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Sample records for volatile irritant trans-2-pentenal

  1. Sensory eye irritation in humans exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne Hempel; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in a controlled eyes-only exposure study of human sensory irritation in ocular mucosal tissue. The authors investigated dose-response properties and the additive effects of three mixtures of volatile organic compounds. The dose-response relationships for these mixtures...

  2. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differentiating coeliac disease from irritable bowel syndrome by urinary volatile organic compound analysis--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Westenbrink, Eric; McFarlane, Michael J; Harbord, Ruth; Chambers, Samantha; O'Connell, Nicola; Bailey, Catherine; Nwokolo, Chuka U; Bardhan, Karna D; Savage, Richard; Covington, James A

    2014-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD), a T-cell-mediated gluten sensitive enteropathy, affects ∼ 1% of the UK population and can present with wide ranging clinical features, often being mistaken for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Heightened clinical awareness and serological screening identifies those with potential coeliac disease; the diagnosis is confirmed with duodenal biopsies, and symptom improvement with a gluten-free diet. Limitations to diagnosis are false negative serology and reluctance to undergo biopsy. The gut microbiome is altered in several gastrointestinal disorders, causing altered gut fermentation patterns recognisable by volatile organic compounds (VOC) analysis in urine, breath and faeces. We aimed to determine if CD alters the urinary VOC pattern, distinguishing it from IBS. 47 patients were recruited, 27 with established CD, on gluten free diets, and 20 with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Collected urine was stored frozen in 10 ml aliquots. For assay, the specimens were heated to 40 ± 0.1°C and the headspace analysed by Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS). Machine learning algorithms were used for statistical evaluation. Samples were also analysed using Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Sparse logistic regression showed that FAIMS distinguishes VOCs in CD vs D-IBS with ROC curve AUC of 0.91 (0.83-0.99), sensitivity and specificity of 85% respectively. GCMS showed a unique peak at 4'67 found only in CD, not D-IBS, which correlated with the compound 1,3,5,7 cyclooctatetraene. This study suggests that FAIMS offers a novel, non-invasive approach to identify those with possible CD, and distinguishes from D-IBS. It offers the potential for monitoring compliance with a gluten-free diet at home. The presence of cyclooctatetraene in CD specimens will need further validation.

  4. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  5. Estudos dos compostos orgânicos voláteis precursores de ozônio na cidade de São Paulo Studies of the volatile organic compounds precursors of ozone in São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Souza Alvim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O ozônio é o principal problema de poluição do ar na cidade de São Paulo. Este estudo, que foi realizado em uma estação de monitoramento da qualidade do ar da Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB, enfoca a elucidação dos principais compostos orgânicos voláteis precursores de ozônio na atmosfera paulistana. Foram coletadas 36 amostras nos meses de agosto e setembro de 2006, nos quais o consumo de etanol era de aproximadamente 50% nesta época. Foram quantificadas 69 espécies de compostos orgânicos voláteis, nos quais os dez compostos mais importantes na formação de O3 foram: 1-buteno (6,8%, eteno (6,5%, formaldeído (6,1%, acetaldeído (5,5%, tolueno (4,8%, 1-etil-4-metilbenzeno (3,7%, trans-2-penteno (3,7%, propeno (3,7%, trans-2-buteno (3,5% e 1-metilciclopenteno (3,5%. As classes mais abundantes em concentração no ar foram: alcanos (45%, alcenos (26%, aromáticos (14%, aldeídos (13% e alcadienos (2%.Ozone is the main problem of air pollution in the city of São Paulo. This study, which was carried out in the Brazilian Basic Sanitation Engineering Company (CETESB, acronym in Portuguese monitoring station of air quality, focused on the elucidation of the main volatile organic compounds ozone precursors in São Paulo atmosphere. Thirty-six samples were collected in August and September 2006, when the consumption of ethanol was about 50%, 69 species of volatile organic compounds were quantified, the ten major urban pollutants compounds in the formation of O3 were: 1-butene (6.8%, ethylene (6.5%, formaldehyde (6.1%, acetaldehyde (5.5%, toluene (4.8%, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene (3.7%, trans-2-pentene (3.7%, propylene (3.7%, trans-2-butene (3.5%, and 1-methylcyclopentene (3.5%. The most abundant classes of air concentration were: alkanes (45%, alkenes (26%, aromatics (14%, aldehydes (13%, and alkadyenes (2%.

  6. Irritancies of shampoos

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    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  7. Irritants and allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Irritants – in this article to be understood as being chemical irritants – are substances that may cause injuries to the skin, the eyes or the airways after a single exposure. These injuries may range from small, initially invisible injuries after exposure to weak irritants up to chemical burns

  8. Mascaras may cause irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2002-10-01

    The majority of adverse effects of cosmetics have been attributed to soaps in Dutch and English studies, but to eye makeup in a recent Swedish study. The reactions may be caused by irritants or by sensitizing substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of commercially available mascaras. The mascaras were exposed to the skin in aluminium chambers. The skin reaction was evaluated using both visual assessments of erythema and non-invasive measurements of the skin reaction. Seven mascaras were tested on 15 healthy individuals in a randomized and blinded fashion. Two of the seven tested mascaras induced pronounced skin inflammation, when applied to normal skin under occlusion. These two mascaras were based on volatile petroleum distillate, in contrast to the other five mascaras that were conventional emulsions with stearate as the main emulsifier. The findings suggest that solvent-based mascaras might induce contact dermatitis due to its content of irritating substances.

  9. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects of Drugs . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:488-494. Canavan C, West J, Card ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:722-725. Ford AC, Talley NJ. Irritable ...

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  12. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  13. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    of 4 alleged AI (nifedipine, (-)-alpha-bisabolol, canola oil and glycerol) was studied on experimentally induced acute irritation in healthy volunteers, and only glycerol showed dose-related response and effects potentially better than no treatment. The acute irritation model only allowed a small...

  14. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  15. IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Privorotskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritated bowel syndrome is a significant and underestimated problem in childhood. This condition is not so good studied in pediatrics in comparison with adult practice. Pediatricians often diagnosed this disease in infants and young children without proper reasons. The authors analyze current opinions about etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosticsand treatment of irritated bowel syndrome in children. An emphasis is made on diagnostic criteria, which allow suggesting and confirming the diagnosis.

  16. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  17. Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, J M

    1986-03-01

    Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis is commonly observed in many factories. Examples of airborne irritants include fibres (such as fibreglass or rockwool), various kinds of dust particles (such as cement, slag, sludge, insulating foam, wood chips), acids and alkalis, gasses and vapours. Airborne contact allergens are unequivocally numerous. The clinical symptoms of both irritant and allergic airborne contact dermatitis are reviewed.

  18. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  19. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & Practice Blog Health Communication Programs FAQs ... Syndrome (IBS) Definition & Facts Related Topics Section Navigation Irritable Bowel Syndrome ( ...

  20. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approaches for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2008;23(3):284–292. Wu JC. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: facts or myths? Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010;6(11):705–711. Yoon ...

  2. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  3. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  4. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin C.

    2003-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely common cause of consultation, and at present is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and a few simple exclusion tests. Exclusion diets can be successful, but many patients have already attempted and failed such treatments before consulting. Anxiety and somatization may be an important driver of consultation. Patients' concerns should be understood and addressed. Those with prominent psychiatric disease may benefit from psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy benefits symptoms in those without psychologic disturbance, but its availability is limited. Antidepressants are effective in improving both mood and IBS symptoms globally, and the evidence is particularly good for tricyclic antidepressants. Although antispasmodics are currently the most commonly prescribed drugs, most responses (75%) are due to the placebo effect and not specific to the drug. Bulk laxatives such as ispaghula can increase stool frequency and help pain, but bloating may be aggravated. Loperamide is effective treatment for urgency and loose stools, but less effective for bloating and pain. 5-HT(3) antagonists such as alosetron improve urgency, stool consistency, and pain in diarrhea-predominant-IBS. The 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod shows modest benefit in constipation-predominant IBS, improving stool frequency, consistency, and bloating as well as global improvement. There are many new drugs, such as cholecystokinin, neurokinin, and corticotropin receptor antagonists, in development.

  5. Nail cosmetics: allergies and irritations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Recent precise figures are not available for the number of adverse reactions related to the use of nail care products. Reactions to nail cosmetic procedures may be divided into reactions at the site of application to the nail itself and ectopic reactions, when the hand transfers a small amount of nail cosmetic to other areas of the skin. Fingernail coatings encompass two types: coatings that harden upon evaporation (nail enamel, base coat, top coat); and coatings that polymerize (sculptured nails, light-curing gels, preformed artificial nails, nail mending and nail wrapping). The test battery enables us to distinguish allergic reactions from irritant reactions. Interestingly, some reactions, such as distant allergic contact dermatitis, are more frequent with nail enamel than with coatings that polymerize. On the other hand, the latter are greater offenders in the nail area. Nail hardeners may just be modified nail enamels containing nylon fibers, acrylate resin and hydrolyzed proteins. Others may contain up to 5% formaldehyde tissue fixative (which can have adverse effects on the nail), but are designed in the US to be applied only to the free edge of the nail while the skin is shielded. Caution is necessary in interpreting formaldehyde patch testing reactions.

  6. [Irritable bowel syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, N; Villata, L; Santini, B; Fantino, N; Robazza, V; Ciervo, T; Barbera, C; Elia, G; Oderda, G

    1987-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic functional gastroenterological disorder both in adults and in children. In this study we evaluate the different aspects of this syndrome, comparing our observations on 332 children with other studies. Epidemiological data (frequency, sex, age) are examined so as the family histories of gastroenterological disorders. We take in account several pathogenic hypotheses, especially with reference to the alterations of gastrointestinal motility, which could be caused by several factors (psychological, prostaglandins, bile acids, etc.). The clinical picture is very variable, variations depending on the age of children and on the time of onset of IBS. The colic of neonate, caused by retention of air, is the main symptom in the first months of life, followed by chronic diarrhoea, also defined as toddler's diarrhoea, sometime alternating with constipation. In later childhood, recurrent abdominal pain represents a common complaint, in association with diarrhoea or constipation. The principal steps for a proper diagnosis so as the main differential diagnosis are defined. We explain the most important features of management (reassuring parents, free diet), excluding prescription of drugs, that produce only a transitory and symptomatic relief, so as elimination diets, that cause only a failure to thrive without any improvement of symptoms.

  7. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  8. The irritant potential of n-propanol (nonanoic acid vehicle) in cumulative skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Human in vivo cumulative irritation tests with low-grade irritants simulate real-life exposure to skin irritants. The test outcome depends not only on the substance tested but also on the design of the assay. More than one experimental irritant is usually used because chemicals...... have diverse mechanisms of action on the skin. We used sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON) in three different concentrations plus their vehicles, water and n-propanol, respectively, to validate our test models and to optimize test concentrations. METHODS: Healthy volunteer forearm skin....... Wash test: induction of irritation by three daily washings for 6 days and maintenance of the dermatitis by two daily washings for 12 days with SLS 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% or NON 0%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally (transepidermal water loss, colorimetry...

  9. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  10. Anti-irritants agents for the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis: clinical and patent perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-09-01

    This overview defines whether anti-irritant agents, in fact, inhibit, prevent or treat irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in man. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus via the library at University of California San Francisco, and a hand search of relevant text books to investigate chemicals that can be considered anti-irritants in either prevention or treatment. Emphasis was placed on data that included quantitative and qualitative results and that followed evidence-based dermatological guidelines. Related patents were summarized. Conflicting observations summarized here suggest well controlled, but often arduous, field type studies are required for confirmation.

  11. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    method is used in medical surveillance or to evaluate effectiveness of industrial hygiene or engineering controls in preventing irritation effects from chemical exposure, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the irritation measurements are important factors in interpreting the results...

  12. Smoke Composition to Disseminate Capsaicinoids in Atmosphere as Sensory Irritant

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, M. P.; U. G. Phapale; N. G. Swarge; M. R. Somayajulu

    2006-01-01

    Dissemination of sensory irritants in the atmosphere with the help of an evaporating mixtureis adopted. Experiments were carried out to find an alternative sensory irritant which is moreirritating and less toxic than the existing sensory irritating agents and originating from a naturalsource. Extract of red pepper, the oleoresin, is less toxic than the existing sensory irritants andis analysed for its constituents. Thermal studies of capsaicin and the composition indicate thatthe composition ...

  13. Methods for diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method for diagnosing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in a test sample by determining the level of several bacterial taxa in the test sample, comparing this level with the levels of those bacterial taxa in a control sample, and relating the level to a diagnosis of

  14. Methods for diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method for diagnosing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in a test sample by determining the level of several bacterial taxa in the test sample, comparing this level with the levels of those bacterial taxa in a control sample, and relating the level to a diagnosis of

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with a change in bowel habit, or with features of disordered defecation. Patients and doctors in primary care generally agree on IBS symptomatology and consider pain and bloating as its

  16. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, L. R.; Engsbro, A. L.; Jones, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to explore the natural history of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Denmark over 3 years by studying development of IBS symptoms and associated factors. Methods: A cohort study was carried out using a web panel representative of the Danish general population 18-50 years...

  17. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  18. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who

  19. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapoigny, M.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Coremans, G.; Müller-Lissner, S.; Oberndorff, A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Vatn, M.; Whorwell, P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. AIMS: During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between

  20. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  1. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  2. [Diseases caused by diisocyanates. 1. Irritation of the respiratory system and skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubach, D

    1978-01-01

    Toluylene diisocyanate (TDI) has an uncommon importance in the production of irritation of respiratory system. In the last few years less volatile isocyanate compounds have been substituted for TDI. Commercial available diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate (PAPI) were analyzed in 1971. The analysis indicated the presence of 21% TDI in several samples. It is evident, with respect to the relatively high vapor pressure of TDI, that such impurities will be able to cause air concentrations in excess of the current threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.02 ppm. Liberation of TDI by heat from varnish insulinations is a difficult problem. This problem was described as "an old hazard in new guise". Especially, in a soldering process on polyurethane coated wire, excess of TLV is possible in unfavourable conditions. By the regulation that the concentration of TLV must not exceed 0.02 ppm and by the use of new non-volatile isocyanate the risk of acute and subacute intoxications has considerably subsided. Chronic irritations of respiratory system and asthma-like diseases, however represent still an unsolved problem.

  3. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, K R; Fischer, A; Zöller, N N; Laubach, V; Bernd, A; Jacobs, A; van Rompay, A; Liebsch, M; Pirow, R; Petersohn, D

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a new in vitro skin irritation test based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) with openly accessible protocols for tissue production and test performance. Due to structural, mechanistic and procedural similarity, a blinded catch-up validation study for skin irritation according to OECD Performance Standards (PS) was conducted in three laboratories to promote regulatory acceptance, with OS-REp models produced at a single production site only. While overall sensitivity and predictive capacity met the PS requirements, overall specificity was only 57%. A thorough analysis of the test results led to the assumption that some of the false-positive classifications could have been evoked by volatile skin-irritating chemicals tested in the same culture plate as the non-irritants falsely predicted as irritants. With GC/MS and biological approaches the cross-contamination effect was confirmed and the experimental set-up adapted accordingly. Retesting of the affected chemicals with the improved experimental set-up and otherwise identical protocol resulted in correct classifications as non-irritants. Taking these re-test results into account, 93% overall sensitivity, 70% specificity and 82% accuracy was achieved, which is in accordance with the OECD PS. A sufficient reliability of the method was indicated by a within-laboratory-reproducibility of 85-95% and a between-laboratory-reproducibility of 90%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (PChinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti-Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo.

  5. Reinforcement of irritability during therapy with benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    Often, long-term treatment with benzodiazepines is a subject of discussion due to potential side effects, with dependence on benzodiazepines as the most serous one. After longer period of benzodiazepines tolerance on their anxiolytic effects develops. Discontinuation is usually beneficial as it is followed by improved psychomotor and cognitive functioning, particularly in the elderly. Previous studies confirmed occurrence of physical dependence in high percentage of patients in long term treatment with benzodiazepines at therapeutic dosages. Benzodiazepines are relatively well-tolerated medicines but can induce serious problems of addiction and that is why their use is regulated. The aim of this article is to report a case of a patient who was taking 15 tablets of oxazepam daily for a period of time, during which reinforcement of irritability occurred. It is necessary to warn patients who take benzodiazepines in therapy that reinforcement of irritability may occur in case of higher dosage of benzodiazepines, which may be misinterpreted as worsening in mental condition.

  6. Characterizing Soldier Responses to Irritant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-16

    success, the performance decrement from various drugs in terms of alcohol dosage. in the second (O’Hanlon et &l., 1986), a benzodiazepine ( Lorazepam ...in this case alcohol , are f*irst calikrated agF-nst that agent. Then decrements in performance in the presence of irritant gases can bt calibrated in...terms of their dose equivalence relative to the effects of alcohol . Tr quantify the human mental acuity functions which are related to military 0’r

  7. Do chronic workplace irritant exposures cause asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Orianne; Le Moual, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relation between chronic workplace irritant exposures and asthma, focusing on exposures of low to moderate levels. We discuss results from epidemiological surveys, potential biological mechanisms, and needs for further research. These aspects are largely illustrated by studies on exposure to cleaning products. Recent results from nine population-based and workplace-based epidemiological studies, mostly cross-se...

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  9. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  10. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F

    2014-01-01

    ), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact...... allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD....

  11. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  12. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants.

  13. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A N; Kukuruzovic, R H; Catto-Smith, A G; Sawyer, S M

    2007-10-17

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology. Current pharmacological treatments have limited value. Hypnotherapy has been reported to have beneficial effects for IBS symptoms. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised clinical trials were identified through structured searches of MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1980 to March 2006), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2006), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1982 to March 2006), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to March 2006) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. Conference proceedings from Digestive Disease Week (1980 to 2005) were also searched. Eligible studies included all randomised and quasi-randomised clinical studies comparing hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with no treatment or another therapeutic intervention. All studies were evaluated for eligibility for inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality and data were extracted independently by four authors. The primary outcome measure of interest was the overall bowel symptom severity score which combines abdominal pain, diarrhoea or constipation and bloating. Secondary outcomes included abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, quality of life, patient's overall assessment of well-being, psychological measures as per validated questionnaires, and adverse events. Four studies including a total of 147 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only one study compared hypnotherapy to an alternative therapy (psychotherapy and placebo pill), two studies compared hypnotherapy with waiting-list controls and the final study compared hypnotherapy to usual medical management. Data were not pooled for meta-analysis due to differences in outcome measures and study design. The therapeutic

  14. Irritation of ocular tissue by irreversible hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moergeli, J R; Fraleigh, E M; Ostrowski, J S; Pelleu, G B

    1985-08-01

    Two ophthalmic and two dental irreversible hydrocolloid materials were tested on rabbit conjunctivae to determine histologically their potential to irritate these tissues. Each of the four impression materials elicited nearly the same amount of inflammatory response. The differences between the response of the controls and the response to Ophthalmic Mold-Eye, Jelset Special Formula, and Kerr Alignate Type II were significant. These results indicate that certain dental irreversible hydrocolloids may be used for ocular prostheses but that they should be used with caution because of the inflammation caused by irreversible hydrocolloids.

  15. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management. PMID:28731144

  16. Skin irritation testing of antimicrobial conjugated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Kristin N; Nguyen, Phuong A H; Whitten, David G; Canavan, Heather E

    2017-04-20

    Each year, the United States spends about $20 billion to treat people who have been infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Even so, the development of new antibiotics has slowed considerably since the mid-20th century. As a result, researchers are looking into developing synthetic compounds and materials with antimicrobial activities such as those made by the Schanze and Whitten groups [ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 2820 (2011)]. Previously, they have demonstrated that poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) based electrolytes and oligomeric end-only phenylene ethynylene (EO-OPE) based electrolytes possess strong biocidal activity. However, before the PPE and OPE can be used with humans, skin irritation tests are required to ensure their safety. In this work, in vitro skin assays are used to predict in vivo irritation. Tissues were conditioned for 24 h, exposed to test substances for 1 h, and then tested for viability using colorimetric and cytokine assays. Concentrations up to 50 μg/ml were tested. Viability assays and cytokine (IL-1α) assays demonstrated that the two polymers, three symmetric oligomers, and three "end only" oligomers were nonirritants. In addition, electrospun mats consisting of several promising compounds, including poly(caprolactone), were evaluated. Therefore, all test substances are conservatively classified as nonirritants after a 1 h exposure time period.

  17. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  18. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canavan C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Canavan, Joe West, Timothy Card Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional condition of the bowel that is diagnosed using clinical criteria. This paper discusses the nature of the diagnostic process for IBS and how this impacts epidemiological measurements. Depending on the diagnostic criteria employed, IBS affects around 11% of the population globally. Around 30% of people who experience the symptoms of IBS will consult physicians for their IBS symptoms. These people do not have significantly different abdominal symptoms to those who do not consult, but they do have greater levels of anxiety and lower quality of life. Internationally, there is a female predominance in the prevalence of IBS. There is 25% less IBS diagnosed in those over 50 years and there is no association with socioeconomic status. IBS aggregates within families and the genetic and sociological factors potentially underlying this are reviewed. Patients diagnosed with IBS are highly likely to have other functional disease and have more surgery than the general population. There is no evidence that IBS is associated with an increased mortality risk. The epidemiological evidence surrounding these aspects of the natural history is discussed. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, epidemiology, prevalence, mortality, natural history

  19. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    In this paper, we scrutinize the cross-sectional relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. As a novelty, the idiosyncratic volatility is obtained by conditioning upon macro-Önance factors as well as upon traditional asset pricing factors. The macro-Önance factors are constructed...... from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  20. Asteroid volatiles inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Jones, T. D.; Herbert, F.

    1989-01-01

    Asteroids appear in light of telescopic and meteority studies to be the most accessible repositories of early solar system history available. In the cooler regions of the outer asteroid belt, apparently unaffected by severe heating, the C, P, and D populations appear to harbor significant inventories of volatiles; the larger primordial belt population may have had an even greater percentage of volatile-rich, low-albedo asteroids, constituting a potent asteroid for veneering early terrestrial planet atmospheres. The volatile-rich asteroids contain carbon, structurally bound and adsorbed water, as well as remnants of interstellar material predating the solar system.

  1. Inhaled formaldehyde: Evaluation of sensory irritation in relation to carcinogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Rennen, M.A.J.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The critical health effects of formaldehyde exposure include sensory irritation and the potential to induce tumours in the upper respiratory tract. In literature, a concentration as low as 0.24 ppm has been reported to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans. Nasal

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  3. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S.; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to…

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome in black Kenyans | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irritable bowel syndrome in black Kenyans. ... The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male ... Conclusion: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to Irritable Bowel Syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns.

  5. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... the diagnostic significance of the histological classification of allergic and irritant cutaneous reactions in punch biopsies....

  6. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  7. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  8. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment. PMID:24177482

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  10. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  12. Psychoemotional Features in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoş, D; Ionescu, O; Ojog, DG; Tănăsescu, MD

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To delineate the psychological profile of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Method. A triple questionnaire of 614 items (including psychological and medical ones) was given to 10192 respondents and the results were analyzed by means of Cronbach alpha and Chi square test, together with an ad-hoc designed method that implied ranking and outliers detecting. Results and conclusions. Anxiety and depression are general psychological tendencies unspecifcally linked with IBS. Among the features with a relatively more specific correlation with IBS, tension has the strongest association, followed by the inclination to endure unacceptable situations, preoccupation for health, and susceptibility, and then by fear of failure and sense of demanding profession. IBS individuals readily accept a subordinate position, which may be connected to their history of tyrannical parents, and also to their preoccupation for authority factors. The sense of being treated unfairly by the authority persons during the school years nuances this last feature. Some features that bring some nuances to this psychological portrait are: contemplative nature and analyzing tendency, preoccupation with health issues, a reserved, unsociable, and precautious nature, clinging to known circumstances. Abbreviations: ChiSq = chi-square; OdRa = odds ratio; OdRaCL = OdRa confidence limits; ErrProb = probability of error; SS = statistically significant; CrA = Cronbach alpha; a / m = the calculations were done by taking into account the average/ maximal score; P / M = psychological / medical category; PaMm / PmMa / PmMm / PaMa = the calculations were done by taking into account the average score for the PsyCt and the maximal score for the MedCt / the maximal score for PsyCt and the average score for the MedCt / and the maximal score for both / and the average score for both; FD = functional dyspepsia; IBS = irritable bowel syndrome; IBSCt = IBS category; MedCt = medical category; Psy

  13. Dissecting the role of TRPV1 in detecting multiple trigeminal irritants in three behavioral assays for sensory irritation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/p8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Saunders

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymodal neurons of the trigeminal nerve innervate the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity and cornea. Trigeminal nociceptive fibers express a diverse collection of receptors and are stimulated by a wide variety of chemicals. However, the mechanism of stimulation is known only for relatively few of these compounds. Capsaicin, for example, activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 channels. In the present study, wildtype (C57Bl/6J and TRPV1 knockout mice were tested in three behavioral assays for irritation to determine if TRPV1 is necessary to detect trigeminal irritants in addition to capsaicin. In one assay mice were presented with a chemical via a cotton swab and their response scored on a 5 level scale. In another assay, a modified two bottle preference test, which avoids the confound of mixing irritants with the animal’s drinking water, was used to assess aversion. In the final assay, an air dilution olfactometer was used to administer volatile compounds to mice restrained in a double-chambered plethysmograph where respiratory reflexes were monitored. TRPV1 knockouts showed deficiencies in the detection of benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone and eugenol in at least one assay. However, cyclohexanone was the only substance tested that appears to act solely through TRPV1.

  14. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  15. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  16. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  17. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  18. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  19. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome How can ... Some people with IBS have more symptoms after eating gluten, even though they do not have celiac ...

  20. Evaluation of dermal irritation and skin sensitization due to vitacoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    Full Text Available The prediction of side-effects is a key issue in the REACH initiative on chemicals in the preclinical testing of drugs. The dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity potential of a new molecule, vitacoxib, were invested in rabbits and guinea pigs in compliance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline. To assess dermal irritation, rabbits were dermally attached to vitacoxib for 72 h or repeated application. The results showed that no adverse reactions such as erythema and edema were observed throughout the test. In skin sensitization test, guinea pigs were sensitized to vitaoxib, positive and negative article for 24 h. No sensitization reaction was shown in the vitacoxib and negative group whereas severe sensitization was observed in the positive group. Based on these findings, vitacoxib does not cause dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity, and seems to be safe for animal use. Keywords: Vitacoxib, Dermal irritation, Skin sensitization

  1. Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166391.html Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says Researchers warn ... 8, 2017 THURSDAY, June 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change may increase people's exposure to an outdoor fungus ...

  2. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  3. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, dietary intake, fibre, fructose. Food avoidance in .... energy intake for protein, fat and carbohydrates was compared to ..... groups. A potential relationship exists between overweight/obesity.

  4. Sensory dysfunction and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, L A

    1999-10-01

    Dysfunction of the sensory system of the gut is now generally believed to be important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This disturbance may well account for some of the symptoms of the disorder, such as abdominal pain, by virtue of the fact that intra-lumenal events (e.g. contractions) may be 'sensed' more easily. It can be assessed in the laboratory by a variety of techniques, but usually involves measuring the patient's response to distension of any site of the gut, most commonly the rectum. Hypersensitivity is the most frequent finding, but hyposensitivity can also occur--hypersensitivity does not appear to be specific to any particular pattern of bowel habit, but hyposensitivity does tend to be generally only seen in patients with constipation, especially those with the 'no urge' type. Although there is some evidence to support hypersensitivity being related to enhanced vigilance in some patients, other data suggest that there may be a true alteration in sensory processing. The mechanisms underlying this sensory dysfunction remain to be elucidated, but could involve changes in either the enteric, spinal and/or central nervous systems. Finally, factors such as gender, stress, emotion and infection can all influence the sensitivity of the gut and may therefore play a role in IBS.

  5. Diagnosis and therapy of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgio, R; Barbara, G; Stanghellini, V; Cremon, C; Salvioli, B; De Ponti, F; Corinaldesi, R

    2004-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gut functional diseases, affecting 10-20% of people worldwide. Although most patients do not seek medical help, the disease accounts for huge costs for both patients and health-care systems and worsens significantly patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based on the identification of symptoms according to Manning, Rome I and Rome II criteria and exclusion of alarm indicators. IBS symptoms overlap with those of coeliac disease, lactose intolerance, food allergies and bile salt malabsorption. The treatment of IBS is centred on an excellent doctor-patient relationship along with drugs targeting the predominant symptom, especially during exacerbations. Current pharmacological remedies are unsatisfactory due to the high number of patients complaining of lack of response and/or symptom recurrence. Although useful in some IBS patients, the validity of psychotherapy deserves further investigation. A wide array of potentially useful drugs are currently under consideration in pre-clinical trials. A better understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying IBS may help to develop more effective drugs for this disease.

  6. Probiotics use to treat irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Asieh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorder with significant disability and a considerable financial burden to health service due to the consumption of resources including investigations, physician time, and cost of treatment. Despite availability of multiple treatment options, there is still poor functional recovery. Probiotics has been investigated as a promising treatment for IBS, and have demonstrated beneficial effects in some patients. There are many clinical trials investigating the therapeutic benefits of probiotics in IBS but most of them are heterogenic in terms of dose or species used and clinical endpoints. However, recent major meta-analyses revealed benefits of probiotics in patients with IBS. Inhibition of binding of pathogenic bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells, enhancing barrier function of intestinal epithelial, acidification of the colon, suppression of the growth of pathogens, modulation of immunity, inhibition of visceral hypersensitivity, alteration in mucosal response to stress, and improvement of bowel dysmotility are among mechanisms that probiotics may act. Most commonly used probiotics come from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus but other species are in trial. Although further studies are still needed, current evidences are almost enough to convince experts that probiotics are efficient in the treatment of IBS.

  7. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Biopsychosocial Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Fukudo, Shin; Drossman, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder seen in gastroenterology and primary care practice. It is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disturbed bowel function. It is a heterogeneous disorder with varying treatments, and in this regard physicians sometimes struggle with finding the optimal approach to management of patients with IBS. This disorder induces high health care costs and variably reduces health-related quality of life. IBS is in the class of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and results from dysregulation of central and enteric nervous system interactions. Psychosocial factors are closely related to their gut physiology, associated cognitions, symptom manifestations and illness behavior. Therefore, it is important for the physician to recognize the psychosocial issues of patients with IBS and in addition to build a good patient-physician relationship in order to optimize treatment. This review focuses on the interaction between psychological and physiological factors associated with IBS by using a biopsychosocial model. In this article, we describe (1) the predisposing psychological features seen in early life; (2) the psychological factors associated with life stress, the symptom presentation, and their associated coping patterns; (3) gut pathophysiology with emphasis on disturbances in motility, visceral hypersensitivity and brain-gut interactions; and finally (4) the clinical outcomes and effective treatments including psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:21602989

  9. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast...

  10. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to char...

  11. Executive functioning, irritability, and alcohol-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlaski, Aaron J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and (b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  13. A comparison of the irritant and allergenic properties of antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, interest in the use of antiseptics has been reinforced as these molecules are not concerned by the problem of bacterial resistance. Whereas the in vitro efficacy of antiseptics has been well-studied, much less is known regarding their irritant and allergenic properties. This review provides an update on the comparative irritant and allergenic properties of commonly-used antiseptics in medicine nowadays. All antiseptics have irritant properties, especially when they are misused. Povidone-iodine has an excellent profile in terms of allergenicity. Allergic contact dermatitis is uncommon but is often misdiagnosed by practitioners, who confuse allergy and irritation. Chlorhexidine has been incriminated in some cases of allergic contact dermatitis; it is considered a relatively weak allergen, although it may rarely cause immunological contact urticaria and even life-threatening anaphylaxis. Octenidine is considered a safe and efficient antiseptic when used for superficial skin infections, however, aseptic tissue necrosis and chronic inflammation have been reported following irrigation of penetrating hand wounds. Polihexanide is an uncommon contact allergen as regards irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis but cases of anaphylaxis have been reported. Considering the data available comparing the irritant and allergenic properties of major antiseptics currently in use, it should be acknowledged that all antiseptics may induce cutaneous side-effects. The present article reviews the most recent safety data that can guide consumers' choice.

  14. The Relationship between Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Sample of Irritable Bowel Patients - Predictive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress among a sample of78 IBS patients (Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome), anxiety symptoms scale, Depression symptoms scale, and stress scale (prepared by the researcher) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between IBS and Anxiety, Depression and Stress (P?=0.01). The Regression and Prediction Coefficien...

  15. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapoigny, M; Stockbrügger, R W; Azpiroz, F; Collins, S; Coremans, G; Müller-Lissner, S; Oberndorff, A; Pace, F; Smout, A; Vatn, M; Whorwell, P

    2003-01-01

    Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between alimentation, food items (including fibers) and IBS symptoms. Food allergy remains a difficult diagnosis, but medical and general history, presence of general symptoms such as skin rash, and hypersensitivity tests may help in achieving a positive diagnosis. On the other hand, food intolerance is more confusing because of the subjectivity of the relationship between ingestion of certain foods and the appearance of clinical symptoms. Different food items which are commonly implicated in adverse reactions mimicking IBS were found to be stimulants for the gut, suggesting that patients with predominant diarrhea IBS have to be carefully questioned about consumption of different kinds of food (i.e., coffee, alcohol, chewing gum, soft drinks) and not only on lactose ingestion. Gas production is discussed on the basis of retention of intestinal gas as well as on malabsorption of fermentable substrates. The role of a large amount of this kind of substrate reaching the colon is suggested as a potential mechanism of IBS-type symptoms in overeating patients. Regarding the role of fiber in IBS, the expert group concluded that fibers are not inert substances and that they could trigger pain or bloating in some IBS patients. Despite numerous reviews on this subject, it is very difficult to give general dietary advice to IBS patients, but dieteticians may have a positive role in managing such patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: a comparison of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey de Castro, Nicolas G; Miller, Vivien; Carruthers, Helen R; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally divided into subtypes depending on the bowel habit abnormality, but there is little clarity in the literature about whether these subtypes differ symptomatically or psychologically. Furthermore, there are conflicting reports on the relationship between symptom severity and psychological status. The aim of this study was to address these issues in a large cohort of patients defined by bowel habit. One thousand IBS patients were divided into diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), and mixed (IBS-M) bowel habit subtypes and completed a series of validated questionnaires capturing symptom severity, non-colonic symptomatology (somatization), quality of life, and anxiety or depression levels. Comparisons were made using SPSS version 20. There were no significant differences between the three subtypes with respect to symptom severity, abdominal pain intensity, non-colonic symptomatology, quality of life, and anxiety or depression scores (all Ps > 0.05). In addition, there was only a small but statistically significant correlation between IBS symptom severity and both anxiety or depression, as well as quality of life (highest r = 0.34), while the relationship between somatization and disease severity was moderate (r = 0.42). This study suggests that there are no differences in the symptom profiles and anxiety or depression scores between different subtypes of IBS. In addition, anxiety and depression do not appear to be strongly associated with symptom severity, although this does not exclude the possible interplay between these and other psychological drivers of severity, such as poor coping skills. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Lunar Magmatic Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvasil, H.; McCubbin, F. M.; Lindsley, D. H.

    2009-05-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo Missions prompted a variety of experimental investigations (e.g., [1-4]) which form the basis of our current understanding of lunar compositional evolution. The observed low abundances of solidus temperature-suppressing volatiles justified volatile-free experiments. However, the low-pressure nature of the samples makes it unlikely that volatiles were retained during magma ascent and eruption. In an effort to re-assess the lunar mantle volatile budget, we are focusing on the mineral apatite because of its incorporation of F, Cl, and OH as essential structural constituents and its greater ability to retain such volatiles relative to melt. Apatite grains analyzed from magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7111, 14161,7269 and 14161,7264), KREEPy impact melt rocks associated with magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7233; 14161,7110; 14161,7062; 12033,634-25; SaU 169-4), and mare basalts (79195; 12037,224; 74246; 12023,147,1; 10084; LAP 02205; LAP 03632; NWA 2977) by electron microprobe using the technique of [5,6] show two distinct compositional groups. Apatite from the mare basalts analyzed are primarily mixtures of fluor- "missing component" (OH?) apatite with low Cl abundance, while that from the magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks are fluor-chlor mixtures. Apatite/basaltic melt partition coefficients for F, Cl, and H2O from the data of [7] provide first estimates of magmatic volatile abundances in lunar magmas. They suggest that magmatic water may have been more abundant than F and Cl at the stage of apatite crystallization in mare basalts. In contrast, at this stage, the magmas that produced the Mg-and alkali suite minerals were F- and Cl-dominated. These results have wide-reaching implications regarding the chemical and physical evolution of the Moon and therefore, the next generation of experimental investigations. [1] Walker et al. 1973 EPSL 20, 325-336. [2] Walker et al. 1975 GCA 39, 1219-1235. [3] Longhi 1992 GCA 69

  19. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......This article aims to shed a light on innovative fund management concepts which emerged after the crisis. Two main strategies seem to dominate the financial turmoil: Absolute return concepts and long/short trading techniques. While there already exists exhaustive literature on absolute return......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  20. Review article: intestinal serotonin signalling in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawe, G M; Coates, M D; Moses, P L

    2006-04-15

    Alterations in motility, secretion and visceral sensation are hallmarks of irritable bowel syndrome. As all of these aspects of gastrointestinal function involve serotonin signalling between enterochromaffin cells and sensory nerve fibres in the mucosal layer of the gut, potential alterations in mucosal serotonin signalling have been explored as a possible mechanism of altered function and sensation in irritable bowel syndrome. Literature related to intestinal serotonin signalling in normal and pathophysiological conditions has been searched and summarized. Elements of serotonin signalling that are altered in irritable bowel syndrome include: enterochromaffin cell numbers, serotonin content, tryptophan hydroxylase message levels, 5-hydroxyindoleacedic acid levels, serum serotonin levels and expression of the serotonin-selective reuptake transporter. Both genetic and epigenetic factors could contribute to decreased serotonin-selective reuptake transporter in irritable bowel syndrome. A serotonin-selective reuptake transporter gene promoter polymorphism may cause a genetic predisposition, and inflammatory mediators can induce serotonin-selective reuptake transporter downregulation. While a psychiatric co-morbidity exists with IBS, changes in mucosal serotonin handling support the concept that there is a gastrointestinal component to the aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Additional studies will be required to gain a more complete understanding of changes in serotonin signalling that are occurring, their cause and effect relationship, and which of these changes have pathophysiological consequences.

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  2. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  3. Effectiveness of Barrier Creams against Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostosi, Christian; Simonart, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Skin tissue is frequently exposed to various irritant substances in the workplace, particularly in wet work, which can lead to the development of occupational contact dermatitis. 'Barrier' creams (BCs) are well known, and their applications are still the subject of many studies and controversies. We searched all controlled trials investigating BCs against cutaneous irritants in humans published between 1956 and December 2014 from MEDLINE, PubMed, reference lists and existing reviews. Thirty-nine studies about the effects of BCs against skin irritants in humans were selected. Among these, 27 trials in healthy volunteers were found to show many differences with regard to BCs and irritants used, their quantities, test locations, procedures and assessment methods. Finally, 14 patch test trials assessed by clinical scoring and evaporimetry emerged. Although the findings were generally positive, only few findings could be cross-checked from all the data, and vehicles seem to be as effective as BCs. Although this review highlights the poor quality and the lack of standardization of most studies, BCs seem to have protective effects against irritants. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials with clinical and biophysical assessments are required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Irritability in children and adolescents: past concepts, current debates, and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.

    2015-01-01

    Irritability is defined as a low threshold to experience anger in response to frustration. It is one of the most common symptoms in youth and is part of the clinical presentation of several disorders. Irritability can present early in life and is a predictor of long-term psychopathology; yet, the diagnostic status of irritability is a matter of intense debate. In the present article, we address two main components of the debate regarding irritability in youth: the misdiagnosis of chronic irritability as pediatric bipolar disorder, and the proposal of a new diagnosis in the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, whose defining symptoms are chronic irritability and temper outbursts. PMID:24142126

  5. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories.

  6. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plavšić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder diagnosed on symptom-based criteria without inclusion of any objective parameter measurable by known diagnostic methods. Heterogeneity of the disorder and overlapping with more serious organic diseases increase uncertainty for the physician’s work and increase the cost of confirming the diagnosis. This paper is an attempt to summarize the efforts to find adequate biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome, which should shorten the time to diagnosis and reduce the cost. Most of the reviewed papers were observational studies from secondary care institutions. Since publication of the Rome III criteria in 2006, most recent studies use these for the recruitment of IBS patients. This is a positive step forward as future studies should use the same criteria, facilitating comparison of their results. Among the studied biomarkers, most evidence is provided for fecal calprotectin. Cutoff values for fecal calprotectin have still to be investigated prior to inclusion in the irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic algorithm.

  7. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods.

  8. PREVENTION OF NASAL MUCOSAL IRRITATION IN PATIENTS OBTAIN NASAL OXYGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninuk Dian Kurniawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The provision of oxygen therapy is traditionally use a humidifier to moisten the oxygen and prevent irritation of the nasal mucosa. Recent research proves that the use of a maximum of 4 lpm nasal oxygen without using a humidifier (non humidifier up to 8 hours does not cause irritation of the nasal mucosa and prevent colonization of bacteria in the humidifier. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of nasal oxygen administration using a non-humidifier more than 8 hours in the prevention of irritation of the nasal mucosa. Method: This study employed an analytic survey with cross-sectional study design. As many as 20 patients at inpatient wards of Port Health Center Hospital Surabaya were recruited as sample by means of consecutive sampling. Inclusion criteria was patients must not suffer from upper respiratory tract infection and do not suffer from impaired immunity. Independent variables were oxygen flow and long of oxygen therapy. Dependent variable was irritation of the nasal mucosa. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and tested with spearman rho correlation test. Result: The results showed that the use of oxygen up to 140 hours with 4 LPM had no effect on the nasal mucosa such as signs of irritation and complaints of discomfort in the nose area. Discussion: It can be concluded that the use of non-humidifier for a maximum of 140 hours with flow maximum of 4 lpm is effective in preventing irritation of the nasal mucosa. Further research on the effectiveness of non humidi fi ers in the elderly population and children under five years of age is needed.

  9. Reduced Magmatic Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Ardia, P.; Stanley, B. D.; Foley, N.

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles in Earth's upper mantle are dominated by H2O and CO2, but under more reduced conditions likely deeper in the mantle, other volatile species may be important or dominant. However, the speciation, solubilities, and effect on physical properties of reduced magmatic volatiles are poorly constrained. Here we summarize results from an experimental campaign to better understand reduced volatiles in magmas. Experiments emphasize spectroscopic and SIMS characterization of dissolved species in experiments for which fluid fugacities are known, thereby facilitating thermodynamic parameterization. Experimental determinations of molecular H2 solubility in basaltic and andesitic liquids show concentrations that are proportional to H2 fugacity. Because H2 increases with fH2 whereas dissolved H2O increases with fH2O1/2, the relative importance of H2 increases with pressure and for more hydrous magmas. At 1 GPa and IW-1, solubility in basalt reaches 0.3 wt.% (equivalent to 2.7 wt.% H2O). Solubilities at pressures of the deep upper mantle have not been explored experimentally (as is also true for H2O and CO2), but H2 could become the dominant hydrous species at 400 km and deeper, and so deep hydrous melts may have chiefly H2 rather than H2O or OH. Experiments suggest an extremely low partial specific density (0.18 kg/m3) for dissolved H2 at low pressure, and so appreciable dissolved H2 in melt atop the 410 km discontinuity or in the lower mantle may promote positive buoyancy. Solubilities of reduced C-species remain poorly known. In contrast to results in Na2O-SiO2 liquids (Mysen et al., 2009), experiments with a haplobasaltic liquid at controlled CH4 fugacities indicated very small (<0.05 wt.%) CH4 solubilities even at very reduced conditions (

  10. [Incidence of irritant dermatosis among employees of the shipbuilding industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, H; Kühne, G; Kröger, D

    1983-10-01

    Irritant dermatosis is a non-specific reactive change on the skin. In most cases it represents the summated effects induced by various agents. Not only the shortened recovery phases of the skin but also a dispositional factor are important. Such changes, which are relatively common in some vocations but are usually only slight, cannot, as a rule, be regarded as signs of illness. Nevertheless, attention should be drawn to the necessity of intensive skin care and observation of the recovery phases because the frequency of irritant dermatosis can increase with increasing length of employment.

  11. Relationship between symptoms and hypersensitivity to rectal distension in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, S. D.; Lindeboom, R.; Tytgat, G. N.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2005-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is considered an important pathophysiological mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome, yet its relationship to symptoms is unclear. Aim: To detect possible associations between symptoms and the presence of hypersensitivity to rectal distension in patients with irritable bowel

  12. Local effects in the respiratory tract: relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; de Heer, Cees; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2006-04-01

    Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration found to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans when compared to experimental animals has brought much debate in the process of setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for such chemicals. In this paper it will be discussed as to how far subjectively measured sensory irritation threshold levels can be used to establish OELs. Data on respiratory irritation of four odorous irritants were retrieved from public literature and discussed, viz. acetone, formaldehyde, furfural and sulphur dioxide. Objective measures of irritation yielded results that differed from subjective evaluations. Important factors modulating the reported levels of irritation and health symptoms include the perception of odour intensity, exposure history and the individual's bias to report irritation on the basis of his/her prejudice or knowledge of the compound. Subjective measures alone are less appropriate for establishing sensory irritation thresholds of odorous irritants and are, therefore, less suitable to establish OELs without supporting evidence. Objectively measured irritation in humans, the Alarie assay (an experimental animal test assessing the concentration that results in a 50% reduction of the breathing frequency) and repeated exposure studies in animals may be of help to study objective irritation. If subjective measurements are used to study sensory irritation, the study design should at least include: measurement of both incidence and severity determined at several concentrations, an appropriate (0 ppm) control condition, preferably a non-irritant odorant control exposure, validated questionnaires and correct concentration measurements.

  13. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central

  14. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  15. Technologies in the evaluation of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, AJPM; Azpiroz, F; Brummer, RJ; Coremans, G; Dapoigny, M; Muller-Lissner, SA; Pace, F; Stockbrugger, RM; Vatn, M; Whorwell, PJ

    2004-01-01

    During a meeting in The Hague, The Netherlands, the IBiS Club evaluated the most important techniques that can be used in the investigation of irritable bowel syndrome, either in the context of scientific research or as a clinical diagnostic tool. In each of these, the relevance of findings made in

  16. Testing a biobehavioral model of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, P.P.J. van der; Dusseldorp, E.; Rood, Y.R. van; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is probably multifactorial with dysfunction at different levels of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate an existing biobehavioral model of IBS symptom generation in a large group of patients. Material and Methods: In

  17. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  18. A holistic approach to the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a holistic intervention approach to the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The sample consisted of 70 South African women who were diagnosed with IBS. The sample was divided into four groups. Group 1 (n = 13) received IBS medication and holistic ...

  19. Prevalence and predictors of irritable bowel syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent, costly, and potentially disabling gastrointestinal disorder. Medical education is among the most challenging and the most stressful education, and this may predispose to high rates of IBS. Objective: To determine the prevalence and predictors of IBS among medical ...

  20. Frequency of irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis made by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/aim: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, it is not known how frequently this diagnosis is made by physicians in. Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency with which the diagnosis of IBS is made by physicians ...

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome as a biopsychosocial disease (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova I.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research work is devoted to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS as an independent nosological unity of modern gas-troenterology. Risk factors, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods of IBS have been analyzed. Psychological and social characteristics in the development of IBS have been examined

  2. Managing irritable bowel syndrome: The low-FODMAP diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugum, Mohannad; Barco, Kathy; Garg, Samita

    2016-09-01

    A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) has been found to significantly reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet is best implemented in two phases: initial strict elimination of foods high in FODMAPs, then gradual reintroduction based on symptoms. Further study of this diet's effect on intestinal microbiota is needed. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  3. Gastrointestinal microbiome signatures of pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal microbiomes of healthy children and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are not well defined. Studies in adults have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota could be involved in IBS. We analyzed 71 samples from 22 children with IBS (pediatric Rome III criteri...

  4. Quality of life and illness costs in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simren, M; Brazier, J; Coremans, G; Dapoigny, M; Muller-Lissner, SA; Pace, F; Smout, AJPM; Stockbrugger, RW; Vatn, MH; Whorwell, PJ

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life is reduced in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and the costs for this disease are substantial to society. During a meeting in London, UK, the IBiS club reviewed the literature on these subjects. Drawbacks and advantages with existing instruments to assess quality of life and

  5. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control

  6. Towards an integrated psychoneurophysiological approach of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, Patrick Petrus Johannes van der

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort accompanied by disturbed bowel habits. It is among the most frequently occurring functional bowel syndromes, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. A variety of mechanisms

  7. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  8. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Objective: The objective was to assess the dietary intake of subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare it to that of ... The hypothesising assumption of this study was that a situation in which subjects insist that diet or trigger .... The relationship between continuous response variables and.

  9. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome among psychiatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal illness characterized by abdominal pain, bloating and bowel disturbance, which may either be constipation or diarrhea with no detectable organic pathologic process. About 70-90% of patients with IBS have psychiatric comorbidity, such as depression, ...

  10. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking irritable bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Salehgargari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidualization with gross involvement of the peritoneum is one of the rare findings in pregnant women particularly when ectopic decidualization disseminated as an asymptomatic intra-abdominal nodule. We present here a case of an ectopic decidualization in a 33-year-old pregnant woman with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome during pregnancy.

  11. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The MeSH...

  12. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms in childhood irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects a large number of children throughout the world. The symptom expression of IBS is heterogeneous, and several factors which may be interrelated within the IBS biopsychosocial model play a role. These factors include visceral hyperalgesia, intestinal permeability...

  13. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  14. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  15. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  16. Respiratory irritation by trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway and Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W.de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Several acid anhydrides are known for their sensitizing and irritative properties. Since both irritation and respiratory allergy can cause changes of lung function, proper testing of allergen-dependent effects on the respiratory tract requires knowledge of the respiratory irritant effects. To study

  17. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Intestinal Microbiota Disorders and Ways of Their Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ya. Budzak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the correlation between intestinal microbiota disorders and irritable bowel syndrome. The mechanisms of pathogenic role of bowel dysbiosis in the development of irritable bowel syndrome were shown. There were analyzed the results of investigations concerning the evaluation of probiotics efficiency in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The approaches to correction of these disorders were determined.

  18. Irritable mood in adult major depressive disorder : Results from the world mental health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; Girolamo, Giovanni De; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, Maria E.; O'Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of

  19. Approach to setting occupational exposure limits for sensory irritants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how scientists in the Netherlands set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for sensory irritants. When they tackle this issue, a number of key questions need to be answered. For example, did the studies indeed measure sensory irritation and not cytotoxicity? When the irritant

  20. Sensitivity to environmental irritants and quality of life in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternesten-Hasséus E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus, Sven Larsson, Eva MillqvistDepartment of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: It is a common clinical experience that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD complain of airway symptoms provoked by environmental irritants like chemicals and scents, although few studies can confirm such connections. The aim was to study the prevalence of airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents in a group of patients with newly diagnosed CPOD and to analyze any relation to illness severity and quality of life. Eighty-one patients with COPD were recruited to the study. By mail they were asked to answer three questionnaires regarding symptoms, quality of life, and social and emotional influence of airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants. A majority (62% of the COPD patients claimed to be hyperreactive to chemicals and scents. As a group they scored higher on a questionnaire measuring social and emotional influences of such environmental irritants compared to healthy control subjects. Further, high scores were more common among patients with a very severe form of COPD and among patients with regular use of β2-stimulants. High scores were also associated with significantly more airway symptoms and, in some aspects, with impaired quality of life. In conclusion, the results of this study show that airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants are common in patients with COPD and that this increased airway sensitivity follows the impairment of lung capacity. The mechanisms behind this remain unclear.Keywords: COPD, hyperresponsiveness, environmental irritants, sensory hyperreactivity, quality of life

  1. A Review of Volatility and Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Sovan Mitra

    2009-01-01

    The literature on volatility modelling and option pricing is a large and diverse area due to its importance and applications. This paper provides a review of the most significant volatility models and option pricing methods, beginning with constant volatility models up to stochastic volatility. We also survey less commonly known models e.g. hybrid models. We explain various volatility types (e.g. realised and implied volatility) and discuss the empirical properties.

  2. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    Inverse Gaussian distributed innovations is the corresponding benchmark model when only daily data is used. Finally, we perform an empirical analysis using stock options for three large American companies, and we show that in all cases our model performs significantly better than the corresponding......In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate...

  3. Irritability and Severity of Anxious Symptomatology Among Youth With Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2016-01-01

    Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N = 663, aged 7-19 years, mean = 12.25 years), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Furthermore, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety-irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not confined to youth with GAD. Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Moreover, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychopharmacological Treatment and Psychological Interventions in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sinagra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS accounts for 25% of gastroenterology output practice, making it one of the most common disorders in this practice. Psychological and social factors may affect the development of this chronic disorder. Furthermore, psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric diseases are highly prevalent in this condition, but the approach to treating these is not always straightforward. As emphasized in the biopsychosocial model of IBS, with regard to the modulatory role of stress-related brain-gut interactions and association of the disease with psychological factors and emotional state, it proves useful to encourage psychopharmacological treatments and psychosocial therapies, both aiming at reducing stress perception. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatment and psychological interventions on irritable bowel syndrome.

  5. Towards a better understanding of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancey, C P; Backhouse, S

    1993-09-01

    This study was undertaken by sending a questionnaire to 148 people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The respondents all were members of the IBS Network, a national independent organization formed to help alleviate the suffering and distress of people diagnosed as having irritable bowel. They were asked about their symptoms, the medical tests they had undergone, how they felt about the treatment they received, and how IBS affected their lives. The study found that IBS affected all aspects of their lives: work, leisure, travel and relationships. Sufferers indicated that they felt they would have coped better if they had been provided with more information about IBS, its possible causes and treatment, and greater sensitivity from members of the medical profession in dealing with them.

  6. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  7. Comparison of the effect of glycerol and triamcinolone acetonide on cumulative skin irritation in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So-called anti-irritants are added to cosmetic formulations because of their alleged beneficial effect on irritated skin. Documentation for these claims is often limited. However, glycerol has shown anti-irritant properties in experimentally induced irritation from sodium lauryl sulfa...

  8. Thermal irritation of teeth during dental treatment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jung Kwon; Yoon-Jung Park; Sang-Ho Jun; Jin-Soo Ahn; In-Bog Lee; Byeong-Hoon Cho; Ho-Hyun Son; Deog-Gyu Seo

    2013-01-01

    While it is reasonably well known that certain dental procedures increase the temperature of the tooth's surface, of greater interest is their potential damaging effect on the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues. Previous studies have investigated the responses of the pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone to thermal irritation and the temperature at which thermal damage is initiated. There are also many in vitro studies that have measured the temperature increase of the pulp and tooth-s...

  9. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farup, Per Grønaas; Hestad, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic dep...

  10. Comparison of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, J A; Truelove, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    A previous therapeutic trial of factorial design showed that a combination of a psychotropic drug, a smooth-muscle relaxant, and a bulk former (lorazepam, hyoscine hydrobromide, and ispaghula husk) relieved symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome more effectively than the same agents given singly. Another trial of similar design was undertaken to compare each of these three agents with another having the equivalent clinical actions--namely, Motival (fluphenazine/nortriptylene mixture), mebev...

  11. Impact of Shiftwork on Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Functional Dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye In; Jung, Sung-Ae; Choi, Ju Young; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Hye-kyung; Shim, Ki-Nam; Yoo, Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances in biological rhythms could lead to unfavorable health impact. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in rotating shift workers, and to determine the factors that have significant association with the prevalence of FD and IBS. The research had been carried out among nurses and nursing assistants working at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital between December 2010 and February 2011. The subjects completed sel...

  12. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuita...

  13. Lubiprostone for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Rao, Satish S C

    2008-12-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous disorders characterized by altered bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and/or difficult defecation. These conditions have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, as well as on the US economy, both in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Treatment typically begins with lifestyle changes, increased fiber intake and osmotic and stimulant laxative intake. However, treatments for constipation vary in terms of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, surveys of physicians and patients have revealed a strong desire for improved therapeutic options. Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid that is gut selective and stimulates type 2 chloride channels, resulting in increased chloride, sodium and water secretion into the lumen. The increased fluid secretion causes luminal distension, secondary peristalsis and laxation. Randomized Phase III trials have shown that lubiprostone is efficacious in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The US FDA has approved lubiprostone at a dose of 24 microg twice daily for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults, and at a dose of 8 microg twice daily for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adult women. Nausea, diarrhea and headaches are the most commonly reported side effects. In long-term studies, lubiprostone appears to be safe.

  14. Depression, irritability, and anxiety in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Long, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Su-Yin; Chen, I-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Hui; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Depression, anxiety, and irritability are the three most studied symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). This study aimed to assess the premenstrual exacerbation of these symptoms and their role in the diagnosis or functional impairment of PMDD. We recruited women with PMDD not undergoing any treatment and control subjects from the community. The diagnosis of PMDD was based on a positive score on the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool and confirmed by psychiatric interviews and questionnaire follow-up for three menstrual cycles. A total of 67 women with PMDD and 75 control subjects participated the survey and reach the final analysis. They complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies, the Chinese Version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Short Form, and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in both the premenstrual and follicular phases. Women with PMDD, but no controls, demonstrate the premenstrual exacerbation of these three symptoms. Depression was the most prominent feature of the PMDD diagnosis while irritability was most frequently associated with functional impairment. Depression and irritability should be properly evaluated and treated among women with PMDD.

  15. How Probiotic Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children that may lead to anxiety, frequent physician visits and school absenteeism. The aim of this study is to reviewe effects of probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome.   Materials and Methods: This study review articles about probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome in pubmed and google scholar.   Results: Multiple etiologic factors were suggested for IBS, including psychosocial factors, altered gastrointestinal motility,   malfermentation of food residues and changes in the intestinal micro flora. It is reported that patients with IBS have a great homogeneity in the fecal flora with a decrease in lactobacilli, coliforms and bifidobacteria in comparison to healthy individuals. The beneficial effects of probiotics in IBS could be explained by increasing the mass of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract, decreasing bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel. Recently it was also demonstrated that some lactobacilli strains may modulate intestinal pain attacks by inducing the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics can also reinforce the intestinal mucosal barrier and normalize the motility of the digestive tract and its visceral sensitivity and reversing the imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines so that suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS.   Conclusion: Probiotic has been suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS by modulation pathophysiologic events in these patients. Keyword: Probiotic, IBS, Children.

  16. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  17. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  18. Characterization of Chronic Mechanical Irritation in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo P. Lazos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Oral mucosa could host many lesions originated by chronic mechanical irritation (CMI from teeth or dentures, and it has been proposed as risk factor for oral cancer. Nevertheless, the features of CMI factors in oral cancer and other lesions are not assessed. The aim of this study is to describe CMI features regarding type (dental, prosthetic, and/or functional, localization, and time span. Materials and Methods. Three groups were studied in this cross-sectional study: Oral Cancer (OC; Chronic Traumatic Ulcer (CTU; and Benign Irritative Mechanical Lesions (BIML. All sources of mechanical irritation were included: dental, prosthetic, and functional. Results. 285 patients (176 females, 109 males were studied: OC = 38, CTU = 44, and BIML = 203. The most frequent CMI factor was dental, followed by functional and prosthetic in all groups; 76.5% (n=218 presented functional factors. Buccal mucosa (45% and tongue (42% were the most affected sites. Time of action of CMI displayed statistically significant differences between BIML, CTU, and OC groups, with a mean of 21, 33, and 49 months, respectively. Conclusions. CMI should be properly recorded with as much detail as alcohol and tobacco consumption. CMI associated lesions are produced by dental or prosthetic factors, usually in relation to functional factors, involving mainly tongue and buccal mucosa.

  19. Socio-economy and stock market volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sharif Hossain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate how stock market return volatility behaves with respect to socioeconomic factors namely- interest rate volatility, foreign exchange rate volatility, S &P 500 index volatility, broad money supply volatility, per capita GDP, domestic investment, industry value addition, tertiary level of education, urbanization, and strike and blockades using time series data from 1976-2015. We find that interest rate volatility has significant positive impact on stock market return volatility where broad money supply volatility, foreign exchange rate volatility, tertiary level of education, and domestic investment have significant negative impact on stock market volatility based on stepwise regression. Therefore, increase in tertiary level of education and domestic investment makes the stock market more stable. From the estimated result of VAR model, results show no short run causality among these variables.

  20. Novel Technique for Analysing Volatile Compounds in Indoor Dust : Application of Gas Chromatography – UV Spectrometry to the Study of Building-Related Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    It is now generally acknowledged that particulate air pollution can cause respiratory symptoms and that indoor dust particles may be associated with mucous membrane irritation and odour annoyance. One reason for this may be that dust particles adsorb large quantities of gases and other volatile compounds. It is therefore important to be able to determine the chemical compounds adsorbed onto indoor dust particles. In this thesis, a new technique was developed that can analyse chemical compound...

  1. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are needed and may include glycerol and topical immunomodulators like tacrolimus. Because the efficacy of different treatments in experimentally induced ICD may vary depending on the irritant......, respectively) in a cumulative wash test. Induction of ICD was obtained by three daily washings for 7 days, followed by a maintenance phase with two daily washings for 12 days. Treatment (triamcinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, tacrolimus and glycerol ointment) was started at day 7 and applied...... toward worsened irritancy by tacrolimus on SLS-irritated skin. Explained variance in the experiment by anova revealed a very small effect of treatments compared with an immense and significant subject effect. Conclusion: No claims of effective anti-irritant properties for any of the ointments can...

  2. Amantadine Effect on Perceptions of Irritability after Traumatic Brain Injury: Results of the Amantadine Irritability Multisite Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M; Sherer, Mark; Malec, James F; Zafonte, Ross D; Whitney, Marybeth; Bell, Kathleen; Dikmen, Sureyya; Bogner, Jennifer; Mysiw, Jerry; Pershad, Rashmi

    2015-08-15

    This study examines the effect of amantadine on irritability in persons in the post-acute period after traumatic brain injury (TBI). There were 168 persons ≥6 months post-TBI with irritability who were enrolled in a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial receiving either amantadine 100 mg twice daily or equivalent placebo for 60 days. Subjects were assessed at baseline and days 28 (primary end-point) and 60 of treatment using observer-rated and participant-rated Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-I) Most Problematic item (primary outcome), NPI Most Aberrant item, and NPI-I Distress Scores, as well as physician-rated Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Observer ratings between the two groups were not statistically significantly different at day 28 or 60; however, observers rated the majority in both groups as having improved at both intervals. Participant ratings for day 60 demonstrated improvements in both groups with greater improvement in the amantadine group on NPI-I Most Problematic (pamantadine than the placebo group (pamantadine 100 mg every morning and noon to reduce irritability was not positive from the observer perspective, although there are indications of improvement at day 60 from the perspective of persons with TBI and clinicians that may warrant further investigation.

  3. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  4. RICE PRICE VOLATILITY IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati R.Y.E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is analyzing the volatility and volatility spillover of monthly price of paddy at the level of farmers and consumers in 2010-2016. ARCH/GARCH used to analyze volatility and GARCH BEKK-model is used to analyze the volatility spillover. The results of the analysis show that price volatility at the farmer level is very high (extremely high volatility, price volatility at the consumer level is low (low volatility, and volatility spillover does not occur between the farmers and the consumers market. The need to guarantee an effective floor price as well as information disclosure related to the market commodity prices so that the pattern of prices transmission among interrelated markets can be symmetrical.

  5. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  7. New and emerging therapies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an update for gastroenterologists

    OpenAIRE

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation, nausea, and bloating) that occur alongside bowel function alterations (i.e. constipation, diarrhea, or both). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may also experience comorbid anxiety and depression. Irritable bowel syndrome is common, with a prevalence estimated between 3% and 28%, affecting patient health and quality of life. Patients with...

  8. Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayyaz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Fayyaz, Jeffrey M LacknerDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine, SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: The aim of this article is to review the pathophysiology and clinical role of serotonin receptor modulators used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the initiation of peristaltic and secretory reflexes, and in modulation of visceral sensations. Several serotonin receptor subtypes have been characterized, of which 5HT3, 5HT4, and 5HT1b are the most important for GI function. 5HT4 agonists (eg, tegaserod potentiate peristalsis initiated by 5HT1 receptor stimulation. 5HT4 agonists are therefore useful in constipation predominant form of IBS and in chronic constipation. 5HT3 antagonists (Alosetron and Cilansetron prevent the activation of 5HT3 receptors on extrinsic afferent neurons and can decrease the visceral pain associated with IBS. These agents also retard small intestinal and colonic transit, and are therefore useful in diarrhea-predominant IBS. Tegaserod has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo controlled trials to relieve global IBS symptoms as well as individual symptoms of abdominal discomfort, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that alosetron relieves pain, improves bowel function, and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been major concerns leading to voluntary withdrawal of Alosetron from the market followed by remarketing with a comprehensive risk management program.Keywords: serotonin, irritable bowel syndrome, tegaserod

  9. The status of eye irritancy testing: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, N L

    1992-01-01

    Eye irritation testing is a salient public issue and continues to escalate on the public agenda. Issues relevant to this milieu include legislative proposals to ban animal use for cosmetic testing, adequacy of the current standard (viz., the Draize Eye Irritancy Test), availability of non-animal methodologies, validation paradigm for new testing models, international harmonization of testing standards and methods, and the regulatory role in product testing and enforcement. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) feels that enactment of legislation proposed to ban animal use from testing products for safety would pose serious problems from a public health perspective. FDA encourages the development of alternative test methods and is aware that many such tests are in various stages of evolution. At this time, however, none of these tests has been accepted by the scientific community as total replacement to the Draize test. FDA's basic positions on the use of non-animal alternatives are as follows: 1) The use of animal tests by industry to establish the safety of regulated products is necessary to minimize the risks from such products to humans, 2) The Draize eye irritancy test is currently the most valuable and reliable method for evaluating the hazard or safety of a substance introduced into or around the human eye, and 3) No non-animal tests are presently available to completely replace the Draize. FDA is actively involved with U.S. and international groups to harmonize protocols for product development, evaluate the current status of non-whole animal methodologies, and standardize testing requirements. The Agency has recently participated in several scientific symposia evaluating the status of non-whole animal methods in toxicity testing. Moreover, FDA representatives are currently scheduled to participate in international meetings and workshops planned for the immediate future addressing several issues in product safety determination.

  10. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...... of funding liquidity constraints suggesting an economic channel for the effect....

  11. Pricing vulnerable options with stochastic volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanying; Wang, Xingchun; Zhou, Ke

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the pricing issue of vulnerable options with stochastic volatility by decomposing stochastic volatility into the long-term and short-term volatility. We describe the short-term fluctuation of stochastic volatility using a mean-reverting process, and assume the long-term volatility to be a constant. Based on the proposed model, we derive a pricing formula of vulnerable options in a special case. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the impacts of two stochastic volatility components on vulnerable option prices.

  12. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  13. Planetary volatile history - Principles and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    The history and evolution of planetary volatile inventories are considered. Planetary bulk volatile inventories are greatly affected by the distance from the preplanetary nebula center at which material accreted, with volatile contents increasing with increasing distance from the nebula center. Other significant factors include: planetary energetics and internal thermal history, planetary volatile sinks (including space), and operation of external variables such as solar energy on the transient, steady-state array of surface volatiles. The net result of all these processes is a volatile history that is itself a controlling factor in overall planetary history.

  14. Susceptibility to primary irritants: age dependence and relation to contact allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenraads, P J; Bleumink, E; Nater, J P

    1975-12-01

    Patch tests with three primary irritants were performed in 600 persons with eczema and in 33 healthy controls, The irritants assayed were: croton oil (20%) in mineral oil, thymoquinone (1%) in ethanol and crotonaldehyde (7.5%) plus sodium lauryl sulphate (4%) in aqua dest. The number of positive reactions to croton oil was found to decrease with age, while for thymoquinone and crotonaldehyde and for the total irritant score no age dependence was observed. No significant correlation was found between sensitization to common contact allergens and susceptibility to irritants. The incidence of positive reactions to common allergens proved to increase with age.

  15. Irritability following traumatic brain injury: divergent manifestations of annoyance and verbal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Cheng; Hua, Mau-Sun; Lin, Wei-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate irritability following traumatic brain injury. A prospective study was conducted at a level I trauma centre. One hundred and forty-four participants, which included 80 healthy subjects and 64 patients suffering from TBI, were recruited. Irritability was assessed by the National Taiwan University Irritability Scale (NTUIS) from patients themselves and their families. the results showed 14.8% of patients and 29.4% of their families reported patients' problems of irritability. Meanwhile, both self-reported and family-reported irritability post-injury were significantly higher than those reported by the healthy subjects. When evaluating two sub-components of irritability, respectively, both family- and self-reported post-injury annoyance were significantly higher than the pre-injury one, while the self-reported post-injury verbal aggression was not. TBI patients have remarkable problems of irritability after injuries. Specifically, the results showed that annoyance might be the main characteristic of irritability in TBI patients and patients themselves might be unaware of their verbal aggression post-injury. Hence, it is merited to pay more attention to the annoyance of the patients with TBI and to the reports from significant caregivers when evaluating TBI patients' irritability in clinical settings.

  16. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The Me......SH terms used were IBS and fecal microbiota transplantation and the abbreviations IBS and FMT. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. RESULTS: A total of six conference abstracts, one case report, one letter to the editor, and one clinical review were...

  17. Challenges in management of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Barnard, Penny; Bigwood, Charlotte; Candy, David C A

    2013-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common cause of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children and can be a debilitating experience for both child and family. Organic causes of RAP symptoms such as celiac and inflammatory bowel diseases should be excluded before a diagnosis of IBS is made. Treatment consists of dietary manipulation, drugs, and stress management. Newer therapies may offer better control of symptoms with minimal side-effects. This article discusses the challenges faced by pediatricians in managing IBS and reviews management in the context of children from the Indian subcontinent.

  18. Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, C Rune; Nielsen, Henrik V

    2012-01-01

    The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were...... regression analysis, we found no significant association between clinical and microbiological response. This case study did not support our hypothesis of a simple association between D. fragilis and IBS. Some D. fragilis-infections were insufficiently treated by MZ. Further studies into the prevalence...... and effect of eradication of D. fragilis in IBS and into efficient treatments of D. fragilis are warranted....

  19. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  20. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  1. Amantadine Effect on Perceptions of Irritability after Traumatic Brain Injury: Results of the Amantadine Irritability Multisite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Malec, James F.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Whitney, Marybeth; Bell, Kathleen; Dikmen, Sureyya; Bogner, Jennifer; Mysiw, Jerry; Pershad, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the effect of amantadine on irritability in persons in the post-acute period after traumatic brain injury (TBI). There were 168 persons ≥6 months post-TBI with irritability who were enrolled in a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial receiving either amantadine 100 mg twice daily or equivalent placebo for 60 days. Subjects were assessed at baseline and days 28 (primary end-point) and 60 of treatment using observer-rated and participant-rated Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-I) Most Problematic item (primary outcome), NPI Most Aberrant item, and NPI-I Distress Scores, as well as physician-rated Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Observer ratings between the two groups were not statistically significantly different at day 28 or 60; however, observers rated the majority in both groups as having improved at both intervals. Participant ratings for day 60 demonstrated improvements in both groups with greater improvement in the amantadine group on NPI-I Most Problematic (p<0.04) and NPI-I Distress (p<0.04). These results were not significant with correction for multiple comparisons. CGI demonstrated greater improvement for amantadine than the placebo group (p<0.04). Adverse event occurrence did not differ between the two groups. While observers in both groups reported large improvements, significant group differences were not found for the primary outcome (observer ratings) at either day 28 or 60. This large placebo or nonspecific effect may have masked detection of a treatment effect. The result of this study of amantadine 100 mg every morning and noon to reduce irritability was not positive from the observer perspective, although there are indications of improvement at day 60 from the perspective of persons with TBI and clinicians that may warrant further investigation. PMID:25774566

  2. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  3. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    We present and test a model relating a firm's idiosyncratic cost, its exporting status, and the volatilities of its domestic and export sales. In prior models of trade, supply costs for domestic and exports were linear and thus additively separable. We introduce a nonlinear cost function in order...... to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...... has several testable predictions. First, larger firms have lower total and domestic sales volatilities. Second, foreign market volatility increases domestic sales volatilities for exporters. Third, exporters allocate output across both markets in order to reduce total sales volatility. We find...

  4. Modeling the Volatility in Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to estimate the volatility in global fertilizer prices. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test and alternative volatility models, including the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, Exponential GARCH

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy BE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brian E Lacy Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. Keywords: abdominal pain, antibiotic, bloating, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome

  6. Long term benefits of hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalkorale, W M; Miller, V; Afzal, A; Whorwell, P J

    2003-11-01

    There is now good evidence from several sources that hypnotherapy can relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in the short term. However, there is no long term data on its benefits and this information is essential before the technique can be widely recommended. This study aimed to answer this question. 204 patients prospectively completed questionnaires scoring symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, and depression before, immediately after, and up to six years following hypnotherapy. All subjects also subjectively assessed the effects of hypnotherapy retrospectively in order to define their "responder status". 71% of patients initially responded to therapy. Of these, 81% maintained their improvement over time while the majority of the remaining 19% claimed that deterioration of symptoms had only been slight. With respect to symptom scores, all items at follow up were significantly improved on pre-hypnotherapy levels (phypnotherapy values. There were no significant differences in the symptom scores between patients assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5+ years following treatment. Quality of life and anxiety or depression scores were similarly still significantly improved at follow up (phypnotherapy. This study demonstrates that the beneficial effects of hypnotherapy appear to last at least five years. Thus it is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. Lubiprostone: chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Chey, William D

    2009-01-01

    Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite analogue of prostaglandin E1. The FDA has approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women and the treatment of women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Lubiprostone specifically activates type-2-chloride channels on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Lubiprostone acts locally within the intestinal tract, is rapidly metabolized and has very low systemic bioavailability. Animal studies have demonstrated that lubiprostone increases gastrointestinal fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical studies performed in men and women with chronic constipation using 24 microg of lubiprostone twice-daily demonstrated objective improvement in stool frequency and consistency, as well as symptoms of straining and incomplete evacuation. A multi-center study of patients with IBS-C found that 8 microg of lubiprostone twice-daily improved both global and individual symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone is generally well tolerated and serious adverse events are rare. The most common reported side effects are nausea, headache and diarrhea. This monograph provides a brief overview on chloride channel function in the gastrointestinal tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses the safety and efficacy of this new medication for the treatment of chronic constipation and IBS-C.

  8. Association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Darabian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS. In this case-control study that conducted in Mashhad, Iran in 2014-2015, one hundred IBS cases and one hundred matched (age and sex healthy people were participated. Direct stool examination, formalin-ether concentration technique and trichrome staining were done. The data were analyzed by SPSS20 with Fisher's exact test and T-test. One hundred IBS patients (31 males and 69 females had a mean age of 29.5 (±7.4 years. B. hominis were positive in 26% of IBS participants, and 9% in control group (P-value=0.002,Risk Estimate=3.5. Giardia lamblia were positive in 6% of IBS participants, and in none of control participants (P-value=0.01. Trichrome staining for detection of B. hominis was more sensitive than direct examination and formalin-ether concentration technique (P-value <0/001. B. hominis was more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. For detection of B. hominis, trichrome staining was more sensitive than other methods. Authors suggest that in patients with IBS, stool should be examined with different methods for three times to obtain a more reliable diagnosis.

  9. Comparison of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, J A; Truelove, S C

    1980-01-01

    A previous therapeutic trial of factorial design showed that a combination of a psychotropic drug, a smooth-muscle relaxant, and a bulk former (lorazepam, hyoscine hydrobromide, and ispaghula husk) relieved symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome more effectively than the same agents given singly. Another trial of similar design was undertaken to compare each of these three agents with another having the equivalent clinical actions--namely, Motival (fluphenazine/nortriptylene mixture), mebeverine, and bran. Ninety-six patients took part; all received three agents, one from each of the three pairs being compared, and no placebos were used. Fifty-six patients reported a sustained symptomatic improvement, which was a significantly higher incidence than in the previous trial, when placebos were used. Ispaghula was significantly more effective than bran. The combination of ispaghula, Motival, and mebeverine improved 11 out of 12 patients--significantly more than bran, Motival, and hyoscine (five improved), or bran, lorazepam, and mebeverine (four improved). Mebeverine was significantly more effective when combined with Motival (18 out of 24 improved) than with lorazepam (10 improved). These results confirm the value of a combined therapeutic approach to the relief of the irritable bowel syndrome and suggest the possibility of synergism between agents. PMID:6254602

  10. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...

  11. Financial Globalization and Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Cordella, Tito; Ospino Rojas, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    This paper computes a new financial globalization index for a large sample of countries for 1992-2016. Unlike other measures, the financial globalization index corrects for the heteroscedasticity of global volatility. This leads to a downward adjustment of financial globalization trends for developed, emerging, and frontier markets. The paper also shows that financial globalization reduces...

  12. Time Change, Volatility, and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    A concept of Volatility Modulated Volterra Processes is introduced. Apart from some brief discussion of generalities, the paper focusses on the special case of backward moving average processes driven by Brownian motion. In this framework, a review is given of some recent modelling of turbulent...

  13. Impact of irritability: a 2-year observational study of outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lesley; Hallam, Karen T; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Lewis, Andrew James; Austin, David W; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Dodd, Seetal; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Berk, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Many people experience irritability when manic, hypomanic, or depressed, yet its impact on illness severity and quality of life in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the relationship between irritability and symptom burden, functioning, quality of life, social support, suicidality, and overall illness severity in a naturalistic cohort of people with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. We used data from 239 adult outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in the Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS) - a non-interventional observational study with a 2-year follow-up period. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants with and without irritability were compared. A mixed-model repeated measures analysis was conducted to examine the longitudinal effect of irritability on clinical and quality-of-life variables over follow-up using significant baseline variables. At baseline, 54% of participants were irritable. Baseline irritability was associated with illness severity, mania, depression, psychotic symptoms, suicidality, poor functioning, and quality of life, but not diagnosis (schizoaffective/bipolar disorder). Participants with irritability were less likely to have a partner and perceived less adequate social support. On average, over follow-up, those with irritability reported more symptoms, functional impairment, and suicidality. Furthermore, the effects of irritability could not be fully explained by illness severity. Irritability was associated with more negative symptomatic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes and suicidality. The identification, monitoring, and targeted treatment of irritability may be worth considering, to enhance health and wellbeing outcomes for adults with bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Possible Sources of Polar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Extensive analyses of returned Apollo samples demonstrated that the Moon is extremely volatile poor. While this conclusion remains true, various measurements since the late 90's implicated the presence of water: e.g., enhanced reflection of circularly polarized radar signals and suppression of epithermal neutrons near the poles. More recently, traces of H2O have been discovered inside volcanic glass, along with more significant amounts residing in hydrous minerals (apatite) returned from both highland and mare landing sites. Three recent lunar missions (DIXI, M3, Cassini) identified hydrous phases on/near the lunar surface, whereas the LCROSS probe detected significant quantities of volatiles (OH, H2O and other volatiles) excavated by the Centaur impact. These new mission results and sample studies, however, now allow testing different hypotheses for the generation, trapping, and replenishment of these volatiles. Solar-proton implantation must contribute to the hydrous phases in the lunar regolith in order to account for the observed time-varying abundances and occurrence near the lunar equator. This also cannot be the entire story. The relatively low speed LCROSS-Centaur impact (2.5km/s) could not vaporize such hydrous minerals, yet emissions lines of OH (from the thermal disassociation of H2O), along with other compounds (CO2, NH2) were detected within the first second, before ejecta could reach sunlight. Telescopic observations by Potter and Morgan (1985) discovered a tenuous lunar atmosphere of Na, but the LCROSS UV/Vis spectrometer did not detect the Na-D line until after the ejecta reached sunlight (along with a line pair attributed to Ag). With time, other volatile species emerged (OH, CO). The LAMP instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter had a different viewpoint from the side (rather than from above) and detected many other atomic species release by the LCROSS-Centaur impact. Consequently, it appears that there is a stratigraphy for trapped species

  15. Stock market returns, volatility, and future output

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Guo

    2002-01-01

    In this article, Hui Guo shows that, if stock volatility follows an AR(1) process, stock market returns relate positively to past volatility but relate negatively to contemporaneous volatility in Merton’s (1973) Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model. The model helps explain the recent finding that stock market volatility drives out returns in forecasting real gross domestic product growth because the predictive power of returns is hampered by their positive correlation with past volatilit...

  16. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  17. Testing for Volatility Co-movement in Bivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Chen (Jinghui); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper considers the problem of volatility co-movement, namely as to whether two financial returns have perfectly correlated common volatility process, in the framework of multivariate stochastic volatility models and proposes a test which checks the volatility co-movement. The

  18. Irritability without Elation in a Large Bipolar Youth Sample: Frequency and Clinical Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Birmaher, Boris; Leonard, Henrietta; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Yang, Mei; Gill, Marykay; Dyl, Jennifer; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Stout, Robert; Keller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of 361 youths with bipolar disorder reveal that irritable-only subgroups constitute 10 percent of this sample while elated-only subgroups constitute 15 percent of the sample. These findings support continued consideration for episodic irritability in the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  19. Development of a standardized testing procedure for assessing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Peter; Seyfarth, Florian; Antonov, Dimitar; John, Swen Malte; Diepgen, Thomas; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Frequent skin cleaning fulfils the definition of occupational 'wet work'. Standardized methods are required to assess the irritation potential of workplace cleansers. To develop a standardized procedure for testing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers. In this single-blind, single-centre trial in 25 healthy volunteers, the irritation potential of five generic reference cleansers was tested by three-times-daily washing with an automated skin cleaning device for 4 days, and quantification of cumulative skin barrier damage was performed by visual scoring, chromametry, transepidermal water loss TEWL, and corneometry. For two cleansers, reproducibility of the irritancy assessment was assessed. Furthermore, the irritation induced by four commercial workplace skin cleansers was studied. Whereas no significant changes were observed for any of the tested cleansers by either visual scoring or chromametry, significant increases in TEWL and significant decreases in stratum corneum hydration were found for all cleansers. Cleansers differed significantly in their irritation potential. On retesting of two cleansers, the first results were confirmed. Among the four commercial cleansers, one that was claimed to be mild was found to be disproportionally irritant. The presented model for testing cleansing preparations allows a highly controlled, practically relevant and reproducible irritancy assessment of occupational skin cleansers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Short-term stability of subtypes in the irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, A L; Simren, M; Bytzer, P

    2012-01-01

    In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtyping is used in research and clinical practice. Knowledge of subtype stability is needed for proper design of trials and treatment strategies.......In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtyping is used in research and clinical practice. Knowledge of subtype stability is needed for proper design of trials and treatment strategies....

  1. Preschool irritability predicts child psychopathology, functional impairment, and service use at age nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R; Smith, Victoria C; Bufferd, Sara J; Kessel, Ellen; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the predictive validity and clinical significance of chronic irritability during early childhood. This prospective, longitudinal study examined associations of preschool chronic irritability with psychiatric disorders, functional impairment, and service use at age nine in a large community sample. Four hundred and forty-six children were assessed at age three and again at age nine. Child psychopathology and functional impairment were assessed at age three with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) with parents and at age nine with the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) with parents and children. Items from the PAPA were used to create a dimensional measure of chronic irritability at age three. At age nine, mothers, fathers, and youth completed the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Screen for Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED). Chronic irritability at age three predicted any current and lifetime anxiety disorders at age nine, current and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder, and current separation anxiety, after controlling for baseline anxiety disorders. In addition, preschool irritability predicted increases in anxiety and disruptive behavior disorder symptoms on the K-SADS, and maternal and paternal reports of depressive and anxiety symptoms on the CDI and SCARED. Lastly, preschool irritability predicted greater functional impairment and outpatient treatment use, even after controlling for all psychiatric disorders at baseline. Findings underscore the central role of irritability in developmental psychopathology and support the importance of early detection and interventions targeting preschool irritability. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Shin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE. Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete questionnaire sheet assessing the extent of histrionic personality traits, extraversion-introversion, and current psychological status. The present authors also collected basic sociodemographic data including alcohol use history. Results. A total of 32 irritable patients and 32 stable patients were analyzed. The histrionic personality trait score of the irritable group was higher than that of the stable group (9.5 ± 3.1 versus 6.9 ± 2.9; P = 0.001, as was the anxiety score (52.8 ± 8.6 versus 46.1 ± 9.6; P = 0.004. Heavy alcohol use was more frequently observed in the irritable group (65.6% versus 28.1%; P = 0.003. In multivariate analysis, all these three factors were independently correlated with irritability during CSE. Conclusion. This study revealed that histrionic personality traits, anxiety, and heavy alcohol use can affect irritability during CSE.

  3. Motiliteit van het sigmoïd bij 'irritable bowel syndrome' en diverticulosis coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, G. H.; Thijn, C. J.; Smout, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of pressure recording in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, diverticulosis and diverticulosis with pain were compared with the results in control subjects. The motility showed variable higher values in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The motility was clearly higher in

  4. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure

  5. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  6. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  7. 30 CFR 57.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. 57.15006 Section 57.15006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall be...

  8. [Controlled clinical study of the action of mebeverine hydrochloride in the treatment of irritable colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, G B; Di Somma, C; Arnulfo, G; Ricci, C

    1983-03-31

    The results of a study about the mebeverina administered in 45 cases of irritable colon are reported. The clinical and laboratory findings together with the results of colometrography under psychic stimulation, have shown the therapeutic efficacy of the new formulation, specially in irritable colon with abdominal pain. Its tolerance was excellent.

  9. Carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations avoid professional exposure to irritants in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine; Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Carlsen, Berit C

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are associated with xerosis, atopic dermatitis, and early onset of hand eczema. Irritant exposure is a risk factor for occupational hand eczema, and FLG mutations increase the risk of occupational irritant contact dermatitis on the hands in h...

  10. Management of irritant contact dermatitis: continuously a problem for patients and dermatologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    Skin irritants may induce irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in various ways but the end result remains the same: a clinical picture which in most cases is practically indistinguishable from allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A treatment that works for ACD does not necessarily work for ICD. Manage...

  11. Irritable Oppositional Defiance and Callous Unemotional Traits: Is the Association Partially Explained by Peer Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D.; Salekin, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irritability is a subdimension of ODD, which predicts mainly to internalizing disorders, and to a lesser extent, conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Given that youth with similar dispositions as the irritable types--as well as youth high in callous-unemotional (CU) traits--have both been reported to experience high levels…

  12. Formation Of Volatile And Non-Volatile Compounds In Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglar Mert Aydin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavour development in cheese is a complex process in which major catabolic pathways involved. Initially the curds of different cheese varieties have almost the same flavours however the curd produce flavour compounds which lead to discrimination among cheese verities in terms of flavour throughout ripening. The major biochemical pathways involved throughout ripening of cheese are the followings liberation of FFA free fatty acid associated catabolic reactions the degradation of the casein matrix to peptides and FAA free amino acids the reactions for catabolism of FAA and the metabolism of lactate and citrate. In this review the general pathway for formation of volatile and non-volatile flavour compounds are stated and detailed knowledge as to products of amino acid catabolism proteolysis lipolysis lactate and citrate metabolism well discussed.

  13. Kinetic study of the degradation of C5 and C6 unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols by ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalalian, Carmen; Roth, Estelle; Chakir, Abdelkhaleq

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are higher than those from anthropogenic sources. They are therefore likely to have a great influence on atmospheric chemistry both locally and regionally, through their impact on the HOx balance (HOx = HO + HO2), ozone production and ability to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Among the volatile organic compounds of biogenic origin are the family of C5 and C6 unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols. Few information exist regarding the fate of these compounds in the atmosphere especially there reaction with ozone. In this work, we studied the kinetics of the reaction of three unsaturated aldehydes (trans-2-pentenal, trans-2-hexenal and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and three unsaturated alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, cis-2-penten-1-ol and trans-3-hexen-1-ol) with ozone O3 in a rigid atmospheric simulation chamber coupled to an FTIR spectrometer at four different temperatures (273, 298, 333 and 353 K) and at atmospheric pressure. The rate constants of the ozonolysis reaction of the unsaturated aldehydes and the unsaturated alcohols studied were determined and the following Arrhenius expression was obtained (cm3 molecule -1 s -1): k (Trans -2-pentenal)= (3.83 ± 3.71) x 10-16 exp (- (1706 ± 295) / T) k (Trans-2-hexenal)= (1.43 ± 0.67) x 10-16 exp (- (1369 ± 141) / T) k(2-Methyl-2-pentenal)= (3.62± 0.22) x 10-18 exp (- (121 ± 20) / T) k(1-penten-3-ol) = (1.42 ± 1.24) x 10-16 exp (- (642 ± 250) / T) k(Cis-2-penten-1-ol)= (3.14 ± 0.45) x 10-15 exp (- (1045 ± 40) / T) k(Trans-3-hexen-1-ol)= (6.38 ± 1.75) x 10-16 exp (- (686 ± 89) / T) The obtained data will be discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationship and compared with the reported reactivity with OH radicals. The atmospheric implications derived from this study are discussed as well.

  14. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-09-02

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome.

  15. The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielas, Hannes; Barra, Steffen; Skrivanek, Christine

    2016-01-01

    -reported irritability. The ACE total score predicted depressive disorders, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Irritability was positively related to depressive disorders, suicidality, disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), substance use disorder (SUD), and attention deficit...

  16. The potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Fumio; Matsui, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Sado, Masashi; Taniguchi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kamiyama, Masashi; Suda, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Yuhiro; Yamori, Akira; Igarashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Jun; Oka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    It is generally thought that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers commonly found in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes for medical use may cause dermal irritation, but a systematic study has never been carried out. Therefore, we assessed the potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers. We studied seven acrylic monomers, acrylic acid (AA), methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), n-hexyl acrylate (n-HA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), as well as three methacrylic monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA). We first examined their cytotoxic effect on a cultured dermis model using the MTT method to determine their EC(50) and then performed a primary irritation test in rabbits using the monomers at three different concentrations (i.e., EC(50) , one-tenth EC(50) and 10 times EC(50)). Marked variations were found in cytotoxic and dermal irritating activities among the (meth)acrylic monomers tested. HEA exhibited the most potent dermal irritation having the lowest erythema dose (the concentration which gives a primary dermal irritation index of 1.00) of 460 ppm. But the other monomers exhibited less potent dermal irritation (lowest erythema doses > or =1000 ppm). For the monomers, significant correlation was found between cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritating activity. Our results show that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers in adhesive tapes are unlikely to induce skin irritation except for HEA. This study also suggests that cultured skin models are extremely useful as a screening method for chemical substances that could potentially cause dermal irritating activity.

  17. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.

    2016-09-01

    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  18. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  19. Childhood income volatility and adult outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bradley L

    2014-10-01

    Using data linked across generations in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the relationship between exposure to volatile income during childhood and a set of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The empirical framework is an augmented intergenerational income mobility model that includes controls for income volatility. I measure income volatility at the family level in two ways: (1) instability as measured by squared deviations around a family-specific mean; and (2) instability as percentage changes of 25 % or more. Volatility enters the model both separately and interacted with income level. I find that family income volatility during childhood has a modest negative association with educational attainment. Volatility has a smaller descriptive role in explaining intergenerational outcomes relative to permanent income. Across the income distribution, the negative association between volatility exposure and educational attainment is largest for young adults from moderate-income families.

  20. Thermal irritation of teeth during dental treatment procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Kwon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While it is reasonably well known that certain dental procedures increase the temperature of the tooth's surface, of greater interest is their potential damaging effect on the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues. Previous studies have investigated the responses of the pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone to thermal irritation and the temperature at which thermal damage is initiated. There are also many in vitro studies that have measured the temperature increase of the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues during restorative and endodontic procedures. This review article provides an overview of studies measuring temperature increases in tooth structures during several restorative and endodontic procedures, and proposes clinical guidelines for reducing potential thermal hazards to the pulp and supporting tissues.

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms related to the irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinsvig Poulsen, Chalotte; Falgaard Eplov, Lene; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective Functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can develop into persistent states often categorised as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the severe end of the GI symptom continuum, other coexisting symptoms are common. We aimed to investigate the GI symptom continuum in relation...... symptom groups and mortality (p = 0.47). IBS and GI symptoms with abdominal pain were significantly associated with development of GI diseases. Only GI symptoms with abdominal pain were associated with development of severe GI diseases (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: [1.06–1.79]). There were no statistically...... significant interactions between symptom groups and coexisting symptoms in relation to the two outcomes. Conclusions GI diseases were seen more frequently, but IBS was not associated with severe GI diseases or increased mortality. Clinicians should be more aware when patients do not fulfil the IBS definition...

  2. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Naliboff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies.

  3. Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, C Rune; Nielsen, Henrik V; Bytzer, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were mostly female (89%), and mean age (SD) was 35.1 (8.2) years. Microbiological response, evaluated 2 weeks post-treatment, was observed in 15 of 25 patients (60%), all by MZ. Clinical response, defined as adequate relief of symptoms, was observed in 7 of 22 patients (32%), all by MZ. In a logistic regression analysis, we found no significant association between clinical and microbiological response. This case study did not support our hypothesis of a simple association between D. fragilis and IBS. Some D. fragilis-infections were insufficiently treated by MZ. Further studies into the prevalence and effect of eradication of D. fragilis in IBS and into efficient treatments of D. fragilis are warranted.

  4. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magge, Suma; Lembo, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs increases the delivery of readily fermentable substrates and water to the distal small intestine and colon-which results in luminal distention and gas-the reduction of FODMAPs in a patient's diet may improve functional gastrointestinal symptoms. This paper will review the pathophysiology of IBS and the role of FODMAPs for the treatment of this condition.

  5. [Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome--a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, J; Rilk, A; Herbert, B M; Zipfel, S; Enck, P; Martens, U

    2009-11-01

    The Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional disorder with a remarkable clinical and economic impact. Several pathogenetic factors of IBS are discussed and summarised within a bio-psycho-social model. Data from published hypnotherapeutic interventions with approximately 800 patients show long-lasting symptom relief. The underlying mechanisms of action are not well understood. Nine mechanism studies show influences of hypnosis on colorectal sensitivity, colorectal motility and mental strain (anxiety, depression, maladaptive cognitions). Results are often contradictory and effects of hypnosis on several of the proposed pathogenetic factors are not examined at all. This paper reviews previous studies on hypnotherapy in IBS patients with a focus on symptom relief and mechanisms of action.

  6. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment.

  7. New pharmacological treatment options for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusrat, Salman; Miner, Philip B

    2015-01-01

    Constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is a common disorder and accounts for a large number of ambulatory visits. Sensory abnormalities, that is, presence of abdominal pain and discomfort, distinguish IBS-C from chronic idiopathic constipation. This review focuses on the pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and future of prucalopride, YKP-10811, DSP-6952, dexloxiglumide, linaclotide, plecanatide, tenapanor, and elobixibat. It is now well established that treatment focusing only on bowel transit provides incomplete relief to patients with IBS-C. Improved understanding of pathophysiology of IBS-C has led to use of sensory end points like complete spontaneous bowel movements and the FDA combined end point (abdominal pain and complete spontaneous bowel movements) in clinical trials. A number of drugs are in development and provide hope for this challenging group of patients. However, because of recent failures secondary to ineffectiveness and/or adverse events, we cautiously await how clinical data play out in larger studies and in clinical practice.

  8. A case of irritant contact dermatitis with leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ayse Serap; Calka, Omer; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cecen, Ilhan

    2011-09-01

    Medicinal leeches are invertebrated parasites that have been used for medical purposes for centuries as one of the traditional treatment methods. Medicinal leeches are used for wound and flap healing in the plastic and reconstructive surgery, in the treatment of venous insufficiency, varicosities, hemorrhoids, and in many other diseases. However, due to medicinal leech therapy (hirudotherapy) complications such as anaphylaxis, local allergic reactions, anemia, and mucosal synechiae can occur. In this article, we report a case of an irritant contact dermatitis in a patient who experienced severe redness and itching after applying leeches for the relief of head and neck pain. Leeches are being used widely in some regions in the world and if people are informed about the leeches, it may be helpful in preventing complications that may occur.

  9. Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated to Hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Seretis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is considered to be a physical disorder that mainly affects the bowel and is clinically characterized by lower abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhea, constipation (or alternating diarrhea/constipation, gas, bloating, and nausea. According to recent studies, it appears that there is an association with increased prolactin levels in patients suffering from IBS. We report a rare case of regression of IBS symptoms (constipation type in a 16-year-old female adolescent after receiving cabergoline for treating hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary macroadenoma. Our hypothesis is that increased prolactin levels, for instance due to a pituitary adenoma, may suppress prolactin-releasing peptide release and lead to a reverse feedback interaction, consequently resulting in oversecretion of cholecystokinin, inducing the development of IBS.

  10. Five personality dimensions in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farnam

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Farnam, Mohammad H Somi, Firouz Sarami, Sara FarhangLiver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranAim: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS as a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract has been related to psychological factors. Aim of this study is to study the differences of personality factors between IBS patients compared to our general population.Methods: This study was performed in clinics of Tabriz Medical University during 2006–2007. IBS was diagnosed using the Rome II diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview and after any comorbid psychiatry disorder was ruled out. Personality traits and score of each factor was evaluated using NEO five factor personality inventory compared to results of a previous study on general population of Iran.Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were studied. The mean age (±SD of them was 33.6(±11.4 years (60.8% female. Our study population had their symptoms for a mean interval of 47.3 month. The bowel problems were provoked by distress in more than 80% of patients. Pain in female patients was reported to be more frequent but both gender described the association between stressors and their symptoms. NEO Five-Factor Inventory showed a significantly higher level of neuroticism and conscientiousness and lower level of openness and agreeableness in theses nonpsychiatric IBS patients. Women with IBS had significantly higher levels of openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion compared to men.Conclusion: Differences were observed between IBS patients and general population. Patients with IBS may benefit from psychological interventions.Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, personality, five-factor model

  11. Contact allergens and irritants in household washing and cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Michela; Silvani, Simonetta; Vincenzi, Colombina; Nino, Massimiliano; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-12-01

    Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from these products in general consumers is rarely reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of irritants and allergens as indicated on the labels or on the product information found on the website of household cleaning products marketed in Italy. We examined the labels and the product information of 291 liquid household washing and cleaning products, including 43 washing-up liquids, 63 laundry detergents, 61 fabric conditioners, 47 spray detergents, and 77 hard surface cleaning products. We obtained the data from the product information found on the websites for 263 products and directly on the product packages for 28 products. For each product we specifically recorded the presence of surfactants, preservatives, and fragrances listed in Annex III of Directive 76/768/EEC. The websites of two Italian brands do not respect EU regulations as they provide product information only with bar codes of the products. Preservatives and fragrances are the main allergens declared in the label of household cleaning products with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) listed in 35.7% and limonene in 43.6% of the products. Surfactants were listed in 16.5% of the studied products. Our study shows that household cleaning products in Italian market contain several allergens, particularly preservatives and fragrances. For consumers, at least in Italy, it may not be easy to retrieve product information from the website for two widely sold brands. The information had to be taken from the actual package.

  12. Surfactant irritation: in vitro corneosurfametry and in vivo bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Chatelain, E; Bieli, E; Haas, S

    2001-02-01

    Irritant reactions to surfactants, cleansing products, soaps and detergents are common in clinical and occupational dermatology. Mildness has become a major benefit claimed, and testing for mildness now ranks among the first concerns of the manufacturing industry. A wealth of publications deals with this problem, trying to improve the methodology, reduce the costs of testing and facilitate decision-making. Differences in vivo can be measured clinically and/or instrumentally. This is difficult, as commercially available products are generally safe to use and none are harsh in the absolute sense. Nineteen different products (syndets, shampoos, personal cleansers), all claiming to be mild, were tested in vitro by a newly introduced method, corneosurfametry. For evaluating the aggressiveness of the products, the calculation of an index of irritation (IOI) was proposed. A concentration-effect curve of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as standard and model surfactant was obtained. Some of the products were further tested in vivo with a flex wash test and with a soap chamber test and compared to SLS. Bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss TEWL, skin color) were used to evaluate the results. The results of the corneosurfametry allowed us to classify the products in three categories, with increasing aggressiveness towards the stratum corneum, according to their IOIs. The in vivo tests were not able to discriminate between the products, but ranks from the results of the bioengineering measurements showed a good correlation between TEWL changes, but not between colour changes, and IOIs from corneosurfametry. Corneosurfametry emerged as a simple, low-cost and fast method for ranking commercial products according to their mildness. However, the skin bioengineering techniques showed that some products could lead to skin reactions, such as erythema, that could not be detected by the in vitro technique.

  13. Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Irritability of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Dean; Lalani, Zaahira

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the randomized controlled trial data regarding pharmacotherapy of irritability of autism. Method: A literature review was conducted using the MEDLine search terms: ‘autism’ OR ‘autism spectrum disorder’ with the following limits: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), human trials, English language. Additional articles were identified from reference information. Trials involving nutritional supplements, hormones or drugs not approved by either Health Canada or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were excluded from analysis. Results: Twenty-three RCTs that met criteria were identified. The greatest number of RCTs involved risperidone, with six of seven placebo-controlled risperidone trials reporting statistically significant improvements on the primary outcome measure. Two aripiprazole RCTs and one olanzapine RCT reported statistically significant improvement in primary outcome measures. Haloperidol was superior to both clomipramine and placebo in a head-to-head crossover trial, while risperidone was superior to haloperidol for treatment of behavioural symptoms in a separate head-to-head trial. Clonidine, methylphenidate, valproate and levocarnitine monotherapy were superior to placebo in single RCTs, while adjunctive treatments cyproheptadine, pentoxifylline and topiramate were superior to placebo in small studies when given in combination with an antipsychotic. Adverse events from RCTs were summarized, including weight gain and metabolic effects, if available. Conclusion: The bulk of positive RCT evidence for the pharmacotherapy of irritability of autism pertains to FDA approved antipsychotics risperidone and aripiprazole. RCTs supporting efficacy of several alternative and adjunctive agents may afford additional treatment options when optimal antipsychotic doses fail to control symptoms or cause intolerable adverse effects. Behavioural therapy should be employed where possible either before, or in addition to pharmacotherapy. PMID

  14. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-08-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.

  15. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contri, Renata V; Frank, Luiza A; Kaiser, Moacir; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC) was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP) did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP]) and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product]) and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product]) irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation.

  16. Lurasidone for major depressive disorder with mixed features and irritability: a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Fava, Maurizio; Tsai, Joyce; Mao, Yongcai; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of lurasidone in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) with mixed features including irritability. The data in this analysis were derived from a study of patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for unipolar MDD, with a Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score ≥26, presenting with two or three protocol-defined manic symptoms, and who were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with either lurasidone 20-60 mg/d (n=109) or placebo (n=100). We defined "irritability" as a score ≥2 on both the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) irritability item (#5) and the disruptive-aggressive item (#9). Endpoint change in the MADRS and YMRS items 5 and 9 were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measures for patients with and without irritability. Some 20.7% of patients met the criteria for irritability. Treatment with lurasidone was associated with a significant week 6 change vs. placebo in MADRS score in both patients with (-22.6 vs. -9.5, ppost-hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, 6-week trial, treatment with lurasidone significantly improved depressive symptoms in MDD patients with mixed features including irritability. In addition, irritability symptoms significantly improved in patients treated with lurasidone.

  17. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth is Associated with Intestinal Inflammation in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liliana; Babin, Alexandru; Picos, Alina; Dumitrascu, Dan Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is encountered in bowel disorders, including irritable bowel symptoms. Low degrees of inflammation have been recently reported in the irritable bowel syndrome. We looked for the association between intestinal inflammation and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by the H2 glucose breath test in 90 consecutive patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A check-up of the oral cavity was carried out before the breath testing. Further on, the patients were classified into two groups, positive and negative, at the breath test. Then they were tested for intestinal inflammation with a fecal test for calprotectin. We used a semiquantitative test for this study. Both groups were compared for the association of intestinal inflammation with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A number of 24/90 (26.7%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome had small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A positive test for intestinal inflammation was significantly more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (chi(2): p<0.05). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is present in almost one quarter of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. It is significantly associated with intestinal inflammation.

  18. Cognitive control associated with irritability induction: an autobiographical recall fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Carlos T; Almeida, Jorge R C; Sato, João R; Gorenstein, Clarice; Gentil, Valentim; Leite, Claudia C; Amaro, Edson; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2010-06-01

    Despite the relevance of irritability emotions to the treatment, prognosis and classification of psychiatric disorders, the neurobiological basis of this emotional state has been rarely investigated to date. We assessed the brain circuitry underlying personal script-driven irritability in healthy subjects (n = 11) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes were recorded during auditory presentation of personal scripts of irritability in contrast to scripts of happiness or neutral emotional content. Self-rated emotional measurements and skin conductance recordings were also obtained. Images were acquired using a 1,5T magnetic resonance scanner. Brain activation maps were constructed from individual images, and between-condition differences in the mean power of experimental response were identified by using cluster-wise nonparametric tests. Compared to neutral scripts, increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal during irritability scripts was detected in the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and in the left medial, anterolateral and posterolateral dorsal prefrontal cortex (cluster-wise p-value < 0.05). While the involvement of the subgenual cingulate and dorsal anterolateral prefrontal cortices was unique to the irritability state, increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in dorsomedial and dorsal posterolateral prefrontal regions were also present during happiness induction. Irritability induction is associated with functional changes in a limited set of brain regions previously implicated in the mediation of emotional states. Changes in prefrontal and cingulate areas may be related to effortful cognitive control aspects that gain salience during the emergence of irritability.

  19. Current irritability robustly related to current and prior anxiety in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Laura D; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Holtzman, Jessica N; Goffin, Kathryn C; Shah, Saloni; Ketter, Terence A

    2016-08-01

    Although current irritability and current/prior anxiety have been associated in unipolar depression, these relationships are less well understood in bipolar disorder (BD). We investigated relationships between current irritability and current/prior anxiety as well as other current emotions and BD illness characteristics. Outpatients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorders Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Prevalence and clinical correlates of current irritability and current/prior anxiety and other illness characteristics were examined. Among 497 BD outpatients (239 Type I, 258 Type II; 58.1% female; mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years), 301 (60.6%) had baseline current irritability. Patients with versus without current irritability had significantly higher rates of current anxiety (77.1% versus 42.9%, p bipolar subtype, and current syndromal/subsyndromal depression (all p < 0.05). Limited generalizability beyond our predominately white, female, educated, insured American BD specialty clinic sample. In BD, current irritability was robustly related to current/prior anxiety. Further studies are warranted to assess longitudinal clinical implications of relationships between irritability and anxiety in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  1. Neural substrates of child irritability in typically developing and psychiatric populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Perlman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritability is an aspect of the negative affectivity domain of temperament, but in severe and dysregulated forms is a symptom of a range of psychopathologies. Better understanding of the neural underpinnings of irritability, outside the context of specific disorders, can help to understand normative variation but also characterize its clinical salience in psychopathology diagnosis. This study assessed brain activation during reward and frustration, domains of behavioral deficits in childhood irritability. Children (age 6–9 presenting in mental health clinics for extreme and impairing irritability (n = 26 were compared to healthy children (n = 28. Using developmentally sensitive methods, neural activation was measured via a negative mood induction paradigm during fMRI scanning. The clinical group displayed more activation of the anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus during reward, but less activation during frustration, than healthy comparison children. The opposite pattern was found in the posterior cingulate. Further, in clinical subjects, parent report of irritability was dimensionally related to decreased activation of the anterior cingulate and striatum during frustration. The results of this study indicate neural dysfunction within brain regions related to reward processing, error monitoring, and emotion regulation underlying clinically impairing irritability. Results are discussed in the context of a growing field of neuroimaging research investigating irritable children.

  2. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  3. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  4. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  5. Incidence and predictive factors of irritable bowel syndrome after acute diverticulitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmo; Lee, Hyuk; Chung, Hyunsoo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

    2014-11-01

    Evidence indicates that irritable bowel syndrome can occur after gastroenteritis. However, little is known about its incidence after diverticulitis. This study was designed to identify the incidence and risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome after diverticulitis in Korea. A survey regarding irritable bowel syndrome was performed in patients allocated to the cases hospitalized for acute diverticulitis and controls hospitalized for non-gastrointestinal disorders between January 2007 and June 2012. Patients meeting criteria for irritable bowel syndrome before hospitalization or with a history of bowel resection were excluded for analysis. Response rate of telephone interviews was 28.1 % (139 of 494) and 73.3 % (220 of 300) in cases and controls, respectively. After exclusion, 102 patients in the cases and 205 patients in the controls were analyzed. At 31 months median follow-up, irritable bowel syndrome had developed in 13 patients (12.8 %) in the cases and 11 patients (5.4 %) in the controls with significant statistical difference (p = 0.02). No clinical difference was seen between the two groups. No clinical factor was significant for the development of irritable bowel syndrome after diverticulitis, and no independent factor was associated with the development of irritable bowel syndrome. Among the 13 patients who developed post-diverticulitis irritable bowel syndrome, the diarrhea-predominant type (53.9 %) was most common. A higher incidence of irritable bowel syndrome after diverticulitis was evident in this study. However, no clinical feature for prediction of its development after diverticulitis was found. Further large-scale analysis will be needed to generalize this result.

  6. Preventing irritant contact dermatitis with protective creams: influence of the application dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle; Petri, Maximilian; Elsner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Skin protection creams (PC)s are used in the occupational setting to help prevent irritant hand dermatitis. The actual amounts of PC applied and the resulting dose per unit area on hands at work are lower than recommended. To assess the influence of the applied dose on the efficacy of PCs in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis. Experimental cumulative irritant contact dermatitis was induced by twice daily application of 0.5% NaOH or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for 4 days on the backs of 20 healthy volunteers. Test areas were left unprotected or were pretreated with three different PCs applied at a low dose (2 mg/cm(2) ) or a high dose (20 mg/cm(2) ) before irritation. Irritant responses were assessed by visual scoring and measurement of transepidermal water loss, chromametry, and corneometry. Although cumulative irritant dermatitis developed in all unprotected test sites, irritation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner on PC-protected sites. The higher doses of all PCs provided significant protection against irritation. However, the lower dose of one product did not significantly protect against SLS-induced irritation. The protective efficacy of PCs depends on the amount of product applied per unit skin surface area. Some products may show no protective efficacy when used at doses close to those practically applied at workplaces. Future efficacy studies of PCs should be performed with doses not higher than 2 mg/cm(2) , to avoid overestimation of their protective efficacy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool.

  8. A case report of an extensive irritation fibroma on palatal margin of maxillary gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tahamtan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Irritation fibroma is a reactive lesion of the buccal mucosa that often occurs in line with the occlusal plane due to cheek biting. This lesion may also be seen on the palate, gingiva and lips; however, it mostly occurs in the areas exposed to trauma. This paper reports a case of extensive irritation fibroma on maxillary gingiva in a 36 year old male that was related to palatal margin of left premolars. The lesion was excised by biopsy and was diagnosed as irritation fibroma after histological analysis.

  9. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of cumulative irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2006-01-01

    either 10% isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: In HLGP, irritant dermatitis was induced with 30 min daily exposure for 4 days to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. (SLS). In HVs, irritant...... tolerated locally in humans. RESULTS: All formulations worsened the skin irritation in HLGP: the glycerol cream the least, the canola oil cream the most, while the bisabolol cream and the carbomer cream were indistinguishable. In humans, the glycerol cream was better than 'No Treatment' after cumulative...

  10. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: DIAGNOSTICS AND MODERN APPROACHES TO THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Tereshchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article modern data on prevalence, diagnostic criteria and approaches to the treatment of irritable bowel in children are presented. The issues of the terminology and classification of recurrent abdominal pains in children are clarified, the basic pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are indicated. Particular emphasis has been placed on the efficient therapy of the different clinical variants of irritable bowel syndrome. The role of modern spasmolytic drugs in the treatment of abdominal pain syndrome and the rational usage of laxatives in constipation in children is shown.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, diagnostics, treatment.

  11. Risk of Irritability With Psychostimulant Treatment in Children With ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckelman, Zachary D; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Cohen, Stephanie C; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Irritability is listed as a common side effect of psychostimulant medications. However, psychostimulants have been demonstrated as an effective treatment in reducing irritability and aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to quantify the risk of irritability as a side effect of psychostimulant treatment for ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted on August 18, 2013, to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials published in English examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with ADHD. Trials were excluded if (1) they required additional psychiatric or medical comorbidity in addition to ADHD, (2) they involved fewer than 20 subjects (parallel group trials), or (3) children received psychostimulant medication for less than 1 week. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to examine the risk ratio of irritability reported as a side effect in children treated with psychostimulants compared to placebo. Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to examine the effects of stimulant type, dosage, duration of use, and trial design on the measured risk of irritability. From 92 potentially eligible trials, the meta-analysis identified 32 trials involving 3,664 children with ADHD that reported data on irritability as a side effect. The relative risk of irritability significantly differed between psychostimulant classes (test for subgroup differences χ²₁ = 7.6, P = .006). Methylphenidate derivatives were associated with a significantly decreased risk of irritability compared to placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 0.89 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.96], z = -2.87, P = .004, k = 32, I² = 50%), whereas amphetamine derivatives were associated with a significantly increased risk of irritability (RR = 2.90 [95% CI, 1.26 to 6.71], z = 2.5, P = .01, k = 5, I² = 0%). This meta-analysis suggests an increased risk of irritability may be confined to amphetamine

  12. Human Health Hazard Assessment of FT Jet Fuel and Sensory Irritation Study in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-08

    JP-8 is the DoD “universal fuel” and is used in airplanes, tanks, stoves, heaters, etc. JP-8 is one of a number of high production volume ( HPV ...a descriptive rating to each test article and the mixture. Based on the Irritation Index, FT jet fuel and the 50:50 blend are either the same as JP...Occluded Irritation Index 2.1 2.3 1.9 Descriptive Rating moderate moderate slight Semi-Occluded Irritation Index 1.8 0.8 1.5 Descriptive Rating slight

  13. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across......We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... the trading day. Consequently, the test is based on comparing the empirical characteristic function of the studentized returns across the trading day. The limit distribution of the test depends on the error in recovering volatility from discrete return data and the empirical process error associated...

  14. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  15. Influence of environmental conditions on production of volatiles by Trichoderma atroviride in relation with the sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizzi, Viviana [Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert [Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Picco, Anna Maria [Pavia University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Territorial Ecology and Environment, via S. Epifanio 14, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Adriaens, Els; Lenoir, Joke [Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah [Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    A Trichoderma atroviride strain was isolated from a water-damaged office and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction GC-MS. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to elucidate a possible relationship between MVOCs, produced by Trichoderma atroviride, and the Sick Building Syndrome. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar (MEA) than on wallpaper and plasterboard. Particular attention was dedicated to the volatile marker 6-pentyl-2-pyrone, a compound produced in high quantities on MEA, and its mucosal irritation potency was shown in a slug mucosal irritation assay. Some compounds characteristic for growth on specific building materials were detected, e.g. 2-ethylcyclopentanone, menthone, iso-menthone and trans-p-menth-2-en-7-ol on plasterboard and 4-heptanone and 1-octen-3-ol on wallpaper. Relative humidity and substrate had a more important effect on MVOC production than temperature. (author)

  16. The Economic Value of Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    develop a new class of affine discrete-time option valuation models that use daily returns as well as realized volatility. We derive convenient closed-form option valuation formulas, and we assess the option valuation properties using Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 return and option data. We find...... that realized volatility reduces the pricing errors of the benchmark model significantly across moneyness, maturity, and volatility levels....

  17. Transparency and stock price volatility: european evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Elisabete F. Simões; Pinho, Joaquim Carlos da Costa

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the key determinants of the information transparency and its consequences for the market, namely in what concerns the stock price volatility, analysing the disclosure practices of two European countries. A transparency and a volatility model are applied. Based on annual reports information, we could not find any significant relationship between transparency and volatility. However, considering the quarterly reports, we find a negative relation between these variables for th...

  18. Volatile compounds profile of Bromeliaceae flowers

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, Everton Hilo de; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A. M.; Souza, Fernanda V. D.; Ledo, Carlos A.S.; Severino M de Alencar; Martinelli,Adriana P.

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds play a vital role in the life cycle of plants, possessing antimicrobial and anti-herbivore activities, and with a significant importance in the food, cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry. This study aimed to identify the volatile compounds emitted by flowers of thirteen species belonging to four genera of Bromeliaceae, using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 71 volatile compounds belonging to ...

  19. Volatiles and Exsolved Vapor in Volcanic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Marie; Wallace, PJ

    2017-01-01

    The role of volatiles in magma dynamics and eruption style is fundamental. Magmatic volatiles partition between melt, crystal, and vapor phases and, in so doing, change magma properties. This has consequences for magma buoyancy and phase equilibria. An exsolved vapor phase, which may be distributed unevenly through reservoirs, contains sulfur and metals that are either transported into the atmosphere or into ore deposits. This article reviews the controls on volatile solubility and the method...

  20. Identify and Manage the Software Requirements Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Khloud Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholeif

    2016-01-01

    Management of software requirements volatility through development of life cycle is a very important stage. It helps the team to control significant impact all over the project (cost, time and effort), and also it keeps the project on track, to finally satisfy the user which is the main success criteria for the software project. In this research paper, we have analysed the root causes of requirements volatility through a proposed framework presenting the requirements volatility causes and how...

  1. Did household consumption become more volatile?

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbachev, O.

    2011-01-01

    I show that after accounting for predictable variation arising from movements in real interest rates, preferences and income shocks, liquidity constraints and measurement errors, volatility of household consumption in the US increased by 25 percent between 1970 and 2004. The increase was lower than that of volatility of family income. Nonwhite and those with less than 13 years of education, for whom there was no differential increase in income volatility, experienced a significantly larger in...

  2. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  3. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  4. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M [Laramie, WY; Sorini-Wong, Susan S [Laramie, WY

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  5. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: diagnostic approaches in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Burbige

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eugene J BurbigeDivision of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Research, John Muir Medical Center, Concord, CA, USABackground: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a functional gastrointestinal disorder long considered a diagnosis of exclusion, has chronic symptoms that vary over time and overlap with those of non-IBS disorders. Traditional symptom-based criteria effectively identify IBS patients but are not easily applied in clinical practice, leaving >40% of patients to experience symptoms up to 5 years before diagnosis.Objective: To review the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected IBS, strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies, and newer diagnostic tools that can augment current symptom-based criteria.Methods: The peer-reviewed literature (PubMed was searched for primary reports and reviews using the limiters of date (1999–2009 and English language and the search terms irritable bowel syndrome, diagnosis, gastrointestinal disease, symptom-based criteria, outcome, serology, and fecal markers. Abstracts from Digestive Disease Week 2008–2009 and reference lists of identified articles were reviewed.Results: A disconnect is apparent between practice guidelines and clinical practice. The American Gastroenterological Association and American College of Gastroenterology recommend diagnosing IBS in patients without alarm features of organic disease using symptom-based criteria (eg, Rome. However, physicians report confidence in a symptom-based diagnosis without further testing only up to 42% of the time; many order laboratory tests and perform sigmoidoscopies or colonoscopies despite good evidence showing no utility for this work-up in uncomplicated cases. In the absence of diagnostic criteria easily usable in a busy practice, newer diagnostic methods, such as stool-form examination, fecal inflammatory markers, and serum biomarkers, have been proposed as adjunctive tools to aid in an IBS diagnosis by increasing physicians

  7. Realized Beta GARCH: A Multivariate GARCH Model with Realized Measures of Volatility and CoVolatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri

    We introduce a multivariate GARCH model that utilizes and models realized measures of volatility and covolatility. The realized measures extract information contained in high-frequency data that is particularly beneficial during periods with variation in volatility and covolatility. Applying...

  8. Removal of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds via Photocatalytic Oxidation: A Short Review and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are ubiquitous in indoor environments. Inhalation of VOCs can cause irritation, difficulty breathing, and nausea, and damage the central nervous system as well as other organs. Formaldehyde is a particularly important VOC as it is even a carcinogen. Removal of VOCs is thus critical to control indoor air quality (IAQ. Photocatalytic oxidation has demonstrated feasibility to remove toxic VOCs and formaldehyde from indoor environments. The technique is highly-chemical stable, inexpensive, non-toxic, and capable of removing a wide variety of organics under light irradiation. In this paper, we review and summarize the traditional air cleaning methods and current photocatalytic oxidation approaches in both of VOCs and formaldehyde degradation in indoor environments. Influencing factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deactivation and reactivations of the photocatalyst are discussed. Aspects of the application of the photocatalytic technique to improve the IAQ are suggested.

  9. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  10. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  11. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  12. Exploration and comparison of in vitro eye irritation tests with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit test for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Hailian, Quan; Na, Yirang; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Miri; Kim, Da-Eun; Bae, SeungJin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2016-12-01

    In an effort to explore the use of alternative methods to animal testing for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of medical devices, we evaluated representative contact lenses with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP) and an in vitro eye irritation test using the three-dimensionally-reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™. In addition, we compared the obtained results with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit eye irritation test (ISO10993-10). Along with the positive controls (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.02, 0.2, and 1%), the extracts of 4 representative contact lenses (soft, disposable, hard, and colored lenses) and 2 reference lenses (dye-eluting and BAK-coated lenses) were tested. All the lenses, except for the BAK-coated lens, were determined non-irritants in all test methods, while the positive controls yielded relevant results. More importantly, BCOP, EpiOcular™, and MCTT HCE™ yielded a consistent decision for all the tested samples, with the exception of 0.2% BAK in BCOP, for which no prediction could be made. Overall, all the in vitro tests correlated well with the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, and furthermore, the combination of in vitro tests as a tiered testing strategy was able to produce results similar to those seen in vivo. These observations suggest that such methods can be used as alternative assays to replace the conventional in vivo test method in the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of ophthalmic medical devices, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Human reactions to a mixture of indoor air volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars; Pedersen, Ole F.

    A controlled experimental study of human reactions to a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds often found in indoor air was performed in a climate chamber. Twenty-one healthy subjects were compared with a group of 14 subjects suffering from the 'sick building syndrome' (SBS subjects), i.e. having symptoms related to the indoor environment (irritated mucous membranes, headache, etc.) as defined by WHO in 1982. In groups of 4 these subjects were exposed during two successive periods to either 0 and 0 mg m -3, 25 and 0 mg m -3, or 0 and 25 mg m -3; 25 mg m -3 is equivalent to the highest concentrations expected in a new building. The study was double blinded, and a latin square design was used to balance out effects of day in the week and season. Both groups reacted subjectively to the air reporting worse odor, worse indoor air quality as defined by the subject, and more irritated mucous membranes in eye, throat and nose than in the clean environment. A tendency to a stronger response was seen among the SBS subjects. Objective measures indicated among others an exposure related reduction in lung function among SBS subjects. Both groups had an increased number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in tear fluid as a result of exposure. This was not seen for nasal secretions. Psychological performance tests indicated an exposure related diminished ability to learn. In conclusion, the experiment indicates that exposure to volatile organic compounds in low concentrations as seen in new houses causes both subjective complaints and objective signs in normal healty subjects; but more so in subjects from the sick building syndrome.

  14. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  15. Outcome in severe irritable bowel syndrome with and without accompanying depressive, panic and neurasthenic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Francis; Ratcliffe, Joy; Fernandes, Lakshmi; Palmer, Stephen; Rigby, Christine; Tomenson, Barbara; Guthrie, Elspeth; Read, Nicholas; Thompson, David G

    2005-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome often leads to impaired functioning. To assess the contribution of psychiatric disorders to impaired outcome in severe irritable bowel syndrome. Patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome entering a psychological treatment trial (n=257) were interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Outcomes were number of days of restricted activity, role limitation (physical) score of the Short Form Health Survey and costs. At baseline, depressive disorder (29% of patients), panic (12%) and neurasthenia (35%) were associated with impairment; number of psychiatric disorders was associated in a dose-response fashion (P=0.005). At follow-up, depressive disorder and neurasthenia were associated with role limitation score. Improved depression was associated with improved role functioning. Depressive, panic and neurasthenic disorders contribute to poor outcomes in severe irritable bowel syndrome, and appropriate treatment should be available to these patients.

  16. Overlap of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Jensen, Trine Holm; Henriksen, Susanne Lund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common functional gastrointestinal conditions with significant impact on the daily lives of individuals. The objective was to investigate the prevalence and overlap...

  17. Systematic review: The placebo effect of psychological interventions in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flik, Carla E.; Bakker, Laura; Laan, Wijnand; van Rood, Yanda R.; Smout, André J. P. M.; de Wit, Niek J.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the placebo response rate associated with different types of placebo interventions used in psychological intervention studies for irritable bowel syndrome. Randomized controlled trials comparing psychological interventions (stress management/relaxation therapy (cognitive) behavioral

  18. Pediatric irritable bowel syndrome patient and parental characteristics differ by care management type

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates whether certain patient or parental characteristics are associated with gastroenterology (GI) referral versus primary pediatrics care for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A retrospective clinical trial sample of patients meeting pediatric Rome III IBS criteria was assem...

  19. Sensory Irritation Study in Mice: JP-4, JP-8, JP-8+100

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitman, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    ... tract sensory irritation. These fuels were JP-4, JP-8 and JP-8 + 100. These fuels were administered for 30 minute periods by means of a head-only exposure system to groups of four male Swiss-Webster mice...

  20. Respiratory allergy and pulmonary irritation to trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Bloksma, N.; Leusink-Muis, T.; Kuper, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Occupational exposure to low-molecular-weight (LMW) allergens such as acid anhydrides can result in occupational asthma, an allergic disease characterized by episodic airway obstruction, airways inflammation, and non specific airways hyperresponsiveness. Since LMW irritants can provoke rather

  1. Building a Definition of Irritability From Academic Definitions and Lay Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C.; Holtzman, Susan; Cunningham, Shannon; O’Connor, Brian P.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    The current work builds a definition of irritability from both academic definitions and lay perspectives. In Study 1, a quantitative content analysis of academic definitions resulted in eight main content categories (i.e., behaviour, emotion or affect, cognition, physiological, qualifiers, irritant, stability or endurance, and other). In Study 2, a community sample of 39 adults participated in qualitative interviews. A deductive thematic analysis resulted in two main themes. The first main theme dealt with how participants positioned irritability in relation to other negative states. The second dealt with how participants constructed irritability as both a loss of control and as an experience that should be controlled. The discussion integrates the findings of both studies and provides a concise, but comprehensive definition. PMID:27134650

  2. The relationship between childhood trauma, emotion recognition, and irritability in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgi, Mustafa Melih; Taspinar, Seval; Aksoy, Burcu; Oguz, Kaya; Coburn, Kerry; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between childhood trauma, irritability, and emotion recognition, in schizophrenia patients during a psychotic break. Thirty-six schizophrenia inpatients and 36 healthy controls were assessed with the Irritability Questionnaire (IRQ) and two facial emotion recognition tasks, the Emotion Discrimination Test (EDT) and Emotion Identification Test (EIT). Patients were further assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 (CTQ-28). EDT and EIT performance was significantly impaired in patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, patients tended to misidentify sad, surprised, or angry faces as showing fear, and this misidentification correlated with the patients' irritability. Childhood adversity increased irritability both directly and indirectly through emotion misidentification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-Animal Testing Approach to EPA Labeling for Eye Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an update to EPA’s 2013 published alternative testing approach (using in vitro/ex vivo assays) for determination of eye irritation potential in the pesticide program under EPA's classification and labeling system.

  4. Probiotic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enck, P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of functional bowel disorders of irritable bowel-type (IBS in children remains a difficult task because of a lack of drugs with low adverse event profile. We here report the results of a treatment study in 203 children (66 boys and 137 girls age 4 to 18 years (mean: 10.5±4.5 years with typical IBS symptoms with abdominal pain and either predominant diarrhea (n=50, constipation (n=56, alternating stool frequency (n=28 or unspecific pain (n=69. The average duration of symptoms prior to therapy was 175 days. Most (95% patients up to age 11 were treated with a daily dose of 10 drops of Symbioflor 2 (SF2 (SymbioPharm, Herborn (cells and autolysate of 1.5–4.5x107 CFU of bacteria of Escherichia coli type, in the elder children 77% received this dosage, while the remaining received a higher dose up to 30 drops/day. Treatment lasted 43 days on average. Results: All patients tolerated the treatment well and without adverse events. The key IBS symptoms (abdominal pain, stool frequency as well as the other symptoms (bloating, mucous and blood in stool, need for straining at stools, urge to defecate improved significantly during treatment. Global assessment of therapy by parents and doctors was altogether positive. In summary these data confirm efficacy and tolerability of this probiotic compound in children and adolescents and supplement published data of probiotic IBS therapy in adults.

  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Manifestations, Dietary Influences, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Ikechi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Elevated consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS has been discussed in this aspect. The treatment options for IBS are challenging and varied. In addition to dietary restrictions for HFCS-induced IBS, such as low-FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharide, Monosaccharides, and Polyols diets, existing drug therapies are administered based on the predominant symptoms and IBS-subtype. Patients with IBS are likely to suffer from issues, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic-stress disorder. Biopsychosocial factors particularly socioeconomic status, sex, and race should, thus, be considered for diagnostic evaluation of patients with IBS.

  6. Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanisms and practical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P

    2007-12-01

    IBS affects 5-11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5-HT(3) antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5-HT(4) agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed.

  7. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:26900286

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome: patients' attitudes, concerns and level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, B E; Weiser, K; Noddin, L; Robertson, D J; Crowell, M D; Parratt-Engstrom, C; Grau, M V

    2007-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that reduces patients' quality-of-life. Although highly prevalent, little is known about patients' understanding of this disorder. To evaluate the knowledge, fears and concerns of IBS patients. Seven hundred thirty-six IBS patients (Rome II criteria) were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study. Each patient received a validated questionnaire to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and fears regarding IBS. A total of 261 of 664 potential respondents completed the questionnaire (39.3%). 83% of respondents were women, with a mean age of 53.7 years, and mean duration of symptoms of 14.2 years. Patients frequently believed that IBS develops because of anxiety (80.5%), dietary factors (75.1%) and depression (63.2%). Few respondents (28.7%) recognized that abdominal pain is the cardinal symptom of IBS, and 40.6% stated that colonoscopy can diagnose IBS. One in seven patients stated that IBS turns into cancer, and 29.9% noted that IBS increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Many IBS patients have significant misconceptions regarding the nature of their disease and its prognosis. An overwhelming majority of IBS patients believe that anxiety, dietary factors and depression cause IBS. These findings are discordant with physicians' views and practices and highlight the need for patient-oriented educational programs.

  9. Gender differences in irritable bowel syndrome: the interpersonal connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, E R; Gurtman, M B; Keefer, L; Brenner, D M; Lackner, J M

    2015-10-01

    While irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects women more than men, the reasons are unclear. Research on the female preponderance of IBS has focused on gender differences in sex-linked biological processes; much less attention has been paid to the role of psychosocial factors. Interpersonal difficulties may be one source of stress that may significantly impact on women with IBS. Because of the importance that women attach to relationships, we suspected they would be more reactive to interpersonal stress. A total of 283 (M age = 41 years, F = 80%), Rome III-diagnosed IBS patients completed a test battery that included the IBS Symptom Severity Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), interpersonal support evaluation list (social support), Negative Interactions Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory (distress), Beck Depression Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory, and IBS-Quality of Life as part of baseline assessment of an NIH trial. Males scored higher on two IIP scales reflecting a hostile-dominant interpersonal pattern, and reported less social support. The quality of relationship problems (more interpersonal difficulties, lower support) correlated with IBS symptom severity as measured mainly by gastroenterologists. Male, not female, IBS patients reported more interpersonal difficulties. Male patients-a population for whom little is known-are characterized by hostile-dominant interpersonal problems. This finding has clinical importance, given that relationship problems may influence MDs' estimation of IBS symptom severity and undermine the physician-patient relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The genetics of the serotonin transporter and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Rocchina; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bellini, Massimo; Ghisu, Narcisa; Tonini, Marcello; Del Tacca, Mario

    2008-07-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) mediates the intracellular reuptake of released serotonin, thus regulating its biological functions. Abnormalities in serotonin reuptake can alter enteric serotonergic signalling, leading to sensory, motor and secretory gut dysfunctions, which contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This relationship has fostered the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of IBS. Current data on the efficacy of SSRIs in IBS, association of the SERT gene promoter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR with IBS and the expression pattern of SERT in the intestinal mucosa of IBS patients are conflicting. Recent molecular studies have raised critical questions about multiple SERT mRNA transcripts in the human gut, the role of polymorphic SERT promoter in the regulation of enteric SERT expression and the ability of 5-HTTLPR to affect human SERT gene transcription. The present review highlights recent advances in SERT genetics, discusses their implications for potential therapeutic applications of SSRIs in IBS and presents original suggestions for future investigations.

  11. Functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in teenagers: Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hideki; Yokoyama, Koji; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yamagata, Takanori

    2016-08-01

    Only a handful of studies have investigated children with functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) classified according to the Rome III criteria, and limited information is available on the lifestyle of affected patients. We conducted an Internet questionnaire survey of 2060 parents among the general public in Japan who lived with their children aged 10-15, who were screened for FD and IBS. The prevalence of FD and IBS was 2.8% and 6.1%, respectively, and 1.4% of the subjects met the criteria for both FD and IBS. The lifestyles of 155 subjects who met the criteria for FD, IBS, or both were compared with those of 1745 control subjects. In comparison with the controls, a significantly higher percentage of subjects with FD, IBS, or both thought that their sleep was insufficient, ate meals irregularly, were susceptible to stress and to dizziness on standing, had difficulty in getting out of bed or felt sluggish in the morning, had a tendency to faint when standing, and had migraine/chronic headache. Children with FD and IBS are susceptible to stress, have impaired sleep and eating habits, and have more frequent symptoms of comorbid orthostatic dysregulation and headache. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Optimal management of constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnari, Manuele; de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Bodini, Giorgia; Revelli, Matteo; Marabotto, Elisa; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Del Nero, Lorenzo; Savarino, Edoardo; Giannini, Edoardo G; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, meanly characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habit. It is a complex disorder involving biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors. The diagnosis is achieved according to the Rome III criteria provided that organic causes have been excluded. Although IBS does not constitute a life-threatening condition, it has a remarkable prevalence and profoundly reduces the quality of life with burdening socioeconomic costs. One of the principal concerns about IBS is the lack of effective therapeutic options. Up to 40% of patients are not satisfied with any available medications, especially those suffering from chronic constipation. A correct management of IBS with constipation should evolve through a global approach focused on the patient, starting with careful history taking in order to assess the presence of organic diseases that might trigger the disorder. Therefore, the second step is to examine lifestyle, dietary habits, and psychological status. On these bases, a step-up management of disease is recommended: from fiber and bulking agents, to osmotic laxative drugs, to new molecules like lubiprostone and linaclotide. Although new promising tools for relief of bowel-movement-related symptoms are being discovered, a dedicated doctor-patient relationship still seems to be the key for success.

  13. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  14. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  15. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  16. Lubiprostone: in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Natalie J; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-06-18

    Lubiprostone is an oral bicyclic fatty acid that selectively activates type 2 chloride channels in the apical membrane of human gastrointestinal epithelial cells, thereby increasing chloride-rich fluid secretion. Although the mechanism is unclear, this may then decrease intestinal transit time, allowing the passage of stool and alleviating symptoms of constipation. Oral lubiprostone was effective in the treatment of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in large (n = 193-583) phase II (dose-finding) and phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials. The number of patients with IBS-C demonstrating an overall response to treatment (primary endpoint) in the two phase III trials was significantly greater in patients receiving lubiprostone 8 microg twice daily for 3 months than in those receiving placebo. In addition, a randomized, 4-week withdrawal period at the end of one of the phase III trials demonstrated that discontinuation of lubiprostone was not associated with rebound of IBS symptoms. Lubiprostone was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with the majority of adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In patients with IBS-C who received lubiprostone 8 microg twice daily, nausea was the most frequently occurring adverse event that was considered possibly or probably treatment related. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in a 36-week open-label extension to the phase III trials.

  17. Testing a biobehavioral model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veek, Patrick P J; Dusseldorp, Elise; van Rood, Yanda R; Masclee, Ad A M

    2010-04-01

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is probably multifactorial with dysfunction at different levels of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate an existing biobehavioral model of IBS symptom generation in a large group of patients. In 104 IBS patients, we assessed symptom severity by a symptom diary, visceral hypersensitivity using a barostat, autonomic function by measuring arterial baroreflex sensitivity and psychological functioning using questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to calculate the reciprocal and chronological relationships between the model variables. Analysis of the adjusted original model indicated poor fit [Satorra-Bentler chi=28.47; degrees of freedom (df)=11, Pbehavior-IBS symptoms and trauma-IBS symptoms). The revised model yielded a reasonable fit (chi=13.88, df=9, P=0.13; CFI=0.94). The model explained 18.7% of the variance in IBS symptoms. Illness behavior completely mediated the effect of cognitions on IBS symptoms and partly mediated the effect of trauma on IBS symptoms. The fit of this alternative model was good (chi=9.85, df=8, P=0.28; CFI=0.98). The alternative model explained 20.0% of the variance in IBS symptoms. The proposed biobehavioral model could not be validated. Although visceral hypersensitivity and IBS symptom severity significantly correlate, autonomic function and IBS symptoms do not. Cognitive-behavioral aspects are important in the clinical expression of IBS, with illness behavior playing an intermediate and central role.

  18. The Intestinal Microbiota in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S M

    2016-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic abdominal symptom complex occurring in a bowel devoid of discernible relevant pathology. There is growing interest in the role of the intestinal microbiota as a basis for the intestinal and possibly behavioral manifestations of this condition. Molecular-based microbial profiling has revealed compositional changes in the microbiota of at least a subset of IBS patients but the data are often conflicting and no microbial signature for this condition has yet been defined. Animal studies in which a previously stable intestinal microbiota is perturbed, by antibiotics or dietary change, results in alterations in intestinal function reminiscent of that seen in IBS patients. These include visceral sensitivity to painful stimuli, altered motility and intestinal barrier function as well as immune activation, and low-grade inflammation. More recent studies have shown that perturbation of the microbial composition of the gut alters brain chemistry and behavior. In a step toward establishing a causal link between an altar microbiota and gut-brain manifestations of IBS, colonization of germ-free mice with microbiota from IBS patients results in an IBS-like phenotype, including alterations and behavior if the donor exhibited psychiatric comorbidity, such as high levels of anxiety. This model provides an opportunity for exploring the mechanisms underlying host-microbe interactions relevant to the pathogenesis of IBS and for developing novel therapeutic targets. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients. PMID:26167065

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gut neuroendocrine peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Seim, Inge; Chopin, Lisa; Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2012-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder with a prevalence ranging from 5 to 10 percent of the world's population. This condition is characterised by abdominal discomfort or pain, altered bowel habits, and often bloating and abdominal distension. IBS reduces quality of life in the same degree of impairment as major chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes and the economic burden on the health care system and society is high. Abnormalities have been reported in the neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the stomach, small- and large intestine in patients with IBS. These abnormalities would cause disturbances in digestion, gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity, which have been reported in patients with IBS. These abnormalities seem to contribute to the symptom development and appear to play a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS. Neuroendocrine peptides/amines are potential tools in the treatment and diagnosis of IBS. In particular, the cell density of duodenal chromogranin A expressing cells appears to be a good histopathological marker for the diagnosis of IBS with high sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Role of gut pathogens in development of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly identifiable risk factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. A number of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens have been found to be associated with the development of IBS and other functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Epidemiological studies have identified demographic and acute enteritis-related risk factors for the development of post-infectious-IBS (PI-IBS. Immune dysregulation, alterations in barrier function, serotonergic and mast cell activation have been identified as potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, variations in host genes involved in barrier function, antigen presentation and cytokine response have been associated with PI-IBS development. However, it is unknown whether specific pathogens have unique effects on long-term alterations in gut physiology or different pathogens converge to cause common alterations resulting in similar phenotype. The role of microbial virulence and pathogenicity factors in development of PI-IBS is also largely unknown. Additionally, alterations in host gut sensation, motility, secretion, and barrier function in PI-IBS need to be elucidated. Finally, both GI infections and antibiotics used to treat these infections can cause long-term alterations in host commensal microbiota. It is plausible that alteration in the commensal microbiome persists in a subset of patients predisposing them to develop PI-IBS.

  2. Benefits from Long-Term Treatment in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Evangelista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disease of cyclic nature characterized by recurrent symptoms. IBS patients should receive, as initial therapeutic approach a short course of treatment which, if effective, has the additional value of confirming the diagnosis. Long-term treatment should be reserved to diagnosed IBS patients with recurrent symptoms. Clinical trials with stabilized therapies and new active treatments showed an improvement of the symptoms over placebo that is often time-dependent but with high relapse rates (around 40%–50% when stopping treatment. Relapse is not always immediate after stopping treatment and the recent data from OBIS trial with otilonium bromide or with psychotherapy, showed that due to different chemico-physical characteristics of the drugs or the psychosomatic impact to the disease not all treatment gave the same relapsing rate if compared to placebo. Results of IBS clinical trials with different therapies tailored to the patient needs indicate that a cyclic treatment therapy is advisable to counteract the nature of the disease.

  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Manifestations, Dietary Influences, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechi, Ronald; Fischer, Bradford D.; DeSipio, Joshua; Phadtare, Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Elevated consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been discussed in this aspect. The treatment options for IBS are challenging and varied. In addition to dietary restrictions for HFCS-induced IBS, such as low-FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharide, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) diets, existing drug therapies are administered based on the predominant symptoms and IBS-subtype. Patients with IBS are likely to suffer from issues, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic-stress disorder. Biopsychosocial factors particularly socioeconomic status, sex, and race should, thus, be considered for diagnostic evaluation of patients with IBS. PMID:28445436

  4. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

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    Zobeiri Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.

  5. Synesthesia, pseudo-synesthesia, and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Synesthesia is a sensory disorder where the stimulation of one sensory modality can lead to a reaction in another which would not usually be expected to respond; for instance, someone might see a color on hearing a word such as a day of the week. Disordered perception of sensory information also appears to contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this exploratory study was to ascertain whether these two conditions might be linked in any way. Two hundred consecutive IBS outpatients were screened for synesthesia and compared with 200 matched healthy volunteers (controls). Positive responders were tested for two types of synesthesia (grapheme-color and music-color/shape) using a questionnaire which was repeated after 3 months to test for reproducibility. Of the 200 IBS outpatients screened, 26 (13%) patients and six (3%) controls claimed to be synesthetic (P synesthesia. IBS patients clearly differ from controls in terms of claiming to have synesthetic experiences. These results justify additional studies on the relationship between IBS and synesthesia to further understand the neural mechanisms underpinning these two conditions and to establish whether they may be linked.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: role of food in pathogenesis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, Ashraf

    2009-11-01

    Patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) commonly report the precipitation of symptoms on food ingestion. Though the role of dietary constituents in IBS has not been extensively studied, food could contribute to symptom onset or even the causation of IBS through a number of mechanisms. First, the physiological response of the intestine to food ingestion could precipitate symptoms in predisposed individuals; second, there is some evidence that allergy or intolerance to a particular food can produce IBS-like symptoms, third, certain foods may alter the composition of the luminal milieu, either directly or indirectly through effects on bacterial metabolism, and thus induce symptoms and, finally, IBS may develop following exposure to food-borne pathogens. Anticipatory, psychological factors generated by previous negative experiences with food ingestion or other factors may also contribute though their contribution has been scarcely quantified. Not surprisingly, there is considerable interest in the potential roles of diet and food supplements in the therapy of IBS; for the most part, the evidence base for such recommendations remains slim though certain probiotics show considerable promise.

  7. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Udoka Nwosu

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear.To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design.Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls.A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y, female (n = 67; 58% and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y, female (n = 44; 80%. Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS.

  8. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear. To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls. A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y), female (n = 67; 58%) and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y), female (n = 44; 80%). Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS.

  9. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  10. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Nyeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received much attention with the role of mast cells in IBS. Mast cells are abundant in the intestines and function as intestinal gatekeepers at the interface between the luminal environment in the intestine and the internal milieu under the intestinal epithelium. As a gatekeeper at the interface, mast cells communicate with the adjacent cells such as epithelial, neuronal, and other immune cells throughout the mediators released when they themselves are activated. Many studies have suggested that mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. This review will focus on studies of the role of mast cell in IBS and the limitations of studies and will also consider future directions.

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome: A microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:25339800

  12. [Irritable bowel syndrome: New pathophysiological hypotheses and practical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboc, H; Dior, M; Coffin, B

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, besides the fact that it still fills the gastroenterologists' offices and impairs patient's quality of life, the irritable bowel syndrome has considerably evolved on several points. The pathophysiology is now organized around a consensual hypothesis called the "brain-gut axis", which gather all the influences of peripheral factors as gut microbiota or local serotonin secretion, on the central pain perception, contributing to visceral hypersensitivity and transit modifications. About the diagnosis, the key message is "avoid over-prescription" of additional tests, and reminds that a positive clinical diagnosis based on Rome III criteria is possible after the elimination of simple clinical warning signs. Finally, the food component, a neglected and historical claim of patients, finally finds a strong scientific rational, with a diet low in fermentable sugar and polyols, that gives positive and reproducible results. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Irritable bowel syndrome: diet and complementary medicine therapies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkens, A

    2012-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent and invalidating functional bowel disorder with entangled mechanisms. Its therapeutic approach is therefore complex. Classical therapies, prescribed alone or in combination in light of the predominant symptom, consist of antispasmodics, fibers, laxatives, antidiarrheals, and psychotropic agents. Other emerging pharmacological therapies, such as prokinetics, prosecretory or serotoninergic agents, bile acid modulators and antibiotics have been recently studied in clinical trials. Dietary measures can include reduction of short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (FODMAPs) and gluten restriction. Assessment of food allergy can be proposed in a subgroup of IBS patients. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies, that are generally low cost and safe, appear to be appreciated by patients. Probiotics have demonstrated action on the gut microbiote modulation, and may be helpful in a subset of patients. Peppermint oil has an established visceral analgesic effect. Hypnotherapy represents an original, global and effective approach. Finally, education, reassurance and listening to the patient, leading to a solid therapeutic relationship, represents an essential backdrop of remedy or diet effectiveness.

  14. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Ortega, Marta Moreno; Alonso, Monica Olga Garcia; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers. METHODS: We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS. RESULTS: No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 ± 10.8 vs 102.8 ± 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 ± 9.4 vs 49.6 ± 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ. CONCLUSION: IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS. PMID:19575489

  15. Medical and lay views of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, M; Critchley, S

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate doctors' and patients' views of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in order to assess why problems in the doctor-IBS patient relationship seem to occur. A qualitative study was undertaken involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews that were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The subjects comprised 12 doctors, including six GPs and six gastroenterologists, and 14 patients with IBS. Doctors hold two definitions of IBS, one 'public' and akin to a textbook definition, the other 'private' and including experiential knowledge and absorbed prejudices about IBS patients. Doctors are not universally hostile towards IBS patients, although the views of gastroenterologists may tend to be more pejorative than those of GPs. Most doctors experience frustration with IBS, and this is due as much to medical uncertainty and shortage of effective interventions as to intolerance of the personal characteristics of IBS patients. Doctors distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' IBS patients and manage them accordingly. Many patients tend to find their IBS symptoms very troublesome. Patients are more satisfied if they are taken seriously and helped to manage their symptoms, but many feel that they are labelled as neurotic by the medical profession. They tend to feel stigmatized and let down by doctors. Better partnerships could be created with patients, and better outcomes for IBS might be achieved, if doctors recognized the impact of medical beliefs about IBS on patients. Doctors should offer IBS patients empowering explanations for their disorder.

  16. Dysfunctional cognitions, anxiety and depression in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Annemieke Y; Jonkers, Dorothea M A E; Leue, Carsten; van der Veek, Patrick P J; Vidakovic-Vukic, Michelle; van Rood, Yanda R; Clemens, Cornelis H M; Masclee, Ad A M

    2010-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have significantly impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated the presence of dysfunctional cognitions, anxiety, and depression symptoms and their impact on daily symptoms and QoL in a large IBS cohort. A total of 268 IBS patients (Rome II criteria, age 18 to 65 y) were included. Patients completed a 2-week daily symptom diary. The Short Form-36 was used to score QoL. The 31-items Cognitive Scale for Functional Bowel Disorders (CSFBD) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to analyze the psychological factors. Possible anxiety and depression disorders were present in 30% and 22% of IBS patients, respectively. Patients with anxiety and depression had significantly higher mean symptom scores, impaired QoL, and higher CSFBD scores (Panxiety (HADS-A) (Panxiety and depression influenced QoL and IBS symptoms. In this IBS cohort, dysfunctional cognitions independently influence physical and mental QoL and symptom severity. Presence of possible anxiety and depression disorders resulted in higher symptoms, lower QoL, and higher CSFBD scores. The results point toward an important role of psychological factors, especially dysfunctional cognitions on QoL and symptom scores in IBS patients.

  17. Transient receptor potential channels encode volatile chemicals sensed by rat trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lübbert

    Full Text Available Primary sensory afferents of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia constantly transmit sensory information depicting the individual's physical and chemical environment to higher brain regions. Beyond the typical trigeminal stimuli (e.g. irritants, environmental stimuli comprise a plethora of volatile chemicals with olfactory components (odorants. In spite of a complete loss of their sense of smell, anosmic patients may retain the ability to roughly discriminate between different volatile compounds. While the detailed mechanisms remain elusive, sensory structures belonging to the trigeminal system seem to be responsible for this phenomenon. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the activation of the trigeminal system by volatile chemicals, we investigated odorant-induced membrane potential changes in cultured rat trigeminal neurons induced by the odorants vanillin, heliotropyl acetone, helional, and geraniol. We observed the dose-dependent depolarization of trigeminal neurons upon application of these substances occurring in a stimulus-specific manner and could show that distinct neuronal populations respond to different odorants. Using specific antagonists, we found evidence that TRPA1, TRPM8, and/or TRPV1 contribute to the activation. In order to further test this hypothesis, we used recombinantly expressed rat and human variants of these channels to investigate whether they are indeed activated by the odorants tested. We additionally found that the odorants dose-dependently inhibit two-pore potassium channels TASK1 and TASK3 heterologously expressed In Xenopus laevis oocytes. We suggest that the capability of various odorants to activate different TRP channels and to inhibit potassium channels causes neuronal depolarization and activation of distinct subpopulations of trigeminal sensory neurons, forming the basis for a specific representation of volatile chemicals in the trigeminal ganglia.

  18. Systematic review: Complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussain, Z

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices are widely employed in the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. AIM: To review the usage of complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome, and to assess critically the basis and evidence for its use. METHODS: A systematic review of complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices in the irritable bowel syndrome was performed based on literature obtained through a Medline search. RESULTS: A wide variety of complementary and alternative medical practices and therapies are commonly employed by irritable bowel syndrome patients both in conjunction with and in lieu of conventional therapies. As many of these therapies have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, some, at least, of their efficacy may reflect the high-placebo response rate that is characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome. Of those that have been subjected to clinical trials most have involved small poor quality studies. There is, however, evidence to support efficacy for hypnotherapy, some forms of herbal therapy and certain probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors caring for irritable bowel syndrome patients need to recognize the near ubiquity of complementary and alternative medical use among this population and the basis for its use. All complementary and alternative medicine is not the same and some, such as hypnotherapy, forms of herbal therapy, specific diets and probiotics, may well have efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome. Above all, we need more science and more controlled studies; the absence of truly randomized placebo-controlled trials for many of these therapies has limited meaningful progress in this area.

  19. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsson Bodil; Bengtsson Mariette; Ulander Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, it...

  20. Patient Counselling about Stress Associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome : - A Qualitative Study Based on Patient Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Kortet , Carola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather information from patients that have been diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome and to investigate if they had experienced that stress affects their symptoms. In addition, it was studied if patients had received patient counselling about stress and what stress related topics the respondents would like to include in the counselling hereafter. The aim of this study was to gain information that could be utilized in the development of irritable bowel syndr...

  1. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kirino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed.

  2. What do patients with irritable bowel syndrome dream about? A comparison with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Whorwell, P J

    2002-07-01

    It is a common experience for people to dream of events about which they are either anxious or concerned. We therefore hypothesised that the dreams of patients with irritable bowel syndrome may reflect their worries about their problem especially as hospital out-patients with this disorder tend to exhibit some anxiety. In addition, dreaming about, for instance bowels, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in excess of that observed in other gastrointestinal disorders may be of importance. To establish whether patients with irritable bowel syndrome dream about bowel-related issues more than controls or patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A total of 57 patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 57 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were compared with 60 healthy controls. All subjects completed a structured questionnaire concerning sleeping habits and dream characteristics as well as an assessment of anxiety and depression. There were no differences in the sleeping habits between any of the groups. However, significantly more patients with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease dreamt about their bowels (22% inflammatory bowel disease patients, 18% irritable bowel syndrome patients vs 3% of controls, p disorders, of both a functional and organic nature, may influence the nature of dreams. In those patients who dream about their symptoms, it would be interesting to know whether this affects the course of their disease, either positively or negatively, in any way.

  3. Assessment of skin and eye irritation of 14 products under the stepwise approach of the OECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Axel; Hernández, Osvaldo; González, Yana; Aldana, Lizet; Carballo, Onelio

    2008-01-01

    The determination of acute eye and skin irritation is included in international regulatory requirements for the testing of chemicals, because of the possibility of exposure during the production, transport, marketing, and disposal of products. Although there have been some advances in the areas of refinement and reduction, no single battery of tests has emerged as being acceptable as a complete replacement for the conventional Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Currently, dermal irritation and ocular irritation are generally evaluated in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies. In this work, we show how 14 products, mostly designed to be used in agriculture, were evaluated in the Center of Experimental Toxicology of the Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals (Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio; CENPALAB) in order to assess their acute dermal and ocular effects. The performed studies include the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test, the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method, and the acute eye irritation/corrosion test. In general, it could be concluded that of the 14 products assessed, none of them showed systemic effects, but local reactions mainly to the eyes. The most significant effects were apparently related to the effects of azadirachtin, an active principle of 2 tested neem derivatives.

  4. Irritable mood and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terms 'irritable mood' and 'irritability' have been applied to describe and define a variety of different categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. More precise diagnostic terms and concepts are needed. Methods A concise critical historical review of DSM categories characterized by irritability, anger, and aggression is presented followed by recommendations. Results This analysis describes the broad ranging and imprecise use of the term irritability since the first DSM in 1952. A more age-appropriate and functional realignment of psychiatric categories linked to dysfunctional anger is suggested. Among other recommendations, this realignment would remove irritability as a problematic definer in the present DSM mood categories: expand oppositional defiant disorder to include adults; link the callous unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in adolescents to antisocial personality disorder; move intermittent explosive disorder to an appropriate category: and expand the term 'mood' to apply also to dysfunctional anger and anxiety. Conclusion The non-specific term 'irritability' commonly used in the DSM has had an adverse effect on diagnostic specificity and thereby on treatment. Dysfunctional anger is a major mood disorder which merits a more prominent and better defined representation in psychiatric nomenclature.

  5. From railway spine to whiplash--the recycling of nervous irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Shorter, Edward

    2003-11-01

    The search for a specific structural basis for chronic whiplash and other chronic pain and fatigue syndromes has been in progress for decades, and yet currently there remains no "structural" solution to these enigmata. In light of the failure of research to identify the chronic "damage" or pathology as lying in a muscular, bony, or "connective tissue" sites for many chronic pain syndromes like whiplash, fibromyalgia, et cetera, more recent attention has been paid to nervous system structures. Nerve irritation has been implicated as the basis for the pain and other symptoms that are common to many chronic disability syndromes. We postulate here, however, that the concept of nervous irritation has been prostituted for centuries whenever more concrete structural explanations for chronic pain and other controversial illness have been untenable. We suggest that, after each cycle of nervous irritation as a disease, and subsequent dismissal of the notion, the doctrine of irritation as a disease was too good to go away. First, with the hypersthenic and asthenic diseases of the nineteenth century, then railway spine, whiplash, thoracic outlet syndrome, and now brachial plexus irritation, we detect the same pattern: patients with symptoms, but no objective evidence of nerve disease. Nervous irritation has repeatedly served this purpose for the last 200 years. It is our intent that bringing an understanding of this trend will encourage current clinicians and researchers to appreciate the need to abandon this form of speculation without historical insight when dealing with today's controversial syndromes.

  6. Some recent developments in stochastic volatility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Nicolato, Elisa; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and puts in context some of our recent work on stochastic volatility (SV) modelling for financial economics. Here our main focus is on: (i) the relationship between subordination and SV, (ii) OU based volatility models, (iii) exact option pricing, (iv) realized power variation ...

  7. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia volatilization is a direct loss of available nitrogen in agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of amending NPK fertilizer with different rates of clinoptilolite zeolite on ammonia volatilization, soil exchangeable ammonium, and available nitrate. Seven treatments evaluated were: 250 g soil ...

  8. Brownian semistationary processes and volatility/intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    of the semimartingale type. We focus on semimartingale - nonsemimartingale issues and on inference problems concerning the underlying volatility/intermittency process, in the nonsemimartingale case and based on normalised realised quadratic variation. The concept of BSS processes has arisen out of an ongoing study...... on the volatility/intermittency....

  9. Flavonoids and volatiles in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Flavonoids and volatiles in a traditional herbal medicine Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flower were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively. Eight flavonoids and fifty eight volatiles were identified. Luteolin-7-glucoside and quercitrin were the most abundant flavonoids and they amounted for ...

  10. Flavonoids and volatiles in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavonoids and volatiles in a traditional herbal medicine Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flower were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively. Eight flavonoids and fifty eight volatiles were identified. Luteolin-7-glucoside and quercitrin were the most abundant flavonoids and they amounted for 85.7% of the total ...

  11. Volatilization of Benzene in a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dunlop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a volatile organic compound: when it contaminates a river, some of the substance will evaporate as it flows through. We examine the volumetric flow rate to find how volatilization affects the concentration levels of benzene as the substance flows through several consecutive sections of a river, using a specific example to illustrate the general method.

  12. Stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from SPF survey participants over the period from 1969 to 1996. This link is much

  13. American option pricing with stochastic volatility processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of option pricing more perfectly, the option pricing problem with Heston stochastic volatility model is considered. The optimal implementation boundary of American option and the conditions for its early execution are analyzed and discussed. In view of the fact that there is no analytical American option pricing formula, through the space discretization parameters, the stochastic partial differential equation satisfied by American options with Heston stochastic volatility is transformed into the corresponding differential equations, and then using high order compact finite difference method, numerical solutions are obtained for the option price. The numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and simulation. The two kinds of optimal exercise boundaries under the conditions of the constant volatility and the stochastic volatility are compared, and the results show that the optimal exercise boundary also has stochastic volatility. Under the setting of parameters, the behavior and the nature of volatility are analyzed, the volatility curve is simulated, the calculation results of high order compact difference method are compared, and the numerical option solution is obtained, so that the method is verified. The research result provides reference for solving the problems of option pricing under stochastic volatility such as multiple underlying asset option pricing and barrier option pricing.

  14. Mutual fund volatility timing and management fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambona, E.; Golec, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that compensation incentives partly drive fund managers’ market volatility timing strategies. Larger incentive management fees lead to less counter-cyclical or more pro-cyclical volatility timing. But fund styles or aggregate fund flows could also account for this relation;

  15. Protective creams fail to prevent solvent-induced cumulative skin irritation - results of a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle; Kleesz, Peter; Elsner, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Occupational skin contact with lipophilic substances is a risk factor for the development of irritant hand dermatitis. Skin protection creams form part of the personal protective equipment, and some are claimed to protect against lipophilic irritants. However, their benefit against solvents is under debate. To evaluate the efficacy of barrier creams claimed to protect against lipophilic irritants in a newly developed repetitive irritation model. Thirty-five healthy volunteers were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study, and six barrier creams were evaluated against irritation induced by two occupationally relevant model solvents, n-octane and cumene. Clinical scoring and bioengineering methods (capacitance and transepidermal water loss measurements) were used to quantify the irritant reactions. None of the test products offered protection against n-octane-induced clinical irritation or stratum corneum dehydration. One test product significantly aggravated the skin irritation induced by both irritants, and a second one enhanced dehydration induced by n-octane only. The lack of efficacy and the aggravation of skin irritation induced by two of six test products stress the need for standardized efficacy testing of occupational skin protection products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full-Young Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic objectives for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS patients are to improve their functioning in society. Accordingly, recommended management is to develop a logical strategy including a positive diagnosis, consideration of the patient's agenda and emotional state, critical appraisal of the efficacies of various drugs and a graded therapeutic response. Unfortunately, none of the currently available drugs (e.g. antispasmodics, antidiarrheals, osmotics, cathartics, bulking agents, tranquilizers, sedatives are globally effective in treating all IBS symptoms, and the advanced receptor-targeted drugs are not always successfully and safely marketed. Consequently, more than half of patients may seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM to treat the annoying bowel symptoms. Physicians have considered these CAM measures to have an ‘enhanced placebo effect’. For example, many herbal medicine and plant products are globally used to treat IBS, whereas their efficacies are often inconclusive because of small sample sizes, inadequate data analyses and lack of standardized preparations. Meta-analyses do not establish their true efficacy. Acupuncture has long been employed by patients themselves to treat functional gastrointestinal disorders with satisfactory response, but its effect on IBS does not seem to be promising. Peppermint oil, melatonin and clay-like materials are effective in treating some IBS symptoms, while their true pharmacology remains enigmatic. In conclusion, IBS treatment is usually tailored to the individual's manifestations, ranging from reassurance to psychotherapy. Apart from conventional medications, CAM may be considered individually as a supplement or alternative to treat IBS patients that is at least equal in effect to placebo if patients do not exhibit any intolerable or serious side effects.

  17. Optimal management of constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furnari M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Manuele Furnari,1 Nicola de Bortoli,2 Irene Martinucci,2 Giorgia Bodini,1 Matteo Revelli,3 Elisa Marabotto,1 Alessandro Moscatelli,1 Lorenzo Del Nero,1 Edoardo Savarino,4 Edoardo G Giannini,1 Vincenzo Savarino1 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Translational Research and New Technology in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, San Bartolomeo Hospital, Sarzana, Italy; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Surgery, Oncology, and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, meanly characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habit. It is a complex disorder involving biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors. The diagnosis is achieved according to the Rome III criteria provided that organic causes have been excluded. Although IBS does not constitute a life-threatening condition, it has a remarkable prevalence and profoundly reduces the quality of life with burdening socioeconomic costs. One of the principal concerns about IBS is the lack of effective therapeutic options. Up to 40% of patients are not satisfied with any available medications, especially those suffering from chronic constipation. A correct management of IBS with constipation should evolve through a global approach focused on the patient, starting with careful history taking in order to assess the presence of organic diseases that might trigger the disorder. Therefore, the second step is to examine lifestyle, dietary habits, and psychological status. On these bases, a step-up management of disease is recommended: from fiber and bulking agents, to osmotic laxative drugs, to new molecules like lubiprostone and linaclotide. Although new promising tools for relief of bowel

  18. Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Science and the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2015-01-01

    Although probiotics have been used for many years by those who suffer from what would now be defined as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a scientific rationale for their use in this indication and clinical evidence to support their benefits have only emerged very recently. Evidence to support considering strategies, such as probiotics, that modulate the gut microbiome, in IBS, has been provided by laboratory studies implicating the microbiome and the host response to the enteric microenvironment in IBS, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of various commensal bacteria to influence such relevant functions as motility, visceral sensation, gut barrier integrity, and brain-gut interactions. Clinical studies supporting a role for probiotics in the management of IBS predated such experimental data, and randomized controlled trials of probiotics in IBS continue to be reported. Their interpretation is hampered by the less than optimal quality of many studies; nevertheless, it is apparent that probiotics, as a category, do exert significant effects in IBS. Defining the optimal strain, dose, formulation, and duration of therapy is more challenging given the limitations of available data. There is also an urgent need for appropriately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials of appropriate duration of probiotics in IBS; such studies should also help to define those who are most likely to respond to probiotics. Future laboratory and translational research should attempt to define the mechanism(s) of action of probiotics in IBS and explore the response to bacterial components or products in this common and oftentimes troublesome disorder.

  19. Increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome after acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erica; Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Modi, Rusha; Vu, Michelle; Shahedi, Kamyar; Shah, Rena; Atia, Mary; Kurzbard, Nicole; Sheen, Victoria; Agarwal, Nikhil; Kaneshiro, Marc; Yen, Linnette; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M Haim; Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with diverticulosis frequently also have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there are no longitudinal data to associate acute diverticulitis with subsequent IBS, functional bowel disorders, or related emotional distress. In patients with postinfectious IBS, gastrointestinal disorders cause long-term symptoms, so we investigated whether diverticulitis might lead to IBS. We compared the incidence of IBS and functional bowel and related affective disorders among patients with diverticulitis. We performed a retrospective study of patients followed up for an average of 6.3 years at a Veteran's Administration medical center. Patients with diverticulitis were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, selected for the analysis based on chart review (cases, n = 1102), and matched with patients without diverticulosis (controls, n = 1102). We excluded patients with prior IBS, functional bowel, or mood disorders. We then identified patients who were diagnosed with IBS or functional bowel disorders after the diverticulitis attack, and controls who developed these disorders during the study period. We also collected information on mood disorders, analyzed survival times, and calculated adjusted hazard ratios. Cases were 4.7-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with IBS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-14.0; P = .006), 2.4-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with a functional bowel disorder (95% CI, 1.6-3.6; P diverticulitis could be at risk for later development of IBS and functional bowel disorders. We propose calling this disorder postdiverticulitis IBS. Diverticulitis appears to predispose patients to long-term gastrointestinal and emotional symptoms after resolution of inflammation; in this way, postdiverticulitis IBS is similar to postinfectious IBS. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic burden of irritable bowel syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiang, Wei; Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2016-12-21

    To estimate annual direct and indirect costs for patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and subtypes. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire concerning usage of healthcare resources, travel costs, meals, and productivity loss of patients when seeking treatment for IBS. Total annual costs per patient were calculated as the sum of direct (including medical and nonmedical) and indirect costs. Total annual costs per patient among various IBS subtypes were compared. Analysis of variance and bootstrapped independent sample t-tests were performed to determine differences between groups after controlling for IBS subtypes. A total of 105 IBS patients (64.80% female), mean age of 57.12 years ± 10.31 years), mean disease duration of 4.31 years ± 5.40 years, were included. Total annual costs per patient were estimated as CNY18262.84 (USD2933.08). Inpatient and outpatient healthcare use were major cost drivers, accounting for 46.41%and 23.36% of total annual costs, respectively. Productivity loss accounted for 25.32% of total annual costs. The proportions of direct and indirect costs were similar to published studies in other countries. Nationally, the total costs of managing IBS would amount to CNY123.83 billion (USD1.99 billion). Among the IBS subtypes, total annual costs per patient of IBS-M was highest at CNY18891.18 (USD3034). Furthermore, there was significant difference in productivity loss among IBS subtypes (P = 0.031). IBS imposes a huge economic burden on patients and healthcare systems, which could account for 3.3% of the total healthcare budget for the entire Chinese nation. More than two-thirds of total annual costs of IBS consist of inpatient and outpatient healthcare use. Among the subtypes, IBS-M patients appear to have the greatest economic burden but require further confirmation.

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome evaluation using computed tomography colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgo, Hideki; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Yamaoka, Minoru; Yoneno, Kazuaki; Hosoe, Naoki; Mizukami, Takeshi; Nakamoto, Hidetomo

    2016-11-14

    To evaluate the morphology of the colon in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using computed tomography colonography (CTC). Twelve patients with diarrhea type IBS (IBS-D), 13 patients with constipation type IBS (IBS-C), 12 patients with functional constipation (FC) and 14 control patients underwent colonoscopy following CTC. The lengths of the rectosigmoid colon, transverse colon and the total colon were measured. The diameters of the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, and ascending colon were measured. The mean length of the total colon was 156.5 cm in group C, 158.9 cm in group IBS-D, 172.0 cm in group IBS-C, and 188.8 cm in group FC. The total colon in group FC was significantly longer than that in group C (P mean length of the rectosigmoid colon was 56.2 cm, 55.9 cm, 63.6cm, and 77.4 cm (NS). The mean length of the transverse colon was 49.9 cm, 43.1 cm, 57.0 cm, and 55.0 cm. The transverse colon in group IBS-D was significantly shorter than that in group IBS-C (P mean diameter of the sigmoid colon was 4.0 cm, 3.3 cm, 4.2 cm, and 4.3 cm (NS). The mean diameter of the descending colon was 3.6 cm, 3.1 cm, 3.8 cm, and 4.3 cm. The descending colon diameter in group IBS-D was significantly less than that in group IBS-C (P = 0.03) and that in group FC (P mean diameter of the transverse colon was 4.4 cm, 3.3 cm, 4.2 cm, and 5.0 cm (NS). CT colonography might contribute the clarification of subtypes of IBS.

  2. Role of antispasmodics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaházi, Anita; Róka, Richárd; Rosztóczy, András; Wittmann, Tibor

    2014-05-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-lasting, relapsing disorder characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel habits. Intestinal motility impairment and visceral hypersensitivity are the key factors among its multifactorial pathogenesis, both of which require effective treatment. Voltage-gated calcium channels mediate smooth muscle contraction and endocrine secretion and play important roles in neuronal transmission. Antispasmodics are a group of drugs that have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Alverine citrate, a spasmolytic, decreases the sensitivity of smooth muscle contractile proteins to calcium, and it is a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Alverine, in combination with simethicone, has been demonstrated to effectively reduce abdominal pain and discomfort in a large placebo-controlled trial. Mebeverine is a musculotropic agent that potently blocks intestinal peristalsis. Non-placebo-controlled trials have shown positive effects of mebeverine in IBS regarding symptom control; nevertheless, in recent placebo-controlled studies, mebeverine did not exhibit superiority over placebo. Otilonium bromide is poorly absorbed from the GI tract, where it acts locally as an L-type calcium channel blocker, an antimuscarinic and a tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Otilonium has effectively reduced pain and improved defecation alterations in placebo-controlled trials in IBS patients. Pinaverium bromide is also an L-type calcium channel blocker that acts locally in the GI tract. Pinaverium improves motility disorders and consequently reduces stool problems in IBS patients. Phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol are non-specific antispasmodics that reduced pain in IBS patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Antispasmodics have excellent safety profiles. T-type calcium channel blockers can abolish visceral hypersensitivity in animal models, which makes them potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the

  3. Mebeverine alters small bowel motility in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P R; Bak, Y T; Kellow, J E

    1996-10-01

    Despite its widespread use in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), limited clinical data exist on the effects of mebeverine hydrochloride on gastrointestinal motility. Human motor activity in the small bowel is more reproducible than that in the large bowel; therefore the aim of this study was to determine in the small bowel the effects of oral mebeverine in both IBS patients and in healthy controls. Twelve IBS patients (11 females/1 male, 46 +/- 13 years old)-predominant constipation (IBS-C, n = 6) and predominant diarrhoea (IBS-D, n = 6)-and six healthy controls, underwent continuous 48 h ambulant recording of small bowel motor activity. One low energy (400 kcal) and one high energy (800 kcal) standard meal were administered in each consecutive 24-h period. Subjects received, in blinded fashion, placebo tablets in the first 24 h then mebeverine 135 mg q.d.s. in the second 24 h. Mebeverine had no effect on parameters of small bowel motility in controls. In contrast, in both IBS-C (P = 0.01) and IBS-D (P mebeverine administration. Also, after mebeverine the proportion of the migrating motor complex cycle occupied by phase 2 was reduced in IBS-D (P = 0.01), while phase 2 burst frequency was reduced in IBS-C (P mebeverine, in the initial dosing period, has a normalizing effect in the small bowel in IBS, enhancing contractile activity in a similar fashion to 'prokinetic' agents, as well as producing alterations in motor activity consistent with an 'antispasmodic' effect.

  4. Personality characteristics and irritable bowel syndrome in Shiraz, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavinasab, Seyed M; Gorganinezhad-Moshiri, Mohsen; Saberifirouzi, Mehdi; Dehbozorgi, Gholamreza; Mehrabani, Davood

    2007-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, and its definite etiology is still unclear. It has been shown that personality characteristics can affect the disease presentation and attitude of patient toward symptoms. This study was undertaken to evaluate the personality characteristics in patients with IBS in Shiraz, southern Iran. In a cross-sectional study, the personality characteristics of 60 patients with IBS and 55 healthy persons were compared using Minnesota II Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). The cases were selected from patients who were referred to the Mottahari clinic affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The patients recorded the highest scores on the hypochondriasis and psychoasthenia scales. The scores of the patient on the scales of lie, infrequency, hypochondriasis, depression and hysteria showed significant elevation in comparison to those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores on clinical scales in male subjects were higher for psychopathic-deviate, paranoia and social introversion scales in comparison to the males in the control group. Female subjects recorded lower scores on the social introversion scale in comparison to the females in the control group. Male subjects also recorded a higher score on the psychopathic-deviate, paranoia, psychoasthenia and social introversion scales in comparison to females. Female subjects had a relatively higher score on the masculinity/feminity scale. Based on the clinical interview using DMS-IV criteria, the most prevalent symptoms were anxiety and depression in patients with IBS. Due to the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with IBS, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of these patients is recommended.

  5. Managing irritable bowel syndrome: The impact of micro-physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Daniel; Benini, Patrice; Carayon, Pierre

    2017-03-16

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has a complex pathology, high prevalence and large impact on patients' quality of life. As conventional therapy may yield unsatisfactory results, a more holistic approach may be desirable. The current study assessed the effect of micro-physiotherapy on the severity of IBS symptoms. Methods In a double-blind study, 61 recurrent IBS patients were randomised to two sessions of micro-physiotherapy or sham micro-physiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were the presence of ≥1 IBS symptom from abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea or bloating. Exclusion criteria were previous major intestinal surgery and the presence of chronic diseases. The mean patient age was 53.5±15.3 years. Micro-physiotherapy consisted of micro-palpatory examination to identify osteopathic lesions, followed by micro-massage to stimulate self-healing. The control group underwent a sham procedure. The presence and severity of symptoms was assessed at baseline and at 1-month follow-up by the same gastroenterologist. Results Two patients did not complete the study. There was a significant difference in percentage of patients that improved after the first session, at 74 % for the micro-physiotherapy group and 38 % for the sham group, respectively (p=0.005). After the second session, the initial improvement was maintained in both groups, although with no further gains, and the differences between the study groups remained significant (p=0.007). Conclusions Micro-physiotherapy significantly improves IBS symptoms and should be explored further for use in mainstream healthcare.

  6. In vitro quantitative determination of ophthalmic irritancy by the chorioallantoic membrane test with trypan blue staining as alternative to eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, A; Vega, R; Guerra, I; González, R

    2006-08-01

    The damage provoked by some substances on the chicken egg's chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is used as an alternative assay to determine ocular irritation. There is good prediction of the eye irritation when compared to the in vivo Draize method. Nevertheless, this assay has some limitations, such as subjectivity. Hagino et al. developed an objective evaluation technique using the amount of trypan blue absorbed at the site of treatment as an indicator of injury to the CAM. The present work was aimed at the determination of ocular irritation of 21 substances (chemicals and cosmetics). We used the spectrophotometric quantification by trypan blue staining of the damage produced on CAM, of fertile chicken eggs. Results were compared with the values obtained by the traditional Draize assay. We observed a good correlation (r=0.835; p<0.0001) between the amount of dye absorbed by the CAM and the Draize eye irritation test score. The r values were 0.688; p<0.05 for cosmetics and 0.925; p<0.0001 for chemicals. Three chemicals turned as false positive and one cosmetic substance as false negative. The CAM-TBS assay is inexpensive, simple and provides an in vitro alternative method to predict the damage that chemical substances or cosmetics can cause to the ocular structures.

  7. How Do Families Smooth Household Heads` Earnings Volatility?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ki Seong Park; ; Dong Gyun Shin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which household heads` earnings volatility is translated into household consumption volatility, and, in the process, identify measures of smoothing idiosyncratic earnings variation...

  8. The involvement of TRP channels in sensory irritation: a mechanistic approach toward a better understanding of the biological effects of local irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ramona; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves innervating the mucosae of the nose, mouth, and throat protect the organism against chemical hazards. Upon their stimulation, characteristic perceptions (e.g., stinging and burning) and various reflexes are triggered (e.g., sneezing and cough). The potency of a chemical to cause sensory irritation can be estimated by a mouse bioassay assessing the concentration-dependent decrease in the respiratory rate (50 % decrease: RD50). The involvement of the N. trigeminus and its sensory neurons in the irritant-induced decrease in respiratory rates are not well understood to date. In calcium imaging experiments, we tested which of eight different irritants (RD50 5-730 ppm) could induce responses in primary mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons. The tested irritants acetophenone, 2-ethylhexanol, hexyl isocyanate, isophorone, and trimethylcyclohexanol stimulated responses in trigeminal neurons. Most of these responses depended on functional TRPA1 or TRPV1 channels. For crotyl alcohol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and sodium metabisulfite, no activation could be observed. 2-ethylhexanol can activate both TRPA1 and TRPV1, and at low contractions (100 µM) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) seem to be involved. GPCRs might also be involved in the mediation of the responses to trimethylcyclohexanol. By using neurobiological tools, we showed that sensory irritation in vivo could be based on the direct activation of TRP channels but also on yet unknown interactions with GPCRs present in trigeminal neurons. Our results showed that the potency suggested by the RD50 values was not reflected by direct nerve-compound interaction.

  9. Addressing neurodynamic irritability in a patient with adhesive capsulitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin; Lampe, Katherine

    2017-02-01

    Patients with adhesive capsulitis are commonly seen by physical therapists. Pain and limited shoulder motion from adhesive capsulitis have at times been linked to neural irritation. The purpose of this case is to describe the examination and intervention of a patient with adhesive capsulitis who appeared to have a coexisting, underlying neural irritation. This paper emphasizes how the neurological component must initially be identified and addressed for a successful outcome. A 47-year-old female presented with reduced shoulder motion and function, upper extremity neural irritation, diffuse weakness, altered sensation in the involved extremity, and symptoms reproduced with upper limb neurodynamic testing. Her reduced shoulder range of motion was accompanied by limited glenohumeral glides and a report of local neck stiffness. Symptoms began several months earlier after an apparent electrical shock injury to the arm that caused symptoms and guarding of the shoulder. Intervention initially addressed the underlying neural component with spinal mobilizations while avoiding further irritation. Interventions were progressed to include mobilization and exercise to address shoulder mobility. The patient's neurodynamic irritability, distal symptoms, and neck stiffness were normalized within the first weeks of care. Subsequently, interventions were directed at the shoulder. Outcomes over an 12-week time frame included reduced pain from 10/10 to 2/10. Passive range of motion increases included flexion from 121 to 160°, abduction from 71 to 121°, and external rotation from 18 to 60°. Disability scores on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) dropped from initially 68·3 to 18·3% at discharge. She ultimately regained full upper extremity function. Therapists should be cognizant of possible neural irritation in shoulder disorders, which may contribute to conditions such as adhesive capsulitis. Identifying neural irritation is critical when determining which

  10. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  11. Volatility Forecast in Crises and Expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Pypko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We build a discrete-time non-linear model for volatility forecasting purposes. This model belongs to the class of threshold-autoregressive models, where changes in regimes are governed by past returns. The ability to capture changes in volatility regimes and using more accurate volatility measures allow outperforming other benchmark models, such as linear heterogeneous autoregressive model and GARCH specifications. Finally, we show how to derive closed-form expression for multiple-step-ahead forecasting by exploiting information about the conditional distribution of returns.

  12. Modelling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobešová, Anna; Klepáč, Václav; Kolman, Pavel [Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 61300, Brno (Czech Republic); Bednářová, Petra [Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01, České Budějovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this paper is to compare different approaches to modeling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism. For this purpose we built time-varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility and VAR-DCC-GARCH model with conditional variance. The data from three European countries are included in the analysis: the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. Results show that VAR-DCC-GARCH system captures higher volatility of observed variables but main trends and detected breaks are generally identical in both approaches.

  13. Volatility jumps and their economic determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    predictive power on expected jump moves, thus confirming the common interpretation that sudden and large increases in equity volatility can be anticipated by credit deterioration of the US bank sector as well as changes in the market expectations of future risks. Finally, the model is extended to incorporate...... that there is a positive probability of jumps in volatility. A common factor in the volatility jumps is shown to be related to a set of financial covariates (such as variance risk premium, S&P500 volume, credit-default swap, and federal fund rates). The credit-default swap on US banks and variance risk premium have...

  14. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome: Personality and health behaviours: A biopsychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to indicate the complex nature of functional gastrointestinal disorders by studying the interaction between Irritable Bowel Syndrome and person personality aspects and health behaviour. An ex post facto design was used to compare two groups of women, the one group with iBS (N = 60 and the other without (N = 60 in terms of the above mentioned variables. The NEO-Personality lnventory (Revised was used to compare the groups on five broad aspects of personality i.e. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The Health Behaviour Checklist was used to measure health behaviours as indicated by the foilowing factors: Wellness Maintenance and Enhancement, Accident Control, Traffic Risk Taking and Substance Risk Taking. The results indicate that statistically significant differences do indeed exist between the groups in terms of certain personality aspects (neuroticism, extraversion, openness for experience and certain health aspects (especially wellness maintenance and enhancement and traffic risk taking. It seems then as if IBS sufferers share certain personality characteristics which influence their behaviour related to the maintenance and enhancement of their health. Finally, we recommend a holistic approach to treatment and therapeutic interventions.

    Opsomming
    Die studie het ten doel gehad om die komplekse aard van die Funksionele Maagderm Versteurings aan te dui deur die interaksie tussen Prikkelbare Dermsindroom en persoonlikheidsaspekte en gesondheidsgedrag ("health behavioui' te bestudeer. Daar is gebruik gemaak van 'n ex post facto ontwerp om twee groepe vrouens, die een groep met PDS (N = 60 en die ander daarsonder (N = 60, ten opsigte van die veranderlikes te vergelyk. Die NEO - Personality lnventory (Revised is gebruik om die groepe te vergelyk ten opsigte van vyf brei persoonlikheidsaspekte naamlik, Neurotisme, Ekstraversie, Oopheid vir Ervaring, Welgevalligheid

  17. Perception of lactose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainese, Raffaella; Casellas, Francesc; Mariné-Barjoan, Eugènia; Vivinus-Nébot, Mylène; Schneider, Stéphane M; Hébuterne, Xavier; Piche, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    The importance of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not well defined and these patients often complain of lactose intolerance. To objectively measure lactose malabsorption, a hydrogen breath test (HBT) can be performed, but a discrepancy emerges between the results of the HBT and the symptomatic response during the HBT. To determine in a group of IBS patients whether self-perceived lactose intolerance and the symptomatic response to lactose HBT were conditioned by other factors besides the presence of lactose malabsorption. Oral challenge to lactose (50 g) was tested in 51 IBS patients to assess HBT malabsorption and the symptomatic response to lactose intolerance was scored on a validated questionnaire. Allergological screening for common inhalants and food allergens (including cow's milk) was performed. The presence of psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, depression, fatigue) was evaluated using validated questionnaires. A total of 21 out of 51 patients (41.1%) were self-perceived to be lactose intolerant, 24/51 (47%) had a positive HBT, and 14/51 (27.4%) presented with symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT. The serological screening for inhalant and food allergens was positive in 6/21 (28.6%) and 4/21 (19%) of patients who self-perceived lactose intolerance and in 5/14 (37.5%) and 3/14 (21.4%) in intolerant patients symptomatic during HBT. Only 1/51 (1.9%) presented evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cow's milk. Patients who experienced symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT presented more severe IBS symptoms [326 (296-398) vs. 215 (126-295) P=0.05] and a higher score of anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Factors influencing the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT resulted in an increase in hydrogen produced and in the severity of IBS. In a cohort of 51 IBS patients, the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT were influenced by the capacity to absorb lactose and the severity of IBS. Other factors, such as

  18. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms in Southwestern Iranian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjadian, Shirin; Fakhraei, Bahareh; Moeini, Maryam; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown etiology. Serotonin is an important factor in sensory signaling in the brain-gut axis, which plays a key role in intestinal motility and secretion. Serotonin clearance is mediated by a specific protein called the serotonin reuptake transporter. Transcription activity of the serotonin transporter gene is affected by some polymorphisms in this gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and irritable bowel syndrome. The 5-HTTLPR, rs25531 and STin2VNTR polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene were analyzed by PCR-based methods in 50 patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 100 healthy controls. Serotonin transporter polymorphisms were similar in patients and healthy controls. There were no significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies between the two groups. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the gene encoding for the serotonin transporter are not associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genetic factors are important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome, and further genetic and epigenetic research may provide novel insights into the mechanisms contributing to this disease. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Further validation of the visual analogue scale for irritable bowel syndrome after use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Persson, Jesper; Sjölund, Kristina; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS), a self-rating questionnaire, was designed to measure symptoms and the effect of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of this descriptive correlational study was to conduct further psychometric validation after the VAS-IBS had been used in clinical practice, translate it into English, and compare the results with controls. Forty-nine patients with irritable bowel syndrome (median age = 38 years old [range, 18-69 years]) were compared with 90 healthy persons (median age = 44 years old [range, 21-77 years]) who served as controls. The patients with irritable bowel syndrome completed 3 questionnaires: the VAS-IBS, the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, and the Perception of Change of Symptoms. Controls completed only the VAS-IBS. Results showed that the VAS-IBS is a valid questionnaire that measures the degree of change of symptoms and discriminates between patients who have irritable bowel syndrome from those who do not. It is important to compare the VAS-IBS among different cultural populations so we suggest that the English version of the VAS-IBS should now be used in English-speaking countries and be further tested for validity and reliability with English-speaking patients.

  20. Clinical trial: phase 2 study of lubiprostone for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, J F; Drossman, D A; Panas, R; Wahle, A; Ueno, R

    2008-04-01

    Analyses of a trial in constipated patients indicated that lubiprostone may be an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. To assess the efficacy and safety of three lubiprostone doses for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. 195 irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients received daily doses of 16 [8 microg twice daily (b.d.)], 32 (16 microg b.d.) or 48 microg (24 microg b.d.) lubiprostone or placebo b.d. for 3 months. Gastrointestinal parameters were recorded in diaries daily by patients. After 1 month, lubiprostone showed significantly greater improvements in mean abdominal discomfort/pain scores vs. placebo (P = 0.023). After 2 months, all lubiprostone groups showed significantly greater improvements in mean abdominal discomfort/pain scores (P lubiprostone arm was greater than placebo, but the test for trend was no longer significant. Treatment with lubiprostone showed significantly higher rates of gastrointestinal adverse events (P = 0.020), especially diarrhoea and nausea. Lubiprostone significantly improved gastrointestinal symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation at all doses. Higher doses of lubiprostone, especially the 48 microg/day group, were associated with more gastrointestinal adverse events. From these data, the 16 microg/day dose demonstrated the optimal combination of efficacy and safety. These results warrant further study of lubiprostone for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients.

  1. A hydroquinone formulation with increased stability and decreased potential for irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Kenneth A; Dong, Kelly K; Canning, Matthew T; Grimson, Roger; Walfield, Alan M; Yarosh, Daniel B

    2007-06-01

    Long-term treatment with a high-strength hydroquinone (HQ) cream (usually 4% HQ) is the mainstay therapy for hyperpigmentation disorders. Instability and high potential for irritancy hinders patient compliance. A new 4% HQ preparation has been designed with an innovative antioxidant for stability and a biomimetic of an herbal extract for skin calming. To investigate the activity, stability, and irritancy of a new HQ cream. To evaluate the new HQ cream in comparison with commercial 4% HQ creams for stability by temperature stress test, for irritancy by repeated-insult patch test on human subjects, and for lightening effect using the MelanoDerm B skin equivalent model. The new HQ is more resistant to browning and shows less irritancy than three commercially available 4% HQ products. It has comparable bleaching effect with faster onset than a 4% HQ product containing 0.05% tretinoin and 0.01% fluocinolone acetonide. Based on its improved stability, lower irritancy, and activity in skin lightening, the new approach to the formulation of 4% HQ may improve therapeutic outcomes by improving patient compliance to dosing.

  2. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia; Osika, Paweł; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Bujak, Tomasz

    2017-02-19

    A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  3. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Nizioł-Łukaszewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine, and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol. The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  4. Barrier recovery and influence of irritant stimuli in skin treated with a moisturizing cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M

    1997-05-01

    Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of clinically and subjectively dry skin. Recent studies suggest that certain ingredients in creams may accelerate the recovery of a disrupted barrier and decrease the skin susceptibility to irritant stimuli. In the present single-blind study, a moisturizing cream was tested for its influence both on barrier recovery in surfactant-damaged skin and on the susceptibility of normal skin to exposure to the irritant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Parameters measured were transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin corneometer values, indicating degree of hydration. Treatment of surfactant-damaged skin with the test cream for 14 days promoted barrier recovery, as observed as a decrease in TEWL. Skin corneometer values also normalized more rapidly during the treatment. In normal skin, use of the test cream significantly reduced TEWL after 14 days of treatment, and irritant reactions to SLS were significantly decreased. Skin corneometer values increased after only 1 application and remained elevated after 14 days. In conclusion, the accelerated rate of recovery of surfactant-damaged skin and the lower degree of SLS-induced irritation in normal skin treated with the test cream may be of clinical relevance in attempts to reduce contact dermatitis due to irritant stimuli.

  5. Negligible respiratory irritation and inflammation potency of pigmentary TiO2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Maija; Korpi, Anne; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Lehto, Maili; Wolff, Henrik; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Alenius, Harri; Pasanen, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is manufactured in millions of tons yearly, and it is used widely as pigment in various applications. Until recently, TiO2 was considered toxicologically harmless and without adverse health effects. In this study, respiratory irritation and inflammation potencies of commercially available pigmentary TiO2 particles (<5 µm, rutile) were studied. Single head-only exposures (30 min) of male Crl:OF1 mice at mass concentrations 6, 11, 21, and 37 mg/m3, and repeated exposures (altogether 16 h, 1 h/day, 4 days/week for 4 weeks) of female BALB/c/Sca mice at mass concentration of 16 mg/m3 to pigmentary TiO2 were conducted. Minor sensory irritation was observed during acute and repeated exposures seen as elongation of the break after the inhalation, which is typical in sensory irritation, and caused by closure of the glottis inhibiting airflow from the lungs after inspiration. No pulmonary irritation, airflow limitation, nasal or pulmonary inflammation was observed. In conclusion, the respiratory irritation and inflammation potencies of the studied pigmentary TiO2 particles seemed to be low and thus can serve as an ideal control exposure agent in short-term studies in mice.

  6. Pengaruh Entertainment, Irritating dan Informativeness Iklan di Website di Kalangan Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Supriyadi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several advantages and disadvantages and advertising via the Internet. The appeal of advertising may also arise from given information element, the element of comfort but also sometimes lead to disturbing or irritation elements. The limited number of Internet users in Indonesia and the different backgrounds of individual Internet users in Indonesia certainly provide a different assessment of the advertisements contained on the Internet. There are 3 factors which was the starting point to explain how consumers interpret the value of advertising, namely: informativeness, entertainment and irritation. This research aims to discover whether there is a relationship between entertainment, informativeness, and irritation toward advertising values and whether there is a relationship between entertainment and advertising values toward attitude towards web advertising using statistics tools of path analysis and multiple regression. The research shows that there is a significant relationship between independent variables such as informativeness, entertainment and irritation simultaneously toward the advertising value but there are no significant relationship between entertainment and informativeness toward the advertising value individually.  In the other model there is a significant relationship between informativeness, irritation and advertising values with the attitude towards web advertising.

  7. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Stress-Related Psychiatric Co-morbidities: Focus on Early Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with stress playing a major role in onset and exacerbation of symptoms such as abdominal pain and altered bowel movements. Stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression often precede the development of irritable bowel syndrome and vice versa. Stressor exposure during early life has the potential to increase an individual's susceptibility to both irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease indicating that there may be a common origin for these disorders. Moreover, adverse early life events significantly impact upon many of the communication pathways within the brain-gut-microbiota axis, which allows bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. This axis is proposed to be perturbed in irritable bowel syndrome and studies now indicate that dysfunction of this axis is also seen in psychiatric disease. Here we review the co-morbidity of irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease with their common origin in mind in relation to the impact of early life stress on the developing brain-gut-microbiota axis. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting this axis in these diseases.

  8. Forecasting Return Volatility of the CSI 300 Index Using the Stochastic Volatility Model with Continuous Volatility and Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The logarithmic realized volatility is divided into the logarithmic continuous sample path variation and the logarithmic discontinuous jump variation on the basis of the SV-RV model in this paper, which constructs the stochastic volatility model with continuous volatility (SV-CJ model. Then, we use high-frequency transaction data for five minutes of the CSI 300 stock index as the study sample, which, respectively, make parameter estimation on the SV, SV-RV, and SV-CJ model. We also comparatively analyze these three models' prediction accuracy by using the loss functions and SPA test. The results indicate that the prior logarithmic realized volatility and the logarithmic continuous sample path variation can be used to predict the future return volatility in China's stock market, while the logarithmic discontinuous jump variation is poor at its prediction accuracy. Besides, the SV-CJ model has an obvious advantage over the SV and SV-RV model as to the prediction accuracy of the return volatility, and it is more suitable for the research concerning the problems of financial practice such as the financial risk management.

  9. Level Shifts in Volatility and the Implied-Realized Volatility Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; de Magistris, Paolo Santucci

    We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization to the mult......We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization...... to the multivariate case of the univariate level shift technique by Lu and Perron (2008). An application to the S&P500 index and a simulation experiment show that the recently documented empirical properties of strong persistence in volatility and forecastability of future realized volatility from current implied...

  10. Stimulus Selection for Intranasal Sensory Isolation: Eugenol Is an Irritant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M.; Lundström, Johan N.

    2012-01-01

    Both the olfactory and the trigeminal systems are able to respond to intranasal presentations of chemical vapor. Accordingly, when the nose detects a volatile chemical, it is often unclear whether we smell it, feel it, or both. The distinction may often be unimportant in our everyday perception of fragrances or aromas, but it can matter in experiments that purport to isolate olfactory processes or study the interaction between olfaction and chemesthesis. Researchers turn to a small pool of compounds that are believed to be “pure olfactory” stimuli with little or no trigeminal impact. The current report reexamines one such commonly used compound, namely eugenol, a flavor and fragrance ingredient that has anesthetic properties under some conditions. Using a standard method involving many trials during an experimental session (Experiment 1), subjects were unable to reliably lateralize eugenol, consistent with claims that this compound is detected primarily through olfaction. However, with more limited exposure (Experiments 2 and 3), subjects were able to lateralize eugenol. We speculate that anesthetic properties of eugenol could blunt its trigeminal impact in some paradigms. Regardless, the current experiments suggest that eugenol can in fact stimulate the trigeminal nerve but in a complex concentration–dependent manner. Implications and strategies for selection of model odorants are discussed. PMID:22293937

  11. Modeling Asymmetric Volatility In Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Aun Hassan

    2011-01-01

    .... The paper uses daily crude oil price data for the past 10 years to test and model the oil price volatility by fitting different variations of GARCH including a univariate asymmetric GARCH model to the series...

  12. Price volatility in wind dominant electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    electricity markets. High price volatility is unappreciated because it imposes high financial risk levels to both electricity consumers and producers. Additionally high price variations impede tracking price signals by consumers in future smart grid and jeopardize implementation of demand response concepts......High penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources causes price volatility in future electricity markets. This is specially the case in European countries that plan high penetration levels. This highlights the necessity for revising market regulations and mechanisms in accordance....... The main contribution of this paper is to quantify volatility patterns of electricity price, as penetration level of wind power increases. Results explain a direct relationship between wind penetration and electricity price volatility in a quantitative manner....

  13. Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim

    A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second...

  14. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  15. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  16. Asymmetry and Leverage in Conditional Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The three most popular univariate conditional volatility models are the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model of Engle (1982) and Bollerslev (1986), the GJR (or threshold GARCH) model of Glosten, Jagannathan and Runkle (1992), and the

  17. Volatile profile of wine Teran PTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teran PTP is a protected wine with a recognized traditional denomination produced from a grapevine variety ‘Refošk’ in winegrowing district Kras in Slovenia (European Union, 2009; Pravilnik, 2008. The aromatic profile of 82 Teran PTP wines produced in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 was monitored. Intotal the content of 16 volatile compounds was determined. The volatile compounds from wine were extracted following the liquid-liquid extraction and determined with a GC-MS method. The odour activity values and relative odour contributions were calculated for each volatile compound identified. Among sensorial important volatiles the highest odour activity values were determined for ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate. Other research papers also showed, that all red wines investigated except one contained ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate above sensory thresholds.

  18. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  19. Range-based volatility, expected stock returns, and the low volatility anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    One of the foundations of financial economics is the idea that rational investors will discount stocks with more risk (volatility), which will result in a positive relation between risk and future returns. However, the empirical evidence is mixed when determining how volatility is related to future returns. In this paper, we examine this relation using a range-based measure of volatility, which is shown to be theoretically, numerically, and empirically superior to other measures of volatility. In a variety of tests, we find that range-based volatility is negatively associated with expected stock returns. These results are robust to time-series multifactor models as well as cross-sectional tests. Our findings contribute to the debate about the direction of the relationship between risk and return and confirm the presence of the low volatility anomaly, or the anomalous finding that low volatility stocks outperform high volatility stocks. In other tests, we find that the lower returns associated with range-based volatility are driven by stocks with lottery-like characteristics. PMID:29190652

  20. Incomplete information, idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Berrada, Tony Nicolas; Hugonnier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    We develop a q-theoretic model of investment under incomplete information that explains the link between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. When calibrated to match properties of the US business cycles as well as various firms and industry characteristics, the model generates a negative relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. We show that conditional on earning surprises, the link is positive after good news and negative after bad news. This result provides new i...

  1. Causes of Earnings Volatility and Risk Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Donggyun Shin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the causes of volatility of household heads’ earnings, evaluates the extent to which variability of the heads’ earnings is translated into changes in household consumption, and, in the process, identifies effective measures of smoothing idiosyncratic earnings variation. Analysis, based on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data, reveals that, although causes of the earnings volatility are multi-dimensional, job separations are closely related with substantia...

  2. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Macroeconomic Volatility: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data from 1997–2014 of 30 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, subdividing trended and cyclical volatility of macroeconomics and inflation, considering different indicators of financial development and financial structure, this paper investigated the impact of financial development and financial structure on macroeconomic volatility. The empirical results found that (1 the trended and cyclical volatility of the previous macroeconomic period had a significantly positive impact on that of the current period, and the impact of trended volatility was greater than that of cyclical volatility; (2 financial development had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility through inflation cyclical volatility, but inflation trended volatility would amplify macroeconomic volatility; financial markets have no significant effect on macroeconomic volatility; financial structure measured with the ratio of stock market turnover and the efficiency of the financial development had a significant positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility; and (3 inflation trended volatility had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility and trended volatility, while inflation cyclical volatility had a significantly positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility.

  3. Isolation of volatile compounds of Aloe excelsa (Berger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and pharmacological applications of volatile and non-volatile compounds isolated from plants have been dominating the commercial sector over the recent two decades. Attempts in isolation of volatile compounds of aloes have impact on the medicinal as well as the cosmetic industries. Volatile compound isolation ...

  4. A systematic review of alternative therapies in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Jennifer A; Howden, Colin W; Jones, Michael P

    2003-02-10

    The irritable bowel syndrome is a common disorder associated with a significant burden of illness, poor quality of life, high rates of absenteeism, and high health care utilization. Management can be difficult and treatment unrewarding; these facts have led physicians and patients toward alternative therapies. We explored a variety of treatments that exist beyond the scope of commonly used therapies for irritable bowel syndrome. Guarded optimism exists for traditional Chinese medicine and psychological therapies, but further well-designed trials are needed. Oral cromolyn sodium may be useful in chronic unexplained diarrhea and appears as effective as and safer than elimination diets. The roles of lactose and fructose intolerance remain poorly understood. Alterations of enteric flora may play a role in irritable bowel syndrome, but supporting evidence for bacterial overgrowth or probiotic therapy is lacking.

  5. [Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) in a patient with refractory irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Verena; Laguna, Anna-Lena; Prazeres Da Costa, Olivia; Buch, Thorsten; Göke, Burkhard; Storr, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology. Recent clinical data support a link between changes in fecal microbiota with decreased biodiversity and the development of irritable bowel syndrome. Whether these changes of the microbiota are caused by the disease or whether they develop during the course of the disease remains unclear. Several studies demonstrated that fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) successfully attenuates Clostridium difficile infection by restoring the disturbed bacterial flora of the gut and case reports suggest that FMT may relief symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Here we report a 47-year-old male patient with longstanding refractory diarrhea predominant IBS, who was successfully treated with a single FMT. The beneficial effect on the patient's symptoms was associated with changes of the stool microbiome. Post-FMT the recipient's microbiome resembled the donor's microbiome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Oral prednisone suppresses allergic but not irritant patch test reactions in individuals hypersensitive to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anveden, Ingegärd; Lindberg, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2004-01-01

    A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of prednisone on allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 24 subjects with known allergy to nickel were recruited and patch tested with a nickel sulfate dilution series in aqueous solution, 5% nickel...... sulfate in petrolatum and 2 dilution series of the irritants nonanoic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate. The subjects were tested x2, both during treatment with prednisone 20 mg oral daily and during placebo treatment. The total number of positive nickel patch test reactions decreased significantly...... in patients during prednisone treatment. The threshold concentration to elicit a patch test reaction increased and the overall degree of reactivity to nickel sulfate shifted towards weaker reactions. The effect of prednisone treatment on the response to irritants was divergent with both increased...

  7. Comparison of cytotoxicity in vitro and irritation in vivo for aqueous and oily solutions of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Wolska, Eliza; Chorążewicz, Juliusz; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo model on rabbit eyes and the in vitro cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were used to compare irritation effect of aqueous and oily (Miglyol 812) solutions of surfactants. Tween 20, Tween 80 and Cremophor EL were tested in different concentrations (0.1, 1 or 5%) and the in vitro test demonstrated that surfactants in oil are less cytotoxic than in aqueous solutions. In the in vivo study, the aqueous solutions of surfactants were characterized as non-irritant while small changes in conjunctiva were observed after application the oily solutions of surfactants and the preparations were classified as slightly irritant, however this effect was similar when Miglyol was applied alone. In conclusion, it is reported that the MTT assay does not correlate well with the Draize scores.

  8. Modulating effects of oatmeal extracts in the sodium lauryl sulfate skin irritancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, K; Cours-Darne, S; Vienne, M P; Boyer, F; Fabre, B; Dupuy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of two topically applied oatmeal extracts, i.e. Avena sativa and Avena Rhealba, using the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation model. At baseline, test areas on the volar surface of the upper arms of 12 healthy individuals were pretreated with the two extracts and their vehicle (petrolatum ointment) under occlusion for 2 h, and one site was left untreated. Then a patch with a 1% SLS solution was applied to the test sites for 24 h. Irritation was determined at each period by measuring by chromametry and laser-Doppler. In a dose-ranging study with the Avena Rhealba extract alone, the 20 and 30% concentrations exerted a slight inhibition of the a* parameter increase and a marked reduction of the blood flow increase (p oatmeal extracts on skin irritation in the SLS model. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Plant volatile compounds: sensory cues for health and nutritional value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A; Klee, Harry J

    2006-02-10

    Plants produce many volatile metabolites. A small subset of these compounds is sensed by animals and humans, and the volatile profiles are defining elements of the distinct flavors of individual foods. Flavor volatiles are derived from an array of nutrients, including amino acids, fatty acids, and carotenoids. In tomato, almost all of the important flavor-related volatiles are derived from essential nutrients. The predominance of volatiles derived from essential nutrients and health-promoting compounds suggests that these volatiles provide important information about the nutritional makeup of foods. Evidence supporting a relation between volatile perception and nutrient or health value will be reviewed.

  10. Mineral intake independent from gastric irritation or pica by cell-dehydrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancio, Juliana; Pereira-Derderian, Daniela T B; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

    2011-10-24

    Gavage of 2 M NaCl (IG 2 M NaCl), a procedure to induce cell-dehydration-and water and 0.15 M NaCl intake in a two-bottle choice test-is also a potential gastric irritant. In this study, we assessed whether mineral intake induced by IG 2 M NaCl is associated with gastric irritation or production of pica in the rat. We first determined the amount of mineral solution (0.15 M NaCl, 0.15 M NaHCO3, 0.01 M KCl and 0.05 mM CaCl2) and water ingested in response to IG 2 M NaCl in a five-bottle test. Then, we used mineral solutions (0.01 M KCl and 0.15 M NaHCO3), whose intakes were significantly increased compared to controls, and water in three-bottle tests to test the gastric irritation hypothesis. The IG 2 M NaCl induced KCl and NaHCO3 intake that was not inhibited by gavage with gastric protectors Al(OH)3 or NaHCO3. IG 2 M NaCl or gavage of 0.6 N acetic acid induced mild irritation, hyperemia, of the glandular part of the stomach. A gavage of 50% ethanol induced strong irritation seen as pinpoint ulcerations. Neither ethanol nor acetic acid induced any fluid intake. Neither IG 2 M NaCl nor acetic acid induced kaolin intake, a marker of pica in laboratory rats. Ethanol did induce kaolin intake. These results suggest that IG 2 M NaCl induced a mineral fluid intake not selective for sodium and independent from gastric irritation or pica. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in the reduction of chronic traumatic brain injury irritability and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M; Bickett, Allison K; Norton, James H; Pershad, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals may experience chronic problems with irritability or aggression, which may need treatment to minimize the negative impact on their relationships, home life, social interactions, community participation, and employment : To test the a priori hypothesis that amantadine reduces irritability (primary hypothesis) and aggression (secondary hypothesis) among individuals greater than 6 months post-TBI METHODS:: A total of 76 individuals greater than 6 months post-TBI referred for irritability management were enrolled in a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of amantadine (n = 38) versus placebo (n = 38). Study participants were randomly assigned to receive amantadine hydrochloride 100 mg twice daily versus equivalent placebo for 28 days. Symptoms of irritability and aggression were measured before and after treatment using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability (NPI-I) and Aggression (NPI-A) domains, as well as the NPI-Distress for these domains : In the amantadine group, 80.56% improved at least 3 points on the NPI-I, compared with 44.44% in the group that received placebo (P = .0016). Mean change in NPI-I was -4.3 in the amantadine group and -2.6 in the placebo group (P = .0085). When excluding individuals with minimal to no baseline aggression, mean change in NPI-A was -4.56 in the amantadine group and -2.46 in the placebo group (P = .046). Mean changes in NPI-I and NPI-A Distress were not statistically significant between the amantadine and placebo groups. Adverse event occurrence did not differ between the 2 groups : Amantadine 100 mg every morning and at noon appears an effective and safe means of reducing frequency and severity of irritability and aggression among individuals with TBI and sufficient creatinine clearance.

  12. Dermal and ocular irritation and skin sensitization studies of fullerene C60 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Matsuda, Akitaka; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Naya, Masato; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-06-01

    Widespread production and use of nanomaterials have caused the release of increasing amounts of nanomaterials into the environment. The introduction of novel materials into industry requires safety evaluations as well as an understanding of the impact of the nanomaterials on human health, because the unique properties and size of nanomaterials may also result in unique health risks. Skin and eyes have the highest risk of exposure to nanomaterials, because deposition to the superficial organs has the potential to be a major route of exposure during the manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanomaterials. However, information on the dermal and eye irritation and sensitization of fullerene C(60) nanoparticles is still lacking. This study was performed to examine the potential irritating and sensitizing effects of fullerenes on the skin and eyes. The dermal and eye irritation study was performed using rabbits according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines 404 and 405, respectively. The skin sensitization study was carried out in accordance to the OECD Guideline 406 using guinea pigs. The concentrations of the fullerenes in the test substances were the maximum allowable for administration. Fullerenes were applied at 50 mg in dermal irritation, 40 mg in skin sensitization, and 100 mg in eye irritation studies. No dermal responses, including erythema/eschar or edema, were found in rabbits treated with fullerenes. No rabbits exhibited corneal opacity, abnormality of the iris, or chemosis eye at any time point after the application of fullerenes. Fullerenes caused conjunctival redness and blood vessel hyperemia at 1 h, but not at 24 h. No erythema or edema was observed after the challenge with fullerenes in the fullerene-treated guinea pigs. Reversible minimal potential for acute irritation of the eyes was induced by fullerenes, but neither irritation nor sensitization was caused on the skin. Although the present study provided

  13. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  14. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYLBROMIDE IN TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Arifullina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan was evaluated in a placebobcontrolled trial, on pediatric patients with algid type of irritable bowel syndrome. Hyoscine butylbromide favored to the increase of quality of life in pediatric patients, alleviation of clinical symptoms of disease, reliable decrease of malonic dialdehyde and increase of antioxidant activity of blood plasma significantly superior to placebo. Clinical efficacy of hyoscine butylbromide accompanies to its good tolerance and safety.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, hyoscine butylbromide, placebo controlled trial.

  15. The Role of Bacteria, Probiotics and Diet in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Harper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that threatens the quality of life of millions and poses a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Intense research into the human microbiome has led to fascinating discoveries which directly and indirectly implicate the diversity and function of this occult organ in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS pathophysiology. The benefit of manipulating the gastrointestinal microbiota with diet and probiotics to improve symptoms has been demonstrated in a wealth of both animal and human studies. The positive and negative mechanistic roles bacteria play in IBS will be explored and practical probiotic and dietary choices offered.

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome--prognosis and diagnostic safety. A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Munck, Lars K; Andersen, J R

    1985-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome is the commonest diagnosis in gastroenterological clinics, although diagnostic criteria and investigatory programs vary. To elucidate the diagnostic safety and prognosis of the syndrome, a retrospective study was conducted. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients...... with irritable bowel syndrome as the final and only abdominal diagnosis in the period 1977-79 were followed up in 1984. Seventeen patients died during the follow-up period; two of these were considered diagnostic failures (chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer). Of the remaining 95 patients, 93 were...

  17. TREATMENT OF ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY THROAT IRRITATION AND PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Petrovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenetically, prescription of local action drugs containing a wide spectrum antiseptic is reasonable for the upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain. It should be noted that such drugs are very popular among parents; however, most of these drugs may have a range of side effects, which considerably complicate their use in children. That is why the right choice of local action drugs for the acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain is a guarantee of treatment efficacy and high compliance. This article examines pharmacological qualities of an antiseptic-containing local action drug permitted to use in children over 4 years of age.

  18. Forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility in the Presence of Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We study measures of foreign exchange rate volatility based on high-frequency (5-minute) $/DM exchange rate returns using recent nonparametric statistical techniquesto compute realized return volatility and its separate continuous sample path and jumpcomponents, and measures based on prices...... for impliedvolatility than for realized volatility in this market. Finally, we show that the jump componentof future realized exchange rate volatility is to some extent predictable, and thatoption implied volatility is the dominant forecast of the future jump component....

  19. The Impact of Changing Earnings Volatility on Retirement Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Nichols; Melissa M. Favreault

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the volatility of family income has increased markedly, and own earnings volatility has remained relatively flat. Volatility may affect retirement wealth, depending on whether volatility affects accrued pension contributions or withdrawals or earnings credited toward future Social Security benefits. This project assesses the effect of the volatility of individual and family earnings on asset accumulation and projected retirement wealth using survey data matched ...

  20. Lunar volatiles: balancing science and resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Dana

    In the context of human exploration of the moon, the volatiles postulated to exist at the lunar poles have value as resources as well as scientific significance. Once sustained human operations commence on the moon, society will move from a paradigm in which examination of planetary materials has been unconstrained to one where use of those materials will support habitability and further exploration. A framework for the scientific investigation of lunar volatiles that allows for eventual economic exploitation can guide both activities and resolve the conflicts that will inevitably develop if the postulated lunar volatiles prove to be both extant and accessible. Scientific constraints on the framework include characterization at both poles of the isotopes, elements, and molecules in the volatiles, their relative and absolute abundances, and their horizontal and vertical distribution. A subset of this data is necessary in order to assess, develop, and initiate resource exploitation. In addition, the scientific record of volatiles in the cold traps can be contaminated by the cold-trapping of migrating volatiles released from operations elsewhere on the moon even if the indigenous, cold-trapped volatiles are not utilized. Possible decision points defining the transition from science-dominated to exploitation-dominated use include technology limits in the 70K environment, evolving science priorities (funding), and the resolution of major science issues. Inputs to policy development include any North vs. South Pole differences in volatile characteristics and the suitability of the volatiles to enable further scientific exploration of the moon. In the absence of national sovereignty on the moon, enforcement of any framework is an open question, particularly if science and commercial interests are in competition. The framework, processes, and precedent set by how we as a society choose to handle the scientific bounty and resource promise of lunar volatiles may eventually

  1. Aripiprazole: A Review of its Use in the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder Patients Aged 6–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hall, Petrina; Curran, Sarah; Bird, Victoria; Taylor, David

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. Aripiprazole was found to be more effective in reducing irritability compared with placebo at 8 weeks, SMD −0.64 [−0.90 to −0.39, P autistic disorder in children. PMID:23861644

  2. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www...

  3. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  4. Sodium channels as targets for volatile anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl F. Herold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of modern inhaled anesthetics although widely used in clinical settings are still poorly understood. Considerable evidence supports effects on membrane proteins such as ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels of excitable cells. Na+ channels are crucial to action potential initiation and propagation, and represent potential targets for volatile anesthetics. Inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels leads to reduced neurotransmitter release at the synapse and could therefore contribute to the mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics produce their characteristic effects: amnesia, unconsciousness, and immobility. Early studies on crayfish and squid giant axon showed inhibition of Na+ currents by volatile anesthetics. Subsequent studies using native neuronal preparations and heterologous expression systems with various mammalian Na+ channel isoforms implicated inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels in anesthetic actions. Volatile anesthetics reduce peak Na+ current and shift the voltage of half-maximal steady-state inactivation towards more negative potentials, thus stabilizing the fast-inactivated state. Furthermore recovery from fast-inactivation is slowed together with an enhanced use-dependent block during pulse train protocols. These effects can reduce neurotransmitter release by depressing presynaptic excitability, depolarization and Ca entry, and ultimately transmitter release. This reduction in transmitter release is more portent for glutamatergic vs. GABAergic terminals. Involvement of Na+ channel inhibition in mediating the immobility caused by volatile anesthetics has been demonstrated in animal studies, in which intrathecal infusion of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin increases volatile anesthetic potency, whereas infusion of the Na+ channels agonist veratridine reduces anesthetic potency. These studies indicate that inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels by volatile anesthetics is involved in mediating some of

  5. Volatility Spillover and Multivariate Volatility Impulse Response Analysis of GFC News Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper applies two measures to assess spillovers across markets: the Diebold Yilmaz (2012) Spillover Index and the Hafner and Herwartz (2006) analysis of multivariate GARCH models using volatility impulse response analysis. We use two sets of data, daily realized volatility estimates

  6. Characterization of volatile and non-volatile compounds of fresh pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds and several agronomical important parameters were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper breeding lines and hybrids and several genebank accessions from different Capsicum species. The sweet pepper breeding lines and hybrids were chosen to

  7. IL-6, VEGF, KC and RANTES Are a Major Cause of a High Irritant Dermatitis to Phthalic Anhydride in C57BL/6 Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Joon Bae

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that several of the cytokines and chemokines secreted from irritant site could contribute to the regulation mechanism responsible for the difference in the skin irritation among various strains of mice following exposure to PA.

  8. Combination of volatile and non-volatile functions in a single memory cell and its scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Hwang, Sungmin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-04-01

    A single memory cell which combines volatile memory and non-volatile memory functions has been demonstrated with an independent asymmetric dual-gate structure. Owing to the second gate whose dielectric is composed of oxide/nitride/oxide layers, floating body effect was observed even on a fully depleted silicon-on-insulator device and the non-volatile memory function was measured. In addition, read retention characteristics of the volatile memory function depending on the non-volatile memory state were evaluated and analyzed. Further scalability in body thickness was also verified through simulation studies. These results indicate that the proposed device is a promising candidate for high-density embedded memory applications.

  9. Implicit Volatility versus Statistical Volatility: an Exercise Using Options and Telemar S.A. Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Savino Portugal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal this article was to find the best way of making forecast about future volatility using implicit or statistic forecast. The work is based on Telemar S.A. shares data from 21/09/1998 to 21/10/2002 and Telemar S.A. shares data from 2/10/2000 to 21/10/2002. The implicit volatility was obtained using back-out procedure from the Black-Scholes model. The statistics forecasts were obtained using weighted moving average models, GARCH, EGARCH and FIGARCH models. The Wald statistic shows that EGARCH and FIGARCH models are efficient and are not biased forecasts for Telemar S.A. absolute variation between t and t + 1. The volatility evaluation during the maturity time of an option, rejects the hypothesis that implicit volatility is the best forecast to future volatility and the Wald statistic show that FIGARCH model is an efficient and not biased forecast.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Volatile Defensive Secretions of Three Species of Pyrrhocoridae (Insecta: Heteroptera) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajicek, Jan; Havlikova, Martina; Bursova, Miroslava; Ston, Martin; Cabala, Radomir; Exnerova, Alice; Stys, Pavel; Bosakova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) have evolved a system of well-developed scent glands that produce diverse and frequently strongly odorous compounds that act mainly as chemical protection against predators. A new method of non-lethal sampling with subsequent separation using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was proposed for analysis of these volatile defensive secretions. Separation was performed on Rtx-200 column containing fluorinated polysiloxane stationary phase. Various mechanical irritation methods (ultrasonics, shaking, pressing bugs with plunger of syringe) were tested for secretion sampling with a special focus on non-lethal irritation. The preconcentration step was performed by sorption on solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers with different polarity. For optimization of sampling procedure, Pyrrhocoris apterus was selected. The entire multi-parameter optimization procedure of secretion sampling was performed using response surface methodology. The irritation of bugs by pressing them with a plunger of syringe was shown to be the most suitable. The developed method was applied to analysis of secretions produced by adult males and females of Pyrrhocoris apterus, Pyrrhocoris tibialis and Scantius aegyptius (all Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). The chemical composition of secretion, particularly that of alcohols, aldehydes and esters, is species-specific in all three pyrrhocorid species studied. The sexual dimorphism in occurrence of particular compounds is largely limited to alcohols and suggests their epigamic intraspecific function. The phenetic overall similarities in composition of secretion do not reflect either relationship of species or similarities in antipredatory color pattern. The similarities of secretions may be linked with antipredatory strategies. The proposed method requires only a few individuals which remain alive after the procedure. Thus secretions of a number of species including even the rare ones can be

  11. Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, Perry [York Univ., Schulich School of Business, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    Forecasts of oil price volatility are important inputs into macroeconometric models, financial market risk assessment calculations like value at risk, and option pricing formulas for futures contracts. This paper uses several different univariate and multivariate statistical models to estimate forecasts of daily volatility in petroleum futures price returns. The out-of-sample forecasts are evaluated using forecast accuracy tests and market timing tests. The TGARCH model fits well for heating oil and natural gas volatility and the GARCH model fits well for crude oil and unleaded gasoline volatility. Simple moving average models seem to fit well in some cases provided the correct order is chosen. Despite the increased complexity, models like state space, vector autoregression and bivariate GARCH do not perform as well as the single equation GARCH model. Most models out perform a random walk and there is evidence of market timing. Parametric and non-parametric value at risk measures are calculated and compared. Non-parametric models outperform the parametric models in terms of number of exceedences in backtests. These results are useful for anyone needing forecasts of petroleum futures volatility. (author)

  12. Hypnotherapy for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, Arine M.; Menko-Frankenhuis, Carla; Wolfkamp, Simone C. S.; Tromp, Ellen; Benninga, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are highly prevalent in childhood. A substantial proportion of patients continues to experience long-lasting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of adult

  13. GPs' explanatory models for irritable bowel syndrome : a mismatch with patient models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casiday, Rachel E.; Hungin, A. P. S.; Cornford, Charles S.; de Wit, Niek J.; Blell, Mwenza T.

    Background. Inconsistencies in doctors' views about causes and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) lead to frustration for doctors and in doctor-patient interactions. Diagnosis by GPs does not correspond well to established diagnostic criteria. Objective. To understand GPs' explanatory

  14. Patients' explanatory models for irritable bowel syndrome : symptoms and treatment more important than explaining aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casiday, Rachel E.; Hungin, A. P. S.; Cornford, Charles S.; de Wit, Niek J.; Blell, Mwenza T.

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition associated with no certain organic cause, though diet and stress are widely implicated. The condition is frustrating for both sufferers and doctors, and there are problems in diagnosing and treating the condition. Eliciting explanatory

  15. Characteristics of acute pain attacks in patients with irritable bowel syndrome meeting Rome III criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, P.M.; Saito, Y.A.; Bytzer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: An international multicenter, prospective, non-interventional, 2-month study characterized acute pain attacks in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods: Adult patients meeting the Rome III IBS diagnostic criteria with a history of 3 pain attacks per month participated i...

  16. A molecular analysis of fecal and mucosal bacterial communities in irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Codling, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this study were, firstly, to determine the diversity of the host\\'s gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using a culture-independent method (DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene) and, secondly, to examine mucosal biopsies of IBS patients and compare them to their own fecal microbiota.

  17. Painful irritable bowel syndrome and diverticulosis. One hypermotile state? Correlation of pain and hypermotility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, Gerrit Homme

    1987-01-01

    Radiological and motility studies of the sigmoid are described in three common conditions: painful irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diverticulosis without and diverticulosis with IBS-like pain. The phenomenon, especially studies in these patients and compared with a control group, was their left

  18. Daily shame and hostile irritability in adolescent girls with borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Whalen, Diana J; Wright, Aidan G C; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulty regulating both shame and anger, and that these emotions may be functionally related in clinically relevant ways (e.g., Schoenleber & Berenbaum, 2012b). The covariation of shame with anger-related emotions has important clinical implications for interventions targeting shame and uncontrolled anger in BPD. However, no studies have examined shame, anger, and their covariation in adolescents who may be at risk for developing BPD. Therefore, this study focuses on associations between BPD symptoms and patterns of covariation between daily experiences of shame and anger-related affects (i.e., hostile irritability) in a community sample of adolescent girls using ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel models revealed that girls with greater BPD symptoms who reported greater mean levels of shame across the week also tended to report more hostile irritability, even after controlling for guilt. Additionally, examination of within-person variability showed that girls with greater BPD symptoms reported more hostile irritability on occasions when they also reported greater concurrent shame, but this was only the case in girls of average socioeconomic status (i.e., those not receiving public assistance). Unlike shame, guilt was not associated with hostile irritability in girls with greater BPD symptoms. Results suggest that shame may be a key clinical target in the treatment of anger-related difficulties among adolescent girls with BPD symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Immunological profile of coeliac disease in a subgroup of patients with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Hela; El Assoued, Youssef; Ghédira, Ibtissem; Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Yacoobi, Mohamed T; Ajmi, Salem

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if authentic cases of irritable bowel syndrome could be secondary in a latent or potential coeliac disease. All new patients who consulted for irritable bowel syndrome fulfilling Rome II criteria between 01/04/2003 and 30/03/2004 were included. All patients had upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy and colonoscopy or enema. Then they were investigated for celiac disease by analysis of serum IgA antigliadin, IgG antigliadin, and endomysial antibodies. One hundred patients with irritable bowel syndrome were included. They had an average age of 45,5 +/- 0,98 and they were 61 women. Clinical signs were dominated by abdominal pains associated to constipation (69% of the cases). Five patients had positive antigliadin antibody (IgG for 2 patients and IgA for 3 patients). None of them had endomysial antibodies nor abnormal duodenal biopsy. This study didn't provide a relation between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome when it is associated to constipation.

  20. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A

    2006-01-01

    % isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. in both HLGP and HV, and in HV also by using nonanoic acid in n...

  1. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Goncalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-01-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact

  2. Irritating, shocking, and intolerable TV programs: Norms, values, and concerns of viewers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelman, A.; Peeters, A.L.; Dijk, J.A.G.M. van

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the negative reactions of Dutch viewers to the content of television programs. The results show that a vast majority is sometimes irritated by TV programs, that a somewhat smaller majority is sometimes shocked by the programs, and that one fifth of the viewing population

  3. Comparison of in vitro predictive tests for irritation induced by anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1995-07-01

    Skin compatibility of anionic surfactants may often but not always be predicted by in vitro tests. For instance, the correlation between in vivo and in vitro data is classically hampered in the presence of magnesium. This ion is known to interfere with in vitro skin irritation predictive tests based on protein denaturation. This study was conducted to compare a recently introduced assay, corneosurfametry, with other in vitro tests including the pH-rise of bovine serum albumin, collagen swelling, and zein solubilization tests. Corneosurfametry entails collection of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and short contact time with surfactants, followed by staining samples with toluidine blue and basic fuchsin dyes. Measurements are made by reflectance colorimetry. Data show that irritation potentials predicted by corneosurfametry agree with those obtained by established in vivo and in vitro irritation tests. Moreover, corneosurfametry data are not artificially lowered by addition of magnesium in surfactant solutions. In conclusion, corneosurfametry should be viewed as one of the realistic predictive tests for surfactant irritancy.

  4. Childhood irritable bowel syndrome characteristics are related to both sex and pubertal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the relationship of both pubertal development and sex to childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical characteristics including gastrointestinal symptoms (eg, abdominal pain) and psychological factors. Cross-sectional study with children ages 7-17 years (n'='143) with a pediatric R...

  5. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  6. The role of abuse in the development of irritable bowel syndrome: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is defined as a chronic relapsing functional bowel disorder of unknown causes which is characterised by attacks of abdominal pain and change of bowel habit resulting in diarrhoea or constipation or both. The prevalence of IBS in the general population of Western countries is 14-24% of ...

  7. Pattern of irritable bowel syndrome and its impact on quality of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common disorders diagnosed by gastroenterologists and a common cause of general practice visits. Although this disease is not life threatening, patients with IBS seem to be seriously affected in their everyday life. The study was designed to explore the pattern ...

  8. Low-FODMAP diet reduces irritable bowel symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a low-FODMAP diet on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This was a randomised controlled open-label trial of patients with IBD in remission or with mild-to-moderate disease and coexisting IBS...

  9. Relative risk of irritable bowel syndrome following acute gastroenteritis and associated risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalcyk, B.K.; Smeets, H.M.; Succop, P.A.; Wit, N.J. de; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study using electronic medical records was undertaken to estimate the relative risk (RR) of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) following acute gastroenteritis (GE) in primary-care patients in The Netherlands and explore risk factors. Patients aged 18–70 years who consulted for GE

  10. Relative risk of irritable bowel syndrome following acute gastroenteritis and associated risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalcyk, B.K.; Smeets, H.M.; Succop, P.A.; de Wit, N.J.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    A prospective cohort study using electronic medical records was undertaken to estimate the relative risk (RR) of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) following acute gastroenteritis (GE) in primary-care patients in The Netherlands and explore risk factors. Patients aged 18–70 years who consulted for GE

  11. Disease burden of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, J.A.; Siersema, P.D.; de Wit, N.J.; Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122

    2010-01-01

    Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) has been established as a sequel of infectious intestinal disease (IID). The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of PI-IBS caused by the pathogens Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella, and to compare this with other outcomes associated

  12. 30 CFR 56.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15006 Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall be provided, maintained in a sanitary...

  13. [A consecutive study of patients with irritable bowel disease in two tertiary referral centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, U; Wanitschke, R; Linhart, P; Börner, N; Bassler, M; Galle, P; Hoffmann, S O

    2001-07-01

    We investigated the nature of illness behavior and the meaning of emotional deficiencies during childhood in patients with irritable bowel diseases (IBS). A consecutive study in two tertiary referral centers was conducted with 48 patients suffering from irritable bowel diseases (IBS) and 91 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The diagnosis of IBS was made by following the Manning criteria, a positive diagnosis of IBD was established through physical, endoscopic and radiologic examinations and was confirmed histologically. Psychological data were obtained by structured psychiatric interviews and psychological self-report measures (GBB). We found that the rate of physician visits given in the course of the disease, is increased for those having irritable bowel disease (IBS). These patients are dissatisfied with the physicians and prone to psychophysiological complaint. In the daily routine and in occupation they are more impaired than those with inflammatory disease. This finding emphasizes in particular that patients with irritable bowel diseases (IBS) have experienced emotional deficiencies in childhood as an after effect of loss, divorce of the parents etc. Implications for doctor-patient relationship and the necessity for epidemiological studies in Germany are discussed.

  14. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  15. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Mohamed Sammour

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome--prognosis and diagnostic safety. A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Munck, L K; Andersen, J R

    1985-01-01

    with irritable bowel syndrome as the final and only abdominal diagnosis in the period 1977-79 were followed up in 1984. Seventeen patients died during the follow-up period; two of these were considered diagnostic failures (chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer). Of the remaining 95 patients, 93 were...

  17. Serological screening for celiac disease in adult Chinese patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hongling); G. Zhou (Guoying); L. Luo (Linjie); J.B.A. Crusius; A. Yuan (Anlong); J. Kou (Jiguang); G. Yang (Guifang); M. Wang (Min); J. Wu (Jing); B.M.E. von Blomberg (Mary); S.A. Morré (Servaas); A. Salvador Pena; B. Xia (Bing)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCeliac disease (CD) is common in Caucasians, but thought to be rare in Asians. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of CD in Chinese patients with chronic diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). From July 2010 to August 2012, 395 adult patients with IBS-D and 363 age

  18. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single

  19. Burnout Among Chinese Adult Reconstructive Surgeons: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Intraoperative Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanlong; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin

    2017-11-03

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations, mainly characterizing in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. There is very limited research dealing with burnout in orthopedic surgeons. Exploring burnout prevalence, risk factors, and intraoperative irritability-related incidences is necessary to improve the quality of life for surgeons. The study population consisted of 202 registered adult reconstructive doctors in China. Burnout was measured using a normalized translated version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Demographics, professional characteristics, and intraoperative irritability-related questions were also collected by electronic questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The overall rate of burnout was 85.1%. Variables significantly associated with high emotional exhaustion scores included poor sleeping time per day (P = .008), more nights on call per week (P = .048), and absence of research (P = .014). For depersonalization, absence of marriage (P burnout, especially in emotional exhaustion. Residents were the population having the least opportunities to lose temper in operation. Burnout is highly prevalent in Chinese adult reconstructive surgeons, and it had some correlations with irritability. Further research is needed to determine more risk factors and reduce intraoperative irritability-related incidences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  1. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…

  2. AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS, PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, AND LUNG-FUNCTION IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO IRRITANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KREMER, AM; PAL, TM; BOLEIJ, JSM; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic

  3. Associations among gut permeability, inflammatory markers, and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and immune measures are present in some patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but the relationship to symptoms is poorly defined. In adults with IBS, we compared permeability, unstimulated peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC) interleukin-10 (IL-10...

  4. New psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Sánchez, Beatriz; Gil Roales-Nieto, Jesús; Ferreira, Nuno Bravo; Gil Luciano, Bárbara; Sebastián Domingo, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than placebo attention control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.

  5. TRPV4 is necessary for trigeminal irritant pain and functions as a cellular formalin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Kanju, Patrick; Fang, Quan; Lee, Suk Hee; Parekh, Puja K; Lee, Whasil; Moore, Carlene; Brenner, Daniel; Gereau, Robert W; Wang, Fan; Liedtke, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Detection of external irritants by head nociceptor neurons has deep evolutionary roots. Irritant-induced aversive behavior is a popular pain model in laboratory animals. It is used widely in the formalin model, where formaldehyde is injected into the rodent paw, eliciting quantifiable nocifensive behavior that has a direct, tissue-injury-evoked phase, and a subsequent tonic phase caused by neural maladaptation. The formalin model has elucidated many antipain compounds and pain-modulating signaling pathways. We have adopted this model to trigeminally innervated territories in mice. In addition, we examined the involvement of TRPV4 channels in formalin-evoked trigeminal pain behavior because TRPV4 is abundantly expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) sensory neurons, and because we have recently defined TRPV4's role in response to airborne irritants and in a model for temporomandibular joint pain. We found TRPV4 to be important for trigeminal nocifensive behavior evoked by formalin whisker pad injections. This conclusion is supported by studies with Trpv4(-/-) mice and TRPV4-specific antagonists. Our results imply TRPV4 in MEK-ERK activation in TG sensory neurons. Furthermore, cellular studies in primary TG neurons and in heterologous TRPV4-expressing cells suggest that TRPV4 can be activated directly by formalin to gate Ca(2+). Using TRPA1-blocker and Trpa1(-/-) mice, we found that both TRP channels co-contribute to the formalin trigeminal pain response. These results imply TRPV4 as an important signaling molecule in irritation-evoked trigeminal pain. TRPV4-antagonistic therapies can therefore be envisioned as novel analgesics, possibly for specific targeting of trigeminal pain disorders, such as migraine, headaches, temporomandibular joint, facial, and dental pain, and irritation of trigeminally innervated surface epithelia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bronchial asthma and COPD due to irritants in the workplace - an evidence-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Xaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory irritants represent a major cause of occupational obstructive airway diseases. We provide an overview of the evidence related to irritative agents causing occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Methods We searched MEDLINE via PubMed. Reference lists of relevant reviews were also screened. The SIGN grading system was used to rate the quality of each study. The modified RCGP three-star system was used to grade the body of evidence for each irritant agent regarding its causative role in either occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Results A total of 474 relevant papers were identified, covering 188 individual agents, professions or work-sites. The focus of most of the studies and the predominant diagnosis was occupational asthma, whereas occupational COPD arose only incidentally. The highest level assigned using the SIGN grading was 2+ (well-conducted systematic review, cohort or case–control study with a low risk of confounding or bias. According to the modified RCGP three-star grading, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent, profession or work-site (“**” was found for 17 agents or work-sites, including benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylicacid-1,2-anhydride, chlorine, platinum salt, isocyanates, cement dust, grain dust, animal farming, environmental tobacco smoke, welding fumes or construction work. Phthalic anhydride, glutaraldehyde, sulphur dioxide, cotton dust, cleaning agents, potrooms, farming (various, foundries were found to be moderately associated with occupational asthma or occupational COPD (“*[+]”. Conclusion This study let us assume that irritant-induced occupational asthma and especially occupational COPD are considerably underreported. Defining the evidence of the many additional occupational irritants for causing airway disorders will be the subject of continued studies with implications for diagnostics and preventive measures.

  7. Contribution of Blastocystishominis subtypes and associated inflammatory factors in development of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Marzieh; Basati, Gholam; Abangah, Ghobad; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Mirzaei, Asad

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis hominis with worldwide distribution is a human intestinal protozoa found in all countries. There have been differences in the severity of the pathogenesis of various Blastocystis spp. and a concomitant variation in the plasma concentration of the cytokines in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the contribution of B. hominis subtypes in the development of irritable bowel syndrome. Stool samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders. All samples were evaluated through native-lugol method. Total DNA was extracted. A PCR protocol was developed to amplify a specific region of the SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by immunoassay methods. The ClustalW algorithm was applied to align and blast the nucleotide sequences of the amplified region of the SSU rDNA gene. To evaluate the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary of the nucleotide sequences, we used the MEGA software. In this study, we found 26 haplotypes of B. hominis in the studied samples which were collectively belong to five subtypes (ST1, ST2 in patients without irritable bowel syndrome vs. ST3 and two unknown subtypes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome). Result of ELISA showed a high level of IL-6 and TNF-α in the serum of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The genetic heterogeneity of B. hominis and the existence of different subtypes of the protozoan in patients with IBS may shed light to the fact that some subtypes of parasites may involve in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  8. Improved irritative voiding symptoms 3 years after stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Zaker; Cyr, Robyn A; Chen, Leonard N; Kim, Brian S; Moures, Rudy A; Yung, Thomas M; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Irritative voiding symptoms are common in elderly men and following prostate radiotherapy. There is limited clinical data on the impact of hypofractionated treatment on irritative voiding symptoms. This study sought to evaluate urgency, frequency, and nocturia following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer. Patients treated with SBRT monotherapy for localized prostate cancer from August 2007 to July 2011 at Georgetown University Hospital were included in this study. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife(®) with doses of 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. Patient-reported urinary symptoms were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-treatment and every 6 months thereafter. Two hundred four patients at a median age of 69 years received SBRT with a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Prior to treatment, 50.0% of patients reported moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and 17.7% felt that urinary frequency was a moderate to big problem. The mean prostate volume was 39 cc and 8% had prior procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A mean baseline IPSS-irritative (IPSS-I) score of 4.8 significantly increased to 6.5 at 1 month (p big problem at 3 years post-SBRT (p = 0.23). Treatment of prostate cancer with SBRT resulted in an acute increase in irritative urinary symptoms that peaked within the first month post-treatment. Irritative voiding symptoms returned to baseline in the majority of patients by 3 months post-SBRT and were actually improved from baseline at 3 years post-SBRT.

  9. The volatility of stock market prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, R J

    1987-01-02

    If the volatility of stock market prices is to be understood in terms of the efficient markets hypothesis, then there should be evidence that true investment value changes through time sufficiently to justify the price changes. Three indicators of change in true investment value of the aggregate stock market in the United States from 1871 to 1986 are considered: changes in dividends, in real interest rates, and in a direct measure of intertemporal marginal rates of substitution. Although there are some ambiguities in interpreting the evidence, dividend changes appear to contribute very little toward justifying the observed historical volatility of stock prices. The other indicators contribute some, but still most of the volatility of stock market prices appears unexplained.

  10. Modelling Stock Market Volatility: Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanithy Banumathy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the volatility pattern of Indian stock market based on time series data which consists of daily closing prices of S&P CNX Nifty Index for ten years period from 1st January 2003 to 31st December 2012. The analysis has been done using both symmetric and asymmetric models of Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH. As per Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC, the study proves that GARCH (1,1 and TGARCH (1,1 estimations are found to be most appropriate model to capture the symmetric and asymmetric volatility respectively. The study also provides evidence for the existence of a positive and insignificant risk premium as per GARCH-M (1,1 model. The asymmetric effect (leverage captured by the parameter of EGARCH (1,1 and TGARCH (1,1 models show that negative shocks have significant effect on conditional variance (volatility.

  11. On the non-causal link between volatility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf; Wälde, Klaus

    di er both in their volatility and growth. Using a continuous-time DSGE model with plausible parametric restrictions, we obtain closedform measures of macro volatility based on cyclical components and output growth rates. Given our results, empirical volatility-growth analysis should include controls......A model highlighting the endogeneity of both volatility and growth is presented. Volatility and growth are therefore correlated but there is no causal link from volatility to growth. This joint endogeneity is illustrated by working out the effects through which economies with different tax levels...

  12. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

    2014-07-22

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

  13. Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychosocial consequences of VSM, including emerging public health threats, and (5) etiological and contextual considerations of VSM use. Implications for future research and practice with volatile substance misusers in the United States are identified.

  14. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong...

  15. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento; Godofredo Cesar Vitti; Letícia de Abreu Faria; Pedro Henrique de Cerqueira Luz; Fernanda Latanze Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in s...

  16. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  17. Frequency of irritable bowel syndrome, entrance examination-related stress, mental health, and quality of life in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Lim, Sunyoung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine entrance examination-related stress, mental health, and the quality of life of high school students with and without irritable bowel syndrome. We administered a descriptive survey by collecting data from 1,877 students from eight schools in Gyeonggi province, Korea. This study employed the Rome III criteria for the assessment of irritable bowel syndrome, an entrance examination stress scale for measuring entrance examination-related stress, the revised Symptom Checklist-90-Revised for measuring mental health, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version for measuring the quality of life. The frequency of irritable bowel syndrome in students was 19.0%. A majority had a mixed constipation and diarrhea subtype of irritable bowel syndrome. Compared with the high school students without irritable bowel syndrome, those with irritable bowel syndrome reported a significantly higher score on the entrance examination stress scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version. Results suggest support for creating a high school education program that provides knowledge and information about irritable bowel syndrome to students. Furthermore, it is important to explore suitable therapeutic approaches and nursing interventions for this population.

  18. Clinical and Physiological Correlates of Irritability in Depression: Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor E. A. Verhoeven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Irritable and nonirritable depressed patients differ on demographic and clinical characteristics. We investigated whether this extends to psychological and physiological measures. Method. We compared irritable and nonirritable unipolar depressed patients on symptomatology, personality, and (psychophysiological measures (cortisol, cholesterol, and heart rate variability. Symptomatology was reassessed after one year, and we also compared depressed patients who were irritable or non-irritable at both time points (Irr++ versus Irr−−. Results. Almost half (46%; N=420 of the sample was classified as irritable. These patients scored higher on depression severity, anxiety, hypomanic symptoms, and psychological variables. No differences were observed on physiological markers after correction for depression severity. The same pattern was found when comparing Irr++ and Irr−− groups. Conclusion. Irritable and non-irritable depressed patients differ on clinical and psychological variables, but not on the currently investigated physiological markers. The clinical relevance of the distinction and the significance of the hypomanic symptoms remain to be demonstrated.

  19. Multicenter study to evaluate efficacy and irritation potential of benzoyl peroxide 4% cream in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl in acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawleshwarkar S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this multicenter, open, non-comparative study, the efficacy and irritation potential of 4% benzoyl peroxide cream in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl was evaluated for the treatment of acne vulgaris. All evaluable patients (n=567 received treatment with 4% benzoyl peroxide cream in hydrophase base for six weeks. The investigators evaluated the patients at baseline and at 1,2,4 & 6 weeks. Patients also rated their improvement and adverse effects. Doctor′s assessment showed that at the end of 6′h week 85.6% had good to very good effect of the treatment. The profile of side effects observed by doctors revealed that 53.8% of total patients did not have any irritation whereas only 11.6% had moderate to severe irritation. 53.8% of patients did not report any irritation: 41.4% had some irritation whereas only 4.8% patients reported troublesome irritation. A satisfactory response was reported as ear;y as two weeks and most of the patients had a very satisfactory response after six weeks and were willing to continue the treatment. This supports the theory that the hydrophase formulation in ′Brevoxyl helped to enhance efficacy and decrease the irritation associated with use of benzoyl peroxide.

  20. Patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome: an analysis based on narrative and feminist theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Ida; Simrén, Magnus; Ringström, Gisela; Jakobsson Ung, Eva

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder with symptoms such as abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits, the cause of which is not completely known. Treatments options are limited, and healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome have been described as unsatisfying and frustrating for both patients and professional healthcare providers. Furthermore, the influence of power on healthcare encounters has long been recognised, especially regarding the disadvantaged position of those suffering from functional illness which cannot be identified by commonly used tests or investigations. We interviewed 10 patients during 2014, all attending an outpatient clinic and suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome. Relying on narrative and feminist theory, we explored how they actively negotiate professional discourse communicated to them in the clinical encounter. The patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome were mostly described as negative, and often induced feelings of confusion and self-doubt. Positive encounters were described as being listened to, believed and taken seriously. Narrators found it especially problematic when healthcare professionals described irritable bowel syndrome as a minor disorder with primarily stress or psychological aetiology and put the responsibility for recovery onto the patient. Patients' actively negotiated such professional discourse by presenting a counternarrative describing their own suffering and strengths, experienced healthcare shortcomings and possible organic aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome described how they often felt a need to protect their positive identities in the face of trivialisation and disbelief by healthcare professionals. A deepened understanding of patients' experiences of healthcare

  1. Volatile sulphur compounds in UHT milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attabi, Z; D'Arcy, B R; Deeth, H C

    2009-01-01

    Several volatile sulphur compounds have been detected in raw and processed milk. These are hydrogen sulphide, methanethiol, carbonyl sulphide, dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, dimethyl sulphoxide, and dimethyl sulphone. Many of these increase in milk during heat processing and are associated with the cooked flavor of heat-treated milks, particularly UHT and sterilized milk. Several researchers have attempted to explain the origin of these volatiles in both raw and processed milk, and how to reduce the associated cooked flavor that has a negative impact on consumer acceptability of processed milk. These compounds are difficult to detect and analyze due to their high volatility, sensitivity to oxidation and heat, and in some cases, their very low concentrations. However, methods of detection and quantification have improved in recent years. Pre-concentration methods such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) together with gas chromatography equipped with sulphur-selective detectors now enable low concentrations of these compounds to be analyzed. In this review, methods of extraction and analyzes of these volatile sulphur compounds are compared, and their occurrence in milk is reviewed.

  2. Volume, Volatility and Public News Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Jia; Xue, Yuan

    We provide new empirical evidence for the way in which financial markets process information. Our results are based on high-frequency intraday data along with new econometric techniques for making inference on the relationship between trading intensity and spot volatility around public news...

  3. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  4. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 – 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. beta...

  5. Volatiles Of Lysimachia Paridiformis Var. Stenophylla, Lysimachia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stenophylla, accounting for 89.17% of the total volatile fraction. The main constituents were ethanol (13.58%), and β-ionone (8.05%). linalool and β-ionone were the main aroma constituents in L. paridiformis var. Stenophylla. Twenty-one compounds were identified in the leaves of L. fortumei, accounting for 94.72% of the ...

  6. Volatile communication between fungi and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Ruth Lydia

    2017-01-01

    If you are small, smells are a good way to stand out. Soil microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, produce an array of pleasant or repelling odors, also known as volatile compounds. These compounds can easily travel through the abundant air- and water-filled pockets of the soil, mediating

  7. Volatile components from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Koulman, A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Pras, N.

    2002-01-01

    The volatile components of fresh leaves and roots from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., obtained through hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. This was compared to dichloromethane extracts of both fresh and dried leaf and root material. The monoterpene fraction (69-70%) dominated,

  8. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots) and some oxygenated ...

  9. Managing and Harnessing Volatile Oil Windfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, T.S.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2013-01-01

    Three funds are necessary to manage an oil windfall: intergenerational, liquidity, and investment funds. The optimal liquidity fund is bigger if the windfall lasts longer and oil price volatility, prudence, and the GDP share of oil rents are high and productivity growth is low. The paper applies the

  10. Asymmetric volatility connectedness on the forex market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-56 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14179S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : volatility * connectedness * asymmetric effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.853, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/barunik-0478477.pdf

  11. short communication chemical investigation of the volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa. L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GCHVIS and lH NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots) and some ...

  12. Volatile-mediated interactions in the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordovez da Cunha, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Plants and microorganisms are constantly engaged in highly dynamic interactions both above- and belowground. Several of these interactions are mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), small carbon-based compounds with high vapor pressure at ambient temperature. In the rhizosphere, VOCs have an

  13. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  14. Networks of volatility spillovers among stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumöhl, Eduard; Kočenda, Evžen; Lyócsa, Štefan; Výrost, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    In our network analysis of 40 developed, emerging and frontier stock markets during the 2006-2014 period, we describe and model volatility spillovers during both the global financial crisis and tranquil periods. The resulting market interconnectedness is depicted by fitting a spatial model incorporating several exogenous characteristics. We document the presence of significant temporal proximity effects between markets and somewhat weaker temporal effects with regard to the US equity market - volatility spillovers decrease when markets are characterized by greater temporal proximity. Volatility spillovers also present a high degree of interconnectedness, which is measured by high spatial autocorrelation. This finding is confirmed by spatial regression models showing that indirect effects are much stronger than direct effects; i.e., market-related changes in 'neighboring' markets (within a network) affect volatility spillovers more than changes in the given market alone, suggesting that spatial effects simply cannot be ignored when modeling stock market relationships. Our results also link spillovers of escalating magnitude with increasing market size, market liquidity and economic openness.

  15. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE VOLATILE OIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oil of Murraya keonigii was active against Staphylococcus epidemidis, S. aureus, and Streptococcus specie while the aqueous extract was not active. Key Words: Murraya koenigii, Rutaceae, antibacterial activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 44-45 ...

  17. On the Economic Evaluation of Volatility Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voev, Valeri

    We analyze the applicability of economic criteria for volatility forecast evaluation based on unconditional measures of portfolio performance. The main theoretical finding is that such unconditional measures generally fail to rank conditional forecasts correctly due to the presence of a bias term...... data is likely to be understated if unconditional criteria are used....

  18. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  19. Volatile constituents and behavioral change induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ('Java citronella') is an important essential oil yielding aromatic grass cultivated in India and Brazil and its volatile essential oils extracted from its leaves are used in perfumery, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and flavoring industries. However, there is no report on any psychopharmacological ...

  20. Some volatile constituents of female dog urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T H; Kruse, S M; Flath, R A

    1985-02-01

    The volatile compounds from female beagle urine, across the state of estrus, were examined by headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were methyl propyl sulfide, methyl butyl sulfide, and acetone. Nine minor constituents, including trimethyl amine and five disulfides, were identified. Two of the unidentified minor constituents may possibly be associated with the state of estrus.

  1. The expanded tomato fruit volatile landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambla, J.L.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Monforte, A.J.; Bovy, A.G.; Granell, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present review aims to synthesize our present knowledge about the mechanisms implied in the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in the ripe tomato fruit, which have a key role in tomato flavour. The difficulties in identifiying not only genes or genomic regions but also individual target

  2. Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

  3. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kshale

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Isidorov VA, Vinogorova VT, Rafalowski K (2003). HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter. Atm. Environ. 37:4645-4650. Jespersen L (2003). Occurrence and taxonomic characteristics of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae predominant in African indigenous fermented ...

  4. Modeling volatility using state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, J; Weigend, A S

    1997-08-01

    In time series problems, noise can be divided into two categories: dynamic noise which drives the process, and observational noise which is added in the measurement process, but does not influence future values of the system. In this framework, we show that empirical volatilities (the squared relative returns of prices) exhibit a significant amount of observational noise. To model and predict their time evolution adequately, we estimate state space models that explicitly include observational noise. We obtain relaxation times for shocks in the logarithm of volatility ranging from three weeks (for foreign exchange) to three to five months (for stock indices). In most cases, a two-dimensional hidden state is required to yield residuals that are consistent with white noise. We compare these results with ordinary autoregressive models (without a hidden state) and find that autoregressive models underestimate the relaxation times by about two orders of magnitude since they do not distinguish between observational and dynamic noise. This new interpretation of the dynamics of volatility in terms of relaxators in a state space model carries over to stochastic volatility models and to GARCH models, and is useful for several problems in finance, including risk management and the pricing of derivative securities. Data sets used: Olsen & Associates high frequency DEM/USD foreign exchange rates (8 years). Nikkei 225 index (40 years). Dow Jones Industrial Average (25 years).

  5. Macroeconomic Volatility, Institutions and Financial Architectures ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-03-14

    Mar 14, 2008 ... The deregulation of domestic financial markets and the capital account in developing countries has frequently been associated with financial turmoil and macro volatility. The book analyzes the experiences of several countries, drawing implications for building development-friendly domestic and ...

  6. Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlieb Beth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome affects as many as 14% of high school-aged students. Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life and daily functioning. Emotional stress appears to exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial. For many sufferers, symptoms can be traced to childhood and adolescence, making the early manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome important to understand. The current study will focus on young people aged 14-26 years with irritable bowel syndrome. The study will test the potential benefits of Iyengar yoga on clinical symptoms, psychospiritual functioning and visceral sensitivity. Yoga is thought to bring physical, psychological and spiritual benefits to practitioners and has been associated with reduced stress and pain. Through its focus on restoration and use of props, Iyengar yoga is especially designed to decrease arousal and promote psychospiritual resources in physically compromised individuals. An extensive and standardized teacher-training program support Iyengar yoga's reliability and safety. It is hypothesized that yoga will be feasible with less than 20% attrition; and the yoga group will demonstrate significantly improved outcomes compared to controls, with physiological and psychospiritual mechanisms contributing to improvements. Methods/Design Sixty irritable bowel syndrome patients aged 14-26 will be randomly assigned to a standardized 6-week twice weekly Iyengar yoga group-based program or a wait-list usual care control group. The groups will be compared on the primary clinical outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, quality of life and global improvement at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include visceral pain sensitivity assessed with a standardized

  7. Does implied volatility of currency futures option imply volatility of exchange rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alan T.

    2007-02-01

    By investigating currency futures options, this paper provides an alternative economic implication for the result reported by Stein [Overreactions in the options market, Journal of Finance 44 (1989) 1011-1023] that long-maturity options tend to overreact to changes in the implied volatility of short-maturity options. When a GARCH process is assumed for exchange rates, a continuous-time relationship is developed. We provide evidence that implied volatilities may not be the simple average of future expected volatilities. By comparing the term-structure relationship of implied volatilities with the process of the underlying exchange rates, we find that long-maturity options are more consistent with the exchange rates process. In sum, short-maturity options overreact to the dynamics of underlying assets rather than long-maturity options overreacting to short-maturity options.

  8. THREE-POINT VOLATILITY SMILE CLASSIFICATION: EVIDENCE FROM THE WARSOW STOCK EXCHANGE DURING VOLATILE SUMMER 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Machado, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the behavior of the smile in the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE during the volatile summer of 2011.We investigate the volatility smile derived from liquid call and put options on the Polish WIG20 index which option series expired on September 2011. In this period, the polish index has dropped about 20% in two weeks time. By linear interpolation, implied volatilities for moneyness points needed were calculated, then we construct 355 smile curves for calls and puts options to study and make some kind of smile-types classification. We propose seventeen types-smiles which represent all possible cases of three points (three moneynesses graphical patterns. This classification is made basing upon relationship higher/equal/lower values of implied volatility for each of three points. Furthermore, we distinguish the convexity of pattern. We can note that smiles, smirks and ups are convex in shape, while reversed ones and downs are concave functions.

  9. Long memory and tail dependence in trading volume and volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between volatility, measured by realized volatility, and trading volume for 25 NYSE stocks. We show that volume and volatility are long memory but not fractionally cointegrated in most cases. We also find right tail dependence in the volatility and volume innovations......, say long memory, marginal non-normality and tail dependence. A simulation and forecasting exercise highlight the importance of modeling both long memory and tail dependence to capture extreme events....

  10. Microbial volatile emissions as insect semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Crippen, Tawni L; Hofstetter, Richard W; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-07-01

    We provide a synthesis of the literature describing biochemical interactions between microorganisms and insects by way of microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) production. We evaluated the functionality and ecological context of MVOC signals, and explored important metabolic pathways involved in MVOC production. The cosmopolitan distribution of microorganisms creates a context for frequent, and frequently overlooked, insect responses to microbial emissions. There are numerous instances of MVOCs being closely associated with insect feeding behaviors, but some MVOCs are also powerful repellants. Emissions from microorganisms in situ may signal aspects of habitat suitability or potential exposure to entomopathogens. In some ecosystems, bacterial or fungal volatiles can also incite insect aggregations, or MVOCs can resemble sexual pheromones that elicit mating and oviposition behaviors from responding insects. A single microorganism or MVOC can have different effects on insect behaviors, especially across species, ontogenies, and habitats. There appears to be a multipartite basis for insect responses to MVOCs, and complex tritrophic interactions can result from the production of MVOCs. Many biochemical pathways for behaviorally active volatile production by microbial species are conserved across large taxonomic groupings of microorganisms. In addition, there is substantial functional redundancy in MVOCs: fungal tissues commonly produce polyketides and short-chain alcohols, whereas bacterial tissues tend to be more commonly associated with amines and pyrazines. We hypothesize that insect olfactory responses to emissions from microorganisms inhabiting their sensory environment are much more common than currently recognized, and that these signals represent evolutionarily reliable infochemicals. Insect chemoreception of microbial volatiles may contribute to the formation of neutral, beneficial, or even harmful symbioses and provide considerable insight into the

  11. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  12. The Forecast Performance of Competing Implied Volatility Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiaras, Leonidas

    volatility (CIV) measures are explored. For all pair-wise comparisons, it is found that a CIV measure that is closely related to the model-free implied volatility, nearly always delivers the most accurate forecasts for the majority of the firms. This finding remains consistent for different forecast horizons......, volatility definitions, loss functions and forecast evaluation settings....

  13. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  14. Chemical composition of volatile constituents from the leaves of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile compounds oils play a significant role in perfumery, cosmetic, medicinal and pharmaceutical industries. In our protracted research for new useful essential oils, a volatile oil from Aloe ferox was obtained by prolonged hydrodistillation. This volatile oil was subjected to GC/MS analysis to identify the major constituents ...

  15. The Volatility Effect: Lower Risk without Lower Return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe present empirical evidence that stocks with low volatility earn high risk-adjusted returns. The annual alpha spread of global low versus high volatility decile portfolios amounts to 12% over the 1986-2006 period. We also observe this volatility effect within the US, European and

  16. Chemical composition of volatile constituents from the leaves of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... Volatile compounds oils play a significant role in perfumery, cosmetic, medicinal and pharmaceutical industries. In our protracted research for new useful essential oils, a volatile oil from Aloe ferox was obtained by prolonged hydrodistillation. This volatile oil was subjected to GC/MS analysis to identify.

  17. 40 CFR 53.66 - Test procedure: Volatility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Volatility test. 53.66... Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.66 Test procedure: Volatility test. (a) Overview. This test is designed to ensure that the candidate method's losses due to volatility when sampling semi...

  18. Does Interest rate Exposure explain the Low-Volatility Anomaly?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo; Beilo, R.

    We show that part of the outperformance of low-volatility stocks can be explained by a premium for interest rate exposure. Low-volatility stock portfolios have negative exposure to interest rates, whereas the more volatile stocks have positive exposure. Incorporating an interest rate premium

  19. The determinants of real exchange rate volatility in Nigeria | Ajao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The naira exchange rate depreciation and volatility is among the vast macroeconomic maladjustments which have unfolded in the Nigerian economy in the recent past. This paper therefore, investigates the determinants of real exchange rate volatility in Nigeria from 1981 through 2008. Having obtained the volatility of ...

  20. Emerald ash borer responses to induced plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Therese M. Poland; James Miller; Lukasz Stelinski; Linda Buchan; Gary Grant; Peter de Groot; Linda MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Herbivore feeding and methyl jasmonate, a volatile derivative of the stress-eliciting plant hormone, jasmonic acid, induce responses in plants which include the synthesis and emission of volatiles. These induced volatiles can serve to attract or repel herbivores; therefore, they may have potential use in pest management programs. The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB),...