Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) as examples.

  5. Speciation of anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds: a global gridded data set for 1970–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs include a large number of chemical species which differ significantly in their chemical characteristics and thus in their impacts on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. It is important that chemical transport models (CTMs simulate the chemical transformation of the different NMVOC species in the troposphere consistently. In most emission inventories, however, only total NMVOC emissions are reported, which need to be decomposed into classes to fit the requirements of CTMs. For instance, the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR provides spatially resolved global anthropogenic emissions of total NMVOCs. In this study the EDGAR NMVOC inventory was revised and extended in time and in sectors. Moreover the new version of NMVOC emission data in the EDGAR database were disaggregated on a detailed sector resolution to individual species or species groups, thus enhancing the usability of the NMVOC emission data by the modelling community. Region- and source-specific speciation profiles of NMVOC species or species groups are compiled and mapped to EDGAR processes (detailed resolution of sectors, with corresponding quality codes specifying the quality of the mapping. Individual NMVOC species in different profiles are aggregated to 25 species groups, in line with the common classification of the Global Emissions Initiative (GEIA. Global annual grid maps with a resolution of 0.1°  ×  0.1° for the period 1970–2012 are produced by sector and species. Furthermore, trends in NMVOC composition are analysed, taking road transport and residential sources in Germany and the United Kingdom (UK as examples.

  6. Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

    2013-03-01

    Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits.

  7. Off-season biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from heath mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Gierth, Diana; Bilde, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect both atmospheric processes and ecological interactions. Our primary aim was to differentiate between BVOC emissions from above- and belowground plant parts and heath soil outside the growing season. The second aim was to assess emissions from...... herbivory, mimicked by cutting the plants. Mesocosms from a temperate Deschampsia flexuosa-dominated heath ecosystem and a subarctic mixed heath ecosystem were either left intact, the aboveground vegetation was cut, or all plant parts (including roots) were removed. For 3-5 weeks, BVOC emissions were...

  8. Indoor air quality of public places in Mumbai, India in terms of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-10-01

    Indoor air quality at nine locations viz. food courts, restaurant, bar, conference room, office and theater, which can be classified as public places have been monitored for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) content. Forty VOCs have been identified and one fourth of these are classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants. Levels of most VOCs are observed to be below the guideline values for public places and offices, as adopted by Hong Kong. Consumer goods are found to be predominant source of chlorinated VOCs in indoor air. Levels of benzene and carbon tetrachlorides were observed to be above the guideline values at all the locations. Effect of ozonisation on Total VOC concentrations have also been studied.

  9. Fecal volatile organic compounds: a novel, cheaper method of diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Chris S J; Reade, Sophie; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2014-09-01

    The investigation of a novel, cheaper method of diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active research. Recently, investigations into the metabolomic profile of IBD patients and animal models of colitis compared to healthy controls has begun to receive considerable attention and correlations between the fecal volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolome and IBD is merging. Patients and clinicians have often reported a change in odor of feces during relapse of IBD. Therefore, this article will focus specifically on the fecal VOC metabolome and its potential role in identifying a novel diagnostic method for IBD.

  10. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  11. Fiber-optic multi-sensor array for detection of low concentration volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Su-Hwan; Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Lee, Seung-Ha; Kang, Shin-Won

    2013-08-26

    In this paper, we proposed a new type high sensitive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) gas sensor array that is based on the pulse width modulation technique. Four different types of solvatochromic dyes and two different types of polymers, were used to make the five different types of sensing membranes. These were deposited on the five side-polished optical fibers by a spin coater to make the five different sensing elements of the array. In order to ascertain the effectiveness of the sensors, five VOC gases were tested. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to discriminates different types of VOCs.

  12. Strong Fluorescent Smart Organogel as a Dual Sensing Material for Volatile Acid and Organic Amine Vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Pengchong; Yao, Boqi; Wang, Panpan; Gong, Peng; Zhang, Zhenqi; Lu, Ran

    2015-11-23

    An L-phenylalanine derivative (C12PhBPCP) consisting of a strong emission fluorophore with benzoxazole and cyano groups is designed and synthesized to realize dual responses to volatile acid and organic amine vapors. The photophysical properties and self-assembly of the said derivative in the gel phase are also studied. C12PhBPCP can gelate organic solvents and self-assemble into 1 D nanofibers in the gels. UV/Vis absorption spectral results show H-aggregate formation during gelation, which indicates strong exciton coupling between fluorophores. Both wet gel and xerogel emit strong green fluorescence because the cyano group suppresses fluorescence quenching in the self-assemblies. Moreover, the xerogel film with strong green fluorescence can be used as a dual chemosensor for quantitative detection of volatile acid and organic amine vapors with fast response times and low detection limits owing to its large surface area and amplified fluorescence quenching. The detection limits are 796 ppt and 25 ppb for gaseous aniline and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC MATERIAL TO AMBIENT PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert J. Eatough; William K. Modey; Rebecca Sizemore; Michael Simpson

    2004-04-01

    Both annual 24-h average and seasonal diurnal samples collected at NETL during the research program have been analyzed. The fine particulate components determined include PM{sub 2.5} mass, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, elemental and organic carbonaceous material and trace elements. The analysis of the nitrate and organic material includes both the identification of nonvolatile material retained by the particle collection filter and semi-volatile material lost from the particles during sample collection. The results obtained in these analyses indicate that both the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material in the fine particles sampled at the NETL site originate from mobile emissions in the local area. However, the majority of the nonvolatile material is associated with primary emissions and the majority of the semi-volatile material is secondary, being formed from photochemical processes in the atmosphere. In contrast, the fine particulate sulfate does not originate from the local area but is transported into the study region, mostly from sources in the Ohio River Valley. These observations have been supported by both detailed meteorological and apportionment analysis of the data.

  14. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  15. Chemical composition of volatile oil from Artemisia ordosica and its allelopathic effects on desert soil microalgae, Palmellococcus miniatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolu; Deng, Songqiang; De Philippis, Roberto; Chen, Lanzhou; Hu, Chaozhen; Zhang, Weihao

    2012-02-01

    Plants have been used to restore vegetation in desert region in Shapotou, where naturally biological soil crusts (BSCs) have formed after planting for several years. However, few works have been done on the allelopathic effects between the plants and soil microalgae in BSCs currently. In this study, we investigated the chemical compositions of volatile oil of Artemisia ordosica and its allelopathic effects on photosynthetic system II (PSII) and antioxidant system of Palmellococcus miniatus, a green algae isolated from BSCs. 37 components, consisted of 17 terpenoids, 14 alcohols, 2 esters, 2 ketones and other 2 components were identified in the volatile oil from A. ordosica by GC-MS analysis. High concentration of volatile oil could significantly inhibit the growth and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), and decreased the photosynthetic parameters by affecting photon absorption, electron transport and the reaction center of PSII of P. miniatus, and also cause the significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.) activity, peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) activity, reactive oxygen evolution (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of P. miniatus through the combined effects of components in volatile oil. The results indicated that the emission of volatile oil of A. ordosica could inhibit the growth, photosynthesis of P. miniatus through the oxidative damage, and thus might negatively affect the development of BSCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Gordon, Hamish; Heinritzi, Martin; Yan, Chao; Molteni, Ugo; Ahlm, Lars; Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Wagner, Robert; Simon, Mario; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Williamson, Christina; Craven, Jill S; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, Joao; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Dias, Antònio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Gysel, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Möhler, Ottmar; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Piel, Felix M; Miettinen, Pasi; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomè, Antònio; Virtanen, Annele; Wagner, Andrea C; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Riipinen, Ilona; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-01-01

    About half of present-day cloud condensation nuclei originate from atmospheric nucleation, frequently appearing as a burst of new particles near midday. Atmospheric observations show that the growth rate of new particles often accelerates when the diameter of the particles is between one and ten nanometres. In this critical size range, new particles are most likely to be lost by coagulation with pre-existing particles, thereby failing to form new cloud condensation nuclei that are typically 50 to 100 nanometres across. Sulfuric acid vapour is often involved in nucleation but is too scarce to explain most subsequent growth, leaving organic vapours as the most plausible alternative, at least in the planetary boundary layer. Although recent studies predict that low-volatility organic vapours contribute during initial growth, direct evidence has been lacking. The accelerating growth may result from increased photolytic production of condensable organic species in the afternoon, and the presence of a possible Kelv...

  17. Influence of cluster zone leaf removal on Pinot noir grape chemical and volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Yuan, Fang; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The influence of cluster-zone leaf removal on Pinot noir vine growth and fruit chemical and volatile composition was investigated in 3 years. Different severities of leaf removal (0%, 50%, 100%) were imposed during the pea-size stage of development from the cluster zone. Results show that cluster-zone leaf removal had little influence on vine growth, crop load, or grape maturity in terms of total soluble solids (TSS), pH or titratable acidity (TA) at harvest. However, 100% leaf removal resulted in higher concentrations of quercetin glycoside in grapes compared to 0% leaf removal. The 100% leaf removal also increased concentrations of petunidin- and malvidin-3-monoglucoside anthocyanins in two out of 3 years (2010 and 2012) by an average of 62% and 53%, respectively. In addition, 100% leaf removal resulted in higher concentrations of β-damascenone, and some bound-form terpenoids. The increases in β-damascenone were positively correlated to the increased sunlight exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Volatile terpenes from actinomycetes: a biosynthetic study correlating chemical analyses to genome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Patrick; Citron, Christian A; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2013-11-25

    The volatile terpenes of 24 actinomycetes whose genomes have been sequenced (or are currently being sequenced) were collected by use of a closed-loop stripping apparatus and identified by GC/MS. The analytical data were compared against a phylogenetic analysis of all 192 currently available sequences of bacterial terpene cyclases (excluding geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases). In addition to the several groups of terpenes with known biosynthetic origin, selinadienes were identified as a large group of biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes that are produced by several streptomycetes. The detection of a large number of previously unrecognised side products of known terpene cyclases proved to be particularly important for an in depth understanding of biosynthetic pathways to known terpenes in actinomycetes. Interpretation of the chemical analytical data in the context of the phylogenetic tree of bacterial terpene cyclases pointed to the function of three new enzymes: (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase, selina-3,7(11)-diene synthase and aristolochene synthase. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  20. Organic Chemicals from Bioprocesses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    Over the last 20 years, China has successfully established a modern biotechnology industry from almost nothing. Presently, China is a major producer of a vast array of products involving bioprocesses, for some China is even the world's top producer. The ever-increasing list of products includes organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, solvents, chiral chemicals, biopesticides, and biopolymers. Herein, the research and development of bioprocesses in China will be reviewed briefly. We will concentrate on three categories of products: small molecules produced via fermentation, biopolymers produced via fermentation and small chemicals produced by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In comparison with the traditional chemical process, in which, nonrenewable mineral resources are generally used, products in the first and second categories noted above can use renewable bioresources as raw materials. The bioprocesses are generally energy saving and environmentally benign. For products developed via the third category, although the raw materials still need to be obtained from mineral resources, the biocatalysts are more effective with higher selectivity and productivity, and the bioprocesses occur under ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, these are "green processes." Most of the products such as citric acid, xanthan and acrylamide etc., discussed in this paper have been in large-scale commercial production in China. Also introduced herein are three scientists, Prof. Shen Yinchu, Prof. Ouyang Pingkai and Prof. Chen Guoqiang, and six enterprises, Anhui Fengyuan Biochemical Co. Ltd., Shandong Hiland Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shandong Fufeng Fermentation Co. Ltd., Shandong Bausch & Lomb-Freda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Changzhou Changmao Biochemical Engineering Co. Ltd.; they have all contributed a great deal to research and development in the commercialization of bioprocesses.

  1. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Petigny

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant.

  2. Observations of nonmethane hydrocarbons and oxygenated volatile organic compounds at a rural site in the southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Daniel; Pos, Willer; Milne, Peter; Farmer, Charlesk; Zika, Rod [Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama (United States)] Apel, Eric [Atmospheric Chemistry Group, Mantech Environmental Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)] Olszyna, Ken [National Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)] Kliendienst, Tad [Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan (United States)] Lonneman, William [Departments of Chemistry, and Earth and Atmospheric Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Shepson, Paul; Starn, Tim

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of an extensive range of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) including alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes were conducted for several weeks during the summer of 1995 as part of the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) at a rural experimental site (Youth, Inc.) 32 km southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. These measurements were conducted to (1) determine the absolute magnitude and variability of oxygenated compounds found in a contemporary rural region; (2) assess the importance of the measured ambient levels of OVOCs on a photochemical reactivity basis relative to the more commonly determined NMHCs; and (3) to evaluate our ability to accurately measure oxygenates by the current techniques employed under a field study scenario. Several other physical (temperature, insolation, etc.), meteorological (wind velocity, wind direction, atmospheric structure, and boundary layer height), and chemical (criterion pollutants, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 3}, etc.) parameters were measured concurrently with the NMHC and OVOC measurements. During the study period, OVOCs were consistently the dominant compounds present, and methanol and acetone had the highest mixing ratios. Although OVOCs made up the majority of the volatile organic compound component on a mass basis, a substantial sink for OH was isoprene and its immediate oxidation products, methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. In combination with CO and formaldehyde, these compounds comprised about 85{percent} of the observed OH reactivity at the site. Acetaldehyde and methanol were responsible for an additional 10{percent}, with the NMHCs and remaining OVOCs making up the final 5{percent} of the measured OH reactivity at the site. These observed patterns reinforce recent studies which find OVOCs to be an important component of the rural troposphere. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  3. Development of a fast GC/MS-system for airborne measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Ann-Kathrin; Wegener, Robert; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Wahner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) determine the radical chemistry of the atmosphere. They can serve both as sources, or sinks for radicals. Mass spectrometry linked to gas chromatography (GC/MS) is a widespread technique in environmental analysis since it can be used to separate and analyze any compound which can be evaporated and pass the analytical column with very high precision and a good sensitivity. The use of special chromatographic phases and long capillary columns enables the quantification of a wide range of compounds with little interference from other sample constituents. An in situ GC/MS consists in principle of three compartments, 1) a preconcentration unit where the sample is extracted from the air, focussed onto a small volume and volatilized, 2) a chromatographic system where the analytes are separated on the analytical column and 3) a mass spectrometer where the compounds are ionized and detected. VOC have to be preconcentrated due to their low concentration level and in order to get enough sensitivity for analysis. The aim of this project was to develop an in situ GC/MS system to analyze volatile Nonmethane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOC) for the High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft (HALO). In contrast to other analytical instruments a GC/MS works discontinuously. The preconcentration unit is either heated up when the compounds are volatilized or cooled down when substances are adsorbed. The same is true for the GC oven. It is heated up when the compounds are separated or it is cooled down to be ready for the next injection. On a system with a single GC oven, these processes will inevitably lengthen the whole analytical procedure. To speed up the analytical process the GC/MS system described here was equipped with two GC ovens and two adsorption units. While the components are adsorbed in one adsorption unit, in the other unit the components are desorbed and transferred to the GC unit. The second GC

  4. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

  5. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC Produced by Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Iijima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs.

  6. Fate of selected pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds during artificial aquifer recharge using surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Rosell, Mònica; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-05-01

    The artificial recharge of aquifers has become a valuable tool to increase water resources for drinking water production in many countries. In this work a total of 41 organic pollutants belonging to the classes of pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been monitored in the water from two artificial recharge plants located in Sweden and Denmark. The results from two sampling campaigns performed in each plant indicate good chemical status of the source water, as the contaminants detected were present at very low levels, far from those established in the legislation as maximum admissible concentrations (when existing) and far from those considered as a risk. Thus, of the 17 pesticides investigated, BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide), desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, metolachlor, and diazinon were the only compounds detected, and total pesticides levels were below 25ng L(-1), respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate was the only estrogen detected, at concentrations lower than 0.5ng L(-1). Progestogens were not found in any sample. Detected VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were below 0.04microg L(-1). The efficiency of elimination of these organic contaminants was poor as no significant decrease in their concentrations was observed through the recharge process.

  7. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  8. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: are organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-09-01

    A high concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere when the exhaust cools and dilutes has hazardous health effects and it impairs the visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulfur content (FSC) fuel, under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested. Based on the measured gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrier-free heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between the GSA and a semi-volatile organic vapour combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur due to the similar organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) × 1012 cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had an opposite trend on the NUP formation, and the maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, the model predicted that the NUP formation ceased if the GSA concentration in the raw exhaust was less than 1010 cm-3, which was the case when biofuel was used.

  9. Volatile Organic Compounds from Native Potato-associated Pseudomonas as Potential Anti-oomycete Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Mout; Pandey, Piyush; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Varadarajan, Adithi R.; Ahrens, Christian H.; Weisskopf, Laure; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    The plant kingdom represents a prominent biodiversity island for microbes that associate with the below- or aboveground organs of vegetal species. Both the root and the leaf represent interfaces where dynamic biological interactions influence plant life. Beside well-studied communication strategies based on soluble compounds and protein effectors, bacteria were recently shown to interact both with host plants and other microbial species through the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Focusing on the potato late blight-causing agent Phytophthora infestans, this work addresses the potential role of the bacterial volatilome in suppressing plant diseases. In a previous study, we isolated and identified a large collection of strains with anti-Phytophthora potential from both the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potato. Here we report the characterization and quantification of their emissions of biogenic volatiles, comparing 16 Pseudomonas strains differing in (i) origin of isolation (phyllosphere vs. rhizosphere), (ii) in vitro inhibition of P. infestans growth and sporulation behavior, and (iii) protective effects against late blight on potato leaf disks. We systematically tested the pharmacological inhibitory activity of core and strain-specific single compounds against P. infestans mycelial growth and sporangial behavior in order to identify key effective candidate molecules present in the complex natural VOCs blends. We envisage the plant bacterial microbiome as a reservoir for functional VOCs and establish the basis for finding the primary enzymatic toolset that enables the production of active components of the volatile bouquet in plant-associated bacteria. Comprehension of these functional interspecies interactions will open perspectives for the sustainable control of plant diseases in forthcoming agriculture. PMID:26635763

  10. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yuying Li; Hong Ma; Youming Wan; Taiqiang Li; Xiuxian Liu; Zhenghai Sun; Zhenghong Li

    2016-01-01

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine t...

  11. Car indoor air pollution by