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Sample records for volatile element contents

  1. On the volatile enrichments and heavy element content in HD 189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Petit, J -M; Zahnle, K; Biennier, L; Picaud, S; Johnson, T V; Mitchell, J B A; Boudon, V; Cordier, D; Devel, M; Georges, R; Griffith, C; Iro, N; Marley, M S; Marboeuf, U

    2010-01-01

    Favored theories of giant planet formation center around two main paradigms, namely the core accretion model and the gravitational instability model. These two formation scenarios support the hypothesis that the giant planet metallicities should be higher or equal to that of the parent star. Meanwhile, spectra of the transiting hot Jupiter HD189733b suggest that carbon and oxygen abundances range from depleted to enriched with respect to the star. Here, using a model describing the formation sequence and composition of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk, we determine the range of volatile abundances in the envelope of HD189733b that is consistent with the 20--80 Earth-masses of heavy elements estimated to be present in the planet's envelope. We then compare the inferred carbon and oxygen abundances to those retrieved from spectroscopy and we find a range of supersolar values that directly fit both spectra and internal structure models. In some cases, we find that the apparent contradiction between the s...

  2. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Siderophile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickodem, K.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently several hypotheses on the origin of volatile siderophile elements in the Earth. One hypothesis is that they were added during Earth s accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core [1], others claim multiple stage origin [2], while some hypothesize that volatiles were added after the core already formed [3]. Several volatile siderophile elements are depleted in Earth s mantle relative to the chondrites, something which continues to puzzle many scientists. This depletion is likely due to a combination of volatility and core formation. The Earth s core is composed of Fe and some lighter constituents, although the abundances of these lighter elements are unknown [4]. Si is one of these potential light elements [5] although few studies have analyzed the effect of Si on metal-silicate partitioning, in particular the volatile elements. As, In, Ge, and Sb are trace volatile siderophile elements which are depleted in the mantle but have yet to be extensively studied. The metal-silicate partition coefficients of these elements will be measured to determine the effect of Si. Partition coefficients depend on temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition and can constrain the concentrations of volatile, siderophile elements found in the mantle. Reported here are the results from 13 experiments examining the partitioning of As, In, Ge, and Sb between metallic and silicate liquid. These experiments will examine the effect of temperature, and metal-composition (i.e., Si content) on these elements in or-der to gain a greater understanding of the core-mantle separation which occurred during the Earth s early stages. The data can then be applied to the origin of volatile elements in the Earth.

  3. Mars Accreted a Volatile Element-Depleted Late Veneer Indicating Early Delivery of Martian Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Wang, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Chalcophile elements in SNC meteorites are used to constrain abundances in the Martian mantle. Strong depletion of Te relative to highly siderophile elements suggests a volatile element-depleted late veneer, requiring that volatiles arrived earlier.

  4. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  5. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-ji; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; XIAO Rui; TANG Zhi-yong; REN Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and flyash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements wereinvestigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. Onecoefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. Theseelements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile.Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be locatedbetween groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, themore relative enrichment of trace elements( except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms oftrace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of traceelements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not alwaysimprove the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Traceelements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  6. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R.; Hauri, Erik H.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Berger, Eve L.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Marschall, Horst R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the 207Pb-206Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  7. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Hauri, Erik H; McCubbin, Francis M; Lapen, Thomas J; Berger, Eve L; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; Gaetani, Glenn A; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-05-28

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the (207)Pb-(206)Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

    2014-01-01

    Depletions of siderophile elements in mantles have placed constraints on the conditions on core segregation and differentiation in bodies such as Earth, Earth's Moon, Mars, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Among the siderophile elements there are a sub-set that are also volatile (volatile siderophile elements or VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd), and thus can help to constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and in particular the Earth and Moon. One of the fundamental observations of the geochemistry of the Moon is the overall depletion of volatile elements relative to the Earth, but a satisfactory explanation has remained elusive. Hypotheses for Earth include addition during accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core, multiple stage origin, or addition after the core formed. Any explanation for volatile elements in the Earth's mantle must also be linked to an explanation of these elements in the lunar mantle. New metal-silicate partitioning data will be applied to the origin of volatile elements in both the Earth and Moon, and will evaluate theories for exogenous versus endogenous origin of volatile elements.

  9. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  10. Determination of Trace and Volatile Element Abundance Systematics of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses 74220 and 15426 Using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. Carrie; Porrachia, Magali; McCubbin, Francis M.; Day, James M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Since their recognition as pyroclastic glasses generated by volcanic fire fountaining on the Moon, 74220 and 15426 have garnered significant scientific interest. Early studies recognized that the glasses were particularly enriched in volatile elements on their surfaces. More recently, detailed analyses of the interiors of the glasses, as well as of melt inclusions within olivine grains associated with the 74220 glass beads, have determined high H2O, F, Cl and S contents. Such elevated volatile contents seem at odds with evidence from moderately volatile elements (MVE), such as Zn and K, for a volatile- depleted Moon. In this study, we present initial results from an analytical campaign to study trace element abundances within the pyroclastic glass beads. We report trace element data determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for 15426 and 74220.

  11. Effect of volatile elements on porosity formation in solidifying alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, G.; Rappaz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Besides dissolved gases such as hydrogen, the partial vapour pressure of volatile solute elements, such as zinc, has been accounted for in equations governing the nucleation and growth of pores in solidifying alloys. In particular, a simple analytical solution giving the porosity fraction as a function of the fraction of solid is proposed. This solution is then used to study the influence of zinc on porosity formation in aluminium- and copper-base alloys. It is shown that the zinc vapour pressure is too low to increase the porosity of aluminium-base alloys, whereas it has a significant effect in brasses. Implementing this contribution into an existing software which calculates the pressure drop in the mushy zone and the segregation of dissolved gases, simulations have been performed in order to assess in more realistic situations the influence of volatile solute elements on porosity.

  12. Size-dependence of volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon content in phytoplankton cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRuiz-Halpern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SOC, measured as exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC, was quantified in 9 phytoplanktonic species that spanned 4 orders of magnitude in cell volume, by disrupting the cells and quantifying the gaseous organic carbon released. EDOC content varied 4 orders of magnitude, from 0.0015 to 14.12 pg C cell-1 in the species studied and increased linearly with increasing phytoplankton cell volume following the equation EDOC (pg C cell-1 = -2.35 x cellular volume (CV, µm3 cell-1 0.90 (± 0.3, with a slope (0.90 not different from 1 indicating a constant increase in volatile carbon as the cell size of phytoplankton increased. The percentage of EDOC relative to total cellular carbon was small but varied 20 fold from 0.28 % to 5.17 %, and no obvious taxonomic pattern in the content of EDOC was appreciable for the species tested. The cell release rate of EDOC is small compared to the amount of carbon in the cell and difficult to capture. Nonetheless, the results point to a potential flux of volatile and semivolatile phytoplankton-derived organic carbon to the atmosphere that has been largely underestimated and deserves further attention in the future.

  13. Zinc and volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    Zinc is a moderately volatile element and a key tracer of volatile depletion on planetary bodies due to lack of significant isotopic fractionation under high-temperature processes. Terrestrial basalts have δ66Zn values similar to some chondrites (+ 0.15 to 0.3‰ where [{66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64ZnJMC-Lyon-1} × 1000]) and elevated Zn concentrations (100 ppm). Lunar mare basalts yield a mean δ66Zn value of +1.4 ± 0.5‰ and have low Zn concentrations (~2 ppm). Late-stage lunar magmatic products, such as ferroan anorthosite, Mg-suite and Alkali suite rocks exhibit heavier δ66Zn values (+3 to +6‰). The heavy δ66Zn lunar signature is thought to reflect evaporative loss and fractionation of zinc, either during a giant impact or in a magma ocean phase.We explore conditions of volatile element loss within a lunar magma ocean (LMO) using models of Zn isotopic fractionation that are widely applicable to planetary magma oceans. For the Moon, our objective was to identify conditions that would yield a δ66Zn signature of ~ +1.4‰ within the mantle, assuming a terrestrial mantle zinc starting composition.We examine two cases of zinc evaporative fractionation: (1) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was completed prior to LMO crystallization and (2) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was concurrent with LMO crystallization. The first case resulted in a homogeneous lunar mantle and the second case yielded a stratified lunar mantle, with the greatest zinc isotopic enrichment in late-stage crystallization products. This latter case reproduces the distribution of zinc isotope compositions in lunar materials quite well.We find that hydrodynamic escape was not a dominant process in losing Zn, but that erosion of a nascent lunar atmosphere, or separation of condensates into a proto-lunar crust are possible. While lunar volatile depletion is still possible as a consequence of the giant impact, this process cannot reproduce the variable δ66Zn found in the Moon. Outgassing

  14. Volatile content of Hawaiian magmas and volcanic vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, A. P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Ferguson, D. J.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i may be affected by magma volatile content. We find that volatile content and magma flow from deep source to Kīlauea's summit reservoirs are non-linearly related. For example, a 25-30% change in volatiles leads to a near two-fold increase in magma supply. Hawaiian volcanism provides an opportunity to develop and test hypotheses concerning dynamic and geochemical behavior of hot spot volcanism on different time scales. The Pu'u 'Ō'ō-Kupaianaha eruption (1983-present) is thought to be fed by essentially unfettered magma flow from the asthenosphere into a network of magma reservoirs at approximately 1-4 km below Kīlauea's summit, and from there into Kīlauea's east rift zone, where it erupts. Because Kīlauea's magma becomes saturated in CO2 at about 40 km depth, most CO2 is thought to escape buoyantly from the magma, before entering the east rift zone, and instead is emitted at the summit. Between 2003 and 2006 Kīlauea's summit inflated at unusually high rates and concurrently CO2emissions doubled. This may reflect a change in the balance between magma supply to the summit and outflow to the east rift zone. It remains unknown what caused this surge in magma supply or what controls magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes in general. We have modeled two-phase magma flow, coupled with H2O-CO2 solubility, to investigate the effect of changes in volatile content on the flow of magma through Kīlauea's magmatic plumbing system. We assume an invariant magma transport capacity from source to vent over the time period of interest. Therefore, changes in magma flow rate are a consequence of changes in magma-static and dynamic pressure throughout Kīlauea's plumbing system. We use measured summit deformation and CO2 emissions as observational constraints, and find from a systematic parameter analysis that even modest increases in volatiles reduce magma-static pressures sufficiently to generate a 'surge' in

  15. Two Extrasolar Asteroids with Low Volatile-Element Mass Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M; Klein, B; Koester, D; Zuckerman, B

    2012-01-01

    Using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we extend our previous ground-based optical determinations of the composition of the extrasolar asteroids accreted onto two white dwarfs, GD 40 and G241-6. Combining optical and ultraviolet spectra of these stars with He-dominated atmospheres, 13 and 12 polluting elements are confidently detected in GD 40 and G241-6, respectively. For the material accreted onto GD 40, the volatile elements C and S are deficient by more than a factor of 10 and N by at least a factor of 5 compared to their mass fractions in primitive CI chondrites and approach what is inferred for bulk Earth. A similar pattern is found for G241-6 except that S is undepleted. We have also newly detected or placed meaningful upper limits for the amount of Cl, Al, P, Ni and Cu in the accreted matter. Extending results from optical studies, the mass fractions of refractory elements in the accreted parent bodies are similar to what is measured for ...

  16. Volatility Spillovers Across User-Generated Content and Stock Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dieijen (Myrthe); A. Borah (Abhishek); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVolatility is an important metric of financial performance, indicating uncertainty or risk. So, predicting and managing volatility is of interest to both company managers and investors. This study investigates whether volatility in user-generated content (UGC) can spill over to

  17. Volatility Spillovers Across User-Generated Content and Stock Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dieijen (Myrthe); A. Borah (Abhishek); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVolatility is an important metric of financial performance, indicating uncertainty or risk. So, predicting and managing volatility is of interest to both company managers and investors. This study investigates whether volatility in user-generated content (UGC) can spill over to volatilit

  18. Predicion of Chemical Element Contents in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHAN-ZHE; QIANJUN-LONG; 等

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that the regularity for the dynamic changes of the chrono-sequences of chemical element contents in tree rings follows a k-order constant coefficient differential equation and substituting the differential with the difference,we could obtain the inferred value ym+k+1 by the formula:ym+k+1=c1ym+1+c2Ym+2+…ckym+kEach coefficient ci in the formula may be ascertained by use of the measured data in the chrono-sequences,Extending the chrono-sequences on the assumption that the regularity of dynamic changes wouldn't change in the near future,the contents of chemical elements in the soils may be predicted in terms of a logarithmic linear correlation model.Also,this extension method could be used for the reproduction of the contents of chemical elemets in soils during different periods of time in the past.

  19. The information contents of vix index and range-based volatility on volatility forecasting performance of s&p 500

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Cheng Hung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the information contents of S&P 500 VIX index and range-based volatilities by comparing their benefits on the GJR-based volatility forecasting performance. To reveal the statistical significance and ensure obtaining robust results, we employ Hansen's SPA test (2005) to examine the forecasting performances of GJR and GJR-X models for the S&P500 stock index. The results indicate that combining VIX and range-based volatilities into GARCH-type model can both enhance ...

  20. Entropy-based implied volatility and its information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Xiao (Xiao); C. Zhou (Chen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper investigates the maximum entropy approach on estimating implied volatility. The entropy approach also allows to measure option implied skewness and kurtosis nonparametrically, and to construct confidence intervals. Simulations show that the en- tropy approach outperforms t

  1. Earth's moderately volatile element composition may not be chondritic: Evidence from In, Cd and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaicong; Laurenz, Vera; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Becker, Harry

    2016-02-01

    Current models assume that siderophile volatile elements (SVE) are depleted in bulk Earth to the same extent as lithophile elements of similar volatility. The observed additional depletion of many SVE relative to lithophile elements in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) is ascribed to partitioning of SVE into Earth's core. However, the assumption of similar volatility of moderately volatile elements during Earth formation processes as in solar gas is quite uncertain. Here, these assumptions will be tested by assessing abundances and ratios of indium and cadmium in the BSE using new data on mantle rocks, and the application of high- and low-pressure-temperature metal-silicate partitioning data. New bulk rock abundance data of In and Cd obtained on bulk rocks of peridotite tectonites and xenoliths by isotope dilution refine previous results inferred from basalts and in-situ analyses of silicate minerals in peridotite xenoliths. The CI chondrite-normalized abundance of In in the BSE is similar to zinc and is 3-4 times higher than Cd. New and published low- and high-P-T metal-silicate partitioning data indicate that, during core formation at a range of conditions, In is always more siderophile than Zn and Cd. Adding the fraction of these elements in Earth's core to the BSE results in bulk Earth compositions that yield higher CI chondrite normalized abundances of In in the bulk Earth compared to Zn and Cd. Because In is more volatile than Zn and Cd in gas of solar composition, suprachondritic In/Zn and In/Cd in the bulk Earth suggest that during formation of Earth or its building materials, the volatilities of these elements and perhaps other volatile elements likely have changed significantly (i.e. In became less volatile). The results also suggest that known carbonaceous chondrites likely did not deliver the main volatile element-rich fraction of the Earth. Various arguments suggest that the loss of moderately volatile elements during planetary accretion should be limited

  2. Asthenospheric kimberlites: Volatile contents and bulk compositions at 7 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Natalia; Schmidt, Max W.

    2017-09-01

    During ascent, kimberlites react with the lithospheric mantle, entrain and assimilate xenolithic material, loose volatiles and suffer from syn- and post-magmatic alteration. Consequently, kimberlite rocks deviate heavily from their primary melt. Experiments at 7 GPa, 1300-1480 °C, 10-30 wt% CO2 and 0.46 wt% H2O on a proposed primitive composition from the Jericho kimberlite show that saturation with a lherzolitic mineral assemblage occurs only at 1300-1350 °C for a carbonatitic melt with 35 wt% CO2. At asthenospheric temperatures of >1400 °C, where the Jericho melt stays kimberlitic, this composition saturates only in low-Ca pyroxene, garnet and partly olivine. We hence forced the primitive Jericho kimberlite into multiple saturation with a lherzolitic assemblage by adding a compound peridotite. Saturation in olivine, low- and high-Ca pyroxene and garnet was obtained at 1400-1650 °C (7 GPa), melts are kimberlitic with 18-29 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3, 22.1-24.6 wt% MgO, 15-27 wt% CO2 and 0.4-7.1 wt% H2O; with a trade-off of H2O vs. CO2 and temperature. Melts in equilibrium with high-Ca pyroxene with typical mantle compositions have ≥2.5 wt% Na2O, much higher than the commonly proposed 0.1-0.2 wt%. The experiments allow for a model of kimberlite origin in the convective upper mantle, which only requires mantle upwelling that causes melting at the depth where elemental carbon (in metal, diamond or carbide) converts to CO2 (at ∼250 km). If primary melts leading to kimberlites contain a few wt% H2O, then adiabatic temperatures of 1400-1500 °C would yield asthenospheric mantle melts that are kimberlitic (>18 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3) but not carbonatitic (<10 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3) in composition, carbonatites only forming 100-200 °C below the adiabat. These kimberlites represent small melt fractions concentrating CO2 and H2O and then acquire part of their chemical signature by assimilation/fractionation during ascent in the subcratonic lithosphere.

  3. Organic and volatile elements in the solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remusat L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrites and comets have accreted primitive materials from the early solar system. Those materials include organics, water and other volatile components. The most primitive chondrites and comets have undergone few modifications on their respective parent bodies and can deliver to laboratories components that were present at the origin of the protosolar nebula. Here I present a review of the organic material and volatile components that have been studied in the most primitive chondrites, and the last data from the stardust mission about the cometary record. This paper focuses on materials that can be studied in laboratories, by mass spectrometry, ion probes or organic chemistry techniques.

  4. Modelling of Equilibrium Between Mantle and Core: Refractory, Volatile, and Highly Siderophile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Shofner, G.; Lee, C. -T.

    2013-01-01

    Siderophile elements have been used to constrain conditions of core formation and differentiation for the Earth, Mars and other differentiated bodies [1]. Recent models for the Earth have concluded that the mantle and core did not fully equilibrate and the siderophile element contents of the mantle can only be explained under conditions where the oxygen fugacity changes from low to high during accretion and the mantle and core do not fully equilibrate [2,3]. However these conclusions go against several physical and chemical constraints. First, calculations suggest that even with the composition of accreting material changing from reduced to oxidized over time, the fO2 defined by metal-silicate equilibrium does not change substantially, only by approximately 1 logfO2 unit [4]. An increase of more than 2 logfO2 units in mantle oxidation are required in models of [2,3]. Secondly, calculations also show that metallic impacting material will become deformed and sheared during accretion to a large body, such that it becomes emulsified to a fine scale that allows equilibrium at nearly all conditions except for possibly the length scale for giant impacts [5] (contrary to conclusions of [6]). Using new data for D(Mo) metal/silicate at high pressures, together with updated partitioning expressions for many other elements, we will show that metal-silicate equilibrium across a long span of Earth s accretion history may explain the concentrations of many siderophile elements in Earth's mantle. The modeling includes refractory elements Ni, Co, Mo, and W, as well as highly siderophile elements Au, Pd and Pt, and volatile elements Cd, In, Bi, Sb, Ge and As.

  5. Time-related variation of volatile contents of Western Ghats volcanic formations, Deccan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Callegaro, Sara; Baker, Don R.; De Min, Angelo; Renne, Paul R.

    2016-04-01

    Deccan volcanism in India covered more than 1 million square km and reached a maximum thickness of about 3 km, as presently preserved in the Western Ghats volcanic lava piles. Volcanic activity started at about 66.4 Ma (Jawhar formation) and ended at about 65.5 Ma (Mahabaleshwar unit; Renne et al., 2015). Deccan volcanism straddled the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 66.0 Ma) and possibly contributed to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event through emission of gases such as SO2, CO2, Cl, F that may have triggered global climate changes. Severe pollution by volcanic gases is supported by the high S and Cl contents (up to 1400 and up to 900 ppm, respectively; Self et al., 2008) measured in a few olivine- and plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from the Jawhar, Neral, and Thakurvadi Formations (early lava flows, ca. 66.3-66.4 ± 0.1 Ma; Renne et al., 2015) and by magmatic S contents (up to 1800 ppm; Callegaro et al., 2014) calculated from S measurements in clinopyroxenes from the Mahabaleshwar unit (ca. 65.5 ± 0.1; Schoene et al., 2015). Here, we present new analyses of S, Cl, and F, obtained by ion-probe and synchrotron light micro-fluorescence analyses on clinopyroxenes and plagioclase phenocrysts from ?al? lava flow units of the Western Ghats. The volatile contents of the host magmas have been calculated from recently published clinopyroxene/basalt partition coefficients. These new data will describe the time-related variation of volatile elements hosted and eventually emitted by Deccan lavas and shed light on their environmental impact. References: Callegaro S. et al. (2014). Geology 42, 895-898. Renne P.R. et al. (2015). Science 350, 76-78. Schoene B. et al. (2015). Science 347, 192-184. Self S. et al. (2008). Science 319, 1654-1657.

  6. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various

  7. Volatile (Cl, F and S) and major element constraints on subduction-related mantle metasomatism along the alkaline basaltic backarc, Payenia, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2017-01-01

    We present data on volatile (S, F and Cl) and major element contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from alkaline basaltic tephras along the Quaternary Payenia backarc volcanic province (~34°S–38°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The composition of Cr-spinel inclusions and h...

  8. New approach on volatile contents determination in silicate melt inclusions: A coupling X-ray microtomography and geochemical approach in Los Humeros caldera complex (Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creon, L.; Levresse, G.; Carrasco Nuñez, G.

    2016-12-01

    Volatile contents and magma degassing behavior are known to affect the style, frequency, and intensity of near-surface magmatic processes. For this reason, much effort have been devoted to characterize the volatile evolution of shallow magmatic systems to better constrain volcanic history. Silicate melt inclusions (SMI) represent samples of melt that were isolated from the bulk magma at depth, thus preserving the PTX conditions of the pre-eruptive material. SMI are often affected by the formation of a bubble after trapping; this is a natural consequence of the PVTX properties of crystal-melt-volatile systems. Previous workers have recognized that bubble formation is an obstacle, which affects the interpretation of SMI trapping conditions based only on analysis of the glass phase. Indeed, they explained that bubbles can contain a significant percentage of the volatiles, particularly for those with low solubility in the melt (e.g. CO2). In this study, we propose to define the pre-eruptive PTX conditions of Los Humeros magma chamber using SMI from the various eruption events within 460 and 30 Ka. An innovative analytical coupling has been used in order to determine: (1) the volume of the SMI glass and bubble, using high resolution 3D X-ray microtomography; (2) the density and composition of the bubbles, using Raman spectroscopy; (3) the volatile element contents in glass, using NanoSIMS; and, (4) the major elements composition of the glass, using EPMA. The recalculated volatile concentrations of the total SMI (glass + bubble), illustrate clearly that the volatile content determinations using only the glass phase, underestimate drastically the total volatile content and therefore induce significant error on the determination of the pre-eruptive volcanic budget and on the constrain on the volcanic and thermal history. This study had moreover highlighted the complex evolution of Los Humeros composite magma chamber and, gave constrains for geothermal exploration purpose.

  9. Correlation Between Chemical Element Contents in Tree Rings and Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANJUN-LONG; KESHAN-ZHE; 等

    1993-01-01

    The annual growth rings of ten trees and the soils near the tree roots were sampled from the mining ares of lead-and zinc-dominant metals in the Xixia Mountain,Nanjing,for the determination of chemical element contents.The study results showed that the elemental contents in the tree rings were correlated with those in the soils,i.e.,the elemental contents in the tree rings increased with those in the soils,even in the cases of different environments and different tree species.Therefore,a time-concentration sequence could be set up on the basis of determining the elemental contents in the successive annual growth rings of trees to qualitatively reflect the annual variations of relevant elements in the soils,and a time-concentration sequence of elemental contents in soils could also be established in terms of related model to reproduce the dynamic changes of the surroundings.

  10. Geochemistry and volatile content of magmas feeding explosive eruptions at Telica volcano (Nicaragua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Rotolo, S. G.; Aiuppa, A.; Lanzo, G.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-07-01

    Telica volcano, in north-west Nicaragua, is a young stratovolcano of intermediate magma composition producing frequent Vulcanian to phreatic explosive eruptions. The Telica stratigraphic record also includes examples of (pre)historic sub-Plinian activity. To refine our knowledge of this very active volcano, we analyzed major element composition and volatile content of melt inclusions from some stratigraphically significant Telica tephra deposits. These include: (1) the Scoria Telica Superior (STS) deposit (2000 to 200 years Before Present; Volcanic Explosive Index, VEI, of 2-3) and (2) pyroclasts from the post-1970s eruptive cycle (1982; 2011). Based on measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] > 80) glass inclusions fall into 2 distinct clusters: a group of H2O-rich (1.8-5.2 wt%) inclusions, similar to those of nearby Cerro Negro volcano, and a second group of CO2-rich (360-1700 μg/g CO2) inclusions (Nejapa, Granada). Model calculations show that CO2 dominates the equilibrium magmatic vapor phase in the majority of the primitive inclusions (XCO2 > 0.62-0.95). CO2, sulfur (generally 400 MPa) and early crystallization of magmas. Chlorine exhibits a wide concentration range (400-2300 μg/g) in primitive olivine-entrapped melts (likely suggesting variable source heterogeneity) and is typically enriched in the most differentiated melts (1000-3000 μg/g). Primitive, volatile-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (entrapment pressures, 5-15 km depth) are exclusively found in the largest-scale Telica eruptions (exemplified by STS in our study). These eruptions are thus tentatively explained as due to injection of deep CO2-rich mafic magma into the shallow crustal plumbing system. More recent (post-1970), milder (VEI 1-2) eruptions, instead, do only exhibit evidence for low-pressure (P < 50-60 MPa), volatile-poor (H2O < 0.3-1.7 wt%; CO2 < 23-308 μg/g) magmatic conditions. These are manifested as andesitic magmas, recording

  11. Rubidium isotopes in primitive chondrites: Constraints on Earth's volatile element depletion and lead isotope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, O.; Mezger, K.; van Westrenen, W.

    2011-05-01

    The bulk silicate Earth (BSE) shows substantial deficits in volatile elements compared to CI-chondrites and solar abundances. These deficits could be caused by pre-accretionary depletion in the solar nebula during condensation of solids, or by later heat-driven evaporation during collision of small bodies that later accreted to form the Earth. The latter is considered to result in isotope fractionation for elements with low condensation temperatures that correlates with the degree of depletion. Here, we report first high-precision isotope ratio measurements of the moderately volatile and lithophile trace element Rb. Data from seventeen chondrite meteorites show that their Rb isotope abundances are nearly indistinguishable from Earth, not deviating more than 1 per mil in their 87Rb/85Rb. The almost uniform solar system Rb isotope pool suggests incomplete condensation or evaporation in a single stage is unlikely to be the cause of the volatile element deficit of the Earth. As Rb and Pb have similar condensation temperatures, we use their different degrees of depletion in the BSE to address the mechanisms and timing of terrestrial volatile depletion. The Rb isotope data are consistent with a scenario in which the volatile budget of the Earth was generated by a mixture of a highly volatile-element depleted early Proto-Earth with undepleted material in the course of terrestrial accretion. Observed Pb and Rb abundances and U-Pb and Rb-Sr isotope systematics suggest that volatile addition occurred at approximately the same time at which last core-mantle equilibration was achieved. In line with previous suggestions, this last equilibration involved a second stage of Pb (but not Rb) depletion from the BSE. The timing of this second Pb loss event can be constrained to ~ 110 Ma after the start of the solar system. This model supports a scenario with core storage of Pb in the aftermath of a putative Moon forming giant impact that also delivered the bulk of the volatile

  12. Composition and Trace Element Content of Coal in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡龙贻

    2002-01-01

    Researches on trace elements in coal and their influence on environment and human health were introduced. Some 4 coal samples were taken from Taiwan to test the content of trace elements. The author holds that a further study is needed for understanding the modes of occurrence of elements during the deposition and coalification stage in the studying area.

  13. Chemical studies of H chondrites-10 : contents of thermally labile trace elements are unaffected by late heating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.-S.; Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Chemical Engineering; Purdue Univ.

    1999-09-01

    We have used radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) to determine 15 trace elements, including 10 moderately and highly volatile ones - Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, In (in increasing volatility order) - in 6 H chondrite falls with low 3He contents. These plus prior RNAA data provide a compositional database of 92 H4-6 chondrite falls. Three suites of samples can be identified from their noble gas contents: 44 with 'normal' contents, and, therefore, 'normal' orbits and cosmic ray exposure histories; 8 that lost radiogenic gases, presumably by shock late in their histories; and 17 that lost cosmogenic gases by heating during close solar approach. We used the standard multivariate statistical techniques of linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression to compare contents of the 10 moderately and highly volatile trace elements, listed above, in these 3 suites. We found no significant differences. This contrasts sharply with similar comparisons involving random falls and H4-6 chondrites that landed on Earth at specific time intervals. Apparently, contents of volatile trace elements in H4-6 chondrites were established early in their histories and they are so retentively sited that loss during later heating episodes did not occur.

  14. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wilson

    Full Text Available Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism. For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans.

  15. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam M; Likens, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming) experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism). For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD) 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans.

  16. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  17. THE EFFECT OF DRAINAGE ON CHEMICAL ELEMENTS CONTENT OF MARSH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper takes marsh in the Sanjiang Plain as an example in order to research the effect of draining on the chemical elements in marsh. The Sanjiang Ecological Test Station of Mire and Uetland serves as the resarch base. The authors selected soil samples in the Sanjiang Plain (the top and the end of the drain, marsh soil and degeneration marsh soil), mainly analyzed contents of main ions (HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3-), main heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Znand Cu), nutritive elements (N, P,K), organic matter and pH value. By testing these samples as above, the paper initially researches the effect on chemical elements content by draining by the means of the contrast of chemical elements contents between marsh soil and degenerative marsh soil and different characteristics of marsh soil elements. Results show that a lot of chemical elements had been lost because of draining.

  18. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Allen, Charlotte; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (-52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments.

  19. Volatile Content of the Mid-ocean Ridge Mantle Inferred from Off-axis Seamounts and Intra-transform Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Saal, A. E.; Hauri, E. H.; Nagle, A.; Forsyth, D. W.; Niu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Off-axis seamounts and intra-transform lavas provide more direct geochemical information of the mantle than axial lavas. These smaller volumes of melts undergo lower extent of crystal fractionation and mixing compared to basalts erupting within the ridge axis due to a lack of long-lived magma chambers or along axis melt migration. Therefore, their study provide not only a more reliable approach to determine the volatile content of the intrinsic components forming the Earth's upper mantle, but also help constrain mantle convection, heterogeneity, and crustal recycling. Samples from the Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar (QDG) transform fault system (EPR 3°-5°S) and from northern EPR seamounts (5°-15° N) were collected during KN182-13 (R/V Knorr) and RAIT 02 (R/V Thomas Washington) expeditions, respectively. 159 submarine glasses were analyzed for major elements, trace elements, and volatile elements by triplicate analyses, as well as for Sr and Nd isotopes in a subset of samples. The QDG and northern EPR seamounts have similar trace element and isotopic composition that is consistent with melting of two-component mantle common to both regions. The degree of trace element enrichment (e.g. Th/La), isotopic composition, and depth of melt segregation (e.g. Sm/Yb) have a positive correlation and range from ultra depleted to relatively enriched compositions. In order to investigate the primary volatile content of submarine glasses we first considered shallow level processes, such as volatile degassing, sulfide saturation and interaction of melt with hydrothermally altered material. The vapor-melt equilibrium pressure (Dixon et al., 1995) indicates that the majority of the samples were super-saturated in CO2-H2O vapor at the pressure of eruption, which implies rapid magma ascent rate that prevented complete CO2 degassing. Samples that were sulfide saturated (Liu et al., 2007) and contaminated by seawater or seawater derived material (high Cl/K) were filtered out. F/Nd, Cl/K, and

  20. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Goonetilleke, Ashantha [School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Allen, Charlotte [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia)

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (−52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. - Highlights: • Wet milling was used to produce pressed tablet sediment for LA-ICP-MS analysis. • Milling was effective for refractive elements with narrow range of particle size. • This is the first use of LA-ICP-MS for Hg analysis in sediment samples. • Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for most of the elements studied. • Detection limits down to parts per trillion were observed for some elements.

  1. The role of chondrules in nebular fractionations of volatiles and other elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    For at least 30 years, cosmochemists have been grappling with the question of how and why groups of geochemically and volatility related elements became fractionated in the major chondrite groups. At least five relatively independent fractionations are known. Virtually everyone who has thought about these facts has been attempted to attribute at least some of the fractionations to the physical separation or mixing of the visible components. By far the most abundant of these components in meteorites is chondrules, and indeed chondrules have long been suspected of playing a direct role in fractionation of volatile elements. The question addressed here is whether chondrules formed before or after chemical components became separated is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar system, as the answer constrains how, when, where, and from what chondrules formed, and tells us about how materials were processed in the nebula.

  2. Origin of the earth's moon - Constraints from alkali volatile trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzberger, M. E.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Although the moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to the earth, these depletions are not in accord with simple volatility. For example, the Cs/Rb ratios of the earth and moon inferred from basalt are approximately one seventh and one half of the CI ratio, respectively. Volatility considerations alone predict that the lunar Cs/Rb ratio should be equal to or lower than the terrestrial ratio if the moon was derived entirely from earth mantle material. Thus hypotheses such as rotational fission which invoke derivation of lunar material entirely from the earth's mantle may be excluded. The collisional ejection hypothesis of lunar origin requires at least 18 percent of lunar material to be derived from a projectile with dehydrated CI composition to match the lunar Cs/Rb ratio, and 25-50 percent to match both the lunar Cs/Rb ratio and absolute concentrations of Cs and Rb. It remains to be demonstrated that this relatively large contribution of projectile material is consistent with other elemental abundances and element ratios in the moon.

  3. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential.

  4. Major, Trace, and Volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, and Cl) Elements from 1000+ Hawaiian Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions Reveal the Dynamics of Crustal Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Global cycling of volatile elements (H2O, CO2, F, S, Cl) via subduction to deep mantle followed by entrainment and melting within ascending mantle plumes is an enigmatic process that controls key aspects of hot spot volcanism (i.e. melting rate, magma supply, degassing, eruptive style). Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios (e.g.187Os/188Os) at hot spots such as Hawaii reveal magmatic processes within deep-seated mantle plumes (e.g. mantle heterogeneity, lithology, and melt transport). Shield-stage lavas from Hawaii likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes. Hawaiian lavas display correlations among isotopes, major and trace elements [1] that might be expected to have an expression in the volatile elements. To investigate this link, we present Os isotopic ratios (n=51), and major, trace, and volatile elements from 1003 olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and their host minerals from tephra from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi volcanoes. The data show a strong correlation between MI volatile contents and incompatible trace element ratios (La/Yb) with Os isotopes of the same host olivines and reveal large-scale volatile heterogeneity and zonation exists within the Hawaiian plume. 'Loa' chain lavas, which are thought to originate from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite, have MIs with lower H2O, S, F, and Cl contents compared to 'Kea' chain lavas that were derived from more peridotite-rich sources. The depletion of volatile elements in the 'Loa' volcano MIs can be explained if they tapped an ancient dehydrated oceanic crust component within the Hawaiian plume. Higher extents of melting beneath 'Loa' volcanoes can also explain these depletions. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the

  5. [Blood trace elements content in adolescents in an industrial town].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazbaeva, Z I; Amanzhol, I A; Shibuchikova, Zh B; Sabirov, Zh B; Zhumabekova, S Zh

    2013-01-01

    A cohort blind study of blood trace elements content in children-adolescents aged 14-16 years old, residing in an industrial town, where large industrial enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy have been functioning for long periods, has been performed There was established a lack of vital important element selenium in the blood, that causes the accumulation of toxic metals, cadmium and mercury.

  6. Photospheric Abundances of Volatile and Refractory Elements in Planet-Harboring Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Y; Kambe, E; Aoki, W; Honda, S; Kawanomoto, S; Masuda, S; Izumiura, H; Watanabe, E; Koyano, H; Maehara, H; Norimoto, Y; Okada, T; Shimizu, Y; Uraguchi, F; Yanagisawa, K; Yoshida, M; Miyama, S; Ando, H

    2001-01-01

    By using the high-dispersion spectra of 14 bright planet-harboring stars (along with 4 reference stars) observed with the new coude echelle spectrograph at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, we investigated the abundances of volatile elements (C, N, O, S, Zn; low condensation temperature Tc) in order to examine whether these show any significant difference compared to the abundances of other refractory elements (Si, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni; high Tc) which are known to be generally overabundant in those stars with planets, since a Tc-dependence is expected if the cause of such a metal-richness is due to the accretion of solid planetesimals onto the host star. We found, however, that all elements we studied behave themselves quite similarly to Fe (i.e., [X/Fe]~0) even for the case of volatile elements, which may suggest that the enhanced metallicity in those planet-bearing stars is not so much an acquired character (by accretion of rocky material) as rather primordial.

  7. The Volatility and condensation behaviour of elements in dependence of T and fO2: a novel experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Dingwell, Don B.

    2010-05-01

    The volatility of elements is one of the most important variables during geological processes on Earth: its impact ranges from daily out gassing of volcanic vents to catastrophic emissions during volcanic eruptions which might scale up to global impacts on our climate. Volatility played, however, already a major role during the formation of our solar system: the nebular gases and their element budget passed through an elemental fractionation process based on differences in the evaporation and condensation behaviour of matter within the solar nebula - the origin of all the planets within our solar system. Precise knowledge of the parameters controlling volatility as well as condensation of elements is still lacking. Whether an element behaves volatile or refractory depends highly on the temperature and oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions prevailing. To address this issue, we initiated a systematic study of the volatility of 18 volatile elements in respect to fO2 and temperature applying a modified mechanically assisted equilibration technique (MAE): Approx. 60 g of a haplobasaltic starting composition (An-Di) doped with up to 5000 ppm of volatile elements (Li, K, Na, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl) was heated to run temperatures. To investigate the fO2 dependence 2 experiments at logfO2 = -11.3 (~ IW -0.5) and - 0,7 (pure air) at a constant temperature of 1300 °C were performed, while T dependence was investigated at 1300 and 1500 °C at constant fO2 in pure air. The original MAE technique was modified by two Al2O3 plates extending from the hot spot region up to the upper, cooler regions of the muffle tube. These plates function as condensation traps. The temperature profile of the entire setup including the Al2O3 plates under run conditions was calibrated prior to any run. Experiments lasted for up two weeks while experimental conditions were kept strictly constant and were monitored. Up to 46 samples were taken from the melt by time

  8. Heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich melt inclusions record pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Esposito, Rosario; Moore, Lowell R.; Hartley, Margaret E.

    2017-04-01

    Silicate melt inclusions (MI) commonly provide the best record of pre-eruptive H2O and CO2 contents of subvolcanic melts, but the concentrations of CO2 and H2O in the melt (glass) phase within MI can be modified by partitioning into a vapor bubble after trapping. Melt inclusions may also enclose vapor bubbles together with the melt (i.e., heterogeneous entrapment), affecting the bulk volatile composition of the MI, and its post-entrapment evolution. In this study, we use numerical modeling to examine the systematics of post-entrapment volatile evolution within MI containing various proportions of trapped vapor from zero to 95 volume percent. Modeling indicates that inclusions that trap only a vapor-saturated melt exhibit significant decrease in CO2 and moderate increase in H2O concentrations in the melt upon nucleation and growth of a vapor bubble. In contrast, inclusions that trap melt plus vapor exhibit subdued CO2 depletion at equivalent conditions. In the extreme case of inclusions that trap mostly the vapor phase (i.e., CO2-H2O fluid inclusions containing trapped melt), degassing of CO2 from the melt is negligible. In the latter scenario, the large fraction of vapor enclosed in the MI during trapping essentially serves as a buffer, preventing post-entrapment modification of volatile concentrations in the melt. Hence, the glass phase within such heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich MI records the volatile concentrations of the melt at the time of trapping. These numerical modeling results suggest that heterogeneously entrapped MI containing large vapor bubbles represent amenable samples for constraining pre-eruptive volatile concentrations of subvolcanic melts.

  9. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan

    2009-06-01

    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied.

  10. Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Stanger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described. The thermal and other properties are measured dynamically as a function of temperature of the coal without the need for equilibration at temperature. In particular, the technique allows for continuous elemental characterisation of tars as they are evolved during pyrolysis and afterwards as a function of boiling point. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the properties of maceral concentrates from a coal. The variation in heats of reaction, thermal conductivity and expansion as a function of maceral composition is described. Combined with the elemental analysis, the results aid in the interpretation of the chemical processes contributing to the physical and thermal behaviour of the coal during pyrolysis. Potential applications in cokemaking studies are discussed.

  11. The Volatile Element Evolution of Intra-plate Alkaline Rocks as Recorded by Apatite: An Example from the Hegau Volcanic Field (Southwest Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Der Handt, A.; Rahn, M. K. W.; Wang, L. X.; Marks, M. A. W.

    2014-12-01

    The role of volatiles in the petrogenesis of alkaline intra-plate magmas has been the subject of an increasing number of experimental studies. The study of naturally occurring rocks and their volatile contents is often complicated by syn- and post-eruptive degassing and alteration processes. Minerals that incorporate volatiles into their structure such as apatites are often more faithful recorders of the pre-eruptive volatile budget. The Hegau volcanic field in Southwest Germany is part of the Central European Volcanic Province, lies around 60-70 km to the east of the Upper Rhine graben and of Miocene age. Three main lithological units can be distinguished (1) olivine melilites (2) phonolites and (3) the "Deckentuff" series referring to a series of diatreme-filling pipe breccias and lapilli tuff layers. Carbonatites occur subordinately in the Hegau province. Earlier radiometric age dating suggested distinct phases of volcanic activity of Deckentuffs, melilites and phonolites with little overlap, but new apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He age data suggest a synchronous activity. Apatite is an abundant accessory phase in the Deckentuff and phonolite series and we investigated its major, trace and volatile element composition by EPMA, SIMS and cathodoluminescence imaging. Pronounced core-rim zoning of apatite in places attests that diffusional equilibration was very limited and they likely retained their primary compositions. This allows us to trace the entire magmatic evolution of the Hegau province from its most primitive to most evolved products as well as resolve it in time by combining age dating with compositional analysis. Apatite compositions fall along the OH-F join with low Cl-contents (<0.5 wt%). Volatile contents (Cl, OH, S) are highest in most primitive compositions and decrease with further evolution while F increases. Multiple magmatic cycles can be discerned with a general trend to the more evolved phonolite compositions toward the end of volcanic

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  13. Content and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R S

    1994-05-01

    This review compares the content and major food sources of copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Interactions affecting trace element bioavailability and their impact on the trace element status of vegetarians are discussed. Adult vegetarian diets often have a lower zinc and selenium content but a higher copper and manganese content compared with omnivorous diets. Cereals are the primary sources of copper, manganese, and selenium in most diets and the major source of zinc in many vegetarian diets; flesh floods are the primary source of zinc and secondary source of selenium in omnivorous diets. Despite the apparent lower bioavailability of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in vegetarian diets because of the high contents of phytic acid and/or dietary fiber and the low content of flesh foods in the diet, the trace element status of most adult vegetarians appears to be adequate. Children, however, appear to be more vulnerable to suboptimal zinc status, presumably because of their high zinc requirements for growth and their bodies' failure to adapt to a vegetarian diet by increased absorption of dietary zinc.

  14. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  15. Volatile Elements Retention During Injection Casting of Metallic Fuel Slug for a Recycling Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kuk, Seoung-Woo; Keum, Chang-Woon; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The as-cast fuels prepared by injection casting were sound and the internal integrities were found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. U and Zr were uniform throughout the matrix of the slug, and the impurities, i.e., oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, satisfied the specification of the total impurities of less than 2000 ppm. The losses of the volatile Mn were effectively controlled using argon over pressures, and dynamic pumping for a period of time before injection showed no detrimental effect on the Mn loss by vaporization. This result suggests that volatile minor actinide-bearing fuels for SFRs can be prepared by improved injection methods. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, several injection casting methods were applied in order to prepare metallic fuel for an fast reactor that control the transport of volatile elements during fuel melting and casting. Mn was selected as a surrogate alloy since it possesses a total vapor pressure equivalent to that of a volatile minor actinide-bearing fuel. U.10Zr and U.10Zr.5Mn (wt%) metallic fuels were injection cast under various casting conditions and their soundness was characterized.

  16. A temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents at Campi Flegrei: Insights from texturally-constrained apatite analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Isaia, Roberto; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Pyle, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Apatite is capable of incorporating all major magmatic volatile species (H2O, CO2, S, Cl and F) into its crystal structure. Analysis of apatite volatile contents can be related to parental magma compositions through the application of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994). Once included within phenocrysts, apatite inclusions are isolated from the melt and preserve a temporal record of magmatic volatile contents in the build-up to eruption. In this work, we measured the volatile compositions of apatite inclusions, apatite microphenocrysts and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy (Stock et al. 2016). These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to decipher pre-eruptive magmatic processes. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset at shallow levels during ascent. Given the high diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), the preservation of volatile-undersaturated melt compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved 10 - 103 days before eruption. We suggest that late-stage transition into a volatile-saturated state caused an increase in magma chamber overpressure, which ultimately triggered the Astroni 1 eruption. This has major implications for monitoring of Campi Flegrei and other similar volcanic systems. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Stock et al., 2016, Nat. Geosci. Gualda et al., 2012. J. Pet., 53, 875

  17. Contents and distribution of rare earth elements in wheat seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Contents of 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in the seeds of 60 breeds of wheat have been analyzed by the inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution pattern of contents of REEs in wheat seeds has been observed and compared with that in soils. Comparison with literature data has also been made. The results show that the background of REEs in wheat seeds is 10-11-10-8 g.g-1, 3-4 levels lower than in soils. The distribution pattern is light REEs higher in contents and slight Eu-anomaly, similar to that in soils. The data obtained in this study can accurately represent the background content of REEs in wheat seeds.

  18. Compositionally Controlled Volatile Content of Nominally Volatile-Free Minerals in the Continental Upper Mantle of Southern Gondwana (Patagonia & W. Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, E. E.; Gibson, S. A.; Leat, P. T.; Petrone, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    H2O and F contents affect many physical and chemical properties of the upper mantle, including melting temperature and viscosity. These elements are hosted by hydrous and F-rich phases, and by modally abundant, nominally-anhydrous/halogen-free mantle minerals, which can potentially accommodate the entire volatile budget of the upper mantle. We present high-precision SIMS analyses of H2O, and F in mantle xenoliths hosted by recently-erupted (5-10 Ka) alkali basalts from south Patagonia (Pali Aike) and older (c. 25 Ma) alkali basalts from localities along the Antarctic Peninsula. Samples are well characterised peridotites and pyroxenites, from a range of depths in the off-craton lithospheric mantle. Minerals are relatively dry: H2O contents of olivine span 0-49 ppm, orthopyroxene 150-235 ppm and clinopyroxene 100-395 ppm, with highest concentrations found in spinel-garnet lherzolites from Pali Aike. These H2O concentrations fall within the global measured range for off-craton mantle minerals. H2O and F are correlated, and the relative compatibility of F in mantle phases is clinopyroxene>orthopyroxene>olivine. However, elevated F concentrations of 100-210 ppm are found in pyroxenites from two Antarctic localities. This elevated F content is not correlated with high H2O, suggesting that these rocks interacted with a F-rich melt. In clinopyroxenes, F concentration is correlated with Ti, and the ratio of M1Ti to M1Al + M1Cr, suggesting a charge balanced substitution. Consistency between samples (excepting high-F pyroxenites) suggests a constant F-budget, and that concentrations in clinopyroxenes are controlled by mineral chemistry. In orthopyroxene, F correlates with CaO, but no other major or minor elements. Large variability of H2O concentrations within samples is attributed to diffusive loss during ascent. Cl is negligible in all samples, indicating little or no influence of slab fluids from this long-lived subduction zone.

  19. Semi-volatile organic compounds and trace elements in the Yangtze River source of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yasun, Aishangjiang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Dayong; Ford, Tim; Cheng, Shupei

    2009-08-01

    Determination of 24 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 24 trace elements in water samples was conducted in order to investigate the quality of the Nanjing source of drinking water taken from Yangtze River. The total concentrations of SVOCs and trace elements were in the range of 1,951-11,098 ng/l and 51,274-72,384 microg/l, respectively. No significant seasonal changes were found for the pollutants' concentrations. A primary health risk assessment was carried out to evaluate potential health effects. Risk quotients involving carcinogenic effects for benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and arsenic were >1 under the worst-case scenario. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of further studies on the environmental health effects of exposure to the source water.

  20. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. V - Volatile and siderophile elements in achondrites and ocean ridge basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, J. C.; Keays, R. R.; Ganapathy, R.; Anders, E.; Morgan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Eighteen achondrites and 4 terrestrial basalts (3 ocean ridge, 1 continental) were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, Ir, Rb, Se, Tl and Zn. Samples included 7 eucrites, 5 howardites, 2 nakhlites, 2 shergottites, an angrite, and an aubrite. Light and dark portions of the gas-rich meteorites Kapoeta and Pesyanoe were analyzed separately. Nakhlites and shergottites have volatile element abundances similar to those in ocean ridge basalts; eucrites, howardites, and angrites show greater depletions by an order of magnitude and less similar abundance patterns. In terms of a two-component model of planetary accretion, the parent planets contained the following percentages of low-temperature material: eucrites 0.8, nakhlites 38, shergottites 28. Shergottites may be genetically related to L-chondrites. The siderophile element pattern of achondrites resembles that of the moon, but with less extreme depletions.

  1. Two-component mantle melting-mixing model for the generation of mid-ocean ridge basalts: Implications for the volatile content of the Pacific upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kei; Saal, Alberto E.; Myers, Corinne E.; Nagle, Ashley N.; Hauri, Erik H.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Niu, Yaoling

    2016-03-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element (CO2, H2O, F, Cl, S) contents and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the Northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR) off-axis seamounts, the Quebrada-Discovery-GoFar (QDG) transform fault system, and the Macquarie Island. The incompatible trace element (ITE) contents of the samples range from highly depleted (DMORB, Th/La ⩽ 0.035) to enriched (EMORB, Th/La ⩾ 0.07), and the isotopic composition spans the entire range observed in EPR MORB. Our data suggest that at the time of melt generation, the source that generated the EMORB was essentially peridotitic, and that the composition of NMORB might not represent melting of a single upper mantle source (DMM), but rather mixing of melts from a two-component mantle (depleted and enriched DMM or D-DMM and E-DMM, respectively). After filtering the volatile element data for secondary processes (degassing, sulfide saturation, assimilation of seawater-derived component, and fractional crystallization), we use the volatiles to ITE ratios of our samples and a two-component mantle melting-mixing model to estimate the volatile content of the D-DMM (CO2 = 22 ppm, H2O = 59 ppm, F = 8 ppm, Cl = 0.4 ppm, and S = 100 ppm) and the E-DMM (CO2 = 990 ppm, H2O = 660 ppm, F = 31 ppm, Cl = 22 ppm, and S = 165 ppm). Our two-component mantle melting-mixing model reproduces the kernel density estimates (KDE) of Th/La and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for our samples and for EPR axial MORB compiled from the literature. This model suggests that: (1) 78% of the Pacific upper mantle is highly depleted (D-DMM) while 22% is enriched (E-DMM) in volatile and refractory ITE, (2) the melts produced during variable degrees of melting of the E-DMM controls most of the MORB geochemical variation, and (3) a fraction (∼65% to 80%) of the low degree EMORB melts (produced by ∼1.3% melting) may escape melt aggregation by freezing at the base of the oceanic lithosphere, significantly enriching it in

  2. Seasonal trends in the elemental content of sweet cherry leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alonso, F.; Lachica, M.

    1987-01-01

    Seasonal variation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B were determined in leaves of Prunus avium L., cv Napoleon. An equation for each element relating sampling date and content is given. Nitrogen, P, K, and Zn concentrations decreased during the vegetative cycle, while Ca, Mg, Fe and B increased. There was no seasonal change for S and Cu. The most suitable sampling period for a nutritional diagnosis is from mid-July to mid-August. There are significant interevolutive correlations among all the pairs of elements except those in which S and/or Cu take part. Certain soil parameters, such as an alkaline pH, a coarse texture and low content of k and organic matter could be responsible for the nutritive observed.

  3. A Synthesis of Experimental Data Describing the Partitioning of Moderately Volatile Elements in Major Rock Forming Minerals: Implications for the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; Draper, David S.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Highly volatile elements [condensation temperatures below about 700 K] and water are highly informative about lunar bulk composition (hence origin), differentiation and magmatic evolution, and the role of impacts in delivering volatiles to the Moon. Fractionation of volatile elements compared to moderately volatile and refractory elements are informative about high-temperature conditions that operated in the proto-lunar disk. Existing data show clearly that the Moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to the bulk silicate Earth. For example, K/Th is 400-700 in the Moon compared to 2800-3000 in Earth. A complicating factor is that the abundances of the highly volatile elements in major lunar lithologies vary by approximately two orders of magnitude. Perhaps most interesting, H2O is not correlated with the concentration of volatile elements, indicating a decoupling of highly volatile elements from the even more volatile H2O. We contend that this decoupling could be a significant tracer of processes operating during lunar formation, differentiation, and bombardment, and the combination of analyzing both volatile elements and water is likely to provide significant insight into lunar geochemical history. This variation and lack of correlation raises the question: what were the relative contributions of crystallization in the magma ocean, subsequent mantle overturn, production of secondary magmas, and addition of volatiles by large impacts in producing this apparently large range in volatile abundances? This current study will produce new partitioning data relevant to the role and distribution of the volatile and non-volatile, yet geochemically significant elements (Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Ce, Yb, Tl, Pb, Bi) during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

  4. The isotope composition of selenium in chondrites constrains the depletion mechanism of volatile elements in solar system materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstaedt, Hauke; Mezger, Klaus; Leya, Ingo

    2016-09-01

    Solar nebula processes led to a depletion of volatile elements in different chondrite groups when compared to the bulk chemical composition of the solar system deduced from the Sun's photosphere. For moderately-volatile elements, this depletion primarily correlates with the element condensation temperature and is possibly caused by incomplete condensation from a hot solar nebula, evaporative loss from the precursor dust, and/or inherited from the interstellar medium. Element concentrations and interelement ratios of volatile elements do not provide a clear picture about responsible mechanisms. Here, the abundance and stable isotope composition of the moderately- to highly-volatile element Se are investigated in carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites to constrain the mechanism responsible for the depletion of volatile elements in planetary bodies of the inner solar system and to define a δ 82 / 78 Se value for the bulk solar system. The δ 82 / 78 Se of the studied chondrite falls are identical within their measurement uncertainties with a mean of - 0.20 ± 0.26 ‰ (2 s.d., n = 14, relative to NIST SRM 3149) despite Se abundance depletions of up to a factor of 2.5 with respect to the CI group. The absence of resolvable Se isotope fractionation rules out a kinetic Rayleigh-type incomplete condensation of Se from the hot solar nebula or partial kinetic evaporative loss on the precursor material and/or the parent bodies. The Se depletion, if acquired during partial condensation or evaporative loss, therefore must have occurred under near equilibrium conditions to prevent measurable isotope fractionation. Alternatively, the depletion and cooling of the nebula could have occurred simultaneously due to the continuous removal of gas and fine particles by the solar wind accompanied by the quantitative condensation of elements from the pre-depleted gas. In this scenario the condensation of elements does not require equilibrium conditions to avoid isotope

  5. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  6. SOME NEEDLE CONTENTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS EMITTED BY PINUS BRUTIA IN RELATION TO HERBIVORE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SEMİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can cause many types of damage to plants. Caterpillars ingest small sections of the leaves, while others feed on specific parts of the leaf material. In this point, essential oils from coniferous trees contain secondary metabolites that act as feeding deterrent for a great number of herbivore insect species. Attacks by herbivores elicit changes in the bouquet of volatiles released by plants. Terpenoid chemicals exist both as constitutive and massively induced defenses in conifers. Hereby we studied the factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in economically important pine species of Turkey, Pinus brutia Ten., against most famous pest, pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams. We quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs emissions of needle and some other needle contents. Needle feeding by the caterpillar increased emissions of VOCs. We discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for reducing the tree's signalling capacity triggered by Th. wilkinsoni oviposition and how enhancement/suppression of VOCs can influence the interaction between the tree, the pest and other biotic/abiotic factors in environment.

  7. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Partitioning experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell: volatile content in the Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jephcoat, Andrew P; Bouhifd, M Ali; Porcelli, Don

    2008-11-28

    The present state of the Earth evolved from energetic events that were determined early in the history of the Solar System. A key process in reconciling this state and the observable mantle composition with models of the original formation relies on understanding the planetary processing that has taken place over the past 4.5Ga. Planetary size plays a key role and ultimately determines the pressure and temperature conditions at which the materials of the early solar nebular segregated. We summarize recent developments with the laser-heated diamond anvil cell that have made possible extension of the conventional pressure limit for partitioning experiments as well as the study of volatile trace elements. In particular, we discuss liquid-liquid, metal-silicate (M-Sil) partitioning results for several elements in a synthetic chondritic mixture, spanning a wide range of atomic number-helium to iodine. We examine the role of the core as a possible host of both siderophile and trace elements and the implications that early segregation processes at deep magma ocean conditions have for current mantle signatures, both compositional and isotopic. The results provide some of the first experimental evidence that the core is the obvious replacement for the long-sought, deep mantle reservoir. If so, they also indicate the need to understand the detailed nature and scale of core-mantle exchange processes, from atomic to macroscopic, throughout the age of the Earth to the present day.

  9. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  10. Oxygen isotopes and volatile contents of the Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: A confirmation of the deep mantle origin of H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kerr, Andrew C.

    2016-11-01

    We report O isotopes in olivine grains (Fo89-93) and volatile contents (CO2, H2O, F, S, Cl) in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from one Gorgona picrite and five komatiites with the aim of constraining the origin of H2O in these magmas. These samples have previously been analysed for major and trace elements and volatile concentrations (H2O, S, Cl) and B isotopes in melt inclusions. A distinctive feature of the included melts is relatively high contents of volatile components and boron, which show positive anomalies in, otherwise depleted, primitive mantle normalised trace and rare earth element patterns and range in δ11 B from -11.5 to 15.6‰. In this study, the olivines were systematically analysed for O isotopes (1) in the centre of grains, (2) near the grain boundaries and, (3) as close as possible to the studied melt inclusions. The majority of olivines (∼66%) are "mantle"-like, 4.8 ‰ ≤δ18 O ≤ 5.5 ‰, with a subordinate but still significant number (∼33%) above, and only 2 grains below, this range. There is no systematic difference between the central and marginal parts of the grains. Higher than "mantle" δ18OOl values are ascribed to low-T (<300 °C) serpentinisation along inner fractures and grain boundaries of olivine phenocrysts. The measured concentrations of volatile components in the melt inclusions corrected for the effects of post-entrapment crystallisation and H2O-CO2 exsolution in inclusion shrinkage bubbles are: 286-1748 μg/g CO2, 0.2-0.86 wt.% H2O, 48-82 μg/g F, 398-699 μg/g S and 132-198 μg/g Cl. They correspond to a pressure of 86 ± 44MPa or ∼2.5-km crustal depth of olivine crystallisation. The correlations of S and, to a lesser extent, of H2O, with highly incompatible lithophile elements and the correlation of F with Cl, but no relationships of H2O with Cl, rule out shallow depth magma degassing and/or crustal contamination. Our new δ18 O olivine and volatile component data combined with the existing, highly variable δ11 B

  11. Radial Transport in the Solar Nebula: Implications for Moderately Volatile Element Depletions in Chondritic Meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, F J

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility that the moderately volatile element depletions observed in chondritic meteorites are the results of planetesimals accreting in a solar nebula that cooled from an initially hot state (temperatures > 1350 K out to ~2-4 AU) is explored. A model is developed to track the chemical inventory of planetesimals that accrete in a viscously evolving protoplanetary disk, accounting for the redistribution of solids and vapor by advection, diffusion, and gas drag. It is found that depletion trends similar to those observed in the chondritic meteorites can be reproduced for a small range of model parameters. However, the necessary range of parameters is inconsistent with observations of disks around young stars and other constraints on meteorite parent body formation. Thus, counter to previous work, it is concluded that the global scale evolution of the solar nebula is not the cause for the observed depletion trends.

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONTENT TO RADIATION VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER LATEX (RVNRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRINOS, Hugo David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex is a dispersion of natural rubber particles in water. These particles are coated with aprotein layer which will stabilize the dispersion in water by forming an electric charge in the layer. Any differentcondition affecting this layer disturbs the stability of dispersion. Microorganism attack disturbs the protein layerand consequently the stability of the dispersion. By adding 1.2% by weight of NH3, the stability of the dispersioncan be improved. The fresh latex was irradiated by Co-60 with irradiation dose of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100 kGy.The results showed a relationship between the volatile fatty acid content (VFA, product from microorganismattack on carbohydrate and the green strength or the physical properties of vulcanized film. Low VFA numbershowing a higher physical strength of the film either un-vulcanized or vulcanized. It appeared that the structurewas responsible in yielding a good physical property of the film.

  13. Process to determine light elements content of steel and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.A.L.T.M.H.; Castro, Martha T.P.O. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. LabLaser; Mac-Culloch, Joao N.L.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work reports a process to determine qualitatively and quantitatively elements of molar mass inferior to 23 within materials, by X rays spectra associated with multivariate data analysis, or chemometric analysis. The spectra is acquired between 5 keV and 22 keV when the materials are exposed to X radiation. Here is reported the direct determination of carbon content in steel and metallic alloys. The process is more effective when using spectral regions which are not usually used. From the analysis of these spectral regions which were not considered before, it was possible to detect light elements with molar mass lower than 23, which have low capacity of absorbing and emitting radiation, but have high capacity of scattering radiation. The process here reported has the advantage that X-Ray spectra obtained are calibrated multivariately, showing high potential for development in order to be used in a portable field equipment. (author)

  14. Resolving the Ambiguity of Volatile Content in the Vestan Regolith through Dielectric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Capria, M.; Asmar, S.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011, Dawn entered orbit around 4 Vesta. An evolved and differentiated body, Vesta has been described as more of a proto-planet than an asteroid, and is similar in surface composition and history to the Moon. While differentiated and airless bodies such as these were assumed to have depleted any initial water content, recent missions to the Moon have discovered water at the poles and hydroxyl more generally across the surface. At Vesta, recent results from GRaND suggest a correlation of higher hydrogen concentrations at the regions of dark material on the surface, indicating volatile presence. An interesting topic of concern, therefore, is the form and quantification of this volatile content in regions of dark material at the surface and shallow subsurface of the Vestan regolith. Toward this end, the Dawn bistatic radar experiment, as well as Earth-based radar observations of Vesta, can quantify backscattering properties of the surface through the resulting amplitude, polarimetric and phase change of their radar waves. These waves are primarily affected by surface topography, roughness, and electromagnetic properties that vary with surface composition and geophysical properties. This results in a sensitivity to textural and dielectric variations, which could indicate compositional variation and/or signs of volatile enrichment. However, since surface roughness (textural variation) is poorly constrained, Earth-based radar observations yield large uncertainties when inferring dielectric properties. To address the resulting ambiguity, we model the dielectric properties of the regolith based on two complementary approaches: (1) dielectric laboratory measurement of spectral analogs to the dark material at various frequencies, temperatures, porosities, and dust-to-ice mass ratios; and (2) modeling of the dielectric constant distribution when combined with the inversion of calculated thermal inertia values. From this dielectric model we are able to invert

  15. Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-08-01

    A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA) has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08). Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8) can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m-3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m-3) and O:C (predicted O:C = 0.78) accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1) the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) aging rate constant, (2) assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3) the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4) heterogeneous chemistry, (5) the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6) biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, a low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging, keeping in mind that this study does not consider possibly important processes

  16. Analysis of volatile compounds of Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents using SPME-DED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, Sonia; Estevez, Mario; Andrés, Ana I; Ruiz, Jorge

    2008-05-01

    In order to study the effect of both, ripening time and IMF content on the volatile profile of Iberian dry-cured loin, volatile compounds from the headspace of 10 Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents (IMF), low (average IMF content of 2.3%) and high (average IMF content of 6.7%), at days 40 and 55 of the ripening process were analysed using SPME coupled to a direct extraction device (DED) and subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Chromatographic areas of the main chemical families detected (hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and acids) increased with ripening time. A higher total chromatographic area was detected in the headspace of high IMF loins compared to low IMF ones. Several volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidative reactions, such as hexanol, octanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal or (E)-2-decenal, and others from the degradation of certain amino acids, such as dimethylsulfide, 3-methylbutanal or phenylacetaldehyde, showed higher chromatographic areas in the headspace of high IMF loins than in low IMF ones. Thus, IMF content could influence both the generation of volatile compounds and the transfer of such compounds from the product matrix to the headspace.

  17. The Information Content of Treasury Bond Options Concerning Future Volatility and Price Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    components. We also introduce a new vector HAR (VecHAR) modelfor the resulting simultaneous system, controlling for possible endogeneity of implied volatility inthe forecasting equations. We show that implied volatility is a biased and inefficient forecast in thebond market. However, implied volatility does...... statisticaltechniques are used to separate realized volatility into its continuous sample path and jumpcomponents, thus enhancing forecasting performance. We generalize the heterogeneous autoregressive(HAR) model to include implied volatility as an additional regressor, and to the separateforecasting of the realized...

  18. Some refractory and volatile element chemistry of CaS in enstatite chondrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永亨; Paul H.Benoit

    1996-01-01

    INAA data for REE, Sc, Se, Br and Zn in CaS extracted from 5 enstatite chondrites (Qingzhen EH3, St. Marks EH5, Atlanta EL6, Hvittis EL6 and Pillistfer EL6) are reported. The results indicate that the REE abundances in CaS from unequilibrated enstatite chondrite, Qingzhen, are much higher than that from equilibrated ones. Similarly, the abundances of Sc, Se, Br and Zn in CaS from Qingzhen are higher than that in CaS grains from equilibrated chondrites, revealing that CaS is a previous condensate and is not simple residues of an evaporative process. Secondly, metamorphism has caused the redistribution of the trace elements among the minerals in enstatite chondrites, and this metamorphic fractionation reflects the differences from element volatilities and chemical properties. The REE patterns of CaS of enstatite chondrites and aubrites could not explain that aubrites were derived from known enstatite chondrites by igneous processing. And depleted europium in metamorphism and igneous process may be carried

  19. Measurement of Gas and Volatile Elements Production Cross Section in a Molten Lead-Bismuth Target

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    MEGAPIE is a project for a 1 MW liquid PbBi spallation source, to be built at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which will be an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the ADS concept and high power molten metal targets in general. In the design and construction of such a challenging project it is extremely important to evaluate the amount and type of gas and volatile elements which will be produced, for a reliable and safe operation of the experiment. Both stable (H, $^{4}$He and other noble gases) and radioactive isotopes are of interest. Currently, different design options are under consideration to deal with the gas produced during operation. \\\\ For a correct estimation of the production cross sections, a measurement with a liquid PbBi target and a proton beam of energy close to the one of MEGAPIE (575 MeV) is necessary. We would like to use the ISOLDE facility, which offers the unique opportunity via its mass spectrometric analysis of the elements present in the gas pha...

  20. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subsurface volatile content of martian double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Donna; McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane

    2017-03-01

    Excess ice is widespread throughout the martian mid-latitudes, particularly in Arcadia Planitia, where double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters also tend to be abundant. In this region, we observe the presence of thermokarstically-expanded secondary craters that likely form from impacts that destabilize a subsurface layer of excess ice, which subsequently sublimates. The presence of these expanded craters shows that excess ice is still preserved within the adjacent terrain. Here, we focus on a 15-km DLE crater that contains abundant superposed expanded craters in order to study the distribution of subsurface volatiles both at the time when the secondary craters formed and, by extension, remaining today. To do this, we measure the size distribution of the superposed expanded craters and use topographic data to calculate crater volumes as a proxy for the volumes of ice lost to sublimation during the expansion process. The inner ejecta layer contains craters that appear to have undergone more expansion, suggesting that excess ice was most abundant in that region. However, both of the ejecta layers had more expanded craters than the surrounding terrain. We extrapolate that the total volume of ice remaining within the entire ejecta deposit is as much as 74 km3 or more. The variation in ice content between the ejecta layers could be the result of (1) volatile preservation from the formation of the DLE crater, (2) post-impact deposition in the form of ice lenses; or (3) preferential accumulation or preservation of subsequent snowfall. We have ruled out (2) as the primary mode for ice deposition in this location based on inconsistencies with our observations, though it may operate in concert with other processes. Although none of the existing DLE formation hypotheses are completely consistent with our observations, which may merit a new or modified mechanism, we can conclude that DLE craters contain a significant quantity of excess ice today.

  2. Subsurface volatile content of martian double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Donna; McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Excess ice is widespread throughout the martian mid-latitudes, particularly in Arcadia Planitia, where double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters also tend to be abundant. In this region, we observe the presence of thermokarstically-expanded secondary craters that likely form from impacts that destabilize a subsurface layer of excess ice, which subsequently sublimates. The presence of these expanded craters shows that excess ice is still preserved within the adjacent terrain. Here, we focus on a 15-km DLE crater that contains abundant superposed expanded craters in order to study the distribution of subsurface volatiles both at the time when the secondary craters formed and, by extension, remaining today. To do this, we measure the size distribution of the superposed expanded craters and use topographic data to calculate crater volumes as a proxy for the volumes of ice lost to sublimation during the expansion process. The inner ejecta layer contains craters that appear to have undergone more expansion, suggesting that excess ice was most abundant in that region. However, both of the ejecta layers had more expanded craters than the surrounding terrain. We extrapolate that the total volume of ice remaining within the entire ejecta deposit is as much as 74 km3 or more. The variation in ice content between the ejecta layers could be the result of (1) volatile preservation from the formation of the DLE crater, (2) post-impact deposition in the form of ice lenses; or (3) preferential accumulation or preservation of subsequent snowfall. We have ruled out (2) as the primary mode for ice deposition in this location based on inconsistencies with our observations, though it may operate in concert with other processes. Although none of the existing DLE formation hypotheses are completely consistent with our observations, which may merit a new or modified mechanism, we can conclude that DLE craters contain a significant quantity of excess ice today.

  3. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  6. Ordinary chondrites - Multivariate statistical analysis of trace element contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Samuels, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The contents of mobile trace elements (Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Se, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn, and Cd) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic populations of H4-6 and L4-6 chondrites, were compared using standard multivariate discriminant functions borrowed from linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression. A nonstandard randomization-simulation method was developed, making it possible to carry out probability assignments on a distribution-free basis. Compositional differences were found both between the Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrite populations and between two L4-6 chondrite populations. It is shown that, for various types of meteorites (in particular, for the H4-6 chondrites), the Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional difference is due to preterrestrial differences in the genesis of their parent materials.

  7. The Information Content of Treasury Bond Options Concerning Future Volatility and Price Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We study the relation between realized and implied volatility in the bond market. Realizedvolatility is constructed from high-frequency (5-minute) returns on 30 year Treasury bond futures.Implied volatility is backed out from prices of associated bond options. Recent nonparametric statisticaltech......, and bond options appear to be calibrated toincorporate information about future jumps in Treasury bond prices, and hence interest rates....... contain incremental information about future volatilityrelative to both components of realized volatility, and even subsumes the information contentof daily and weekly return based measures. Perhaps surprisingly, the jump component of realizedbond return volatility is, to some extent, predictable...

  8. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  9. Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Murphy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08. Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8 can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m−3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m−3 and O:C (predicted O:C = 0.78 accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1 the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA aging rate constant, (2 assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3 the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4 heterogeneous chemistry, (5 the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6 biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, a low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging, keeping in mind that this study does not consider

  10. Characterisation of inorganic elements and volatile organic compounds in the dried sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Na-Lae; Cho, Kichul; Yang, Hye Young; Yim, Kyung June; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Myunglip; Kim, Dong Hyeun; Koh, Hyoung Bum; Jung, Won-Kyo; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-03-15

    The sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus lives in a variety of marine habitats and is an important cultivated edible aquatic species in East Asia. In this study, S. japonicus, collected from the sea near Jeju Island of Korea, was lyophilised or vacuum-dried and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GC-MS profiles of vacuum-dried and lyophilised samples differed. Based on direct injection and static headspace analysis, 37 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in vacuum-dried samples and 33 VOCs were identified in lyophilised samples. Therefore, the odour of vacuum-dried sea cucumber is thought to be due to the presence of various VOCs that are absent in lyophilised sea cucumber. According to ICP-MS analysis, the levels of 15 inorganic elements were slightly higher in lyophilised samples than in vacuum-dried samples. The results of the inorganic and organic chemical analyses provide information about the composition of dried sea cucumber. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gahungu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD. The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 30 min and analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventy volatile compounds were identified, of which aliphatic esters, alcohols, terpenoids and acids were the main classes. Hexyl pentanoate, hexyl isopentanoate, Pentyl 3- methylbutanoate, 10- undecenol, 3, 3- dimethyl cyclohexanol, β-chamigrene, Pentadecanoic acid, (E- 9- tetradecenoic acid and Hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major volatile constituents. Capsaicin (CAPS 47.632 mg/g and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCAPS 23.096 mg/g were the major capsaicinoids and their contents converted in Scoville heat value (142931 show that the Scotch Bonnet variety is a high hot chili pepper according to the Scoville scale.

  12. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  13. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Bilandžić; Marija Sedak; Maja Đokić; Đurđica Božić; Božica Solomun Kolanović; Ivana Varenina

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg): Al 0.01-3.93, Co

  14. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  15. Chrono—sequences of Elemental COntents in Tree Rings and Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANJUN-LONG; KESHAN-ZHE

    1994-01-01

    There exists a logarithmic linear correlation,i.e.,lnC'(Z,t)=a(Z)+b(Z)ln(Z,t) where Z is the atomic number of element and t the year when tree ring grow,between the chemical element contents in tree rings C(Z,t)and those in soils near the tree roots C'(Z,t).By determining the elemental contents of the annual growth rings of trees,we could establish the chronosequences of elemental contents in the tree rings.thus calculating that of the soil,that is,reproducing the dynamic changes of contents of elements in the soil C'(Z,t),The background values of elements in the soil under site conditions of the tree could be estimated from the miniumu C(Z,to) in the chrono-sequences of elemental contents in the tree rings.

  16. Bioindication of volatile elements emission by the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (North Patagonia) volcanic event in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubach, Débora; Pérez Catán, Soledad; Arribére, María; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

    2012-07-01

    The emission of volatile pollutants from the volcanic eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle complex (North Patagonia Andean Range) that started in June 4th, 2011, was investigated by bioindication means with the epyphytic fruticose lichen Usnea sp. The elemental composition of pooled samples made up with 10 lichen thalli were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Eleven sampling sites were selected within the impacted region at different distance from the volcanic source. Five sites were selected as they were already sampled in a previous study prior to the eruption. Two other new sampling sites were selected from outside the impacted zone to provide non-impacted baseline sites. The elements associated with the lichen incorporation of particulate matter (PM) of geological origin were identified by linear correlation with a geochemical tracer (Sm concentrations). The elements associated with PM uptake were Ce, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Yb. Arsenic and Cs concentrations showed contributions exceeding the PM fraction in sites near the volcanic centre, also higher than the baseline concentrations, which could be associated with permanent emissions from the geothermal system of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle complex. The lichen concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Hg, K, Rb, Sr, and Zn were not associated with the PM, not showing higher concentrations in the sites nearby the volcanic source or respect to the baseline values either. Therefore, there is no indication of the emission of volatile forms of these elements in the lichen records. The lichen records only identified Br volatile emissions associated with the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle complex eruption in 2011.

  17. [The content of nutrient elements of plant in KCl fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Rui, Yu-Kui; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-03-01

    Potassium is one of the three most important plant nutrient elements, so many researchers pay attention on its fertilizer efficiency. But fertilizers were all industrial products containing many other nutrient elements in most experiments of fertilizer efficiency. All the other nutrient elements, including necessitous elements and beneficial elements in potassium fertilizer (KCl) were analyzed by method of ICP-MS. The results showed that KCl fertilizer contained many necessitous elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo), the concentrations of them are 50.51, 1 309.48, 5.44, 500.83 microg x g(-1) and 65.54, 238.85, 212.44, 10.40 ng x g(-1) respectively; beneficial elements (Na, Al, Si, Co and Se) are 25 095.89, 3.83, 3.40 microg x g(-1) and 13.12, 23.25 ng x g(-1) respectively. All the above elements could influence the results of potassium fertilizer efficiency experiments, so pure fertilizer should be used in the future potassium fertilizer efficiency experiments.

  18. Volatile contents of mafic-to-intermediate magmas at San Cristóbal volcano in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Rotolo, S. G.; Rizzo, A. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    San Cristóbal volcano in northwest Nicaragua is one of the most active basaltic-andesitic stratovolcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Here we provide novel constraints on the volcano's magmatic plumbing system, by presenting the first direct measurements of major volatile contents in mafic-to-intermediate glass inclusions from Holocene and historic-present volcanic activity. Olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] 1500 μg/g) found in Nicaragua at Cerro Negro, Nejapa, and Granada. Models of H2O and CO2 solubilities constrain the degassing pathway of magmas up to 425 MPa ( 16 km depth), which includes a deep CO2 degassing step (only partially preserved in the MI record), followed by coupled degassing of H2O and S plus crystal fractionation at magma volatile saturation pressures from ∼ 195 to < 10 MPa. The variation in volatile contents from San Cristóbal MI is interpreted to reflect (1) Holocene eruptive cycles characterized by the rapid emplacement of basaltic magma batches, saturated in volatiles, at depths of 3.8-7.4 km, and (2) the ascent of more-differentiated and cogenetic volatile-poor basaltic andesites during historic-present eruptions, having longer residence times in the shallowest (< 3.4 km) and hence coolest regions of the magmatic plumbing system. We also report the first measurements of the compositions of noble-gas isotopes (He, Ne, and Ar) in fluid inclusions in olivine and pyroxene crystals. While the measured 40Ar/36Ar ratios (300-304) and 4He/20Ne ratios (9-373) indicate some degree of air contamination, the 3He/4He ratios (7.01-7.20 Ra) support a common mantle source for Holocene basalts and historic-present basaltic andesites. The magmatic source is interpreted as generated by a primitive MORB-like mantle, that is influenced to variable extents by distinct slab fluid components for basalts (Ba/La 76 and U/Th 0.8) and basaltic andesites (Ba/La 86 and U/Th 1.0) in addition to effects of magma differentiation. These values for the

  19. Angular Distribution of Element Contents in Tree Rings and the Environmental Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHANZHE; QIANJUNLONG; 等

    1999-01-01

    Element contents of tree rings and soils near tree roots collected from Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G.Don) and Masson pine(Pinus massoniana lamb).were determined to study the relationship between the angular distribution of element contents in tree rings and the environmental information.The chemical composition and properties of soil are very much cmoplicated,which leads to the non-uniform distribution of the element contents in tree rings.The statistical multi-varialbe regression method was used to get the information of the tree-centered distribution of element contents in the environment(soil),(C'),C'(Z,θj),from the distribtuion of element contents in tree rings(C),C(Z,θi),which depends on the plane azimuth angle(θi),i.e.,C=C(Z,θi),where Z is the atomic number of the element,with a satisfactory result though this study is only a primary one.

  20. Problem Solving for Volatilizing Situation in Nursing: Developing Thinking Process Supporting System using NursingNAVI® Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Satoko; Wako, Fumiko; Omori, Miho; Sudo, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    We have identified three foci of the nursing observation and nursing action respectively. Using these frameworks, we have developed the structured knowledge model for a number of diseases and medical interventions. We developed this structure based NursingNAVI® contents collaborated with some quality centered hospitals. Authors analysed the nursing care documentations of post-gastrectomy patients in light of the standardized nursing care plan in the "NursingNAVI®" developed by ourselves and revealed the "failure to observe" and "failure to document", which leaded to the volatility of the patients' data, conditions and some situation. This phenomenon should have been avoided if nurses had employed a standardized nursing care plan. So, we developed thinking process support system for planning, delivering, recording and evaluating in daily nursing using NursingNAVI® contents. A hospital decided to use NursingNAVI® contents in HIS. It was suggested that the system has availability for nursing OJT and time reduction of planning and recording without volatilizing situation.

  1. ELEMENTAL CONTENTS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF CHINESE ADULT MEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-da Zhu; Ya-qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Jing-yu Wang; Quan Wu; Nei-fen Wang; Ti-jiang Fan; Hu-sheng Liu; Qing-fen Liu; Xiao-yan Wang; Li Ou-yang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide basis of reference values for relevant parameters of Chinese Reference Man.Methods Eighteen kinds of major organ or tissue samples, including muscle, rib, liver, and so on, were obtained from 4 areas (Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, and Sichuan provinces) with different dietary patterns in China in autopsy of 16 healthy adult men, who had just encountered sudden deaths. At the same time, whole blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers living in each of these areas. The concentrations of 56 elements in these samples were detected by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spec-trometry (ICP-AES), and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS) techniques. Based on obtained concentrations and reference values of these organ or tissue weights for Chinese Reference Man, the relative elemental burdens in these organs or tissues as well whole body were also estimated.Results The concentrations of 56 elements in 18 main organs or tissues were determined all together and their elemental organ or tissue and whole body burdens were estimated. Furthermore, the distributions of important elements for radiation protection in these organs or tissues were emphatically discussed.Conclusion By summing with past related results, the total results obtained from the series of research may provide more reliable and better representative basis of these reference values for Chinese Reference Man than before.

  2. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Zu; Laurent Bock; Christian Schvartz; Gilles Colinet; Yuan Lit

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Cbenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 rog/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil)of Pb and Zn ≥1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu ≤1.0). Subsoil trace element content was related to relief, stoniness,soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu.Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M >L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  3. Volatile (sulphur and chlorine), major, and trace element geochemistry of mafic to intermediate tephras from the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (33-43°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Hoernle, Kaj; Jacques, Guillaume; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Schumann, Kai; Mahlke, Julia; Lara, Luis E.

    2014-10-01

    Here we present the first systematic investigation of volatile geochemistry along the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of Chile. Holocene olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the most mafic tephras sampled from 16 volcanoes along the volcanic front of the SVZ between 33°S and 43°S were analysed for pre-eruptive sulphur, chlorine, and major element contents. These results are combined with trace element compositions of the host whole rocks. The highest fractionation-corrected gas contents occur in the least-degassed melt inclusions from small monogenetic cones of Los Hornitos, Cabeza de Vaca, and Apagado from both the transitional and the southern-central SVZ, reaching ~3,000 μg/g S and 1,400 μg/g Cl, while the lowest abundances of ~1,100 μg/g S and ~600 μg/g Cl were found in the central SVZ at Volcán Lonquimay, Volcán Llaima, and Volcán Villarrica. Chlorine co-varies with trace element indicators for the degree of melting and/or source enrichment, such that the lowest Cl contents are found in high-degree melts from the most depleted mantle sources. The size of the volcanic edifices correlates inversely with Cl abundances in the melt. This could reflect more extensive degassing during ascent through the complex magma plumbing systems beneath the stratovolcanoes or greater dilution during larger degrees of melting of more depleted sources, or a combination of these factors. Compared to other subduction zones, the SVZ melt inclusions exhibit Cl and S abundances in the same range as most of those from the Central American and those from the Marianas arcs.

  4. APXS of First Rocks Encountered by Curiosity in Gale Crater: Geochemical Diversity and Volatile Element (K and ZN) Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. E.; King, P. L.; Gellert, R.; Elliott, B.; Thompson, L.; Berger, J.; Bridges, J.; Campbell, J. L; Grotzinger, J.; Hurowitz, J.; Leshin, L.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. W.; Perrett, G.; Pradler, I.; Stolper, E. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Greiman, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) on the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater [1] is the 4th such instrument to have landed on Mars [2]. Along the rover's traverse down-section toward Glenelg (through sol 102), the APXS has examined four rocks and one soil [3]. Gale rocks are geochemically diverse and expand the range of Martian rock compositions to include high volatile and alkali contents (up to 3.0 wt% K2O) with high Fe and Mn (up to 29.2% FeO*).

  5. Data for the Reference Man: skeleton content of chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichick, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    This study was undertaken to provide reference values of chemical element mass fractions in intact bone of Reference (European Caucasian) Man/Woman. The rib bone samples investigated were obtained from autopsies of 84 apparently healthy 15-58-year-old citizens (38 females and 46 males) of a non-industrial region in the Central European part of Russia who had suffered sudden death. The mass fractions (mg/kg given on a wet mass basis) of 69 elements in these bone samples were measured by using neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short-lived and long-lived radionuclides, particle-induced gamma-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry including necessary quality control measures. Using published and measured data, mass fraction values of the 79 elements for the rib bone have been derived. Based on accepted rib to skeleton mass fractions and reference values of skeleton mass for Reference Man, the elemental burdens in the skeleton were estimated. These results may provide a representative bases for establishing related reference values for the Russian Reference Man/Woman and for revising and adding current reference values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The data presented will also be very valuable for many other applications in radiation protection, radiotherapy radiation dosimetry, and other scientific fields.

  6. Distribution of moderately volatile trace elements in fine-grained chondrule rims in the unequilibrated CO3 chondrite, ALH A77307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, A J; Bajt, S; Sutton, S R

    1995-10-01

    The concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, and Se in five, fine-grained chondrule rims in the highly unequilibrated CO3 chondrite ALH A77307 (3.0) have been determined for the first time by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These elements are especially useful for tracing the role of condensation and evaporation processes which occurred at moderate temperatures in the solar nebula. Understanding the distribution of moderately volatile elements between matrix and chondrules is extremely important for evaluating the different models for the volatile depletions in chondritic meteorites. The data show that the trace element chemistry of rims on different chondrules is remarkably similar, consistent with data obtained for the major and minor elements by electron microprobe. These results support the idea that rims are not genetically related to individual chondrules, but all sampled the same reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust. Of the trace elements analyzed, Zn and Ga show depletions relative to CI chondrite values, but in comparison with bulk CO chondrites all the elements are enriched by approximately 1.5 to 3.5 x CO. The abundance patterns for moderately volatile elements in ALH A77307 chondrule rims closely mimic those observed in the bulk chondrite, indicating that matrix is the major reservoir for these elements. The close matching of the patterns for the volatile depleted bulk chondrite and enriched matrix is especially striking for Na, which is anomalously depleted in ALH A77307 in comparison with average CO chondrite abundances. The depletion in Na is probably attributable to the effects of leaching in Antarctica. With the exception of Na, the volatile elements show a relatively smooth decrease in abundance as a function of condensation temperature, indicating that their behavior is largely controlled by their volatility.

  7. Correlation of Plant Morphological and Grain Quality Traits with Mineral Element Contents in Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ya-wen; SHEN Shi-quan; WANG Lu-xiang; LIU Jia-fu; PU Xiao-ying; DU Juan; QIU Min

    2005-01-01

    Correlations between four grain quality, 24 plant morphological traits and eight element contents of 653 accessions fromYunnan rice were analyzed. P, K, Ca and Mg contents of core collection were closely correlated to the most plant morphologicaland grain quality traits, and there were highly significant correlations (P <0.01) among some traits including P content to number ofstems and tillers, K content and amylose content, Ca content and plant height, Mg content and protein content. Mn, Zn, Cu and Fecontents of core collection were closely related to a few traits, such as Fe content and gel consistency (-0.1121 **), Zn content andseed setting rate (-0.1411 **), Cu content and number of grains per panicle (-0.1398**), Mn content and plant height (-0.2492**).

  8. Olivine-Wadsleyite-Pyroxene Epitaxy: Element and Volatile Distributions at the 410km Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, J. R.; Miyajima, N.; Huss, G. R.; Hellebrand, E.; Rubie, D. C.; Frost, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have synthesized hydrous peridotite-composition samples at 13GPa and 1400C with co-existing coarse grains (~100 micrometer) of olivine, wadsleyite, clinoenstatite, and melt in a multi-anvil press. The olivine grains contain fine-scale lamellae of wadsleyite and clinoenstatite that likely resulted from small temperature fluctuations during the four-hour experiment. Major-element compositions were determined by electron microprobe and H contents by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The olivine is about Fo93 in composition and contains about 650 ppm by weight H2O. The wadsleyite is about Fo87 in composition and contains about 1650 weight percent H2O. The clinoenstatite is about En96 in composition and about 440 ppm H2O. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the lamellae and host show that the olivine and wadsleyite share their close-packed oxygen planes so that the wadsleyite lamellae are nearly planar and perpendicular to the [1 0 0] of olivine. The wadsleyite lamellae thus have their [1 0 1] and [1 0 -1] directions parallel to the [1 0 0] of olivine. Additionally, a second orientation relation with the [001] of olivine parallel to [100] of wadsleyite is also found as are incoherent blebs of wadsleyite in olivine. The coexisting melt phase quenched to a feathery mass of mostly wadsleyite crystals. Neither a quenched glass phase nor a nominally hydrous phase was observed. The lamellae indicate that the olivine-wadsleyite transformation can proceed effectively by coherent mechanisms that could potentially preserve lattice preferred orientation. The observed rapid coherent inversion from olivine to wadsleyite means that a metastable preservation of olivine below 410 km is unlikely under slightly hydrous conditions. The distribution of H among the nominally anhydrous phases implies that dehydration of peridotites by partial melting is inefficient so that complete dehydration of subducting slabs is unlikely. SEM-BSE image of wadsleyite (W) blebs and

  9. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors.

  10. Chlorine distribution and its isotopic composition in “rusty rock” 66095. Implications for volatile element enrichments of “rusty rock” and lunar soils, origin of “rusty” alteration, and volatile element behavior on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Sharp, Z. D.; Burger, P. V.; McCubbin, F. M.; Provencio, P. P.; Brearley, A. J.; Steele, A.

    2014-08-01

    An interesting characteristic of the pyroclastic glass bead deposits, select impact produced lithologies such as the “rusty rock” 66095, and unique lunar soils from the Apollo 16 landing site, is their unusual enrichments in 204Pb, Cd, Bi, Br, I, Ge, Sb, Tl, Zn, and Cl which indicates that portions of these sample contain a substantial volatile component. Sample 66095, a fine-grained, subophitic to ophitic polymict melt breccia, also hosts a pervasive low-temperature, volatile-rich, oxyhydrated mineral assemblage. The volatile element enrichments in these assorted lunar lithologies have been attributed to a variety of extra-lunar and lunar processes, whereas the oxyhydration in 66095 has long been thought to represent either terrestrial alteration of lunar chlorides and Fe-Ni metal to βFeO(OH,Cl) or indigenous lunar processes. In 66095, Cl is accommodated in FeO(OH,Cl), phosphates, and chlorides and is heterogeneously distributed. The low-temperature alteration occurs as rims around Fe-Ni metal and sulfide grains, and as dispersed grains in the adjacent matrix. Micro-Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging indicate that akaganéite (βFeO(OH,Cl)) is the dominant FeO(OH) polymorph and is intergrown with goethite (αFeO(OH)) and hematite (αFe2O3). TEM observations indicate a well-defined “nanometer-scale” stratigraphy” to the alteration. For example, kamacite (body centered cubic) → face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe-Ni alloy → lawrencite (FeCl2) → akaganéite. The lunar lawrencite (Fe,Ni)Cl2 in 66095 does not react directly to akaganéite on Earth. Rather, lawrencite exposed to terrestrial conditions reacts to form an amorphous Fe- and Cl-bearing phase, nano-crystalline goethite, and hematite. The morphology of these terrestrial alteration products is significantly different than that of the akaganéite occurring in 66095. The chlorine isotopic compositions of these volatile-rich samples are enriched in heavy Cl. For 66095, the δ37Cl

  11. [Content of mineral elements of Gastrodia elata by principal components analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-ling; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-chang; Luo, Chun-li; Huang, Ming-jin; Luo, Fu-lai; Wang, Hua-lei

    2015-03-01

    To study the content of mineral elements and the principal components in Gastrodia elata. Mineral elements were determined by ICP and the data was analyzed by SPSS. K element has the highest content-and the average content was 15.31 g x kg(-1). The average content of N element was 8.99 g x kg(-1), followed by K element. The coefficient of variation of K and N was small, but the Mn was the biggest with 51.39%. The highly significant positive correlation was found among N, P and K . Three principal components were selected by principal components analysis to evaluate the quality of G. elata. P, B, N, K, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mg were the characteristic elements of G. elata. The content of K and N elements was higher and relatively stable. The variation of Mn content was biggest. The quality of G. elata in Guizhou and Yunnan was better from the perspective of mineral elements.

  12. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  13. Historic activity of mt. Vesuvius: major elements and volatile constituents of primary melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetti, A.; Marianelli, P.; Metrich, N.; Sbrana, A.

    2003-04-01

    Mt. Vesuvius experienced a three-century long period of semi-persistent activity, after the 1631 eruption and is presently in a phase of rest. During this period, several eruptions displayed composite style since they started with lava effusions and evolved towards explosive activity (lava fountains, phreatomagmatic explosions and occasionally steady columns). The tephrostratigraphic sequence of post-1631 activity is well reconstructed [1] on the basis of historical chronicles and field investigations, whereas information about the feeding system is still weak. We have selected samples related to energetic lava fountain activity that occurred during the 1794, 1822 and 1872 composite-style eruptions for investigating the deep feeding systems of Mt. Vesuvius, during the 1631--1944 period. We present data on melt inclusions and their host olivines. Major elements, S, Cl and F were obtained using the electron microprobe (SX50, Camparis), CO_2 and H_2O by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Carbon was also analysed by nuclear reaction 12C(d,p)13C. The magma batches emitted during the 1794, 1822 and 1872 eruptions brought to the surface primitive olivines (Fo90.4-88.5) containing spinel (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.77--0.75). Their inclusions attest of crystallization at high pressure from K-rich (HK) parental magmas with K_2O varying from 4.3 to 6.0, high K_2O/H_2O (up to 2.4), Cl/H_2O (up to 0.25), Cl/F (up to 3) ratios, and H_2O content systematically high and variable from 2.3 to 4.9 wt.%. The most primitive compositions are recorded in melt inclusions from the oldest samples (1794 and 1822 eruptions). We propose a rather rapid transfer of HK-melts carrying olivine crystals from depth. This process is only detectable by the means of melt inclusions in Fo-rich olivines phenocrysts occurring only in the deposits related to the most powerful episodes of lava fountains while the whole rocks are cumulative with respect to clinopyroxene (± leucite). These new data, in addition to

  14. Determination of elemental composition of volatile organic compounds from Chinese rose oil by spectral accuracy and mass accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yaheng; Xu, Hongliang; Gu, Ming

    2011-10-30

    Elemental composition determination of volatile organic compounds through high mass accuracy and isotope pattern matching could not be routinely achieved with a unit-mass resolution mass spectrometer until the recent development of the comprehensive instrument line-shape calibration technology. Through this unique technology, both m/z values and mass spectral peak shapes are calibrated simultaneously. Of fundamental importance is that calibrated mass spectra have symmetric and mathematically known peak shapes, which makes it possible to deconvolute overlapped monoisotopes and their (13)C-isotope peaks and achieve accurate mass measurements. The key experimental requirements for the measurements are to acquire true raw data in a profile or continuum mode with the acquisition threshold set to zero. A total of 13 ions from Chinese rose oil were analyzed with internal calibration. Most of the ions produced high mass accuracy of better than 5 mDa and high spectral accuracy of better than 99%. These results allow five tested ions to be identified with unique elemental compositions and the other eight ions to be determined as a top match from multiple candidates based on spectral accuracy. One of them, a coeluted component (Nerol) with m/z 154, could not be identified by conventional GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and library search. Such effective determination for elemental compositions of the volatile organic compounds with a unit-mass resolution quadrupole system is obviously attributed to the significant improvement of mass accuracy. More importantly, high spectral accuracy available through the instrument line-shape calibration enables highly accurate isotope pattern recognition for unknown identification.

  15. Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H., E-mail: rgennari@dfn.if.usp.br, E-mail: medina@if.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Instituto de Fisica (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G., E-mail: shila@if.usp.br [Centro Universitario da FEI. Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)

  16. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference.

  17. Chalcophile Elements in Martian Meteorites Indicate a Low Sulfur Content in the Martian Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Becker, H.

    2016-08-01

    Fractionation of chalcophile elements shows that the parent magmas of SNC meteorites formed and evolved at sulfide undersaturated conditions. The Mars has low sulfur contents in the mantle and the core.

  18. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  19. Volatile (Cl, F and S) and major element constraints on subduction-related mantle metasomatism along the alkaline basaltic backarc, Payenia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2017-07-01

    We present data on volatile (S, F and Cl) and major element contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from alkaline basaltic tephras along the Quaternary Payenia backarc volcanic province ( 34°S-38°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The composition of Cr-spinel inclusions and host olivines in Payenia are also included to constrain any variations in oxygen fugacity. The variation of potassium, fluorine and chlorine in MIs in Payenia can be modelled by partial melting (1-10%) of a variously metasomatised mantle. The high chlorine contents in MIs (up to 3200 ppm) from Northern Payenia require addition of subduction-related fluids to a mantle wedge, whereas volatile signatures in the southern Payenia are consistent with derivation from an enriched OIB source. Cl and Cl/K ratios define positive correlations with host olivine fosterite content (Fo80-90) that cannot be explained by olivine fractionation, degassing and/or degree of mantle melting. Neither can the correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 in the MIs and host olivine Fo-content be explained by magmatic differentiation processes. Instead these correlations essentially require a south to north mantle source transition from a low Mg# pyroxenite (from recycled eclogite) to a high Mg# fluid metasomatised peridotite. The Cl/K and S/K ratios in Payenia MIs extend from enriched OIB-like signatures (south) to Andean SVZ arc like signatures (north). We show that the northward increase in S, Cl and S/K is coupled to a northward increase in melt oxidation states and thus in Fe3+/Fetot ratios in the magmas. The increase in oxidation state also correlates with an increase of Mn/Fe (olivine) ratios. We calculate that 25% of the apparent north-south pyroxenite-peridotite source variation in Payenia (based on olivine Mn/Fe ratios) can be explained by the south to north variation in melt oxidation states.

  20. Effect of additives on the volatility of elements in a DC arc during the atomic emission analysis of nickel(II) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotareva, N.I.; Kuzyakov, Yu.Ya.; Khlystova, A.D.; Chernova, N.A.

    1986-10-20

    The authors have studied the effect of traditional halogenating additives, AgCl, CdF/sub 2/, PTFE and that of an effective additive they have selected, ZnF/sub 2/, on the volatility of impurity elements, viz. tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, and zirconium from nickel (II) oxide, and determined the constants for the average relative volatility of the elements by the method of Kantor and Pungor. The results have been used to lower the limits of detection of the impurities cited in nickel(II) oxide.

  1. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Killilea

    Full Text Available One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.

  2. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying.

  3. Shrinkage Behavior of Polystyrene-based Foam Molded Parts Depending on Volatile Matter Content and Other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafafian, Carineh

    Polymer foam materials play a large role in the modern world. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) bead foam is a lightweight, low density, and good thermal and acoustic insulating material whose properties make it attractive for a number of applications, especially as building insulation. However, EPS also experiences post-molding shrinkage; it shrinks dimensionally from its molded size after processing. This means parts must be stored in warehouses until they are considered stable by the industry standard, DIN EN 1603. This often takes 11--18 weeks and is thus very timely and expensive. This study aims to decrease the post-molding shrinkage time of EPS foam by understanding the mechanisms of shrinkage behavior. Samples were split into two groups based on their amount of initial volatile matter content and storage conditions, then compared to a control group. Based on thermogravimetric analysis and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, the volatile matter content and composition was found to not be the sole contributor to EPS foam dimensional stability. Residual stress testing was done with the hole drilling method and Raman spectroscopy. As this type of testing has not been done with polymer foams before, the aim was to see if either method could reliably produce residual stress values. Both methods measured residual stress values with unknown accuracy. All samples stored at a higher temperature (60°C) reached dimensional stability by the end of this study. Thus, air diffusion into EPS foam, encouraged by the high temperature storage, was found to play a significant role in post-molding shrinkage.

  4. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  5. Effects of gasoline aromatic content on emissions of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes from a four-stroke motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng

    2013-01-01

    A new four-stroke carburettor motorcycle engine without any engine adjustments was used to study the impact of fuel aromatic content on the exhaust emissions of organic air pollutants (volatile organic compounds and carbonyls). Three levels of aromatic content, i.e. 15, 25, and 50% (vol.) aromatics mixed with gasoline were tested. The emissions of aromatic fuel were compared with those of commercial unleaded gasoline. The results indicated that the A 15 (15 vol% aromatics in gasoline) fuel exhibited the greatest total organic emission improvement among these three aromatic fuels as compared with commercial gasoline, reaching 59%. The highest emission factors of alkanes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups appeared in the reference fuel (RF) among all of the test fuels. A 15 showed the highest emission reduction in alkanes (73%), aromatics (36%), and carbonyls (28%), as compared to those of the RF. The highest emission reduction ofalkenes was observed when using A25 as fuel. A reduction in fuel aromatic content from 50 to 25 and 15 vol% in gasoline decreased benzene and toluene emissions, but increased the aldehyde emissions. In general, the results showed that the highest emission reductions for the most of measured organic pollutants appeared when using A 15 as the fuel.

  6. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas composition of major volatile elements in protoplanetary discs and its implication for planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaury, Thiabaud; Yann, Alibert; Ingo, Leya; Klaus, Mezger

    2014-01-01

    Direct observations of gaseous exoplanets reveals that their gas envelope is commonly enriched in C/O ratio compared to that of the host star. This has been explained by considering that the gas phase of the disc could be inhomogeneous, exceeding the stellar C/O ratio in regions where these planets formed; but few studies have considered the drift of the gas and the migration of planets. We aim to derive the gas composition in planets to evaluate if the formation of giant planets with an enriched C/O ratio is possible. The study focusses on the effects of different processes on the C/O ratio like the disc evolution, the drift of gas, and the migration of the planet. We used our previous models for computation of the chemical composition together with the planet formation model of Alibert et al. (2013), to which we added the composition and drift of the gas phase of the disc composed of major volatile species, H2 and He. The study focusses on the region where ice lines are present and influence the C/O ratio o...

  8. Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

    1991-04-01

    The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.

  9. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  10. The Effects of Different Storage Conditions on the Radiometric and Element Content of the Taşköprü Garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Kurnaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is very rich plant in terms of carbohydrates, enzymes, sulphurous and phenolic compounds, proteins and vitamins. At the same time, natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals can be found in the garlic depending on the structure of the cultivated soil. Garlic, used as medicine in the treatment of most diseases, is also consumed as raw, powder, mash and volatile garlic oil. In this study, the effects of different storage conditions on the element and radionuclide content of the garlic were determined. The results obtained from this study were compared with the limit values of international institutions. As a result, the radionuclide concentrations and element contents of Taşköprü Garlic will not pose any threat to human health even if the garlic is exposed to different storage conditions.

  11. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  12. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Ildikó; Soran, Maria-Loredana; Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, >17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant.

  13. [Determination of soil available nutrient contents using multi-element hollow cathode lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-kun; He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Wang, Yu-chang

    2011-07-01

    The soil available nutrient determination based on atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-element hollow cathode lamp (HCL) is improved from the instrument using single-element HCLs via modifying the software and hardware. As a test, available Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg and Ca contents of 30 fluvo-aquic soil samples measured by atomic absorption spectrometry using a multi-element HCL were compared with that measured by using single-element HCLs for 3 replications. A significant linear relationship with the slope close to 1 was found in soil available Cu, Fe, Zn and Ca contents measured by using multi-element HCL and single-element HCLs. The linear correlation coefficient of 0.86 and the slope of 0.85 were found in soil available Mg content. No significant difference was revealed from the above comparison data via analysis of variance. Therefore, the soil available nutrient determination based on atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-element HCL has the same measurement accuracy and is 50%-60% time-saving compared to that by using single-element HCLs.

  14. [Investigation of metal element content of some European and Far Eastern herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süle, Krisztina; Kurucz, Dóra; Kajári, Ágnes; May, Zoltán

    2015-08-02

    Metal elements and their excess intake have significant influence on general health. There is only little information how Far Eastern herbs resemble European's regarding their purity and essential metal element content. The aim of the authors was to determine metal elements in different Chinese and European herbs and extracts. The studied European herbs included Calendula officinalis petals, Achillea millefolium, Epilobium parviflorum herba, Urtica dioica leaves, Crataegus monogyna flowers while Far Eastern herbs were Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba leaves, Panax ginseng and Curcuma longa roots. The analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. There was no considerable difference in essential metal elements and the Ca:Mg concentration ratio between European and Far Eastern drugs and extracts. The extracts are preferential metal element sources and their magnesium content are also advantageous, because of a shift of the Ca:Mg concentration ratio towards magnesium.

  15. Phase relations and volatiles content of the Minopoli2 Campi Flegrei caldera shoshonitic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacapra, A.; Rutherford, M.; Civetta, L.

    2009-04-01

    New constraints on pre-eruption conditions of the Minopoli2 shoshonitic magma are provided by experimental studies. The products of this eruption represent the least evolved magma composition erupted in the first epoch of Campi Flegrei caldera activity (10.3-9.5 ka). Recent geochemical investigations (Mangiacapra et al.,2008)* on dissolved volatiles in the Minopoli2 phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions (MIs), revealed a H2O- and CO2-rich shoshonitic magma, stored at two depths (8-9 and 2-3 km) where it experienced both open-system degassing, driven by crystallization, and flushing with a CO2-rich gas phase coming from deeper levels. Phase equilibrium experiments dry and with 3.5wt% H2O have been guided by the dissolved H2O and CO2 in MIs. The phase equilibria of the shoshonite with 3.5 wt% H2O shows that the observed phenocryst assemblage (olivine, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase and biotite) becomes stable at 1020±15 °C over the pressure range of 40 to 150 MPa and to higher pressures. The experimental data indicate that the shoshonite crystallised the phenocryst assemblage (15 vol%) at a depth of circa 9 Km and 1025 °C; only small degrees of additional crystallization occurred as the magma ascended to a depth of circa 3 km with degassing of some MIs. Sulphur speciation in glassy MIs was determined as ≥ 79% sulphate which is equivalent to a log fO2≥ NNO + 1.5. The low end of the fO2 range is interpreted to represent the pre-eruption magma at depth. The solubility of CO2 and H2O as a function of pressure in the Minopoli2 shoshonite have been experimentally calibrated. These results contribute to the understanding of magma chamber processes and conduit dynamics, relevant parameters for hazard assessment. * Mangiacapra A., R. Moretti, M. Rutherford, L. Civetta, G. Orsi and P. Papale (2008) The deep magmatic system of the Camp Flegrei caldera (Italy). Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035550

  16. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  17. [Contents of nutrient elements in NH4(+)-N fertilizer and urea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Rui; Qu, Gui-Qin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-03-01

    Fertilizer contains not only one compound or one element, so it is important to determine the contents of other elements necessitous and beneficial to plant. All the other nutrient elements for plant, including necessitous elements and beneficial elements in ammonia nitrogen fertilizer ((NH4)2SO4) and CO(NH2)2, were analyzed by method of ICP-MS. The results showed that ammonia nitrogen fertilizer ((NH4)2SO4) and CO(NH2)2 both contain many necessitous elements, Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo, thereinto the contents of Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn and Fe were on microg x g(-1) the level, and Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo were on the ng x g(-1) level; compared with CO(NH2)2, ammonia nitrogen fertilizer ((NH4)2SO4) contains more necessitous elements and beneficial elements except Mo and Si. All the above elements could influence the results of nitrogen fertilizer efficiency experiments, so pure fertilizer should be used in the future nitrogen fertilizer efficiency experiments and the comparative experiments of different form nitrogen fertilizer.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Trace Element Content of the Leaves and Roots of Three Plantago Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Suliburska, Joanna; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Regula, Julita; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the trace element content of the leaves and roots of three Plantago species (P. maxima Juss. ex Jacq., P. major L., and P. lanceolata L.). Trace element levels were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicate that the leaves of P. lanceolata are characterized by the highest Co, Cr, and Se content, whereas P. maxima leaves contained the greatest levels of Si and Zn. In contrast, the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Si, and V were detected in the roots of P. major. Zn content was also higher in P. maxima roots than in the other species analyzed. The toxic trace elements were differentially distributed across the studied species. In particular, P. lanceolata leaves contained significantly higher Al, As, Li, Ni, Pb, and Sr levels, whereas the B and Cd content was elevated in P. major as compared to the other species. Surprisingly, the leaf Hg level was the lowest in P. major, whose levels of Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Li, and Sr were significantly higher than the other two species. The data indicate that the concentration of most of the essential trace elements was higher in the leaves and roots of P. major and P. lanceolata than in P. maxima, while P. maxima had less toxic metals. The obtained data on trace elements content in Plantago tissues may be taken into account while using plant preparations in practical medicine.

  19. Relationship between Major Mineral Nutrient Elements Contents and Flower Colors of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhong Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a famous ornamental plant with bright flowers and lush leaves. The flower petal can be used as a fragrant food additive. Understanding the mineral nutrient contents in P. lactiflora is necessary for guiding its cultivation practices as well as its use as a food additive. In this study, we investigated the mineral contents including Calcium (Ca, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Copper (Cu, iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn in petals and leaves of 20 selected herbaceous peony cultivars in four groups according to their flower colors and the relationship between major mineral nutrient elements contents and flower colors was assessed. In petals, the contents of minerals were in this order K>Ca>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu; while in leaves were: Ca>K>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu. Major element contents in petals and leaves among 4 cultivar groups were different at statistically significant levels. Petals in red or purple have higher amount of most major minerals than those in white or pink colors. The wide range of mineral element contents among cultivars is attributed to genotypic variations. The correlations of major mineral elements in the petals and leaves of herbaceous peony cultivars indicate that mineral ions compete for the same absorption sites. The results provided some scientific support for petal nutrition of herbaceous peony and selecting herbaceous peony flowers with dark colors for edible is feasible.

  20. Nutrient element contents of cutting seedlings of hybrid species ( Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiao-ping; FANGYan-ming; DINGYu-long

    2003-01-01

    The cutting seedlings of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were treated with the different concentrations of auxin (treatmenh: IBA of 50 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1; treatment2- IBA of 100 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1). The biomass and the nutrient element contents for different organs (root, stem, leaf) of cutting seedling of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were measured by the dry method, Kjeldahl method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. The result showed that the biomass of root, stem, and leaf of the cutting seedling treated with auxin was all remarkably increased. The contents of element C in root, stem and leaf had no significant difference between the control and auxin treatments, while the contents of N, P, K and Ca in stem were much lower than that in leaf and root. Variance analysis showed that for the same organ with different concentration treatment of auxin, the four nutrient elements (N, P, K, and Ca) had no significant difference in contents, while there existed significant or very significant difference in contents of the four nutrient elements in different organs with the same concentration auxin treatment. The N, P, K and Ca contents were very low in cutting seedlings; as a result, additional fertilizer should be applied to the seedlings when they were planted in the field.

  1. LONG-TIME EFFECT OF HARD COAL ASH ON THE CONTENT OF SOME ELEMENTS IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wyszkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the long-time effect of meliorating doses of hard coal ash (0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 t · ha-1 on the content of some elements in soil with the application of different organic substances: manure, straw and bark. Nineteen years after the application of ash there was still an increase in the total content of all elements in soil. Its magnitude depended on soil horizon and it was highest in the humus horizon. The increase in the content of nutrients was, in general, proportional to the applied doses of ash. In the surface layer of soil, the increase was particularly high for sodium and subsequently for calcium, magnesium, sulphur, potassium and phosphorus, arranged in the order of decreasing values. The content of elements in deeper soil layers was significantly lower than in the 0-25 cm zone. A gradual reduction in the content, together with the increase in depth, was recorded only for magnesium and sulphur. The lowest concentration of phosphorus and calcium was detected in the 51-75 cm layer, while in the case of potassium it was in the 26-50 cm zone. The substances introduced into the soil in order to reduce the impact of ash generated by hard coal combustion did not exert any significant impact on the content of elements 19 years following their application.

  2. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory.

  3. Influence of element Cu on hydrogen content in superheated aluminum melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen content in molten Al-Cu alloy increases remarkably when the temperature of the melt rises to about 780  ℃. The effects of alloying element are theoretically analyzed in terms of Wagner interaction parameter. Furthermore, analyses indicate that the alloy element Cu plays an important role in the hydrogen content in superheated Al-Cu alloy melt below about 780  ℃. The conclusion is drawn that the degree of gassing in molten Al-Cu alloy is bound up with the properties of oxide film of Al alloy melts. The results make it clear that the hydrogen content in the molten aluminum reduces with increasing element Cu dissolved in aluminum melts at the same temperature.

  4. Investigation of the content and of the distribution of chemical elements in human nails by SRXRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunova, V A; Brenner, N V; Zvereva, V V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to analyze 20 nails in individuals (and several persons) for the definition of how chemical elements distribute from nail to nail. The aim was to determine whether it will be rightful to take only one nail for the elemental analysis for the diagnostic of human state in future or not? Another purpose of the research is to analyze the elemental content of nails in temporal dynamic (in several persons). Analytical determinations of 20 nails of nine donors (healthy persons), nails of both hands and both feet were carried out. The analysis was performed by SRXRF. Symmetry of the elemental distribution in nails of right and left hands and right and left feet was found. The analysis of the distribution of chemical elements on the total area of a nail (55 points) was performed. The nail cutaway reflects adequately the distribution of several chemical elements over the nail plate area. In this study the elemental concentrations in nails of three donors in a 6-month period was determined. This study found the content of the chemical elements in donors' nails changes with time, individually.

  5. Evaporative fractionation of volatile stable isotopes and their bearing on the origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M D; Moynier, Frederic

    2014-09-13

    The Moon is depleted in volatile elements relative to the Earth and Mars. Low abundances of volatile elements, fractionated stable isotope ratios of S, Cl, K and Zn, high μ ((238)U/(204)Pb) and long-term Rb/Sr depletion are distinguishing features of the Moon, relative to the Earth. These geochemical characteristics indicate both inheritance of volatile-depleted materials that formed the Moon and planets and subsequent evaporative loss of volatile elements that occurred during lunar formation and differentiation. Models of volatile loss through localized eruptive degassing are not consistent with the available S, Cl, Zn and K isotopes and abundance data for the Moon. The most probable cause of volatile depletion is global-scale evaporation resulting from a giant impact or a magma ocean phase where inefficient volatile loss during magmatic convection led to the present distribution of volatile elements within mantle and crustal reservoirs. Problems exist for models of planetary volatile depletion following giant impact. Most critically, in this model, the volatile loss requires preferential delivery and retention of late-accreted volatiles to the Earth compared with the Moon. Different proportions of late-accreted mass are computed to explain present-day distributions of volatile and moderately volatile elements (e.g. Pb, Zn; 5 to >10%) relative to highly siderophile elements (approx. 0.5%) for the Earth. Models of early magma ocean phases may be more effective in explaining the volatile loss. Basaltic materials (e.g. eucrites and angrites) from highly differentiated airless asteroids are volatile-depleted, like the Moon, whereas the Earth and Mars have proportionally greater volatile contents. Parent-body size and the existence of early atmospheres are therefore likely to represent fundamental controls on planetary volatile retention or loss.

  6. The Effects of Saharan Weathering on Light Element Contents of Various Primitive Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, R. D.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years the Sahara Desert, particularly the Acfer region, has proven itself a rich source of meteoritic material, with over 400 samples from North Africa now residing in research laboratories. Among the samples retrieved has been a number of primitive chondrites, including CVs, CRs, COs, an odd CM/CO specimen, and several fragments similar to the "unique" chondrite ALH 85085 and a type 3.0-3.2 ordinary chondrite. Samples of each of these have been analyzed for carbon content and delta^13C and some for nitrogen and hydrogen content, delta^5N and deltaD. Each of these elements shows a lower concentration in the Saharan samples than those determined for non-Saharan, including Antarctic samples of the same group. Carbon. The carbon content of the Saharan carbonaceous chondrites analyzed were between 25 and 50% of the mean of the non-Saharan members of the group (the one exception is Allende, which is known to have a lower carbon content that any other members of the CV group). Stepped combustion showed that a low organic carbon content of these samples was the cause of the overall carbon depletion. Nitrogen. The nitrogen contents of the Acfer region CR chondrites was substantially lower than that of their non-Saharan equivalents. The nitrogen of the CR chondrites is isotopically distinct from terrestrial samples and from other carbonaceous chondrites in that it is highly enriched in ^15N. The isotopic composition of the Saharan samples shows no gross difference in the delta^15N, but there is some internal variation, due to differential weathering and the rusting of metal leading to the presence of trapped atmospheric nitrogen and consequently the delta^15N becoming variably lighter. Hydrogen. The hydrogen contents of the Saharan CR chondrites and the 3.0-3.2 ordinary chondrite Adrar 003 were found to be lower than the non-Saharan counterparts: The deltaD of the samples were isotopically normal quite unlike their non-Saharan counterparts, which are known to be

  7. Influence of Elemental Iron on Hydrogen Content in Superheated Aluminum-iron Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-na; BIAN Xiu-fang; ANANDA Mahto; DUAN You-feng

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogen content in liquid binary aluminum alloys with 1,3,5 and 8 wt% iron has been determined in the temperature range from 973K to 1103K.The hydrogen content in molten Al-Fe alloys increases remarkably when the temperature of the melt rises to about 1053K.This work indicates that the alloying element iron plays an important role in hydrogen content in superheated Al-Fe alloy melts below about 1053K.The results make it clear that the hydrogen content in the melt aluminum reduces with the increasing element levels.A conclusion is drawn that the degree of gassing in molten Al-Fe alloys is bound up with the properties of oxide film of aluminum alloy melts.The element iron has no effect on the compact structure of oxide film in aluminum melts.The effects of alloying element are theoretically analyzed in terms of Wagner interaction parameter.According to the values of the first order interaction parameter,it is concluded that the interaction between iron atom and aluminum is much stronger than that between hydrogen atom and aluminum,and the addition of the alloying element decreases the affinity of liquid aluminum for hydrogen.

  8. Geographical Tendencies of Trace Element Contents in Soils Derived from Gramite,Basalt and Limestone of Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJING-SHENG; PANMAO; 等

    1993-01-01

    92 soil samples were collected from granite,basalt and limestone areas of eastern China and determined for 13 trace element contents.The geographical tendencies of and factors affecting trace element contents in soils were studied.The sequences of soil trace element contents (especially the transitional elements in the 4period) were:basalt soils> limestone soils> granite soils.The contents of trace elements in soils of granite areas and basalt areas showed great inheritance of trace element contents from the relevant parent rocks.The contents of trace elements in limestones were very low,but they became very high in limestone soils.Trace element contents of soils derived from limestone and basalt increased significantly from north to south,these tendencies were similar to the tendency of ferric oxide contents in soils.There were differences of contents of trace elements bound to ferric oxide in different kinds of parent material and in different types of soil.The correlations between the contents of trace elements and the contents of ferric oxide were better in basalt soils than in granite soils.

  9. Radiocarbon content of synthetic and natural semi-volatile halogenated organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.M.; Xu Li; Eglinton, T.I.; Boon, J.P.; Faulkner, D.J

    2002-12-01

    New developments in molecular-level {sup 14}C analysis techniques enable clues about natural versus commercial synthesis of trace organic contaminants. - Some halogenated organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been suggested to have natural sources but separating these compounds from their commercially synthesized counterparts is difficult. Molecular-level {sup 14}C analysis may be beneficial since most synthetic compounds are manufactured from petrochemicals ({sup 14}C-free) and natural compounds should have 'modern' or 'contemporary' {sup 14}C levels. As a baseline study, we measured, for the first time, the {sup 14}C abundance in commercial PCB and PBDE mixtures, a number of organochlorine pesticides, as well as one natural product 2-(3', 5'-dibromo-2'-methoxyphenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole. The latter compound was isolated from a marine sponge and is similar in structure to a PBDE. All of the synthetic compounds were {sup 14}C-free except for the pesticide toxaphene, which had a modern {sup 14}C abundance, as did the brominated natural compound. The result for toxaphene was not surprising since it was commercially synthesized by the chlorination of camphene derived from pine trees. These results suggest that measuring the {sup 14}C content of halogenated organic compounds may be quite useful in establishing whether organic compounds encountered in the environment have natural or synthetic origins (or both) provided that any synthetic counterparts derive from petrochemical feedstock.

  10. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  11. SU(3) Breaking in Neutral Current Axial Matrix Elements and the Spin Content of the Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, M J; Savage, Martin J.; Walden, James

    1997-01-01

    We examine the effects of SU(3) breaking in the matrix elements of the flavour-diagonal axial currents between octet baryon states and find that SU(3) breaking may be substantial for some matrix elements. We estimate the strange axial matrix element in the proton to be between -0.35 and 0 and the matrix element of the flavour-singlet current in the proton to be between -0.1 and +0.3 from the E-143 measurement g_1(x) . The up-quark content of the $\\Xi^-$ is discussed and its implications for nonleptonic weak processes discussed. We also estimate the matrix element of the axial current coupling to the $Z^0$ between all octet baryon states. This may be important for neutrino interactions in dense nuclear environments, where hyperons may play an important role.

  12. Fiber content of diet affects exhaled breath volatiles in fasting and postprandial state in a pilot crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa J; Lappi, Jenni E; Mukkala, Maria L; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Raatikainen, Olavi J

    2016-06-01

    Our pilot study examined the potential of exhaled breath analysis in studying the metabolic effects of dietary fiber (DF). We hypothesized that a high-fiber diet (HFD) containing whole grain rye changes volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in exhaled breath and that consuming a single meal affects these levels. Seven healthy men followed a week-long low-fiber diet (17 g/d) and HFD (44 g/d) in a randomized crossover design. A test meal containing 50 g of the available carbohydrates from wheat bread was served as breakfast after each week. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analyzed at fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after this meal parallel to plasma glucose, insulin, and serum lipids. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for detecting changes in 15 VOCs. These VOCs were acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, acetoin, diacetyl, and phenol. Exhaled breath 2-methylbutyric acid in the fasting state and 1-propanol at 120 minutes decreased (P = .091 for both) after an HFD. Ingestion of the test meal increased ethanol, 1-propanol, acetoin, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels while reducing acetone, 1-butanol, diacetyl, and phenol levels. Both DF diet content and having a single meal affected breathVOCs. Exploring exhaled breath further could help to develop tools for monitoring the metabolic effects of DF.

  13. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt Ott, A.; Burtscher, H.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles by exposing the particles to ultraviolet radiation to induce photoelectron emission of the particles, wherein whilst the particles receive ultraviolet radiation the aero sol with

  15. Trace element content in marine algae species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Verep, Bulent; Ogretmen, A Omur; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-01

    Trace element content of marine algae species collected from the Black Sea coasts were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave digestion. Trace element content in marine algae species were 1.70-17.1 microg/g for copper, 3.64-64.8 microg/g for zinc, 9.98-285 microg/g for manganese, 99-3,949 microg/g for iron, 0.50-11.6 microg/g for chromium, 0.27-36.2 microg/g for nickel, 11-694 microg/kg for selenium, 0.50-44.6 microg/kg for cadmium, 1.54-3,969 microg/kg for lead, 1.56-81.9 microg/kg for cobalt. While iron was the highest trace element concentration, cadmium was the lowest in samples. Most of the analyzed samples were edible. The samples are consumed for human diet in several countries.

  16. Evaluation of trace elements contents in healthy and seborrhoeic skin samples by SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace elements content in seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) skin lesions as well in normal skin and compare them. These data was acquired by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF). It focused elements with atomic number greater than 14. This stage of research was supported by LNLS - Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, from the same patient, has involved 5 males and females with ages varying from 34 to 80 years old. The results have shown the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in healthy skin. The comparison with lesion contents has revealed significant differences in contents of Fe, K, Cr, and Zn. (author)

  17. Effect of organic substrates on available elemental contents in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Y.S.; Sun, M.; Li, Y.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School for Agriculture & Biology

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the changes of available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts of organic substrates (peat moss, charred rice husk, chicken manure, sawdust, turfgrass clipping and weathered coal) were studied and compared with that in the water extracts. Results showed that available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts are significantly different between organic substrates, whereas ionic concentrations are basically under steady condition after treatment for 36-108 h. Ionic contents in the nutrient solution extracts are not equal to the value of adding ionic concentrations in the supplied nutrient solution to that in the water extract. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed for adjusting the composition of supplied nutrient solution to match plant requirements in the organic soilless culture system.

  18. The effect of lipid content on the elemental composition and energy capacity of yeast biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkevich, Igor G; Dedyukhina, Emiliya G; Chistyakova, Tat'yana I

    2010-10-01

    Oleaginous yeasts (18 strains) were grown in ethanol media under various cultivation conditions (33 biomass samples). It was found that lipid and lipid-free fractions of dry biomass have elemental composition and biomass reductivity very close to values which can be considered as biological constants. The energy content of dry biomass strongly depended on the total lipid content. When the lipid content was 64%, the energy value of dry biomass reached 73% of diesel oil; therefore, oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising source of biodiesel fuel. The approach used in this work makes it possible to determine the energy value of biomass by its elemental composition without application of laborious and expensive calorimetric measurements of combustion heats.

  19. Volatility and mobility of some trace elements in coal from Shizuishan Power Plant%石嘴山电厂煤中微量元素的迁移释放行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋党育; 麻银娟; 秦勇; 王文峰; 郑楚光

    2011-01-01

    应用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)和原子荧光光谱(AFS)对中国西北部石嘴山电厂的原煤、底灰和飞灰中Hg、As、Se、Pb、Cr、Cd、Mo、Ni、Co、U和Th 11种微量元素的含量进行了测定.根据底灰和飞灰的产率,结合微量元素在底灰和飞灰中的含量计算了电厂燃煤过程中微量元素的挥发性.结果表明,Hg、Cd、Se、As四种元素在燃煤过程的挥发率均在50%以上,最高可达70%.通过对底灰和飞灰在酸性介质下的柱淋滤实验研究了底灰和飞灰中微量元素在60h内的迁移释放行为.Mn、Ni、Co、As四种元素的最大淋出率均超过2.0%,最高接近10.0%,并且还未达到淋滤平衡.根据微量元素的挥发和淋滤释放特性建立了电厂煤中有害微量元素在燃烧和淋滤过程中的释放分配模型.结果显示,燃煤过程中的挥发是微量元素释放的主要形式,部分元素的淋滤释放也可对周围水环境造成污染.%The volatility and mobility of eleven trace elements (Hg, As, Se, Ph, Cr, Cd, Mo, Ni, Co, U and Th) in coal from Shizuishan Power Plant were investigated.Column leaching tests on bottom ash and fly ash by sulfuric acid for 60 h were conducted.The contents of trace elements in input coal, bottom ash, fly ash and leaching solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS).The volatility of trace elements during coal combustion was calculated based on the trace elements concentration in coal, ash and the ash yield of the raw coal.The results demonstrate that over 50% of As, Pb, and Hg volatilize to the atmosphere, leaching test results indicate that the maximum leaching proportion of As, Cd, Ni, and Mo is 1.8% ~ 6.2%.Based on the volatility and leaching characteristics, the volatilization and migration model of trace elements in the process of combustion and leaching was established.The results show that volatility of trace

  20. Assessment of essential elements and heavy metals content on Mytilus galloprovincialis from river Tagus estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I; Diniz, M S; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P

    2014-06-01

    Trace elemental content was analysed in edible tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in five different sampling areas near the mouth of river Tagus estuary in Lisbon. The concentrations of essential elements (S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Sr) were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, while toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Se and Pb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the essential elements K and S are present at the highest concentrations in all the studied samples reaching 2,920 and 4,520 μg g(-1) (fresh weight), respectively. The highest levels of heavy metals found were in two areas close to the city for Pb and Cd, but below the maximum allowed values.

  1. Analysis on Mineral Element Contents in Associated with Varietal Type in Core Collection of Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGYa-wen; LIUJia-fu; WANGLu-xiang; SHENShi-quan; LIZi-chao; WANGXiangkun; WENGuo-song; YANGZhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Eight-element contents of 653 unpolished rice samples harvested from Xingping experiment farm, Yunnan Province under thc same ecological conditions were analyzed by ICP-AES method. The mineral elements content were closely related to low diversity, high-yielding, and multi-resistance breeding; The K, Mg, Ca and Mn content in high-yielding and resistant varieties were high, and other nutrients such as P, Fe, Zn and Cu were low, which was connected with the heredity and physiological mechanism of mineral nutrients. There is zonal distribution of mineral elements content from Yunnan rice, especially for P, Fe, Zn and Cu co-related with the diversity center, paddy versus upland, glutinous and non-glutinous, glumc-hair versus nuda, rice color, rice flavor, soft rice versus non-soft rice, but it did not find any association with indica-japonica types. The results supported the ecological variety group view of 5-grade taxonomic system "species-subspecies-ccological groups-ecological variety groups - varietal types" .

  2. The Reference Intervals of Hair Trace Element Content in Hereford Cows and Heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Sergey A; Zavyalov, Oleg A; Frolov, Alexey N; Bolodurina, Irina P; Kalashnikov, Valery V; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council. Comparative analysis demonstrated that heifers are characterized by significantly higher hair Se (3-fold), Hg (4-fold), and Sn (46%) content, whereas cows had significantly higher levels of hair Co (56%), I (33%), Si (2-fold), V (27%), B (55%), Cd (19%), Pb (47%), and Sr (23%). At the same time, no significant group difference in hair Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Zn, As, and Ni was detected between Hereford cows and heifers. The reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals for the lower and upper limits were calculated in agreement with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines.

  3. Content and balance of trace elements in placenta on different stages of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shkolna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional status of placenta, which provides nutrients to the fetus, plays an important role in miscarriage. The aim to investigate content and balance of trace elements (Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mg, Mn in placenta in different terms of gestation. Materials and methods. We studied content and balance of essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mg, Mn in placenta of 52 women which born babies in different terms of gestation. The content of micronutrients studied using atomic absorption spectrophotometer C-115 MI. Results. We established average content and ratio of essential trace elements in placenta of women which born babies on 24-28, 29-31, 32-36 and 37-41 week of gestation. Conclusions. Intensive processes of accumulation and transport of essential trace elements took place in placenta during gestation. It was noted that the content of Fe, Cu and Zn was increased during gestation process and reached maximum level on 29-31 week of gestation. Mn content reached maximum level on 32-36 weeks. Indicators of Co in placenta gradually increased from 24-28 week of gestation and Mg level by contrast reduced. In addition, we investigated the ratio of essential trace elements in placenta, which showed that in pairs Fe/Co, Cu/Co, Zn/Mn and Mg/Mn we observed a significant decreasing of indicators (p<0.05 from 24 to 36 week of gestation, and in pairs Fe/Mg, Cu/Zn, Cu/Mg and Co/Mg - significant increasing of indicators during gestational process. Also we found a positive correlation between Cu and Mn (rxy=0.5732, p<0.05 at 24-28 weeks of gestation, Mg and Mn (rxy=0.5855, p<0.05 on 32-36 weeks, Mg and Mn on 29-31 weeks (rxy=0.8272, p<0.01 and Zn and Mn on 32-36 week of gestation (rxy=0.8097, p<0.05. So, features of transport and deposition of essential trace elements require further research.

  4. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  5. Comparison of volatiles profile and contents of trichothecenes group B, ergosterol and ATP of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale grain naturally contaminated by mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Buśko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS, fungal biomass indicators (ergosterol (HPLC and ATP (luminometric and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range.The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  6. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  7. Elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation of Zn between metal and silicate and geochemical estimation of the S content of the Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Siebert, Julien; Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Zinc metal-silicate fractionation provides experimental access to the conditions of core formation and Zn has been used to estimate the S contents of the Earth's core and of the bulk Earth, assuming that they share similar volatility and that Zn was not partitioned into the Earth's core. Therefore, Zn provides both direct and indirect information into the origin and eventual fate of volatile and siderophile elements on Earth. However, the partitioning of Zn between metal and silicate - as well as the associated isotopic fractionation - is not well known. We have conducted a suite of partitioning experiments to characterize Zn elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation between metal and silicate as a function of time, temperature, and composition. Experiments were conducted at 2 GPa and temperatures from 1473 K to 2273 K in a piston cylinder apparatus, with run durations from 5 to 240 min for four distinct starting materials. Chemical and isotopic equilibrium is achieved within 10 min of experimental outset. Zinc metal-silicate isotopic fractionation displays no resolvable dependence on temperature, composition, or oxygen fugacity within the data set. Therefore, the Zn isotopic composition of silicate phases can be used as a proxy for bulk telluric bodies. Partitioning results from this study and data from literature were used to robustly parameterize Zn metal-silicate partitioning as a function of temperature, pressure, and redox state. Using this parametric characterization and viable formation conditions, we have estimated a range of Zn contents in the cores of iron meteorite parent bodies (i.e. iron meteorites) of ∼0.1-150 ppm, in good agreement with natural observations. We have also calculated the first geochemical estimates for the Zn contents of the Earth's core and of the bulk Earth, at 242 ± 107 ppm and 114 ± 34 ppm (respectively), that consider the slightly siderophile behavior of Zn. These estimates of the Zn contents of the Earth's core and

  8. Correlation analysis between bone mineral density and serum element contents of postmenopausal women in Xi'an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shun-Zhi; Yan, Hong; Xu, Peng; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhuang, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Lu, She-Min

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the correlation between serum macro-element and trace element contents and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as the occurrence of osteoporosis. After the epidemiological investigation of 290 postmenopausal women from ages 45 to 65 in the Xi'an urban area, their blood was collected and serum concentrations of macro-elements, calcium, phosphonium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and trace elements, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Their BMD was measured by QDR-2000 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation analysis between BMD and serum element contents was done with the software of SPSS 13.0. The correlation analysis of serum elements of postmenopausal women showed that there was a significant correlation between serum calcium and the other elements, and also a significant correlation between serum phosphonium and the others except serum potassium. The serum potassium content had a significant correlation with serum calcium, sodium and iron, but sodium content showed a significant correlation with the others except iron and selenium. In addition, copper had a significant correlation with the others except potassium and selenium. In correlation analysis between BMD and the elements contents, only did the potassium content show a significant positive correlation with BMD of lumbar vertebra and proximal femora. The comparison results between osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy group showed that there was no significant difference in the element contents between the groups, but there existed a tendency that potassium content increased with the rise of BMD. There exist significant correlations between the contents of serum elements such as calcium, phosphonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium, but no significant differences in these elements contents between the osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy

  9. The Comprehension Modes of Visual Elements: How People Know About the Contents by Product Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Regina W.Y. Wang; Mu-Chien Chou

    2010-01-01

    When shoppers enter a retail store, how do they comprehend the products in front of them? What visual elements can communicate messages in an effective way that help people comprehend product contents? Design and marketing personnel should pay attention to these issues. This study aims to investigate how people perceive and comprehend a product. It is conducted in three phases: Phase One involves collecting food package samples with ¡§Stratified Sampling¡¨; Phase Two consists of conducting fo...

  10. XRF SR technique in the investigations of elements content in aquatic vascular plants and bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanova, L. M.; Dvurechenskaya, S. Ya.; Sokolovskaya, I. P.; Trunova, V. A.; Anoshin, G. N.

    2001-09-01

    The contents of some elements (mainly heavy metals) in macrophytes and bottom sediments of Novosibirsk Reservoir were determined using X-ray fluorescence analysis with the synchrotron radiation excitation (XRF SR) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The possibility of using of the XRF SR technique along with traditional analytical methods for environmental investigations, especially for complex study of ecosystem of natural and artificial water reservoirs, was considered.

  11. Toxic and essential trace elemental contents in fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa

    2009-08-01

    Toxic and essential element content of ten different fish species from the Black Sea were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference materials (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The relative standard deviations were found to be lower than 10%. Toxic element content in fish samples were found 25-84 microg/kg for mercury, 0.11-0.32 microg/g for arsenic, 0.28-0.87 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.35 microg/g for cadmium, 1.14-3.60 microg/g for nickel. Trace element content in fish samples were found 36.2-145 microg/g for iron, 0.65-2.78 microg/g for copper, 2.76-9.10 microg/g for manganese, 38.8-93.4 microg/g for zinc, 0.19-0.85 microg/g for selenium, 0.63-1.74 microg/g for chromium. The levels of lead and cadmium in fish samples were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  12. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  13. Influence of matrix effects on determination of the trace element content in zirconium by the atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kulik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sample matrix prepared on the basis of hydrofluoric acid on the measured content of trace elements in zirconium was studied. The accuracy of determination of the trace element content was verified by the “introduced-found” method. Based on verification results the temperature regime of electrothermal atomizer was optimized.

  14. Effects of zinc on the content of chemical elements in the liver of rats during early stages of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churin, B V; Trunova, V A; Sidorina, A V; Zvereva, V V; Astashov, V V

    2013-12-01

    In rats with slight alimentary obesity, the content of chemical elements in the liver did not differ from normal, but the correlations between these elements were changed, which attested to metabolic disorders. Additional zinc dose administered to rats receiving lipid-rich rations did not affect animal body weights and content of chemical elements (including zinc) in the liver, but corrected correlations between the elements. Active contribution of strontium, bromine, and rubidium to interactions between the elements in the liver necessitates studies of their role in biological processes, specifically, in initiation and development of obesity.

  15. Effect of zinc on the content of chemical elements in the lung tissue during obesity in the experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churin, B V; Trunova, V A; Sidorina, A V; Zvereva, V V; Astashov, V V

    2015-02-01

    We found no deviations from normalcy in the content of chemical elements (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and Sr) in the lungs of rats with mild alimentary obesity, but revealed redistribution of correlations between the elements indicating impaired metabolism in this organ. Zinc supplementation had no effect on the body weight and content of chemical elements (including zinc) in the lung tissue in rats fed high fat diet, but led to significant changes in the correlations between the elements. Bromine, rubidium, and strontium are actively involved in interelement interactions in the lung tissue. These elements should be given more attention in considering biological processes including alimentary obesity.

  16. In-situ studies on volatile jet exhaust particle emissions - impacts of fuel sulfur content and environmental conditions on nuclei-mode aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F.; Baumann, R.; Petzold, A.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Fiebig, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Brock, C.A. [Denver Univ., CO (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2000-02-01

    In-situ measurements of ultrafine aerosol particle emissions were performed at cruise altitudes behind the DLR ATTAS research jet (RR M45H M501 engines) and a B737-300 aircraft (CFM56-3B1 engines). Measurements were made 0.15-20 seconds after emission as the source aircraft burned fuel with sulfur contents (FSC) of 2.6, 56 or 118 mg kg{sup -1}. Particle size distributions of from 3 to 60 nm diameter were determined using CN-counters with varying lower size detection limits. Volatile particle concentrations in the aircraft plumes strongly increased as diameter decreased toward the sizes of large molecular clusters, illustrating that apparent particle emissions are extremely sensitive to the smallest particle size detectable by the instrument used. Environmental conditions and plume age alone could influence the number of detected ultrafine (volatile) aerosols within an order of magnitude, as well. The observed volatile particle emissions decreased nonlinearly as FSC decreased to 60 mg kg{sup -1}, reaching minimum values of about 2 x 10{sup 17} kg{sup -1} and 2 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1} for particles >3 nm and >5 nm, respectively. Volatile particle emissions did not change significantly as FSCs were further reduced below 60 mg kg{sup -1}. Volatile particle emissions did not differ significantly between the two studied engine types. In contrast, soot particle emissions from the modern CFM56-3B1 engines were 4-5 times less (4 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}) than from the older RR M45H M501 engines (1.8 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1}). Contrail processing has been identified as an efficient sink/quenching parameter for ultrafine particles and reduces the remaining interstitial aerosol by factors 2-10 depending on particle size.

  17. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  18. Elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation of Zn between metal and silicate and geochemical estimation of the S content of the Earth's core

    CERN Document Server

    Mahan, B; Pringle, E A; Moynier, F

    2016-01-01

    Zinc metal-silicate fractionation provides experimental access to the conditions of core formation and Zn has been used to estimate the S contents of the Earth's core and of the bulk Earth, assuming that they share similar volatility and that Zn was not partitioned into the Earth's core. We have conducted a suite of partitioning experiments to characterize Zn metal-silicate elemental and isotopic fractionation as a function of time, temperature, and composition. Experiments were conducted at temperatures from 1473-2273K, with run durations from 5-240 minutes for four starting materials. Chemical and isotopic equilibrium is achieved within 10 minutes. Zinc metal-silicate isotopic fractionation displays no resolvable dependence on temperature, composition, or oxygen fugacity. Thus, the Zn isotopic composition of silicate phases can be used as a proxy for bulk telluric bodies. Results from this study and literature data were used to parameterize Zn metal-silicate partitioning as a function of temperature, pressu...

  19. Variations of selected trace element contents in two layers of red deer antlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giżejewska Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hard antlers of deer are unique bioindicators of environmental metal pollutions, but sampling methods presented in the literature are inconsistent. Due to the specific growth pattern of antlers and their histological structure, sampling methods described in the literature were reviewed, the suitability of using mixed samples of both antler layers as element bioindicators was assessed, and the codified method of antler sampling used for bioindication was described. Material and Methods: Lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron in trabecular and cortical parts of hard antlers of red deer (Cervus elaphus were determined using different methods of atomic absorption spectrometry (depending on the element. Results: Mean mercury content in trabecular bone (0.010 ±0.018 mg/kg was 5 times higher than in cortical bone (0.002 ±0.003 mg/kg. Mean iron concentration was approximately 15 times higher in trabecular (239.83 ±130.15 mg/kg than in cortical bone (16.17 ±16.44 mg/kg. Concentrations of other analysed elements did not differ statistically between antler layers. Conclusion: In mixed antler samples, concentrations of mercury and iron depend on the particular antler layer contents. This therefore warrants caution when comparing results across studies and specification of the sampling methodology of antlers is highly recommended.

  20. Content of some elements in plants, feeding stuffs and soil near the copperworks Legnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohosiewicz, M.; Mikolajczak, B.; Jopek, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Within a radius of 300 m to 10 km from the copperworks Legnica, the content of some elements found in vegetation and soil ranges widely. Fodder crops and some feeding stuffs (silages, hay, grass from pastures, green forage), were found to contain: copper 2.25 - 880.0 ppm in fresh mass and 6.06 - 373.0 ppm in dry mass; lead 1.95 - 177.5 ppm in fresh - and 6.06 - 373.0 ppm in dry mass. In upper soil stratum at a depth of 10 cm, the content of copper was 8.6 - 20,800.0 ppm, of lead 10.0 - 1000.0 ppm, of zinc 80.0 - 1000,0 ppm and of arsenic 0.1 - 24.0 ppm. Most of the above mentioned elements, both in plants and in soil, were found to follow the most frequent directions of the blowing winds, i.e. North-East, East and South-East, over the distance of 300 m - 3 km. The greater the distance, the smaller was the amount of these elements; however, up to a distance of 10 km, in almost all tested plants, the copper level was higher than that in control samples.

  1. Origins of volatile elements (H, C, N, noble gases) on Earth and Mars in light of recent results from the ROSETTA cometary mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Bernard; Avice, Guillaume; Sano, Yuji; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Hässig, Myrtha; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Mousis, Olivier; Rubin, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Recent measurements of the volatile composition of the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) allow constraints to be set on the origin of volatile elements (water, carbon, nitrogen, noble gases) in inner planets' atmospheres. Analyses by the ROSINA mass spectrometry system onboard the Rosetta spacecraft indicate that 67P ice has a D/H ratio three times that of the ocean value (Altwegg et al., 2015) and contains significant amounts of N2, CO, CO2, and importantly, argon (Balsiger et al., 2015). Here we establish a model of cometary composition based on literature data and the ROSINA measurements. From mass balance calculations, and provided that 67P is representative of the cometary ice reservoir, we conclude that the contribution of cometary volatiles to the Earth's inventory was minor for water (≤1%), carbon (≤1%), and nitrogen species (a few % at most). However, cometary contributions to the terrestrial atmosphere may have been significant for the noble gases. They could have taken place towards the end of the main building stages of the Earth, after the Moon-forming impact and during either a late veneer episode or, more probably, the Terrestrial Late Heavy Bombardment around 4.0-3.8 billion years (Ga) ago. Contributions from the outer solar system via cometary bodies could account for the dichotomy of the noble gas isotope compositions, in particular xenon, between the mantle and the atmosphere. A mass balance based on 36Ar and organics suggests that the amount of prebiotic material delivered by comets could have been quite considerable - equivalent to the present-day mass of the biosphere. On Mars, several of the isotopic signatures of surface volatiles (notably the high D/H ratios) are clearly indicative of atmospheric escape processes. Nevertheless, we suggest that cometary contributions after the major atmospheric escape events, e.g., during a Martian Late Heavy Bombardment towards the end of the Noachian era, could account for the

  2. The content of arbitration agreement: Facultative elements as an instrument for exercising contractual freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of an arbitration agreement is of great practical importance, given the effect its provisions may have on the rights and interests of the parties in the arbitration proceedings. Beside the mandatory elements, an arbitration agreement may include numerous facultative provisions, where parties express their contractual freedom, limited only by the imperative law and institutional arbitration rules. Even in cases when contractual provisions are contrary to the imperative law, in many states, the policy of maintaining arbitration agreement would result in ignoring the problematic provisions. The list of facultative elements of an arbitration agreement is practically limitless; among other elements, it may include: time limitations on the validity of an arbitration agreement; determinations referring to the composition of the arbitration tribunal; detailed rules pertaining to the procedure, decision-making processes and content of the arbitration award as well as its annulment; provisions on the choice of law; the right of third parties to intervene; joinder, consolidation and the authority of arbitration tribunal to decide as amiable compositeur or ex aequo et bono. The development of international commerce as well as arbitration legislature and practice, featuring transactions of ever-increasing complexity, have brought about the need to establish dispute resolution mechanisms modulated according to their specific characteristics. The customary practice of concluding arbitration agreements in the form of standardized and simple clauses is being challenged by the growing complexity of international trade. Therefore, not only should a modern arbitration agreement clearly demonstrate the parties' intent to submit a dispute to arbitration but it should also conform the arbitration procedure (as much as possible] to the content of the parties' relationship and the dispute that has emerged or may arise thereof.

  3. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.;

    2011-01-01

    for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels......The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range......, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB...

  4. Combining content and elements of communication into an upper-level biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P; Pellock, Samuel J; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Cox, James R

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established techniques and incorporated them into various presentations throughout the course. Three students describe their use of specific resources and how the skills learned relate to their future career. The importance and relevance of science communication are receiving unprecedented national attention. The academic scientific community must respond by incorporating more communication-centered instruction and opportunities in the classroom and laboratory.

  5. The elements of Internet style the new rules of creating valuable content for today's readers

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Learn the rules of today's tech-driven publishing landscape! The Elements of Internet Style is the first guide to embrace the new reality of creating content in the electronic age. It is packed with the tools to reach and engage today's too-busy, too-skeptical, too-distractible readers. Read this book, and understand the trend toward greater and greater informality. Then discover the effects of this trend on punctuation and capitalization, new words, usage, the methods for making language decisions when there is no clear authority, as well as the mounting need for built-in accessibility, compr

  6. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

  7. Chordate Hox and ParaHox gene clusters differ dramatically in their repetitive element content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter W; Ferrier, David E K

    2010-02-01

    The ParaHox and Hox gene clusters control aspects of animal anterior-posterior development and are related as paralogous evolutionary sisters. Despite this relationship, it is not clear if the clusters operate in similar ways, with similar constraints. To compare clusters, we examined the transposable-element (TE) content of amphioxus and mammalian ParaHox and Hox clusters. Chordate Hox clusters are known to be largely devoid of TEs, possibly due to gene regulation and constraints on clustering in these animals. Here, we describe several novel amphioxus TEs and show that the amphioxus ParaHox cluster is a hotspot for TE insertion. TE contents of mammalian ParaHox loci are at background levels, in stark contrast to chordate Hox clusters. This marks a significant difference between Hox and ParaHox clusters. The presence of so many potentially disruptive elements implies selection constrains these ParaHox clusters as they have not dispersed despite 500 My of evolution for each lineage.

  8. Effect of Feeding Habits of Cows on Trace Element Contents of Some Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirezen Yılmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selenium, copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead contents of several typical Turkish dairy products were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. The order of the elements in the dairy products was determined to be Zn > Se >Ni >Pb > Cu > Cd. Additionally, the concentration ranges in these samples were found to be 0.003-79.7, 4.32-59.8, 0.1-31.53, 0.58-30.9, 0.22-9.89 and 0.008-1.89 µg 100g –1, respectively. In determination of the selenium content in selected dairy product, the highest values were found in the milk and white cheese, but lower values are observed in yogurt. In addition, the results show two kinds of dairy products (milk and white cheese have as foods with high levels of nutritionally important trace elements such as Se and Zn. The results identify composition of these dairy products were within safety baseline levels for human consumption. Results obtained from this study also provided important information on safety and quality standards of local milk and milk products; cheese and yoghurts.

  9. The effect of wind erosion on toxic element content of soils based on wind tunnel trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatárvári, Károly; Négyesi, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    contents of the original samples and the intercepted drift were analyzed by HNO3+3 HCl and measured by ICP-OES device. All analysis were conducted at triple repetition, and in this study the results of the average values of the results are published. According to our measurements, at the soils of higher sludge and clay fraction the contained elements of the drift samples and the original (control) soil samples were nearly identical at wind velocities closest to the critical starting speed, whereas at higher velocities the values showed a slow decrease according to the mechanical composition. The reason of this according to our opinion is that at the wind velocities employed the fine dusty part of the drift containing higher concentration of elements exited above the altitude of 10-35 cms. The contents of elements in the drift of sand soil of lower sludge and loam content in proportion to the rise in wind velocity. The element content of the drift intercepted at the altitude range of 0-10 cms always exceeded that of the one intercepted at the altitude range of 10-35 cms.

  10. Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nikbin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of  S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%, D-germacrene (7.9%, and linalool (7.4%. Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml. Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects.

  11. Evaluation of trace element contents of dried apricot samples from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Sibel; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-08-15

    The trace and toxic elements (TEs) were determined in apricot samples by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. Among all determined TEs, iron was found to be the dominant elemental ion as compared with other TEs in apricots followed by zinc and manganese ions. The concentration of essential TEs were observed in the range of 10.4-80.1, 0.92-6.49, 0.97-8.27, 2.96-12.0 microg g(-1), 4.76-28.9 microg kg(-1) and 0.32-0.64 microg g(-1) for iron, copper, manganese, zinc, chromium and selenium ions, respectively. While the toxic elemental contents were observed in the range of 0.02-0.72, 0.72-3.77, 2.30-5.83 and 0.08-0.22 microg g(-1) for cadmium, lead, nickel and aluminium ions, respectively. The results were compared with the literature reported values.

  12. Study on Model of Correlation Between Chemical Element Contents in Tree Rings and Soils near Tree Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHAN-ZHE; QIANJUN-LONG; 等

    1994-01-01

    The chemical element contents in tree rings are correlated with those in the soils near the tree roots,The results in the present study showed that the correlation between them could be described using the following logarithmic linear correlation model:lgC'(Z)=a(Z)+b(Z)lgC(Z).Therefor,by determining the chrono-sequence C(Z,t),where Z is the atomic number and t the year,of elemental contents in the annual growth rings of trees,we could get the chrono-sequence C'(Z,t) of elemental contents in the soil,thus inferring the dynaminc variations of relevant elemental contents in the soil.

  13. Relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy element contents of arable soil around a steel company, Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BLAHA; U; ROESLER; W; APPEL; E

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic parameters and element contents were determined in core NJ008 collected from the uppermost ca. 40 cm in a steel company in southwest Nanjing. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility (χ), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) were enhanced in the uppermost 20 cm, with a mean magnetic susceptibility value of 112.5×10-8 m3 kg-1. Below 20 cm, χ decreased sharply with a mean value of 27.8×10-8m3 kg-1. Low-coercivity minerals such as magnetite dominate in arable soils, while the relative content of antiferromagnetic minerals increases below 20 cm. Heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Fe, Pb, V, and Zn) have similar vertical trends as χ. Principal component analysis reveals common high loadings of the same factor for magnetic concentration parameters (χ, ARM, and SIRM) and elements (Ni, Cu, Fe, Pb, V, and Zn) with an excellent linear correlation (0.69≤R≤0.98) between them. Magnetic susceptibility of paddy soil core NJ013, which had the same parent material as NJ008 but was far from pollution sources, showed stable values of magnetic concentration parameters along the whole core. Absolute values correspond to the so-called magnetic background value (below 20 cm) of NJ008. This indicates that pesticide and fertilizer had little effect on magnetic signals of the upper part of core NJ008 and the extremely enhanced magnetic concentration parameters originate from the steel company emission. Although, the arable soil does not reveal the pollution history and transportation due to annual ploughing, the significant linear relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metal contents suggests that magnetic parameters can serve as a proxy for quickly detecting soil metallic pollution and estimating the extent of contamination.

  14. Pre-eruptive volatile content of mafic magma from the 2.0-1.7 ka Castle Creek eruptive period, Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Among global convergent margins, the Cascade arc (Pacific Northwest, North America) has an atypically warm thermal profile due to the young age of the subducting ocean crust (≤10 Ma) and slow rate of subduction (3.5 cm/yr) in this region. Slab dehydration is thus expected to occur at relatively shallow subduction depths, resulting in high fluid fluxes in the mantle wedge below the forearc, with minimal addition of volatiles directly beneath the main volcanic front. Across-arc trends in magmatic volatiles should be most visible within particularly wide (E-W) portions of the active volcanic arc, such as are observed in Southern Washington, Central Oregon, and Northern California. As part of an ongoing study aimed at constraining variations in magmatic volatiles using monogenetic cinder cones across the Southern Washington Cascades, we analyzed the H2O and CO2 contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in basaltic scoria (Bu tephra) from the Castle Creek eruptive period (2.0-1.7 ka) of Mount St. Helens (MSH). The defining feature of this period is the first appearance of mafic magma at the surface, which initiated the modern Mount St. Helens and its variety of rock compositions (Mullineaux, 1996). Andesite, dacite, and basalt all were erupted during Castle Creek time, producing pyroclastic flows, surges, and tephra as well as lava flows. Our initial results show pre-eruptive H2O contents of 0.4-1.3 wt. % H2O and CO2 values that are below detection (<25-50 ppm). The morphology of the olivine crystals and their melt inclusions indicate relatively rapid crystallization. Given the low CO2 values, we conclude that the melt inclusions trapped partially degassed melts at relatively low pressure in a volcanic conduit or shallow storage reservoir. MSH represents the western extent of a stretch of volcanism extending ~100 km to the east; MSH magmas are thus expected to have high volatile contents relative to the other volcanic centers at this latitude.

  15. Does the Depth to Slab Control Volatile Contents? New Insights from Glasses Erupted at the Fonualei Spreading Center (NE Lau Basin), a Very Arc-like Back-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, N. S.; Shaw, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    The role of water and other volatiles in generating arc and back-arc volcanism is fundamental; however, the relationship between physical subduction parameters and volatile recycling remains poorly understood. Here, we present new volatile data from the Fonualei Spreading Centre (FSC), a back-arc environment in the NE Lau Basin where the depth to the slab increases from 125 km in the south (similar to typical arc settings) to 210 km in the north. The southernmost tip of the FSC lies within 20 km of the adjacent Tofua Arc, thus offering an ideal case study of arc-related magmatism. The FSC terminates in the north at the Mangatolu Triple Junction (MTJ), situated ~140 km to the south of the edge of the Australian Plate where a tear in the plate allows the influx from less depleted mantle1. Prior work2 shows that the major and trace element compositions of the FSC are relatively depleted and similar to that of the adjacent Tofua arc, whereas the MTJ samples are derived from a less depleted mantle and trend towards Lau back-arc basin basalt compositions. This geochemical contrast is also found in volatile contents reported here. CO2 and S contents are higher in the northern MTJ samples (up to 110 ppm and 800 ppm, respectively) as compared to the southern FSC samples (less than 10 and 40 ppm). To some extent, this difference can be attributed to enhanced degassing in the FSC samples since they are erupted at shallower depths. Indeed, S contents correlate broadly with CO2 contents; however, degassing cannot solely account for the sharp discrepancy in sulfur contents. The less depleted, more reduced nature of the MTJ mantle has likely influenced the S concentrations. The H2O contents of glasses cover an intermediate back-arc range (1 to 1.5 wt%) and show the characteristic negative correlation with TiO2, indicating that flux melting processes prevail3. A slab signature can be clearly recognized: B/Yb and Ba/Yb both show a positive correlation with H2O/Yb and with each

  16. Relation of asid-volatile sulfide and clay content of sediment to the bioavailability of zinc and cadmium: laboratory plus field experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Organic matter and iron and maganese oxides have been considered as the major affecting factors for metals in anoxic or oxidized sediment. In recent research, clay and sulfide are found as major factors in oxic or oxidized sediments that might affect bioavailability of metals. To test this hypothesis, the influence of sulfide, measured as acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), and clay content on the bioavailability of zinc and cadmium in sediments was examined. Laboratory simulative experiment and field verification experiment were conducted,showing that the bioavailability of zinc and cadmium is strongly correlated to AVS and clay content in sediments. Taking into account both AVS and clay parameters in sediments together can better indicate the bioavailability of zinc and cadmium rather than considering one of them alone.

  17. CONTENTS OF THE MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE CRIMINALISTIC CHARACTERISTIC OF FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meretukov G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article “Contents of the main elements of the criminalistic characteristic of fraud” written by the group of authors is of great importance today as the new points of the Federal Act №207 of the Criminal Code of Russia which provide for the criminal proceedings for fraud in lending; while getting payments; while using bank cards; in business sphere; in the sphere of insurance, introduced on November 29, 2012, still need to be developed and lack the methods of the investigation of such crimes. Consequently, the methods of preparation, committing and concealing of a crime, track formation mechanism are not determined and analyzed upon the materials of the forensic and investigative activities. The authors of the article have attempted to study the cases of the mentioned crime types and determine the ways of preparation, committing and concealing of a crime and track formation mechanism of the above-mentioned types of crime

  18. Parmelia sulcata lichen transplants positioning towards wind direction (Part I): precipitation volumes, total element deposition and lichen element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, A.P.; Freitas, M.C.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Verburg, T.

    2009-01-01

    Parmelia sulcata transplants were used in three different exposure systems, focused on three different influxes: free influx, horizontal influx and vertical influx. The total element deposition and the precipitation volumes were found to be positively correlated for Fe and Ni only. The element conte

  19. Trace element concentrations in eggshells and egg contents of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and zinc) were examined in eggs of black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) from Hongdo Island, Korea to determine the difference and distribution of trace elements in eggshells and egg contents. Cadmium, lead and manganese concentrations were greater in eggshells than in egg contents. In contrast, zinc concentrations were higher in egg contents than in eggshells. Trace element concentrations followed the order: zinc > lead = manganese = copper > cadmium (eggshells) and zinc > copper > manganese > lead > cadmium (egg contents). Cadmium concentrations were relatively low (contents and eggshells. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and copper were significantly correlated between egg contents and eggshells. This indicates that cadmium, lead and copper levels in the eggshell can reflect their levels in the egg contents. There was also a high ratio (3.2) of eggshell/egg content for lead. These results indicate that the eggshell might be useful as a bio-indicator for monitoring cadmium, lead and copper in the egg content.

  20. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SOIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field, which is reclamation area filled bycoal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine, Liaoning Province, the Northeast China. The soil samples aretaken at different locations, including three kinds of covering soil, three different depths of soil layers and four differentcovering ages of covering soil. The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is studied. The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year; the determinant reasonwhy the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30em depth layer and surface is fertilizer and manure apphcation; the metal elements mainly come from external environment; there is no metal pollution comingfrom mother material (coal mining wastes) in plough layer of covering soil.

  1. SPATIAL—TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SPIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJun-bao; LIUJing-shuang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field,which is reclamation area filled by coal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine,Liaoning Province,the Northeast China.The soil samples are taken at different locations,including three kinds of covering soil,three different depths of soil layers and four different covering ages of covering soil.The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is stud-ied.The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year,the determinant reason why the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30cm depth layer and surface is fertiliz-er and manure application;the metal elements mainly come from external environment;there is no metal pollution coming from mother material (coal mining wastes)in plough layer of covering soil.

  2. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  3. Web Search Engines and Indexing and Ranking the Content Object Including Metadata Elements Available at the Dynamic Information Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh sadat Tabatabai Amiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to make exam the indexing and ranking of XML content objects containing Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements in dynamic online information environments by general search engines and comparing them together in a comparative-analytical approach. 100 XML content objects in two groups were analyzed: those with DCXML elements and those with MARCXML elements were published in website http://www.marcdcmi.ir. from late Mordad 1388 till Khordad 1389. Then the website was introduced to Google and Yahoo search engines. Google search engine was able to retrieve fully all the content objects during the study period through their Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements; Yahoo search engine, however, did not respond at all. The indexing of metadata elements embedded in content objects in dynamic online information environments and different between indexing and ranking of them were examined. Findings showed all Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements by Google search engine were indexed. And there was not observed difference between indexing and ranking DCXML and MARCXML metadata elements in dynamic online information environments by Google search engine.

  4. Exploration of the Drosophila buzzatii transposable element content suggests underestimation of repeats in Drosophila genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Nuria; Guillén, Yolanda; Delprat, Alejandra; Kapusta, Aurélie; Feschotte, Cédric; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-05-10

    Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D. buzzatii st-1 and j-19 genome. Between 10.85 and 11.16 % of the D. buzzatii st-1 genome is made up of TEs, between 7 and 7,5 % of D. buzzatii j-19 genome, while TEs represent 15.35 % of the D. mojavensis genome. Helitrons are the most abundant order in the three genomes. TEs in D. buzzatii are less abundant than in D. mojavensis, as expected according to the genome size and TE content positive correlation. However, TEs alone do not explain the genome size difference. TEs accumulate in the dot chromosomes and proximal regions of D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis chromosomes. We also report a significantly higher TE density in D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis X chromosomes, which is not expected under the current models. Our easy-to-use correction method allowed us to identify recently active families in D. buzzatii st-1 belonging to the LTR-retrotransposon superfamily Gypsy.

  5. Slab-derived halogens and noble gases illuminate closed system processes controlling volatile element transport into the mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Sumino, Hirochika; Nagao, Keisuke; Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Yoshikawa, Masako; Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Burgess, Ray; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    Halogen and noble gas systematics are powerful tracers of volatile recycling in subduction zones. We present halogen and noble gas compositions of mantle peridotites containing H2O-rich fluid inclusions collected at volcanic fronts from two contrasting subduction zones (the Avacha volcano of Kamchatka arc and the Pinatubo volcano of Luzon arcs) and orogenic peridotites from a peridotite massif (the Horoman massif, Hokkaido, Japan) which represents an exhumed portion of the mantle wedge. The aims are to determine how volatiles are carried into the mantle wedge and how the subducted fluids modify halogen and noble gas compositions in the mantle. The halogen and noble gas signatures in the H2O-rich fluids are similar to those of marine sedimentary pore fluids and forearc and seafloor serpentinites. This suggests that marine pore fluids in deep-sea sediments are carried by serpentine and supplied to the mantle wedge, preserving their original halogen and noble gas compositions. We suggest that the sedimentary pore fluid-derived water is incorporated into serpentine through hydration in a closed system along faults at the outer rise of the oceanic, preserving Cl/H2O and 36Ar/H2O values of sedimentary pore fluids. Dehydration-hydration process within the oceanic lithospheric mantle maintains the closed system until the final stage of serpentine dehydration. The sedimentary pore fluid-like halogen and noble gas signatures in fluids released at the final stage of serpentine dehydration are preserved due to highly channelized flow, whereas the original Cl/H2O and 36Ar/H2O ratios are fractionated by the higher incompatibility of halogens and noble gases in hydrous minerals.

  6. Contents of chemical elements in stomach during prenatal development: different age-dependent dynamical changes and their significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Fan Hou; Hai-Rong Li; Li-Zhen Wang; De-Zhu Li; Lin-Sheng Yang; Chong-Zheng Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe dynamic of different chemical elements in stomach tissue during fetal development.METHODS: To determine contents of the 21 chemical elements in each stomach samples from fetus aging four to ten months. The content values were compared to those from adult tissue samples, and the values for each month group were also analyzed for dynamic changes.RESULTS: Three representations were found regarding the relationship between contents of the elements and ages of the fetus, including the positive correlative (K), reversely correlative (Na, Ca, P, Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Li, Cd, Ba,Se ) and irrelevant groups (Mg, Co, Ni, V, Pb, Ti).CONCLUSION: The chemical elements' contents in stomach tissues were found to change dynamically with the stomach weights. The age-dependent representations for different chemical elements during the prenatal development may be of some significance for assessing development of fetal stomach and some chemical elements. The data may be helpful for the nutritional balance of fetus and mothers during prenatal development and even the perinatal stages.

  7. EFFECT OF Nb ELEMENT CONTENT IN U-Zr ALLOY ON HARDNESS, MICROSTRUCTURE AND PHASE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrukan Masrukan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF Nb ELEMENT CONTENT IN U-Zr-Nb ALLOY ON HARDNESS, MICROSTRUCTURE AND PHASE FORMATION. Experiments to determine the effect of Nb element in the U-Zr alloys on hardness, microstructure and phase formation has been done. The addition of Nb element would effect the hardness, microstructure and phase which formed. The U-Zr-Nb alloy was made with the variation of Nb 2%, 5% and 8% by melting in an electric arc melting furnace that equipped with water cooling and the argon atmosphere. The U-Zr-Nb alloy to be cut divided to some testing, such as hardness test, microstructure, and phase analysis. Hardness testing was done by Vickers hardness testing equipment, microstructure by an optical microscope, and diffraction pattern by XRD and phase analysis was done by GSAS. Hardness testing results showed that the addition of 2% to 5% Nb element in U-Zr alloys will increased in hardness, but the addition of Nb element over 5% the hardness was decreased. Observations the microstructure showed that the addition of 2% to 5%Nb element, grains were formed from fine into coarse. Phase analysis for diffraction pattern showed that the phase changed from αU and γU (Zr,Nbat 2% Nb to be αU, γU (Zr,Nb and δ1 (UZr2 phase at 5% and 8% Nb. Phase changes was followed by changes in its compositions. The composition of αU at 2% Nb was 40% increased to 81% at 5% Nb and decreased to 3.9% at 8% Nb. The composition of γU decreased from 59,86% to 14,91% with increased Nb from 2% to 5% and further increased to 52,74% at 8% Nb.   PENGARUH KADAR UNSUR Nb PADA PADUAN U-Zr-Nb TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK, MIKROSTRUKTUR DAN PEMBENTUKAN FASA. Percobaan untuk mengtahui pengaruh kadar Nb pada paduan U-Zr-Nb terhadap sifat mekanik, mikrostruktur dan pembentukan fasa telah dilakukan. Penambahan unsur Nb diduga akan mempengaruhi sifat mekanik, mikrosruktur, ketahanan korosi dan fasa yang terbentuk. Penambahan unsur Nb ke dalam paduan U-Zr dimaksudkan untuk memperluas daerah fasa gamma

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Berta; Falco, Virgílio; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Bacelar, Eunice; Peixoto, Francisco; Correia, Carlos

    2009-01-14

    The impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on the quality of berries, must, and red wine (with special reference to volatile composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity) made from Touriga Franca, a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L. for Port and Douro wine manufacturing grown in the Demarcated Region of Douro, was investigated during 2005 and 2006. Grapevines were grown either in open-top chambers (OTC) with ambient (365 +/- 10 ppm) or elevated (500 +/-16 ppm) [CO2] or in an outside plot. In general, the increase of [CO2] did not affect berry characteristics, especially the total anthocyan and tannin concentrations. However, the total anthocyan and polyphenol concentrations of the red wine were inhibited under elevated [CO2]. The antioxidant capacity of the wines was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and TBARS assays and, despite the low concentrations of phenolics, the elevated [CO2] did not significantly change the total antioxidant capacity of the red wines. Thirty-five volatile compounds belonging to seven chemical groups were identified: C6 alcohols, higher alcohols, esters, terpenols, carbonyl compounds, acids, volatile phenols, and C13 norisoprenoids. Generally, the same volatile compounds were present in all of the wines, but the relative levels varied among the treatments. The effect of elevated [CO2] was significant because it was detected as an increase in ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid concentrations and a decrease in ethyl acetate concentration when compared to wines produced in ambient [CO2] in 2005. In elevated [CO2], wines from 2006 had lower methionol, 1-octanol, and 4-ethylguaiacol and higher ethyl lactate and linalool concentrations. The increase in [CO2] did not significantly affect C6 alcohols, citronellol, carbonyl compounds, and beta-damascenone concentrations. This study showed that the predicted rise in [CO2] did not produce negative

  9. Volatilization mechanism of certain elements in a method of semiquantitative spectrographic analysis; Mecanismo de volatilizacion de ciertos elementos en un metodo de analisis espectrografico semicuantitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Guerra, J. P.

    1972-07-01

    The efficiency of the compounds GeO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} and SrCO{sub 3} as spectrochemical buffers, in the development of a semiquantitative spectrographic method of analysis, that can be applied to the determination of 47 elements in different matrices, has been tested. It has been shown that trough the use of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} or Geo{sub 2} adequate accuracy is obtained, attaining with the latter the detection of much lower concentrations, specially for the elements Mo. Ti, V and W. In order to account for the different behaviour of these elements their volatilization mechanism has been studied. MoB{sub 2}, TiB{sub 2}, VB{sub 2}.{delta}WB and {epsilon}-WB were found, by x-ray diffraction analysis, to be reaction products in the case of mixtures with Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. (Author)

  10. [Effect of broken black tea on the formation of dental enamel and the contents of twelve kinds of chemical elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Yao, Zhigang; Yi, Juan; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Jie; Yuan, Huabing

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of broken black tea with slightly hyper-normal fluoride content which was near the level of people tea-drinking habits on enamel morphological structure and its content of chemical elements. Thirty six rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: one was control group and another two groups fed with broken black tea infusion with F- content of 8.2 mg/l and 16.4 mg/l, respectively. After 360 days, collected 144 teeth, observed their morphological structure by electron micrograph, Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and also analyzed concentrations of several chemical elements in tooth by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Chronic dental fluorosis in rats was induced by treatment with broken black tea with slightly hyper-normal fluoride content. Hyper-calcification and hypo-calcification appeared in enamel of those teeth from both broken black tea treated groups in dose-dependent manner. Twelve kinds of chemical elements, such as Ca, Mg, P, Al, Cl were examined. The contents of Ca, P, Mg were reduced and that of Al and Cl were increased significantly. Compared with control group, the levels of Si, S, Fe were lower in those teeth from treated group (broken black tea with the F- content of 8.2 mg/l), while higher in those teeth from treated group (broken black tea with the F- content of 16.4 mg/l). Long-term drinking broken black tea with hyper-normal fluoride content could cause chronic dental fluorosis, and its injury in enamel was related with Hyper-calcification and hypo-calcification mainly. Those changes of several chemical elements level in enamel, such as Ca, P, Al, Cl, were suggested that these chemical elements have influences on the development and mineralization of enamel.

  11. Hair chemical element contents and influence factors of reproductive-age women in the West Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Yuan, Haodong; Ma, Xiaoling; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Women have an increased risk for chemical element deficiencies during reproductive age, particularly due to higher chemical element requirements and poor diets. Twenty-one chemical elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in hair samples, which were collected from 71 non-pregnant and 236 pregnant women living in the West Ujimqin Banner, central Inner Mongolia, China, were measured, and the environment, dietary habits and ethnic group influence factors associated with the biomarker were analyzed. The results indicated that the average values of the chemical element contents from hair were greatly different compared to those from other areas, especially the Al, Cd, Pb, Ca and Sr contents. There was no significant difference among the three ethnicities for any element except Mn and Ti in non-pregnant women. Compared to non-pregnant women, in the first trimester group, the levels of nine chemical elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, Si, Sn and Ti) decreased, while the others increased, and the contents of all of the chemical elements decreased in the second trimester group, while in the third trimester, there was a slight increase. Three chemical elements (Cu, Mn and Zn) displayed a synergistic correlation between each other in the third trimester group, which may protect the placenta from some oxidant damage. The high levels of Cd and Pb in hair likely originate from house renovations and traffic pollution. This study provided basic and useful information on the levels of chemical elements in reproductive-age women, and the results of this study are helpful to control the contents and improve the health of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of experimental data on trace elements and organic compounds content in industrial waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Drobek, Leszek; Dombek, Václav; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of the study presented was to investigate the differences between 20 mine waste dumps located in the Silesian Region of Poland and Czech Republic, in terms of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were applied in exploration of the studied data. Since the data set was affected by outlying objects, the employment of a relevant analysis strategy was necessary. The final PCA model was constructed with the use of the Expectation-Maximization iterative approach preceded by a correct identification of outliers. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that three mine waste dumps located in Poland were characterized by the highest concentrations of dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and six objects located in Czech Republic and three objects in Poland were distinguished by high concentrations of chrysene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene. Three of studied mine waste dumps, one located in Czech Republic and two in Poland, were characterized by low concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthen, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene in comparison with the remaining ones. The analysis contributes to the assessment and prognosis of ecological and health risks related to the emission of trace elements and organic compounds (PAHs) from the waste dumps examined. No previous research of similar scope and aims has been reported for the area concerned.

  13. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart, E-mail: s.t.wagland@cranfield.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  14. FERTILISER VALUE AND TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT OF COMPOSTS PRODUCED FROM DIFFERENT WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Meller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Composting process provides a valuable material improving physical and chemical properties of soil. The quality of the obtained compost depends to a great extent on the kind of material subjected to stabilisation. Composting biodegradable products may result in the end product exceeding heavy metal limits that cannot be used in agriculture. The studies included composts produced in the compost plant in Kołobrzeg, the Municipal Waste Recovery and Storage Plant in Leśno Górne and the Waste Managemant Plant in Wardyń Górny. Composts were made from municipal solid waste, sewage sludge with straw and sawmill waste, and from urban green waste. The following determinations were determined: morphological composition, total content of macroelements and microelements and the level of these elements soluble in HCl at the concentration of 0.5 mol∙dm-3. The examined composts contained the amounts of total Pb, Ni and Cd allowing for their use in agriculture and the compost from sewage sludge, straw and sawmill waste, turned out to have the best utilisation properties.

  15. Contents of chemical elements in stomach during prenatal development: different age-dependent dynamical changes and their significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shao-Fan; Li, Hai-Rong; Wang, Li-Zhen; Li, De-Zhu; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Li, Chong-Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe dynamic of different chemical elements in stomach tissue during fetal development. METHODS: To determine contents of the 21 chemical elements in each stomach samples from fetus aging four to ten months. The content values were compared to those from adult tissue samples, and the values for each month group were also analyzed for dynamic changes. RESULTS: Three representations were found regarding the relationship between contents of the elements and ages of the fetus, including the positive correlative (K), reversely correlative (Na, Ca, P, Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Li, Cd, Ba, Se) and irrelevant groups (Mg, Co, Ni, V, Pb, Ti). CONCLUSION: The chemical elements’ contents in stomach tissues were found to change dynamically with the stomach weights. The age-dependent representations for different chemical elements during the prenatal development may be of some significance for assessing development of fetal stomach and some chemical elements. The data may be helpful for the nutritional balance of fetus and mothers during prenatal development and even the perinatal stages. PMID:12717857

  16. Anatomical variants of transposition of the main vessels and their relationship with the content of chemical elements in heart ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliver, E E; Okuneva, G N; Levicheva, E N; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Loginova, I Yu; Volkov, A M; Lushnikova, E L; Trunova, V A; Zvereva, V V

    2008-05-01

    Cardiometrical characteristics of anatomical variants of the main vessels transposition are determined by different functional load of heart compartments and are associated with metabolic processes of different intensity, which is confirmed by the content of chemical elements in the right- and left-ventricular myocardium. It was shown that the content of chemicals was virtually the same in both cardiac ventricles in case of main vessels transposition and isolated atrial septal defect. Positive correlations between the degree of left-ventricular hypertrophy and content of S, K, Fe, and Sr in it and a negative correlation between this hypertrophy and Cu content were revealed. Transposition of the main vessels and defects of atrial and ventricular septa were associated with different levels of chemical elements in both ventricles, particularly of Zn, Mn, Fe, and Ca.

  17. Genetic Nature of Elemental Contents in Wheat Grains and Its Genomic Prediction: Toward the Effective Use of Wheat Landraces from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Shuhei; Yoshimura, Kazusa; Kondou, Youichi; Onogi, Akio; Matsui, Minami; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ban, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Profiling elemental contents in wheat grains and clarifying the underlying genetic systems are important for the breeding of biofortified crops. Our objective was to evaluate the genetic potential of 269 Afghan wheat landraces for increasing elemental contents in wheat cultivars. The contents of three major (Mg, K, and P) and three minor (Mn, Fe, and Zn) elements in wheat grains were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Large variations in elemental contents were observed among landraces. Marker-based heritability estimates were low to moderate, suggesting that the elemental contents are complex quantitative traits. Genetic correlations between two locations (Japan and Afghanistan) and among the six elements were estimated using a multi-response Bayesian linear mixed model. Low-to-moderate genetic correlations were observed among major elements and among minor elements respectively, but not between major and minor elements. A single-response genome-wide association study detected only one significant marker, which was associated with Zn, suggesting it will be difficult to increase the elemental contents of wheat by conventional marker-assisted selection. Genomic predictions for major elemental contents were moderately or highly accurate, whereas those for minor elements were mostly low or moderate. Our results indicate genomic selection may be useful for the genetic improvement of elemental contents in wheat. PMID:28072876

  18. Changes in Trace Element Contents and Morphology in Bones of Duck Exposed to Molybdenum or/and Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yilin; Cao, Huabin; Xia, Bing; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Ping; Hu, Guoliang; Zhang, Caiying

    2017-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and high molybdenum (Mo) can lead to adverse reactions on animals, but the coinduced toxicity of Mo and Cd to bone in ducks was not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in trace elements' contents and morphology in bones of duck exposed to Mo or/and Cd. One hundred twenty healthy 11-day-old male ducks were randomly divided into six groups and treated with commercial diet containing Cd or/and Mo. On the 60th and 120th days, the blood, excretion, and metatarsals were collected to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the contents of Mo, Cd, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zine (Zn), and selenium (Se). In addition, metatarsals were subjected to histopathological analysis with the optical microscope and radiography. The results indicated that Mo and Cd contents significantly increased while Ca, P, Cu, and Se contents remarkably decreased in metatarsals in coexposure groups (P Contents of Fe and Zn in metatarsals had no significant difference among groups (P > 0.05). Ca content in serum had no significant difference among experimental groups (P > 0.05), but P content was significantly decreased in HMo and HMo + Cd groups (P Contents of Ca and P in excretion and ALP activity were significantly increased in coinduced groups (P elements showed a possible synergistic relationship.

  19. The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); DaBoit, Katia [Department of Environmental Medicine, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Kostova, Irena J. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels, 15, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); and others

    2012-02-01

    Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model Bulgarian power plants which have regulated minerals nanoparticles can contain hazardous elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study changes in the level of information about nanominerals importance and the effect on human health exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing information will increase quality if power plants procedures are similar.

  20. The Change of Austenitic Stainless Steel Elements Content in the Inner Parts of VVER-440 Reactor during Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutný, Vladimír; Hep, Jaroslav; Novosad, Petr

    2009-08-01

    Neutron activation induces the element transmutation in materials surrounding the reactor active core. The objective of the present paper is to calculate and evaluate the change of austenitic stainless steel 08Ch18N10T elements content through neutron induced activation, in inner parts of VVER-440 - in the baffle and in the barrel. Particularly the content changes of Mn in austenitic stainless steel. The neutron flux density and then the neutron activation of austenitic stainless steel elements in parts at the core are calculated. Neutron activation represents a measure of austenitic stainless steel elements transmutation. The power distribution is determined as an average value of several cycles power distribution in the middle of a cycle for the NPP Dukovany. The power distribution is calculated with the code MOBY-DICK [1]. The neutron flux density is calculated with the code TORT [2]. The neutron activation of austenitic stainless steel elements in the baffle and in the barrel is calculated with the system EASY-2007 containing the code FISPACT-2007 [3]. The calculation of the changing austenitic stainless steel elements content is performed depending on the moment of the supposed end of reactor operation - 40 years. There is also necessary monitoring and benchmarking of steel element content change, because the neutron flux calculation, particularly in thermal region, shows a considerable uncertainty, e.g. [4]. The motivation for this work is the study focused to stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels induced by radiation inside PWR and BWR, e.g. [5]. The paper could be a suggestion to estimation of austenitic stainless steel corrosion damage induced by neutrons in inner parts of VVER-440 reactor.

  1. Effect of plant cultivation methods on content of major and trace elements in foodstuffs and retention in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Østergaard, Lars F; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    major and trace element contents of dried foodstuffs (carrots, kale, peas, potatoes and apples) grown in two consecutive years, as well as mineral retention determined in 36 rats (second generation in a multi-generation study) fed diets based on these foodstuffs from one year. RESULTS: Overall...

  2. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  3. Application and Verification of Logarithmic Linear Correlation Mode of Element Contents Between Tree Rings and Soils near the Tree Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANJUNLONG; YINZHUOSI; 等

    1998-01-01

    Nine Platanus acerifolia(Ait),Willd.trees growing in the Nanjing Children Teacher's School,Nanjing,China ,were selected to determine the contents of 13 chemical elements both in the 1994's growth rings,C(Z,t),and in the soils near the roots,C′(Z,t),of the trees ,The results showed that the relationship be-tween C(Z,t) and C′(Z,t) followed the logarithmic liner correlation moedl.lgC′(Z,t),=a(Z)+b(Z)lgC(Z,t),Based on this model the chrono-sequences of chemical element contents in the soils were reproduced fromt those ih the tree rings;i.e., the dynamic variations in the chemical element contents of the soils at the sites were trced.In this study the chrono-sequences of the chemical elements including Cd,Pb,Mn,Co and Zn in the soils near the roots of a Platanus acerifolia tree from 1957 to 1994 were established ,and the background values of Cd,Pb,Mn,Co and Zn in the soil were calcuated by taking the lowest values of the chrono-sequences of the element conents as upper limits of the background values.

  4. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  5. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  6. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  7. [Effect of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on growth, physiological characteristics and content of active constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wan, Chunyang; Wang, Wenquan; Gu, Bin; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Wenjie; Hou, Songnian; Han, Zhongwen

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effects of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on the various growth indicators, physiological indicators, and the contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in one-year old Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The plants of G. uralensis growing in Chifeng of Inner Mongolia and medicinal garden of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine were fertilized for two times, respectively. The photosynthetic physiological indicators were measured by LI-6400 photosynthetic instrument. The pigments and antioxidase activities of the leaves were determined. Then contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in the plants were determined by HPLC. The application of this trace element nutrient balance agent could significantly improve the height, chla and chlb, and the photosynthetic physiology indicator such as P(n), C(i), and G(s). Similarly, it could significantly increase the fresh weight of shoots and dry weight of the roots. Compared with control block (CK), the fertilizer which was diluted by 300 times (T(1)) and 600 times (T(2)) significantly increased the content of glycyrrhizic acid by 24.72% and 20. 23%. There was significant difference between different treatments (P elements nutrient balance agent could promote growth, physiology and the content of active constituents of G. uralensis, especially the effect of T(1) was superior to T(2).

  8. Peculiarities of cognitive functions in urban children with mental retardation in relation to the chemical elements content in a hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevstafyeva E.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In 30 children in the age of 12,8±0,3 with mental retardation and 30 healthy children of the same age an element balance of organism and state of cognitive functions were related. The content of elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, Pb in the hair was determined by a method of X-ray fuorescent spectroscopy. The content of Ca, Ni and Mn in 55 % of children and the defciency of Fe in 21 % of children with mental retardation were established. The defciency of Ca, Fe and Mn of healthy children was displayed. The value of Sr and Pb in organism in children of booth group was normal. The content of Mo in hair in 40 % of children with mental retardation and in 30 % of children of a check-group were established. The relationship between the content of chemical elements in organisms and state of cognitive functions was analyzed by non-parametric analysis by Spearmen. The excess of Ni in organism of children with mental retardation and defciency of Fe in organism of children in booth groups negatively infuenced the characteristics of cognitive functions (0,34

  9. Sources and Contents of Heavy Metals and Other Trace Elements in Animal Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace elements are natural and added components of livestock and poultry feeds. Appropriate amounts of these trace elements in the diet of livestock and poultry ensures both health and reproduction. Unfortunately, many times trace metals that are added to livestock diets by producers or feed compani...

  10. Control Methods of the Content of Volatile Base Impurities in Caprolactam%己内酰胺中挥发性碱杂质的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡合新; 孙斌; 王恩泉

    2012-01-01

    针对己内酰胺成品中C3~C7直链酰胺、苯胺和己二酰亚胺等挥发性碱杂质含量偏高,影响产品质量的问题、研究了杂质控制方法.考察了真空蒸馏、树脂吸附、酸性/碱性水解等方法降低挥发性碱杂质含量的效果,并跟踪分析了工业装置中环己酮杂质对己内酰胺产品质量的影响.结果表明,真空蒸馏仅能脱除约20%正戊酰胺;Amberlyst强酸性树脂容易吸附脱除碱性较强的NH3,而难以吸附脱除碱性弱的正戊酰胺、正己酰胺;NaOH质量分数由0增至500μg/g时,加速了挥发性碱杂质的水解速率,但也促进己内酰胺开环水解、低聚等副反应;H2SO;溶液中添加NaNO2进行重氮化反应,明显加快了正戊酰胺、正己酰胺的水解速率,但大量己内酰胺同时存在时,H2SO4易与己内酰胺发生络合反应,导致杂质基本不进行水解反应.通过严格限制环己酮中己醛和2-庚酮杂质质量分数至20~30 μg/g,挥发性碱杂质含量明显下降,己内酰胺优级品率可达到100%.%To solve off-specification problem of caprolactam, caused by the volatile base impurities, such as C3-C7 amides, C6 imides and aniline, some methods to control the content of volatile base impurities were investigated, including vacuum distillation, resin adsorption, hydrolysis. Results showed that only 20% (mass fraction) of pentylamide was removed by vacuum distillation. Removal efficiency of ammonia on strongly acidic cation exchange resin Amberlyst was higher than that of pentylamide and hexoamide, which might be attributed to the stronger alkalinity of ammonia. As the NaOH mass fraction increased from 0 to 500 μg/g, hydrolysis rates of pentylamide and hexoamide were promoted, but the ring-opening polymerization of caprolactam increased simultaneously. As adding NaNO2 in the H2SO4 solution, conversions of pentylamide and hexoamide increased significantly. However, if caprolactam existed in the H2SO4 solution system

  11. [Correlation between trace element content of eggshell and breeding characteristics of three bird species in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Gao, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhan, De-Jiang; Chen, Fang

    2009-07-01

    The contents of trace elements in the eggshells of Emberiza jankowskii, Parus major and Passer montanus were examined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), and the correlations between these trace elements of eggshell and breeding characteristics of the three bird species were studied. In the meantime, the optimum parameters of FAAS were studied, and no cross effect were observed among the five trace elements. The recovery rates of standard addition of Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn were 95%-104% indicating a fairly good accuracy of the FAAS method. It was showed that the Zn and Mn contents in the eggshell of E. jankowskii were higher than those of P. major and P. montanus. However, the Cu, Fe and Mg contents in the eggshell of E. jankowskii were lower than those of P. major and P. montanus. E. jankowskii had the lowest breeding success rate and survive rate, P. montanus had the highest breeding success rate and survive rate, and P. major had the medial rates. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant difference in Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of eggshell, the breeding success rate and survive rate among E. jankowskii, P. major and P. montanus. Correlation analysis showed that there was obviously a negative correlation between Mn and Zn contents of eggshells and the breeding success rate, the breeding survival rate of E. jankowskii, P. major and P. montanus, possibly suggesting some kind of connection between the breeding success rate, breeding survive rate and the Zn and Mn contents of eggshell of E. jankowskii, P. major and P. montanus. The considerably reduced breeding success rate of E. jankowskii could be due to the low level of Mg, Cu and Fe in its eggshell, causing suboptimal nutrition during embryonic development.

  12. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula......H or milk fat percentage. Cows maintained average ventral ruminal pH of 6.65 ± 0.02, medial ruminal pH of 5.95 ± 0.04, and milk fat of 4.42 ± 0.12% with chewing time of 28.0 ± 2.1 min/kg of DM when fed short particles. The medial ruminal pool of wet particulate matter was decreased by 10.53 ± 2.29 kg...... particles. The estimated ruminal fluid flow and therefore intraruminal VFA transport between medial and ventral phase was not affected by the FPS. In conclusion, the ruminal mat pool of VFA was proportional to the size of the mat and the only detected effects of decreasing FPS were decreasing the mat size...

  13. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elemental Contents in Hair of Children from Two Regions in Dar Es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat K. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper is part of the study which aims at determining the levels of elements in hair of children in Tanzania as a bioindicator of their nutrition and health. In this paper, the levels of trace elements in hair from children living in Dar es Salaam have been analysed. The analysis was carried out by long and short irradiation INAA at the reactor centre of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez Czech Republic. 22 samples were collected from children living at Kiwalani about 12 km from Dar es Salaam city and 16 samples from children living at Mlimani, the main campus of University of Dar es Salaam. A total of 34 elements were found in the hair of the children. There were no big differences between the concentration levels of the essential elements in hair samples collected from the children which might indicate the same food consumption habits.

  15. mineral elements content of some coarse grains used as staple food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Mineral Elements, Coarse Grains, Staple Food, Kano, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... maize, sorghum, wheat, cowpea and rice are the most popular agricultural ... of the body by the time the baby walks. Deficiencies.

  16. Element content of Xanthoparmelia scabrosa growing on asphalt in urban and rural New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Wright, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Xanthoparmelia scabrosa is a foliose lichen that grows abundantly on pedestrian and automobile asphalt in New Zealand, which are considered inhospitable habitats for lichens. Samples were collected at eight localities ranging from urban streets to very rural roads and analyzed for 28 chemical elements in order to determine elemental chemistry and to test hypotheses about tolerance mechanisms. Anthropogenic elements (Cu, Pb, and Zn) decreased significantly from urban to rural areas, while nutritional elements (K, P, and S) increased. Samples from urban areas contained 10% calcium. Sulfur was elevated at both urban and rural sites, possibly due to pollution in the former site and higher levels of sulfur-containing scabrosin esters at the rural sites. The ability of this lichen to accumulate high levels of Cu, Pb and Zn may make it useful as a remediation tool.

  17. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  18. Element content analysis by WDXRF in pistachios grown under organic and conventional farming regimes for human nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaba, Ugur; Sahin, Yusuf; Türkez, Hasan

    2012-10-01

    In this investigation, the elemental composition of various Antep pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) samples was determined using a sensitive method called wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). A total of 27 elements, such as Al, As, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, S, Sr, Zn, Cl, Pb, K, Mg, Na, Ba, Rb, Si, Br, Sn, Au, La, Ti and Zr, were determined in pistachios samples (n = 10) grown under organic and conventional farming regimes. The obtained results from each group were analyzed statistically using SPSS statistic program. It was observed that the concentration and peak intensity values of Ca, Fe, Mn, P, Mg, Cl, Na and K elements were higher in the pistachios samples grown under organic farming regime. Similarly, Al was found in higher level in the samples grown under conventional farming regime. As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Ti, La, Sn and Zr contents were measured. Their contents were below the detection limits. Our findings clearly revealed that organic pistachios are likely to have higher nutritional mineral content. The pistachios samples grown under conventional farming regime could contain harmful metals like Al that might damage various systems and/or organs of humans and animals.

  19. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of elements' content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... content and antimicrobial properties of Pereskia bleo and Goniothalamus ... bacteria, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Bacillus subtilis B29, and other two .... plants contain potassium and chlorine.

  20. Elemental content of mosses and lichens from Livingston Island (Antarctica) as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicov, Otilia A; Yurukova, Liliana; Duliu, Octavian G; Zinicovscaia, Inga

    2017-02-01

    The total content of 8 major and 32 trace elements in four species of mosses and two of lichens as well as neighboring soil and rocks collected from different places of the Livingston Island Antarctica was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The main goals of the project consisted of evidencing the possible trace of anthropogenic contamination as well as the influence of altitude on the distribution of considered elements. In the absence of a unanimously accepted descriptor, enrichment factor, geo-accumulation, and pollution load indices with respect to soil and rocks were used. The data, interpreted within the model of a reference plant, were compared with previous studies regarding the same organisms in similar geographic and climatological areas. The experimental results evidenced different capacity of mosses and lichens to retain the considered elements, but within experimental uncertainties, no traces of anthropogenic pollution were found. At the same time, it was found that the content of most of the elements decreased with the altitude.

  1. Trace element content in urban tree leaves and SEM-EDAX characterization of deposited particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of common deciduous trees: Aesculus hippocastanum and Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade (Serbia were studied as biomonitors of trace elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb air pollution. Using a scanning SEM-EDAX, the size, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were examined on adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves. Morphological and chemical composition indicated that the most abundant particles were soot and dust with minor constituents such as Pb, Zn, Ni, V, Cd, Ti, As, and Cu. Total element concentrations in the leaves were determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. This investigation included spatial, seasonal, and temporal variations in leaves of the selected species. The leaves of A. hippocastanum showed a significantly higher elements concentration and more consistency in trend of element accumulation during the vegetation season in the period 2002-2006 than Tilia spp., so it may be considered as a more suitable species for the assessment of trace element atmospheric pollution, especially Pb and Cu which correlated with the bulk deposition data.

  2. Evaluation of Elemental Contents of Wild Mango (Irvingia gabonensis Fruit in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Ayivor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study to provide information on the elemental composition of the Irvingia gabonensis which is used for various purposes such as cooking, medicine, soap and as fresh fruit was conducted in Ghana. Elements determined includes Aluminium (Al, Arsenic (As, Chlorine (Cl, Cobalt (Co, Copper (Cu, Iron (Fe, Iodine (I, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Sodium (Na, and Zinc (Zn. Samples from multiple locations in the southern part of Ghana were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA. The seed cover (endocarp presented the highest concentrations of all the elements except Mg and Cu. Toxic and potentially toxic elements including Al and As were detected at average concentrations of 37.78±1.36 and 9.34±0.66. Iron had the hight concentration in all the parts of the fruit analyzed in this study with its highest concentration at 1730±180.83 in the seed coat (endocarp of the wild mango fruit. The results of this present investigation show that all the parts of the wild mango a rich source of many important elements that have a very positive effect on human health.

  3. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  4. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  5. Monitoring the content and intake of trace elements from food in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, N. L.; Møller, A.

    2002-01-01

    slightly. The distribution in dietary intake of the five trace elements was estimated by combining the mean trace element concentrations with food consumption data from 1837 Danes aged 15-80 years. The lead intake for 1993-97 showed a decrease in comparison with similar estimates from the previous...... of the distribution in cadmium intake amounts to 34% of PTWI, which is relatively high, and therefore calls for a more detailed future risk assessment. The intakes of lead and mercury were 11% of PTWI and, like the intake of nickel, did not cause any health concern in the adult population. The Danes ingest close...

  6. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  7. Virtual volatility

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  8. Mantle Volatiles - Distribution and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luth, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    Volatiles in the mantle have, for many years, been the subject of intensive study from a number of perspectives. They are of interest because of their potential effects on melting relationships, on transport of major and trace elements, and on the rheological and other physical properties of the mantle. By convention, "volatiles" in this context are constituents that are liquid or gaseous at normal Earth surface conditions. This review will look at the behavior of C-O-H-S-halogen volatiles, beginning with H2O and C-O volatiles.There have been tremendous strides made recently towards understanding how volatiles in general and water in particular is transported and stored in the mantle. This progress is based on research on a number of fronts: studies of mantle-derived samples have provided insight into the nature and occurrence of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, and chlorite, and have provided constraints on the capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) such as olivine, pyroxenes, and garnet to contain "water" by a variety of substitution mechanisms. Experimental studies on mantle-derived magmas have provided constraints on volatile contents in their source regions. Other studies have constrained the pressure, temperature, and composition conditions over which hydrous phases are stable in the mantle.Fundamental questions remain about the geochemical cycling of volatiles in the mantle, and between the mantle and the surface. Much attention has focused on the capability of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, serpentine, chlorite, and a family of "dense hydrous magnesian silicates" (DHMSs) to act as carriers of water in subducting slabs back into the mantle. It has been clear since the work of Ito et al. (1983) that there is a discrepancy between the amount of volatiles subducted into the mantle and those returned to the surface by arc magmatism. A recent overview of volatile cycling in subduction systems by Bebout (1996) suggests that 5-15% of the H2

  9. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  10. Virtual Laboratory as an Element of Visualization When Teaching Chemical Contents in Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herga, Nataša Rizman; Grmek, Milena Ivanuš; Dinevski, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Using a variety of visualization tools for teaching and learning science and chemistry is necessary because pupils better understand chemical phenomena and formulate appropriate mental models. The purpose of the presented study was to determine the importance of a virtual laboratory as a visualization element when addressing chemical contents…

  11. Assessment of the essential element and heavy metal content of edible fish muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Santiago, S. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.L. [Instituto de Investigacao das Pescas e do Mar, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of some essential and toxic elements in the muscle of ten species of commercial fish consumed in Portugal. We combined two different techniques for determination of the elements - energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Sr and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry for analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The latter technique was used because of its higher sensitivity, because these elements were not detected by EDXRF. The results obtained show a similar pattern for the trace elements. K and Ca are present at the highest concentrations in all the samples studied, from 0.6-1.3% and from 0.04-0.08%, respectively, followed by Zn, Fe, Sr, Se, and Rb. Sr is present at higher concentrations than Rb in all the species studied except meagre. Concentrations of the elements in octopus do not follow this pattern - Fe is present at a higher concentration than Zn. Low concentrations of Cr (0.66-1.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Ni (0.11-0.24 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cd (0.01-0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Hg (0.49-2.74 {mu}g g{sup -1}), and Pb (0.02-0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were observed in all the samples analysed. The concentration of Hg was highest in Helicolenus dactylopterus - 5.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} in one sample. (orig.)

  12. Relationship between radiocesium contamination and the contents of various elements in the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant seriously contaminated a large area in northeast Japan with a large amount of radioactive material. Consequently, various organisms, including arthropods, in the ecosystem have been contaminated with radiocesium ((137)Cs) through the food chain. We previously showed that the web spider Nephila clavata was contaminated with (137)Cs and that the level of contamination, which varied among spider individuals, was independent of the amount of prey consumed. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms that could determine the level of (137)Cs contamination in N. clavata. We first demonstrated the patterns of contents of over 30 elements in N. clavata that were collected at two forest sites (PS and ES) in Fukushima and then focused on the relationships between the contents of the alkali metals Li, Na, K, and Rb and the accumulation of (137)Cs in the spiders; Cs is an alkali metal and is expected to act similarly to Li, Na, K, and Rb. We also focused on the content of the non-alkali element, Cu, which is an essential element for oxygen transport in spiders. We found that Na content correlated positively with (137)Cs accumulation at both sites, which suggested that (137)Cs accumulation in N. clavata was related with the dynamics of Na. The K-, Rb-, and Cu-(137)Cs relationships were site specific; the relationships were significant at site PS, but not significant at site ES. Factors causing the site specific relationships and the probable pathway for (137)Cs transfer from soil to plants and then to higher trophic levels are discussed in terms of the transfer processes of the alkali metals.

  13. The influence of pre-fermentative treatments on the volatile, chromatic features, organic acids and phenolic content of Fetească albă Romanian wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroşanu Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the influence of some pre-fermentative treatments on the volatile content, the chromatic parameters, the total polyphenol index and Folin-Ciocâlteu index of experimental wines obtained from Fetească albă grape variety. Five experimental samples were produced: FA V0 (control sample, FA V1 (sodium bentonite treatment, FA V2 (glutathione treatment, FA V3 (tannin treatment, FA V4 (oenological coal treatment. The use of pre-fermentative treatments show lower values of Folin-Ciocâlteu index and total polyphenol index, excepting sample treated with tannin. Major color differences are found in the sample treated with tannin and oenological coal. Gas-chromatographic analysis reveals the presence of common wine esters, such as: hexanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl caprylate, ethyl lactate, ethyl caprate, ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, that contributes at the accomplishment of the wines from the sensorial point of view. Diethyl malonate, a compound that occurs naturally in grapes has an apple-like odor and it was identified in the control sample and in the samples treated with tannin and oenological coal, being found n greater quantity in the control sample (0.02 mmol/Land the sample treated with coal (0.03 mmol/L. Another ester, methyl oleate that offers a mild-fatty odor wasn't identified in the control sample, but it was detected in the samples treated with clay, tannin and oenological coal. Using the HPLC method it was also analysed the presence of some organic acids in wine samples.

  14. Revisiting the compositions and volatile contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Mount Shasta region: implications for the formation of high-Mg andesites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitto, D. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Kent, A. J. R.

    2011-07-01

    Primitive chemical characteristics of high-Mg andesites (HMA) suggest equilibration with mantle wedge peridotite, and they may form through either shallow, wet partial melting of the mantle or re-equilibration of slab melts migrating through the wedge. We have re-examined a well-studied example of HMA from near Mt. Shasta, CA, because petrographic evidence for magma mixing has stimulated a recent debate over whether HMA magmas have a mantle origin. We examined naturally quenched, glassy, olivine-hosted (Fo87-94) melt inclusions from this locality and analyzed the samples by FTIR, LA-ICPMS, and electron probe. Compositions (uncorrected for post-entrapment modification) are highly variable and can be divided into high-CaO (>10 wt%) melts only found in Fo > 91 olivines and low-CaO ( 90 olivines. Restored low-CaO melt inclusions are HMAs (57-61 wt% SiO2; 4.9-10.9 wt% MgO), whereas high-CaO inclusions are primitive basaltic andesites (PBA) (51-56 wt% SiO2; 9.8-15.1 wt% MgO). HMA and PBA inclusions have distinct trace element characteristics. Importantly, both types of inclusions are volatile-rich, with maximum values in HMA and PBA melt inclusions of 3.5 and 5.6 wt% H2O, 830 and 2,900 ppm S, 1,590 and 2,580 ppm Cl, and 500 and 820 ppm CO2, respectively. PBA melts are comparable to experimental hydrous melts in equilibrium with harzburgite. Two-component mixing between PBA and dacitic magma (59:41) is able to produce a primitive HMA composition, but the predicted mixture shows some small but significant major and trace element discrepancies from published whole-rock analyses from the Shasta locality. An alternative model that involves incorporation of xenocrysts (high-Mg olivine from PBA and pyroxenes from dacite) into a primary (mantle-derived) HMA magma can explain the phenocryst and melt inclusion compositions but is difficult to evaluate quantitatively because of the complex crystal populations. Our results suggest that a spectrum of mantle-derived melts, including

  15. Adulteration Identification of Commercial Honey with the C-4 Sugar Content of Negative Values by an Elemental Analyzer and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Luo, Donghui; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Guo, Xindong; Li, Chao; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-04-27

    According to the AOAC 998.12 method, honey is considered to contain significant C-4 sugars with a C-4 sugar content of >7%, which are naturally identified as the adulteration. However, the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), δ(2)H and δ(18)O values, sucrose content, and reducing sugar content of honey using an elemental analyzer and liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectroscopy, was first developed to demonstrate the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of sugar content (%) sugar content (%) sugar content (%) sugars as well. A very strong correlation is also observed between δ(13)C honey values and δ(13)C protein values of both honey groups. For the δ(18)O value, the C-4 sugar content (%) sugar content (%) sugar content of sugar content of <0%.

  16. Enhancement of trace-element content of cabbages grown in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.; MacKenzie, E.J.

    1970-01-01

    Significantly higher contents of boron, molybdenum and zinc were observed in cabbages in urban than in rural areas. The levels of extractable boron, copper, lead, nickel and zinc were markedly enhanced in the urban soils but there was no corresponding enhancement of the levels of copper, lead and nickel in the cabbages. 10 references, 2 tables.

  17. Trace element contents in raw materials and products of the confectionary industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, J. (Edesipari Vallalat, Szerencs (Hungary)); Kiss, B. (Allategeszseguegyi es Elelmiszerellenoerzoe Koezpont, Budapest (Hungary))

    Based on measurements by X-ray radiation analysis, the zinc content of raw ingredients for the confectionary industry varies between 27,2 and 56,4 mg/kg and their copper content between 6,2 and 34,3 mg/kg. The same values for bitter chocolates: 22,3 to 28,8 mg/kg for zinc and 10,8 to 18,8 mg/kg for copper resp.; values in milk chocolates: 15,9 to 19,8 mg/kg (zinc) and 2,6 to 6,1 mg/kg (copper). Contents of zinc and copper in cocoa powders are much higher than the above values: 78,1 to 102,5 mg/kg (zinc) and 45,9 to 48,6 mg/kg (copper), resp. Zinc and copper contents in the end products depend in the first place on the raw ingredients; contamination during manufacturing is unlikely. 8 refs.

  18. Trace element content of sedimentary pyrite as a new proxy for deep-time ocean-atmosphere evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Ross R.; Halpin, Jacqueline A.; Danyushevsky, Leonid V.; Maslennikov, Valeriy V.; Bull, Stuart W.; Long, John A.; Gregory, Daniel D.; Lounejeva, Elena; Lyons, Timothy W.; Sack, Patrick J.; McGoldrick, Peter J.; Calver, Clive R.

    2014-03-01

    Sedimentary pyrite formed in the water column, or during diagenesis in organic muds, provides an accessible proxy for seawater chemistry in the marine rock record. Except for Mo, U, Ni and Cr, surprisingly little is known about trace element trends in the deep time oceans, even though they are critical to developing better models for the evolution of the Earth's atmosphere and evolutionary pathways of life. Here we introduce a novel approach to simultaneously quantify a suite of trace elements in sedimentary pyrite from marine black shales. These trace element concentrations, at least in a first-order sense, track the primary elemental abundances in coeval seawater. In general, the trace element patterns show significant variation of several orders of magnitude in the Archaean and Phanerozoic, but less variation on longer wavelengths in the Proterozoic. Certain trace elements (e.g., Ni, Co, As, Cr) have generally decreased in the oceans through the Precambrian, other elements (e.g., Mo, Zn, Mn) have generally increased, and a further group initially increased and then decreased (e.g., Se and U). These changes appear to be controlled by many factors, in particular: 1) oxygenation cycles of the Earth's ocean-atmosphere system, 2) the composition of exposed crustal rocks, 3) long term rates of continental erosion, and 4) cycles of ocean anoxia. We show that Ni and Co content of seawater is affected by global Large Igneous Province events, whereas redox sensitive trace elements such as Se and Mo are affected by atmosphere oxygenation. Positive jumps in Mo and Se concentrations prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE1, c. 2500 Ma) suggest pulses of oxygenation may have occurred as early as 2950 Ma. A flat to declining pattern of many biologically important nutrient elements through the mid to late Proterozoic may relate to declining atmosphere O2, and supports previous models of nutrient deficiency inhibiting marine evolution during this period. These trace elements (Mo

  19. Content of trace elements and chromium speciation in Neem powder and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotnik, Breda; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Total concentrations of selected trace elements in Neem powder and in Neem tea were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data revealed that despite high total concentrations of the potentially toxic elements Al and Ni in Neem powder, their amounts dissolved in Neem tea were low. Total concentrations of the other toxic elements Pb, As and Cd were also very low and do not represent a health hazard. In contrast, total concentrations of the essential elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Se Mo and Cr in Neem powder were high and also considerable in Neem tea. Consuming one cup of Neem tea (2g per 200 mL of water) covers the recommended daily intakes for Cr and Se and represents an important source of Mo and Cu. Speciation analysis of Cr by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS with the use of enriched Cr isotopic tracers to follow species interconversions during the analytical procedure demonstrated that toxic Cr(VI) was not present either in Neem powder or in Neem tea. Its concentrations were below the limits of detection of the HPLC-ICP-MS procedure applied. The speciation analysis data confirmed that even Cr(VI) was added, it was rapidly reduced by the presence of antioxidants in Neem leaves. By the use of enriched Cr isotopic spike solutions it was also demonstrated that for obtaining reliable analytical data it is essential to apply the extraction procedures which prevent Cr species interconversions, or to correct for species transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  1. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  2. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  3. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  4. Doctrine Of Good Administration: Elements And Their Contents On The Example Of The European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Shmelev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available anagement of the society – one of the most important problems of the state, thus the state represented by bodies and officials for the achievement of this task has to work effectively. For this purpose it is necessary to define not only concept of effective management and cornerstone criteria, but also concept and requirements to the management subject – administration which has to cope with this task. Article represents the legislative bases review of the doctrine of good administration in the EU countries, and also opinions of scientists on disputable aspects of this doctrine. In particular, in the article parallels between earlier assumed purposes of the doctrine and established by law. It appears that the new purposes of the doctrine are established only in public interests and for preservation of the European Union integrity. In article concepts of effective management and good administration, as subject of the specified activity are compared. In the article some elements of the doctrine of good administration are considered. Their legal sense is investigated and author's understanding of their value is given. It is noted that principles as elements of the doctrine form the corresponding rights and duties which explains how the concrete principle can be applied to the subject (activity of administrative legal relations. Within the studied doctrine standards of appropriate behavior of the public employee in the EU countries and similar rules for public servants in the Russian Federation were studied. In the conclusion author concludes that it is impossible to apply the unified European standards in Russian Federation, which is due to the developed organization of the public service in Russian Federation. In the article it is noted positive influence of the doctrine of good administration on the EU in general, despite various interpretations of the doctrine elements in the legislation of member countries.

  5. Shock-induced volatile loss from a carbonaceous chondrite Implications for planetary accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Frisch, Benjamin; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Solid recovery impact-induced volatile loss experiments on the Murchison C2M meteorite indicate that for an impact of a given velocity, H2O and total volatiles are driven from the sample in the same proportion as present initially. The primitive surface volatile budget of a planet growing by accretion would have the same bulk elemental composition as the volatiles in the incident planetesimals. Incipient devolatilization of Murchison occurs at an initial shock pressure of about 11 GPa and complete devolatilization occurs at a pressure of about 30 GPa. For the earth, incipient and complete devolatilization of accreting planetesimals would occur when the planet reached approximately 12 percent and 27 percent, respectively, of its present-day radius. Impact-induced devolatilization would profoundly affect the volatile distribution within the accreting planet. Prior to metallic core formation and internal differentiation the growing planet would have a very small core with the same volatile content as the incident material, a volatile depleted mantle, and an extremely volatile rich surface. In the case of the earth, 99.4 wt pct of the total incident volatile material would end up on or near the planetary surface.

  6. Shock-induced volatile loss from a carbonaceous chondrite: Implications for planetary accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczy, J. A.; Frisch, B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Solid recovery impact-induced volatile loss experiments on the Murchison C2M meteorite indicate that for an impact of a given velocity, H2O and total volatiles are driven from the sample in the same proportion as present initially. The primitive surface volatile budget of a planet growing by accretion would have the same bulk elemental composition as the volatiles in the incident planetesimals. Incipient devolatilization of Murchison occurs at an initial shock pressure of about 11 GPa and complete devolatilization occurs at a pressure of about 30 GPa. For the Earth, incipient and complete devolatilization of accreting planetesimals would occur when the planet reached approximately 12% and 27%, respectively, of its present-day radius. Impact-induced devolatilization would profoundly affect the volatile distribution within the accreting planet. Prior to metallic core formation and internal differentiation the growing planet would have a very small core with the same volatile content as the incident material, a volatile depleted mantle, and an extremely volatile rich surface. In the case of the Earth, 99.4 wt% of the total incident volatile material would end up on or near the planetary surface.

  7. Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Tillaeva, K.; Badalov, N.B.

    1987-06-01

    The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and ziziphora (Ziziphora bungeana Yur.). The results of radio-activation analysis were compared with the results of standard spectral analysis performed in another laboratory and the accuracy of the procedures developed was evaluated on the basis of the results.

  8. Genome size and transposable element content as determined by high-throughput sequencing in maize and Zea luxurians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenaillon, Maud I; Hufford, Matthew B; Gaut, Brandon S; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The genome of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) consists mostly of transposable elements (TEs) and varies in size among lines. This variation extends to other species in the genus Zea: although maize and Zea luxurians diverged only ∼140,000 years ago, their genomes differ in size by ∼50%. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing to evaluate the potential contribution of TEs to the genome size difference between these two species. We aligned the reads both to a filtered gene set and to an exemplar database of unique repeats representing 1,514 TE families; ∼85% of reads mapped against TE repeats in both species. The relative contribution of TE families to the B73 genome was highly correlated with previous estimates, suggesting that reliable estimates of TE content can be obtained from short high-throughput sequencing reads, even at low coverage. Because we used paired-end reads, we could assess whether a TE was near a gene by determining if one paired read mapped to a TE and the second read mapped to a gene. Using this method, Class 2 DNA elements were found significantly more often in genic regions than Class 1 RNA elements, but Class 1 elements were found more often near other TEs. Overall, we found that both Class 1 and 2 TE families account for ∼70% of the genome size difference between B73 and luxurians. Interestingly, the relative abundance of TE families was conserved between species (r = 0.97), suggesting genome-wide control of TE content rather than family-specific effects.

  9. The monitoring of mineral elements content in fruit purchased in supermarkets and food markets from Timisoara, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heghedűş-Mîndru Ramona Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating various fruit samples using atomic absorption spectrometry method, the content in mineral elements, macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg and microelements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd , Pb, Zn, Co and Ni. Fruit samples were taken from supermarkets (imported products and agricultural markets (domestic products in the city of Timisoara, Romania. The results obtained by chemical analysis were evaluated statistically based on method of main components analyzed. Major influence in the group had evidence if macroelements potassium and sodium, iron and manganese where microelements. The results were compared with results obtained by other researchers in the world. The results fall within the legal limits set by law.

  10. Dependence of Specific Impulse of Metal-free Formulations on CHNO-oxidizer′s Element Content and Enthalpy of Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.LEMPERT

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that it is not correct to estimate energetic characteristics of different compounds of solid composite propellants by evaluation of the specific impulse values of these components serving as an only component in the formulation. Such an approach may turn the researcher to a wrong conclusion.One has to compare compound′s potential in formulations close to real,e.g.at least with necessary amount of binders.Dependences of specific impulse upon element content of high-enthalpy CHNO oxidizer,its enthalpy of formation,and kind of binder have been found.

  11. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, M. Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M.; Coello, M. Carmen; Palacios Riocerezo, Carlos; Wells Moncada, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. PMID:26540058

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Stellar content and elemental abundances in the massive cluster NGC\\,6705

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat-Gaudin, T; Zaggia, S; Bragaglia, A; Sordo, R; Drew, J E; Eisloeffel, J; Farnhill, H J; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Greimel, R; Irwin, M J; Kupcu-Yoldas, A; Jordi, C; Blomme, R; Sampedro, L; Costado, M T; Alfaro, E; Smiljanic, R; Magrini, L; Donati, P; Friel, E D; Jacobson, H; Abbas, U; Hatzidimitriou, D; Spagna, A; Vecchiato, A; Balaguer-Nunez, L; Lardo, C; Tosi, M; Pancino, E; Klutsch, A; Tautvaisiene, G; Drazdauskas, A; Puzeras, E; Jimenez-Esteban, F; Maiorca, E; Geisler, D; San, I; Villanova, S; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A; Recio-Blanco, A; Damiani, F; Hourihane, A; Jofre, P; deLaverny, P; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Prisinzano, L; Sacco, G G; Sbordone, L; Worley, C C

    2014-01-01

    Chemically inhomogeneous populations are observed in most globular clusters, but not in open clusters. Cluster mass seems to play a key role in the existence of multiple populations. Studying the chemical homogeneity of the most massive open clusters is necessary to better understand the mechanism of their formation and determine the mass limit under which clusters cannot host multiple populations. Here we studied NGC6705, that is a young and massive open cluster located towards the inner region of the Milky Way. This cluster is located inside the solar circle. This makes it an important tracer of the inner disk abundance gradient. This study makes use of BVI and ri photometry and comparisons with theoretical isochrones to derive the age of NGC6705. We study the density profile of the cluster and the mass function to infer the cluster mass. Based on abundances of the chemical elements distributed in the first internal data release of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we study elemental ratios and the chemical homogeneity ...

  13. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inmaculada González-Martín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions. The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53, calcium (0.83, 94, iron (0.69, 134 potassium (0.95, 117, magnesium (0.70, 99, phosphorus (0.94, 24 zinc (0.87, 10 chromium (0.48, 0.6 nickel (0.52, 0.7 copper (0.64, 0.9 and lead (0.70, 2 in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  14. Relation between Cutting Surface Quality and Alloying Element Contents when Using a CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Litecká

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of material content on changes in the quality parameters of the cutting surface when cutting with a laser. The study focuses on experiments to find the effect of material structure and cutting parameters on surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and precision of laser cutting. The experimental results are shown in graphs which illustrate the suitability of materials for achieving required cutting surface quality parameters. These results can be used for optimizing production in practical applications using a laser cutting machine.

  15. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  16. TRACE ELEMENT CONTENTS IN TOPSOIL LOCATED NEAR STEEL PLANT IN KRAKOW-NOWA HUTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mundała

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of cadmium, lead and zinc contents in topsoils of arable land located in vicinity Steel Plant in Krakow-Nowa Huta. Soil samples were collected in autumn 2007 from the 0-20 cm layer placed in a west-east trnsect of 7,5 km length. It started approximately 5km east form the border of the steel plant. .Sampled area is characterized by high level of agriculture, where the dominant crops have been vegetables, mainly cabbage and cauliflower. It was found, the soil was not contaminated with heavy metals. All samples met the requirements of the Polish Minister of the Environment. Also the assessment according to Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation method showed only incerased content 60% in case of zinc and only 13% for Cd. Any levels of pollution were not observed. There also decreasing trend of accumulation were stated as a function of growing distance from the steel plant.

  17. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  18. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  19. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  20. Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and wild source in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Abua; Egilla, Jonathan

    2008-09-15

    Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish muscles (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and natural pond in Missouri were determined using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and the direct mercury analyzer (DMA). Dietary intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Dogfish muscle (DORM-2) and lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2) reference standards were used in trace element recovery and method validations. The average elemental concentrations (mg/kg diet, dry wt.) of fish feed were: As 1.81, Cd 2.37, Co 0.10, Cr 1.42, Cu 8.0, Fe 404, Mn 35.9, Ni 0.51, Pb 9.16, Se 1.71, Sn 20.7, V 0.09, Zn 118 and Hg 0.07. The mean elemental concentrations (μg/kg wet wt.) in bluegill muscles from both aquaculture and wild (in parenthesis) sources were: As 0.36 (0.06), Cd 0.28 (0.01), Co 0.0 (0.0), Cr 0.52 (0.05), Cu 0.38 (0.18), Fe 17.5 (2.43), Mn 0.18 (0.24), Ni 0.18 (0.04), Pb 1.03 (0.04), Se 0.34 (0.30), Sn 0.66 (0.42), V 0.02 (0.01), Zn 6.97 (9.13) and Hg 0.06 (0.24). Kruskal-Wallis chi square indicated significant differences in As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Zn and Hg (Paquaculture and wild bluegills, posed no health risks for approximately 85% of all samples.

  1. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Endophyte Infection on Ecophysiological Parameters and Mineral Element Content of Perennial Ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Zhi Ren; Yu-Bao Gao; Wei Wang; Jin-Long Wang; Nian-Xi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    An expedment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyfe infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations In the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  2. Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and endophyte infection on ecophysiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, An-Zhi; Gao, Yu-Bao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jin-Long; Zhao, Nian-Xi

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations in the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  3. Nutritional Content and Elemental and Phytochemical Analyses of Moringa oleifera Grown in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A. Valdez-Solana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a tree distributed in Mexican semiarid and coastal regions. M. oleifera is used in practice in the treatment of various diseases and is available without a medical prescription, often in the form of an herbal infusion for everyday use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition and nutritional values of dried M. oleifera leaf powder collected from two different regions in Mexico. All samples of M. oleifera exhibited moisture levels varying from 3.06 to 3.34%, lipids from 10.21 to 10.31%, fiber from 7.29 to 9.46%, ashes from 10.71 to 11.18%, crude protein from 10.74 to 11.48%, and carbohydrates from 54.61 to 57.61%. The predominant mineral elements in the leaf powder according to ICP-MS were Ca (2016.5–2620.5 mg/100 g, K (1817–1845 mg/100 g, and Mg (322.5–340.6 mg/100 g. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic and chlorogenic acids and flavonoids (rutin, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, and kaempferol. We concluded that Lombardia M. oleifera samples could be employed in edible and commercial applications. Our results showed that the highest mean value of As from the San Pedro samples exceeds the recommended level and may constitute a health hazard to consumers.

  4. Trace element contents in hair of residents from Harbin (China), Medan (Indonesia), and Tokushima (Japan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q; Suzuki, Y; Hisashige, A

    1997-01-01

    The concentrations of 19 trace element in hair samples from 1273 residents of Harbin (China), Medan (Indonesia), and Tokushima (Japan) were measured by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The mean concentrations of Ba, Ca, and Se were significantly higher in the Harbin hair samples when compared to those from Medan, but Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Pb, Ti, Zn, and K were significantly higher in Medan than in Harbin hair samples. The differences in the mean concentrations of As, Cr, Mg, P, Sn, and Sr between the Medan and Harbin lots were not significant. In the Tokushima hair samples, Na and K were significantly higher, but As, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Sr, and Se were significantly lower than in the Harbin hair samples. The differences in the mean concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, P, Ti, and Zn between Harbin and Tokushima were not significant. In the Medan hair samples, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Sr, Ti, and Zn were significantly higher, but P and Se were significantly lower than in Tokushima hair samples. Differences in mean concentrations of Na and K between Tokushima and Medan were not significant.

  5. Nutritional quality and safety related to trace element content in fish from Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Pierina; Perugini, Monia; Manera, Maurizio; Salese, Carmine; Martino, Giuseppe; Amorena, Michele

    2014-05-01

    This study analyzed for the detection of the following trace elements: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn, in muscle of four widely traded and consumed marine fish species (Mullus surmuletus L., Merluccius merluccius L., Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827), Scomber scombrus L.) selected for their wide trade and consumption. Mean concentrations found in fish muscle, irrespective of species, ranged from 3.61 to 105.49 (As); 0.01-0.08 (Cd); 0.74-4.71 (Cu); 0.09-1.10 (Hg); 0.02-0.58 (Pb); 0.30-2.88 (Se); 11.56-73.37 (Zn) mg/kg wet weight. As, Hg, Cu and Se concentrations showed a significant difference (p difference (p < 0.01) only in summer. The maximum levels set for Hg, Cd and Pb by European Regulation No 1881/2006 were exceeded by 5 (8.9%), 1 (1.8%) and 4 (7.1%) samples, respectively. In particular the species exceeding the legal limits were red mullet for Cd and Pb, Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting for Hg and Pb.

  6. Elemental content changes in hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus due to mercury contamination: a study using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, A.; Oliveira, A.P.; Barroso, R.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, A.P.; Braz, D.; Cardoso, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueiredo, M.B.; Azambuja, P. [Fundacao Instituto Osvaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gonzalez, M.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, the effects of pollution on the health of humans and other vertebrates have been extensively studied. However, the effects on some invertebrates are comparatively unknown. Research has demonstrated that toxic metals interfere with the reproduction, development and immune defenses of some terrestrial and marine invertebrates. Depending on environmental conditions, pollution produces chronic and acute effects on different systems and organs of animals. In general, some more toxic elements like arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and nickel in contact with organisms change cellular structures, enzyme activities, and in some cases destroy the physiological integrities of the tissues. In insects, the effects of pollutants depend upon the species studied. In this work, we investigated the changes in elemental contents in the hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus on 2 and 5 days after feeding on blood containing mercury chloride. R. Prolixus is an obligated hematophagous Hemiptera and one of the most important insect vectors of trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The SR-TXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) beamline facility in Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory LNLS/Brazil. The major elements Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, K were found in all hemolymph samples analysed. Insects treated with HgCl2 had reduced Cl and Ca levels, whereas the same treatment had enhanced Br levels in comparison with non- treated control insects. (author)

  7. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  8. Volatility Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Classical capital asset pricing theory tells us that riskaverse investors would require higher returns to compensate for higher risk on an investment. One type of risk is price (return) risk, which reflects uncertainty in the price level and is measured by the volatility (standard deviation) of asset returns. Volatility itself is also known to be random and hence is perceived as another type of risk. Investors can bear price risk in exchange for a higher return. But are investors willing to p...

  9. Morpho-anatomical characteristics and content of nutritive macro elements in needles of fir and spruce and their varieties in Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratknic, M; Miletic, Z; Nikolic, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to establish, based on the morphological characteristics of shoots and morpho-anatomical characteristics of needles as well as the content of micro-elements in needles, whether...

  10. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Germination, Growth, Elements, Protein and Photosynthetic Pigments Contents in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Askary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of fossil fuels in industries and the transport sector has led to an increase in concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and their derivatives and ozone (O3. In addition to dry and wet deposition of these gases has been the major route of influx in ionic form into the ecosystem. This investigation was evaluated the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR with different pH (6.8 as control, 6.5, 6, 5.5, 5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3 and 2.5 on germination, growth, elements, protein, photosynthetic pigments contents of Lycopersicon esculentum in hydroponic culture. Experiments were conducted at research laboratory of arak university in summer of 1391. Results were showed that from pH=6.8 until pH=5/5 significantly increased P and K and protein content, root and shoot dry and wet weight. SAR exposure with high acidity (pH=5/5 until pH=2.5 significantly suppressed germination, growth index, measured elements as P and K, protein and photosynthetic pigments, while significant increased sulphur contect from 150% to 550% compared to controls. Maximal amounts sulphur were measured in pH=2/5. Acid rain in low pH were decrease plant growth and make protein and incearsed sulphur content in leaf. As regards, low acidity promoted the growth of tomato plants and high acidity inhibit, Therefore, it is recommended that tomato plants cultures in soils with low acidity.

  11. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  12. An Assessment of the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Icing Research tunnel has been using an Icing Blade technique to measure cloud liquid water content (LWC) since 1980. The IRT conducted tests with SEA Multi-Element sensors from 2009 to 2011 to assess their performance in measuring LWC. These tests revealed that the Multi-Element sensors showed some significant advantages over the Icing Blade, particularly at higher water contents, higher impingement rates, and large drop sizes. Results of these and other tests are presented here.

  13. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    Background: Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of seed ethanol extracts and seed oil were tested in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli, (E. coli) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) using the disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle was determined spectrophotometrically by monitoring the disappearance of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH•) at 517 nm according to the method described by Brand-Williams et al.[17] The phenolic contents in the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle were determined according to the procedure described by Slinkard and Singleton[19] with a slight modification of using a Folin-Ciocalteu phenolic reagent. The amount of total flavonoid in the ethanolic extracts was measured by aluminum chloride [AlCl3] colorimetric assay. The ions in aerosol samples were determined by using Dionex ICS 1100 Series ion chromatography. Results: Seed and seed oils obtained from obvious doses of potassium sulfate [0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha -1 fertilizer applications showed antimicrobial activities against E. coli, A. niger and P. aeruginosa. The application of 90 kg ha -1 of K2SO4 on seed oil resulted in the highest antimicrobial activities. At 100 µg mL-1 and 200

  14. Alterations of Hair and Nail Content of Selected Trace Elements in Nonoccupationally Exposed Patients with Chronic Depression from Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Błażewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if altered levels of selected trace elements manifest themselves during chronic depression. To identify elements strongly associated with chronic depression, relationships between the elemental contents of hair and nails and the interelement correlations were checked. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography were used to evaluate the contents of Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Mn, and Fe in hair and nail samples from a total of 415 subjects (295 patients and 120 healthy volunteers. The study included logistic regression models to predict the probability of chronic depression. To investigate possible intercorrelations among the studied elements, the scaled principal component analysis was used. The research has revealed differences in TE levels in the group of depressed men and women in comparison to the healthy subjects. Statistically significant differences in both hair and nails contents of several elements were observed. Our study also provides strong evidence that the intermediary metabolism of certain elements is age- and gender-dependent. Zn, Mn, Pb, and Fe contents in hair/nails seem to be strongly associated with chronic depression. We found no statistically significant residence-related differences in the contents of studied elements in nonoccupationally exposed patients and healthy subjects.

  15. [Effects of TiO₂ nanoparticles on antioxidant function and element content of liver and kidney tissues in young and adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Zhang-jian; Ba, Te; Pu, Ji; Cui, Xiao-xing; Jia, Guang

    2014-06-18

    To compare the effect of TiO₂ nanoparticles on antioxidant function and element content of liver and kidney tissues in young and adult rats. Forty-eight SD male rats, half in 4-week (youth) old and half in 9-week (adult) old rats, were randomly divided into 8 groups, which were exposed to TiO₂ nanoparticles [(75 ± 15) nm, anatase] through intragastric administration at 0, 10, 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight every day for 30 days. The liver and kidney tissues were collected for antioxidant function and element content analysis. 200 mg/kg TiO₂ nanoparticles exposure significantly increased the liver total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity and the kidney reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios in young rats, and significantly decreased the liver Mo, Co, Mn and P contents and the kidney Rb and Na contents in young rats. 200 mg/kg TiO₂ nanoparticles exposure significantly increased GSH/GSSG ratios and Rb contents and decreased Na contents in the liver of adult rats. No significantly difference was found in antioxidant indexes and elements content in the kidney of adult rats between three experimental groups and control group. TiO₂ nanoparticles can enhance the antioxidant capacity and decrease the elements content in rat liver and kidney tissues. The liver is the more sensitive target organ and the young animals are more susceptible to TiO₂ nanoparticles toxicity by the oral routes.

  16. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  17. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d, the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗ were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001 with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  18. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  19. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  20. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolker, Allan [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.; Korchemagin, Viktor A.; Shendrik, Tatiana [Department of Mineral Deposits and Ecological Geology, Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, 83000 (Ukraine); Landa, Edward R.; Conko, Kathryn M. [U.S. Geological Survey, 430 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); McCord, Jamey D. [U.S. Geological Survey, 973 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c{sub 11} to m{sub 3} Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r{sup 2} of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka. (author)

  1. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  2. [Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province and evaluation of its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Lan; Huang, Yi-Zong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Zhu; Hu, Ying; Qiao Min; Li, Jin; Xiang, Meng

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province was studied. The results showed that copper mining and smelting could increase the content of rare earth elements in soils and crops. Rare earth elements content in farmland soils of the surrounding Yinshan Lead Zinc Copper Mine and Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 112.42 to 397.02 mg x kg(-1) and 48.81 to 250.06 mg x kg(-1), and the average content was 254.84 mg x kg(-1) and 144.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average contents of rare earth elements in soils in these two areas were 1.21 times and 0.68 times of the background value in Jiangxi province, 1.36 times and 0.77 times of the domestic background value, 3.59 times and 2.03 times of the control samples, respectively. Rare earth elements content in 10 crops of the surrounding Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 0.35 to 2.87 mg x kg(-1). The contents of rare earth elements in the leaves of crops were higher than those in stem and root. The contents of rare earth elements in Tomato, lettuce leaves and radish leaves were respectively 2.87 mg x kg(-1), 1.58 mg x kg(-1) and 0.80 mg x kg(-1), which were well above the hygienic standard limit of rare earth elements in vegetables and fruits (0.70 mg x kg(-1)). According to the health risk assessment method recommended by America Environmental Protection Bureau (USEPA), we found that the residents' lifelong average daily intake of rare earth elements was 17.72 mg x (kg x d)(-1), lower than the critical value of rare earth elements damage to human health. The results suggested that people must pay attention to the impact of rare earth elements on the surrounding environment when they mine and smelt copper ore in Jiangxi.

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Sources on Volatile Compounds Content in Grape Wine%氮源对葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新节; 姜凯凯; 孙玉霞; 张将; 王霄倩

    2016-01-01

    The content of amino acid and yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice (Cabernet Sauvignon grape from four different village vine-yards (Adong, Hongpo, Dongshui, Bucun) in Deqin, Yunnan) was measured. In addition, the content of volatile compounds in grape wine pro-duced by these grape juice was determined. And the relations between the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice and the content of volatile compounds in wine were analyzed. The results suggested that, isobutyl alcohol in wine was associated with valine content in grape juice, hexyl acetate and ethyl acetate in wine were associated with toserine content in grape juice, total esters content in wine was associated with total amino acids content in grape juice;hexanol, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl acetate, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid in wine were positive-ly correlated to the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen, and isobutanol and diethyl ester butanedioic were negatively correlated to the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice.%选取云南省德钦县阿东、红坡、东水和布村4个村庄葡萄园的赤霞珠葡萄,测定葡萄汁中氨基酸和酵母可同化氮含量,并对所酿葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量进行测定,分析葡萄汁中酵母可同化氮含量与葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量之间的关系。结果表明,葡萄酒中异丁醇与葡萄汁中缬氨酸含量相关,葡萄酒中乙酸己酯和乙酸乙酯与葡萄酒中丝氨酸含量相关,葡萄酒中总酯与葡萄汁中总氨基酸含量相关;葡萄酒中正己醇和苯甲醇、乙酸苯乙酯、己酸和辛酸与葡萄汁中的酵母可同化氮含量呈正相关,而异丁醇和丁二酸二乙酯与葡萄汁中的酵母可同化氮含量呈负相关。

  4. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  5. Restitic or not? Insights from trace element content and crystal - Structure of spinels in African mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaz, Davide; Musco, Maria Elena; Petrelli, Maurizio; Caldeira, Rita; De Min, Angelo; Marzoli, Andrea; Mata, Joao; Perugini, Diego; Princivalle, Francesco; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Bensaid, Idris Ali Ahmadi; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2017-05-01

    The lithospheric architecture of Africa consists of several Archean cratons and smaller cratonic fragments, stitched together and flanked by polycyclic fold belts. Here we investigate the structure and chemistry of spinels from lithospheric mantle xenoliths from distinct tectonic settings, i.e. from the Saharan metacraton in Libya (Waw-En-Namus) which could show archaic chemical features, Cameroon (Barombi Koto and Nyos Lakes) where the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle was modified during the Pan-African event and fluxed by asthenospheric melts of the Tertiary Cameroon Volcanic Line and Morocco (Tafraoute, Bou-Ibalrhatene maars) in the Middle Atlas where different metasomatic events have been recorded. From a structural point of view it is to notice that the Libyan spinels can be divided into two groups having different oxygen positional parameter (u > 0.2632 and u different among the different samples with one Libyan group (LB I) showing Tc in the range 490-640 °C and the other 680-950 °C (LB II). Cameroon and Morocco spinels show a Tc in the range 630-760 °C. About 150 different spinels have been studied for their trace element content and it can be seen that many of them are related to Cr content, while Zn and Co are not and clearly distinguish the occurrences. Differences in the trace element chemistry, in the structural parameters and in the intracrystalline closure temperatures suggest that a different history should be considered for Cameroon, Morocco and LB I and LB II spinels. Even if it was not considered for this purpose, we tentatively used the Fe2 +/Fe3 + vs. TiO2 diagram that discriminate between peridotitic and the so-called ;magmatic; spinels, i.e. spinel crystallized from melts. LB I and LB II spinels plot in the peridotitic field while Cameroon and Morocco spinels fall in the magmatic one. Consequently, the xenoliths sampled from a probably juvenile SCLM at the edge of the most important lithospheric roots (i.e. Cameroon and Morocco

  6. Soil chemicals properties and wheat genotype impact on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Karalić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine impact of soil chemical properties and different wheat genotypes in Croatia on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour. Methods Research was conducted and soil samples were collected from two different production areas in the Republic of Croatia: Ovčara and Dalj. Besides soil samples, grain samples of four different Croatian wheat genotypes were also collected and analyzed. In total, 40 samples of soil and 40 samples of wheat grain were analysed for total (aqua regia and plant available (EDTA extraction heavy metal content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd. Results Determined soil pHKCl ranged from 5.63 to 6.25 at Ovčara and from 6.95 to 7.37 at Dalj sampling sites. The highest total concentration of heavy metals in soil were determined for Fe, followed by Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and the lowest total concentration wasrecorded for Cd. The highest EDTA concentrations in soil were determined for Mn, than followed by Fe, Cu, Pb, and the lowest EDTA concentration was recorded for Cd. The highest concentration in integral wheat flour was found for Fe, than lower for Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and the lowest concentration was found for Cd. If consumers in Croatia used daily 203 g of bread made of integral flour, they would take 2.31 to 8.44 µg Cd daily, depending on soil and wheat genotype.Conclusion The analysed soil and winter wheat genotypes have significant impact on potential daily intake of toxic and essentialheavy metals by integral flour or bread.

  7. Report: Factors affecting the content of potentially toxic elements in the biodegradable fraction of autoclaved household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Efstathios K; Barton, John R

    2009-10-01

    A total of 3.4 tonnes of household waste (HW) that had a controlled composition were autoclaved in the presence of saturated steam for 1 h at the nominal temperature levels of 130, 160 and 200 degrees C. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn were examined in samples of the fibrous, predominantly-biodegradable fraction (floc) derived from the autoclaved HW, aqueous extracts from floc, and the condensate from steam that was released from the reactor. This data was used to study the impact of the overall levels of potential toxic elements (PTEs) in HW feed and autoclaving process parameters on the levels of PTEs in floc. No consistent correlation was found to exist between the levels of PTEs in HW feed and those in the produced floc. This was primarily attributed in the inherent variability of PTEs in waste materials. Autoclaving temperature, pressure and mixing were all found to affect the mobilization and removal of PTEs from HW and their presence in floc. Temperature/pressure appeared to increase PTE removal through the condensate path, although that removal had only a negligible impact on the contents of PTEs in floc. Autoclaving temperature correlated positively, although not significantly at a 95% confidence level, with the levels of Pb and Zn in floc. On the other hand, it correlated negatively with the Hg content in floc. Increasing temperature/pressure also increased the water extraction of PTEs from floc, with the exception of Cr. However, in the context of producing high quality compost, the extraction rates were too low to bring about a substantial decrease of PTEs in floc.

  8. Volatilization of heavy metals during incineration of municipal solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-shi; S. Abanades; J.D.Lu; G.Flamant; D.Gauthier

    2004-01-01

    Incineration experiments with MSW, which had been impregnated with heavy metals, were presented toobtain information on the volatilization behavior of the elements cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) underdifferent conditions. Experiments were carried out in a bubbling fluid bed system connected to a customizedinductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy(ICP-OES) for analyzing metals in the flue gas. The resultsindicated that the combustion temperature, the gas atmosphere, and the chlorine content in the flue gas could affectthe volatilization behavior of heavy metals. In the fluidized bed combustion, a large surface area was provided by thebed sand particles, and they may act as absorbents for the gaseous ash-forming compound. Comparer with themetals Cd and Pb, the vaporization of Zn was Iow. The formation of stable compounds such as ZnO·Al2O3 couldgreatly decrease the metals volatilization. The presence of chlorine would enhance the volatilization of heavy metalsby increasing the formation of metal chlorides. However, when the oxygen content was high, the chlorinatingreaction was kinetically hindered, which heavy metals release would be delayed.

  9. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  10. [The determination of the natural content of chemical elements in human biological objects (liver, kidney, stomach) by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzanova, I S; Svetlolobov, D Iu; Zorin, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to continue the studies of the sites of concentration of the chemical elements corresponding to normal homeostasis in human biological objects by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The study yielded the data on the natural content of 27 elements in the cadaveric liver, kidney, and stomach. It is recommended to use these findings as the reference parameters corresponding to normal homeostasis.

  11. A study of cathodoluminescence and trace element compositional zoning in natural quartz from volcanic rocks: mapping titanium content in quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, William P; MacRae, Colin M; Wilson, Nick C; Torpy, Aaron; Lee, Cin-Ty A; Student, James J; Thomas, Jay B; Vicenzi, Edward P

    2012-12-01

    This article concerns application of cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy to volcanic quartz and its utility in assessing variation in trace quantities of Ti within individual crystals. CL spectroscopy provides useful details of intragrain compositional variability and structure but generally limited quantitative information on element abundances. Microbeam analysis can provide such information but is time-consuming and costly, particularly if large numbers of analyses are required. To maximize advantages of both approaches, natural and synthetic quartz crystals were studied using high-resolution hyperspectral CL imaging (1.2-5.0 eV range) combined with analysis via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Spectral intensities can be deconvolved into three principal contributions (1.93, 2.19, and 2.72 eV), for which intensity of the latter peak was found to correlate directly with Ti concentration. Quantitative maps of Ti variation can be produced by calibration of the CL spectral data against relatively few analytical points. Such maps provide useful information concerning intragrain zoning or heterogeneity of Ti contents with the sensitivity of LA-ICPMS analysis and spatial resolution of electron microprobe analysis.

  12. EFFECT OF SOLE AND ASSOCIATIVE ACTIONS OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR AND INOCULATION SULFUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS CONTENTS OF PEPPER PLANTS AND THE USED SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, S. A.; M. H. El-Halfawi; Hala Kandil

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of elemental sulfur (E.S) rate (2.5 g/kg soil) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on pepper plant and some chemical properties of two representative soil samples varying in their texture and CaCO3 content. Pepper was grown in Shobrakheet clay loam and Nobaria sandy loam soils for 50 days. Each soil was treated with elemental sulfur (2.5 g kg-1 soil) and inoculated with two sulfur oxidizing bacteria (S.O.B. No.8 and S.O.B. ATCC 8158). Elemental sul...

  13. Examining the Use of Video Study Groups for Developing Literacy Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction with Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Tochelli, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This collective case study explored what nine elementary teachers' video study group discussions revealed about their understanding of pedagogical content knowledge for an explicit reading strategy instruction framework, Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction (CESI). Qualitative methods were used to inductively and deductively analyze…

  14. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  15. Influence of volcanic activity and anthropic impact in the trace element contents of fishes from the North Patagonia in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubach, D F; Macchi, P J; Pérez Catán, S

    2015-11-01

    The elemental contents in salmonid muscle and liver tissues from different lakes around the world were investigated. Fish from pristine areas were compared with those fishes from impacted environments, both by volcanic and anthropogenic activities. Within the data, special attention was given to fishes from the Andean Patagonian lakes in two contexts: local and global. The local evaluation includes geological and limnological parameters and diet composition which were obtained through a data search from published works. The volcanic influence in Andean Patagonian lakes was mainly observed by an increase of cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) concentrations in fishes, influenced by calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) water contents. Zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg) contents in fishes showed the effect of the geological substratum, and some limnological parameters. The diet composition was another factor which affects the elemental concentration in fishes. The analyzed data showed that the fishes from Andean Patagonian lakes had elemental content patterns corresponding to those of pristine regions with volcanic influence. Selenium and Ag contents from Andean Patagonian fishes were the highest reported.

  16. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  17. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  18. Stock return, seasonality and asymmetric conditional volatility in steel & iron subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chirila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained following the testing of five hypotheses regarding conditional return and volatility of the most listed European stocks in the steel & iron subsector. The following elements of the stocks are analysed: time variation of volatility, seasonality of return and volatility, relationship between return and volatility and volatility asymmetry. The results obtained confirm for all the analyzed stocks the existence of volatility variation in time, the lack of correlation between return and volatility, the existence of asymmetry phenomenon of volatility and the presence in some stocks of the seasonality effect both for return and volatility.

  19. A comprehensive study on the contents and leaching of trace elements from fly-ash originating from Polish hard coal by NAA and AAS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybczynski, R; Kulisa, K; Małusecka, M; Mandecka, M; Polkowska-Motrenko, H; Sterlinski, S; Szopa, Z

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the environmental risks associated with the emission of fly-ash into the atmosphere and its storage on waste heaps, the trace element contents of fly-ashes from burning Polish hard coal were determined by a newly developed INAA method. Leaching of trace elements from the fly-ash by water and H2SO4 solution (pH approximately 2.5) simulating acid rain, respectively, was studied using AAS and spectrophotometric methods. Analogous experiments were done with neutron-irradiated fly-ash, following the composition of the eluate gamma-spectrometrically. The new fine fly-ash (CTA-FFA-1) candidate reference material was prepared, and the certification was undertaken on the basis of an international intercomparison run. Preliminary evaluation of results shows that at least 38 elements will be certified and, in addition, the "information values" for at least 12 elements will be given.

  20. Study on Mineral Elements Content of Macadamia Shell%澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨为海; 张明楷; 曾辉; 邹明宏; 罗炼芳; 张汉周; 陆超忠

    2011-01-01

    测定了28份澳洲坚果(Macadamia integrifoliaF.Mull)种质种壳中N、K、Ca、Mg、Zn、Cu、Fe、Mn等8种矿质元素含量,并对其进行了主成分分析和聚类分析.结果表明,澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量在不同种质之间差异较大,8种矿质元素可划分为4个有明确意义的主成分,28份种质种壳按矿质元素含量可聚类为4大类型.%The contents of 8 mineral elements(N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in the macadamia (Macadamia inte-grifolia F. Mull) shells in 28 germplasm resources were analyzed by principal component and cluster analysis. The results showed that the mineral elements content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia F. Mull) shell had a large variation among all tested germplasm resources, the 8 mineral elements were divided into 4 significant principal components and the shells of 28 germplasm resources were classified as 4 clusters according to the content of mineral elements.

  1. Moisture content in Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) tissues: a reference base for conversion factors between dry and wet weight trace element concentrations in cetaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jian; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2003-03-01

    Conversion factors were developed for Dall's porpoise tissues to convert trace element concentrations between dry and wet weight basis. - Concentration of trace elements measured by dry weight basis has become more commonly used in recent studies on cetaceans than wet weight basis, which was used more in earlier studies. Because few authors present moisture content data in their papers, it is difficult to compare the concentrations of trace elements between various studies. Therefore, we felt that it would be useful if a reference conversion factor (CF) for tissue types could be found to convert between wet weight and dry weight data on trace element concentrations. We determined the moisture contents of 14 tissues of Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and then, calculated the CF values for those tissues. Because the moisture content of each tissue differs from other tissues, it is necessary to use a specific CF for each tissue rather than a general CF for several tissues. We have also found that CF values for Dall's porpoise tissues are similar to the same tissues in other cetaceans. Therefore CF values from Dall's porpoise can be reliably used to convert between wet and dry weight concentrations for other cetacean tissues as reference data.

  2. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  3. Lophira中无机元素及氨基酸含量测定%Study on the contents of amino acids and inorganic elements in Lophira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓岚; 卢建莎; 郭蕾; 龙跃; 赵清治; 刘聚胜; 魏莉莉

    2001-01-01

    To determine the contents of some inorganic elements and aminoacid in a natural plant-Lophira.Method: The contents of inorganic elements were determined by ICP and amino acids, by amino analyzer, respectively. Resultsand conclusion: The contents such as manganese, strontia and zino in this natural plant were high. Eighteen amino acids including seven human essential amino acids were detected. The high contents of some inorganic elements and hmnan essential elementsamino acids in Lophira perhaps could explain its folk diagnostic applications to a certain degree.%目的:测定天然植物Lophira中无机元素和氨基酸的含量。方法:用等离子体原子光谱,测定Lophira酸溶液中几种重要无机元素含量;用氨基酸自动分析仪测定氨基酸的含量。结果与结论:天然植物Lophira中具有较高的锌、锶和锰;含18种氨基酸,7种为必需氨基酸,氨基酸总含量为20.17mg/g。

  4. Species-specific content of As, Pb, and other elements in pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Alam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, Md. Mizanur

    2014-01-01

    by different feeding habits of the two fish. The other elements had similar concentrations in both species. Content of As in tilapia and pangas was 0.37 and 0.11 μg g−1, respectively, while Pb made up 0.056 and 0.051 μg g−1, respectively. Water treatment during the farming period (sand filtration and probiotic......Content of arsenic and lead and 10 other potentially toxic elements (Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mg,Mn, Se, Sr and Zn) was determined in tilapia and pangas from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh. Tilapia had 1.6- to 4.3-fold higher content of Mn, As, Sr, and Ba than pangas, possibly caused...... bacteria) and final depuration in groundwater for up to 48 h had no effect on content of the elements. For As, consumption of 100 g fresh fish per day contained 1.3% (pangas) and 5% (tilapia) of the maximum tolerable daily intake according to FAO recommendations. Relative to whole tilapia froma lake near...

  5. Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert...

  6. Fast determination of the relative elemental and organic carbon content of aerosol samples by on-line single-particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferge, T; Karg, E; Schröppel, A; Coffee, K R; Tobias, H J; Frank, M; Gard, E E; Zimmermann, R

    2006-05-15

    Different particulate matter (PM) samples were investigated by on-line single-particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). The samples consist of soot particulates made by a diffusion flame soot generator (combustion aerosol standard, CAST), industrially produced soot material (printex), soot from a diesel passenger car as well as ambient particulates (urban dust (NIST) and road tunnel dust). Five different CAST soot particle samples were generated with different elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) content. The samples were reaerosolized and on-line analyzed by ATOFMS, as well as precipitated on quartz filters for conventional EC/OC analysis. For each sample ca. 1000 ATOFMS single-particle mass spectra were recorded and averaged. A typical averaged soot ATOFMS mass spectrum shows characteristic carbon cluster peak progressions (Cn+) as well as hydrogen-poor carbon cluster peaks (CnH(1-3)+). These peaks are originated predominately from the elemental carbon (EC) content of the particles. Often additional peaks, which are not due to carbon clusters, are observed, which either are originated from organic compounds (OC-organic carbon), or from the non-carbonaceous inorganic content of the particles. By classification of the mass spectral peaks as elemental carbon (i.e., the carbon cluster progression peaks) or as peaks originated from organic compounds (i.e., molecular and fragment ions), the relative abundance of elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) can be determined. The dimensionless TC/EC values, i.e., the ratio of total carbon content (TC, TC = OC + EC) to elemental carbon (EC), were derived from the ATOFMS single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry data. The EC/TC values measured by ATOFMS were compared with the TC/EC values determined by the thermal standard techniques (thermooptical and thermocoulometric method). A good agreement between the EC/TC values obtained by on-line ATOFMS and the offline standard method was found.

  7. Simultaneous analysis 26 mineral element contents from highly consumed cultured chicken overexposed to arsenic trioxide by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Sun, Bonan; Li, Siwen; Sun, Xiao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Guangshun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the impacts of dietary arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on 26 mineral element contents in the liver and kidney of chicken. A total of 100 male Hy-line cocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 chickens in each group), including an arsenic-treated group (basic diet supplemented with As2O3 at 30 mg/kg) and a control group (basal diet). The feeding experiment lasted for 90 days and the experimental animals were given free access to feed and water. We determined 26 mineral elements in the liver and kidney by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that nine element levels (Al, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Ba, and Pb) were significantly decreased (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where three element levels (Ni, As, and Hg) increased significantly (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where four element levels (Mo, As, Cd, and Hg) increased significantly (P chicken, and the effects vary from organ to organ. The aim of this study is to provide references for further study of heavy metal poisoning by detecting the contents of minerals induced by arsenic in chicken.

  8. An Assessment of the Icing Blade and the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith Foss

    2017-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn has recently switched to from using the Icing Blade to using the SEA Multi-Element Sensor (also known as the multi-wire) for its calibration of cloud liquid water content. In order to perform this transition, tests were completed to compare the Multi-Element Sensor to the Icing Blade, particularly with respect to liquid water content, airspeed, and drop size. The two instruments were found to compare well for the majority of Appendix C conditions. However, it was discovered that the Icing Blade under-measures when the conditions approach the Ludlam Limit. This paper also describes data processing procedures for the Multi-Element Sensor in the IRT, including collection efficiency corrections, mounting underneath a splitter plate, and correcting for a jump in the compensation wire power. Further data is presented to describe the repeatability of the IRT with the Multi-Element sensor, health-monitoring checks for the instrument, and a sensing-element configuration comparison.

  9. Using Compost, Zeolite and Calcium Oxide to Limit the Effect of Chromium (III and (VI on the Content of Trace Elements in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine the influence of Cr(III and Cr(VI in doses of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg Cr.kg−1 of soil as well as compost, zeolite and CaO additives on the content of heavy metals in the spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera and yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.. The contents of heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Ni, Cu in plants, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry. All of the investigated element contents in the tested plants differed significantly in the case of applying amendments to the soil, as well as increasing concentrations of Cr(III and Cr(VI. In the series without additives in soils containing Cr(III and Cr(VI, rapeseed was characterized by a higher average content of Cr than yellow lupine. Compost most noticeably limited the negative effect of chromium. Cr(VI modified the contents of trace elements in the tested plants more significantly than Cr(III.

  10. Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Jørgensen, Karin; Holm, Peter E.;

    2008-01-01

    Extensive aquatic or semi-aquatic production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) for human consumption takes place in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of 38 elements in soil and water spinach cultivated under different degrees of wastewater exposure...... in Hanoi, Vietnam. The results showed no effect of wastewater use on the overall element concentrations in soil and water spinach. Mean soil concentrations for selected potentially toxic elements at the studied field sites had the following ranges 9.11-18.7 As, 0.333-0.667 Cd, 10.8-14.5 Co, 68-122 Cr, 34...

  11. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  12. Influence of four single fresh forages on volatile organic compound (VOC content and profile and sensory properties of goat Caciotta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fedele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of fresh single-species herbage on the VOC and sensory properties of cheese, in order to individuate specific descriptors linked to the use of fresh herbage in pureness. Two groups of Siriana housed goats were fed alternately with 2 grasses: Avena sativa (AS and Lolium perenne (LP and 2 legumes: Medicago sativa (MS and Trifolium incarnatum (TI in pureness. The milk was processed as Caciotta cheese and ripened for 20 days. The VOC analyses (by GC-MS showed the highest VOC total content in AS cheeses (226.55a.u., where alcohols was the dominant class; the lowest value (79.96a.u. was found in TI cheeses, and the dominant class was hydrocarbons. The panel test (for colour, odour, taste and final acceptability showed that cheeses from grasses’ groups were described with astringent and blue taste, those from legumes with acidic, bitter and light goaty taste. All cheeses showed goaty taste, except LP cheeses. Grasses’ cheeses showed higher final acceptability than those from legumes. The results showed that each meadow’s species, with its specific content of secondary metabolites, at specific phenological stage, was able to characterise the derived cheese products at sensorial level.

  13. Computer treatment of the contents of some elements in the normal and pathologically altered human colon mucosa tissues obtained by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draskovic, R.J.; Bozanic, M.; Bozanic, V.; Bohus, T. (Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1984-11-01

    Distribution of some elements (Cr, Fe, Co, Sb, Sc and Zn) in normal and pathologically altered human colon mucosa tissues were investigated by INAA. The following tissues were analyzed: normal colon mucosa, colitis chronica, colitis ulcerosa, adenoma tubulare and adenocarcinoma (diagnoses were previously confirmed clinically and histopathologically). The values of contents of the elements in these tissues (Csub(x) in nkg/g) are treated by specific computer functional programs. Regression functions of these parameters were found for the altered tissues in comparison to the normal, as well as specific functional correlations of the Csub(x)/Csub(y) relations for pairs of investigated elements. The functions which characterize these relations for the investigated colon mucosa tissue were also determined.

  14. Calibration and correction of LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS analyses for element contents and isotopic ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS have been the techniques of choice for achieving accurate and precise element content and isotopic ratio, the state-of-the-art technique combines the advantages of low detection limits with high spatial resolution, however, the analysis accuracy and precision are restricted by many factors, such as sensitivity drift, elemental/isotopic fractionation, matrix effects, interferences and the lack of sufficiently matrix-matched reference materials. Thus, rigorous and suitable calibration and correction methods are needed to obtain quantitative data. This review systematically summarized and evaluated the interference correction, quantitative calculation and sensitivity correction strategies in order to provide the analysts with suitable calibration and correction strategies according to the sample types and the analyzed elements. The functions and features of data reduction software ICPMSDataCal were also outlined, which can provide real-time and on-line data reduction of element content and isotopic ratios analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  15. Rare earths and trace elements contents in leaves: A new indicator of the composition of atmospheric dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, P; Cibella, F; Falcone, E E; Cuttitta, G; Saiano, F; Inguaggiato, C; Latteo, V

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between the trace element distribution in atmospheric particles and leaves of some exposed plants in the environment was recently demonstrated. This indication would suggest that the trace element analysis of leaves in these plants could provide information about the composition, nature and origin of the atmospheric dust dispersed in the environment. In order to corroborate this hypothesis, the distribution of trace elements and Rare Earths were studied in leaves of some endemic plants, in the atmospheric fallout and in soils of rural, urban and industrial ecosystems in Sicily. These elements have been chosen to discriminate the source and nature of different source on atmospheric dust and the larger capability of the composition of the latter materials to influence the metal ion distribution in leaves of studied plants rather than the soil composition. These evidences are related to the recognition both of positive La anomaly and trace element enrichments in studied leaves and to their particular V/Th and Co/Ni signature. On the other hand, some particular normalised REE features recognised in leaves suggest that a limited contribution to the REE budget in studied leaves is provided by the REE migration from roots.

  16. 各种脑活素中微量元素含量的比较%Contents comparison of trace elements in different cerebrolysins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟明; 冷红霞; 刘巨涛; 华瑞年

    2001-01-01

    AIM To compare the differences of contents of trace elements in cerebrolysin biological preparations. METHODS The contents of Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cr in eight kinds of cerebrolysin biological preparations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS The contents of trace elements in seven kinds of cerebrolysin biological preparations made at home were compared with those made by Austria. The statistical results were as follows: in comparison with the control group the contents of Mg in all those cerebrolysin biological preparations had significant difference (P0.05). CONCLUSION Useful data of cerebrolysin for administration in clinical practice are provided.%目的 比较脑活素类生物制剂间各微量元素的含量差别. 方法 利用火焰原子吸收法直接测定8种不同品牌的脑活素类生物制剂中镁、锰、铁、钴、镍、铜、锌和铬的含量. 结果 7种国产品牌制剂与奥地利脑活素比较,Mg,制剂间差异都非常显著(P0.05). 结论 本结果为临床合理用药提供了有用数据.

  17. Comparative analysis of high temperature strength of platinum and its binary alloys with low content of alloying element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Draško S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of platinum and its binary alloys (containing alloying elements up to 10 mass% mechanical properties at high temperatures has been carried out. The goal of the analysis was to investigate new application possibilities for products based on platinum and platinum alloys, and to expand the existing database of platinum metals, originating from the RTB group, Serbia. Palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and gold were used as alloying elements. In order to examine the effect of alloying elements’ low concentrations on the high-temperature platinum durability, creep rate, rupture time, tensile strength and relative elongation at high temperatures, up to 1400 °C, were determined. In addition, changes in the structure of dislocations were tracked. The summary of investigation results led to conclusion that, of all the alloying elements used, the best influence on high-temperature platinum durability has rhodium.

  18. 元素分析仪法测定氧含量的研究%Study on Determination of Oxygen Content With Element Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琪娟; 徐军礼; 孙长顺

    2015-01-01

    Vario EL Ⅲ organic elemental analyzer can precisely determine C,H,O,N and S element contents in organic compounds. But it has the limitation for determining the organic compounds (because they include special hetero-atom). In order to solve the problem and expand its using scope, we use Vario EL Ⅲ organic elemental analyzer to determine some simple oxide compound precisely instead of organo-elemental compound. The results show that Vario EL Ⅲ organic elemental analyzer can be used to determine the oxygen content of some organic elemental compound and oxide compound. By measurement of a large number of oxides, combined with the periodic table of elements, the distribution rule of measurable elements can be found out, which could have guiding significance for using Vario EL III elemental analyzer to determine samples.%Vario EL Ⅲ元素分析仪在分析有机化合物中的 C、H、O、N、S 元素含量时能够达到相当高的精度。但对元素有机化合物的测量范围有限(由于其含有特殊的杂原子),为了解决其在测量有机元素化合物中氧元素方面的局限性,扩大仪器的使用范围,本研究以测定简单氧化物中的氧含量代替元素有机化合物,结果表明 Vario EL Ⅲ元素分析仪也可以用来测定部分氧化物和元素有机化合物中的氧含量。并通过测定大量氧化物,结合元素周期表找出了可测元素的分布规律,对以后使用 Vario EL Ⅲ元素分析仪测定样品的分析工作具有指导意义。

  19. Pedo-geochemical baseline content levels and soil quality reference values of trace elements in soils from the Mediterranean (Castilla La Mancha, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta, Raimundo; Bueno, Paz; Rubi, Juan; Giménez, Rosario

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate trace element soil contamination, geochemical baseline contents and reference values need to be established. Pedo-geochemical baseline levels of trace elements in 72 soil samples of 24 soil profiles from the Mediterranean, Castilla La Mancha, are assessed and soil quality reference values are calculated. Reference value contents (in mg kg-1) were: Sc 50.8; V 123.2; Cr 113.4; Co 20.8; Ni 42.6; Cu 27.0; Zn 86.5; Ga 26.7; Ge 1.3; As 16.7; Se 1.4; Br 20.1; Rb 234.7; Sr 1868.4; Y 38.3; Zr 413.1; Nb 18.7; Mo 2.0; Ag 7.8; Cd 4.4; Sn 8.7; Sb 5.7; I 25.4; Cs 14.2; Ba 1049.3; La 348.4; Ce 97.9; Nd 40.1; Sm 10.7; Yb 4.2; Hf 10.0; Ta 4.0; W 5.5; Tl 2.3; Pb 44.2; Bi 2.2; Th 21.6; U 10.3. The contents obtained for some elements are below or close to the detection limit: Co, Ge, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Tl and Bi. The element content ranges (the maximum value minus the minimum value) are: Sc 55.0, V 196.0, Cr 346.0, Co 64.4, Ni 188.7, Cu 49.5, Zn 102.3, Ga 28.7, Ge 1.5, As 26.4, Se 0.9, Br 33.0 Rb 432.7, Sr 3372.6, Y 39.8, Zr 523.2, Nb 59.7, Mo 3.9, Ag 10.1, Cd 1.8, Sn 75.2, Sb 9.9, I 68.0, Cs 17.6, Ba 1394.9, La 51.3, Ce 93.5, Nd 52.5, Sm 11.2, Yb 4.2, Hf 11.3, Ta 6.3, W 5.2, Tl 2.1, Pb 96.4, Bi 3.0, Th 24.4, U 16.4 (in mg kg-1). The spatial distribution of the elements was affected mainly by the nature of the bedrock and by pedological processes. The upper limit of expected background variation for each trace element in the soil is documented, as is its range as a criterion for evaluating which sites may require decontamination.

  20. The element contents in chickpeas grown under organic and conventional farming regimes using WDXRF analysis for human nutrition and health

    OpenAIRE

    AKBABA, Uğur; TÜRKEZ, Yusuf ŞAHİN and Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study on elemental composition of various chickpea (Cicer arientînum L) samples was conducted by using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). 22 elements, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, S, Sr, Zn, Br, Cl, K, Mg, Na, Ba, Rb, Si, Au, Cr, La and Sn, were determined in chickpea samples (n = 10) grown under organic and conventional farming regimes. Results obtained from each group were analyzed statistically using the SPSS statistic program. It was observed that the ...

  1. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings.

  2. Volatile Evolution of Magma Associated with the Solchiaro Eruption in the Phlegrean Volcanic District (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.; Bodnar, R. J.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Fedele, L.; Shimizu, N.; Hunter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Phlegrean volcanic district (PVD) in southern Italy is one of the best known volcanic hazard areas in the world. More than 1.5 million people live in close proximity to the volcanic centers. The PVD comprises three volcanic fields: the Campi Flegrei caldera and the islands of Ischia and Procida. We studied volatiles plus major and trace elements in the magma associated with the Solchiaro eruption on the Island of Procida, Italy, to gain a better understanding of the relationship between pre-eruptive volatiles and magmatic evolution. The Solchiaro eruption is one of the more primitive products erupted in the PVD and provides information on the source of later more evolved magmas associated with this volcanic system. The composition of the magma before eruption was determined by analyzing 104 melt inclusions (MIs) in forsteritic olivine, glass embayment plus rim glasses, and high vesciculated glasses selected from 4 representative samples. The composition of MIs was recalculated and ranges from basaltic to trachy-basaltic. Among major elements potassium shows the highest variability, from 0.5 to 6 wt%. MI define a continuous trend based on major and minor element compositions. Embayments matrix glass and high vesciculated glasses define a field that suggests a discontinuous process. Compatible to incompatible trace element ratios in early melts are highly variable and represent the melt phase before or at the very beginning of assimilation-fractional crystallization (FCA) processes. Intermediate melt compositions reflect continuing FCA processes, late melt compositions suggest that the FCA process was aborted before eruption. Volatile contents of early melt are highly variable and reflect source heterogeneities, and the melts are interpreted to be undersaturated. Intermediate melts were volatile saturated and H2O-CO2 contents define a degassing path. Depths of trapping of MI range from 4.4 to 2.2 km, and are calculated based on Newman and Lowenstern (2002) and

  3. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.t.c.deloos-vollebregt@tudelft.nl

    2008-07-15

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 deg. C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 deg. C up to 1000 deg. C.

  4. The association between content of the elements S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue from Danes and Greenlandic Inuit examined by dual hierarchical clustering analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jens; Milman, Nils; Pind, N.;

    2014-01-01

    contents according to calculated similarities, one clustering elements according to correlation coefficients between the element contents, both using Euclidian distance and Ward Procedure. RESULTS: One dendrogram separated subjects in 7 clusters showing no differences in ethnicity, gender or age....... The analysis discriminated between elements in normal and cirrhotic livers. The other dendrogram clustered elements in four clusters: sulphur and chlorine; copper and bromine; potassium and zinc; iron. There were significant correlations between the elements in normal liver samples: S was associated with Cl, K...

  5. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  6. Impact of the breeding region and the season on the content of the selected mineral elements in the hair of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of the season and the breeding region on the content of selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of dairy cows. The research material was made up of 114 polish Holstein-Friesians breed cows from three breeding centres in Poland: Kombinat Rolny Sp. z o. o. - Kietrz (the opolskie province, Hodowla Zarodowa Zwierząt Sp. z o.o. - Knyszyn (the podlaskie province and Ośrodek Hodowli Zarodowej Sp. z o.o. - Osięciny (the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The cows were kept in freestanding cowsheds with den boxes. The animal nutrition involved the use of the TMR system, considering the division into nutrition groups. The hair was sampled in summer and in the period of winter and spring from the side of the body, right behind the coastal arch. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na and K was performed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The study revealed seasonal variations in the content of mineral elements in the hair of dry cows and a region-dependent differentiation. The highest content of the quantity elements in question was found in the hair of the cows from Osięciny. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of cows from Osięciny was statistically significantly higher than in the hair collected in winter from the animals from Knyszyn and Kietrz. The lowest values of the determined elements were noted in the hair of cows bred in Knyszyn. The investigation of the correlation between the amounts of the elements, based on an analysis of all samples of hair, revealed a positive correlation between Na and K cations, as well as between Mg and Ca cations.

  7. 气相色谱法测定不同方法提取的莪术挥发油中β-榄香烯的含量%GC measure Content of β-elemene in Curcuma Volatile oil Extracted with Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项秀娣; 陈素红; 楼招欢

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To observe the content of β-elemene in this oil by different methods.[Methods]Steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction were separately adopted to extract the volatile oil from Curcuma.β-elemene of each volatile oil was assessed by GC,and their contents were compared with each other.[Results]The content of β-elemene in the steam-distilled volatile oil is significantly higher than that in the petroleum ether-extracted one.[Conclusion]The method of steam distillation for extracting the volatile oil from Curcuma is better than the method of petroleum ether extraction.%[目的]明确不同提取方法对莪术挥发油中β-榄香烯含量的影响.[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法和石油醚提取法提取莪术挥发油,气相色谱法(gas chromatography,GC)法测定莪术油中β-榄香烯的含量,比较不同方法提取莪术挥发油中β-榄香烯含量的差异.[结果]水蒸气蒸馏法提取的莪术油中β-榄香烯的含量高于石油醚提取.[结论]水蒸气蒸馏法提取莪术挥发油效率较高.

  8. Water-rich and volatile-undersaturated magmas at Hekla volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Gregor; Berg, Anne-Sophie; Stix, John

    2016-08-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four eruptions at Hekla volcano in Iceland were analyzed for their dissolved H2O, CO2, S, and Cl contents. A positive correlation among the repose interval, magmatic evolution, and volatile contents of magmas is revealed. H2O is the dominant volatile species; it behaves as an incompatible component, increasing in concentration over time as a result of fractional crystallization in the magma. The full suite of H2O contents ranges from a low of 0.80 wt % in basaltic andesites to a maximum of 5.67 wt % in rhyolites. Decreasing H2O/K2O at fixed major element compositions suggests that syneruptive degassing reduces H2O contents significantly. Hekla magmas are CO2 poor, with very low concentrations present only in the most evolved compositions (˜20-30 ppm or less). The decrease in S content from basaltic andesite to rhyolite demonstrates that sulfide saturation is attained when the melt composition reaches basaltic andesite, resulting in the precipitation of pyrrhotite. Low CO2/Nb ratios suggest that vapor saturation is most likely reached during an early period of cooling and solidification in the crust. Fresh injections of mafic magma interact with previously solidified intrusives, producing new melts that are volatile undersaturated. Vapor saturation pressures obtained using the most volatile-rich melt inclusions suggest the presence of a magma chamber at a minimum depth of ˜7 km. This is in agreement with geophysical observations from recent small-volume eruptions, but given the possibility of volatile-undersaturated melts, some of the magmas may reside at greater depths.

  9. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  10. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  11. Rare earth element content in the SPM of Daliao river system and its comparison with that in the sediments, loess and soils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chunye; HE Mengchang; LI Yanxia; YANG Linsheng; LIU Ruimin; YANG Zhifeng

    2008-01-01

    Content and distribution patterns of rare earth elements (REEs) in the suspended particulate material (SPM) of Daliao River system were investigated and compared with those in the river and sea sediments, loess, and soils of China. Twenty-seven samples of SPM were taken in Daliao River system and digested with various acids followed by ICP-MS analysis for REEs and ICP-OES analysis for Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, and K, to measure the total concentrations of these elements. Results indicated that the spatial change in the content of REEs was great, with the coefficient of variance (CV) from 84% to 105%, while the contents of REEs were significantly correlated with each other. Chondrite-normalized patterns of REEs were characterized by higher enrichment of light REEs than heavy REEs, and a depletion of Eu in the SPM was generally found. The positive anomaly of Eu in the SPM of Xi River was due to anthropogenic source in Shenyang City. Furthermore, chondrite- and upper continent crust-normalized patterns of REEs in the SPM of Daliao River system, sediments of Yangtze River and Yellow River, sediments of Yellow Sea, East Sea, South Sea of China, and loess and soil of China, were very similar to one another. These demonstrated that the weathering and sedimentary processes resulted in constant REE distribution not only in the typical sedimentary rocks, but also in the modern riverine particle, sea sediments, loess, and soils.

  12. 广佛手不同成熟期果实挥发性物质含量分析%Content of Volatile Substances in Citrus Bergamot of Different Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟云; 袁显; 曾继吾; 姜波; 蒋侬辉

    2013-01-01

    以广佛手不同成熟期的鲜果为材料,采用顶空固相萃取及GC-MS法,分析其挥发性物质含量成分及变化.结果表明:从花后160~200 d的5个成熟期共鉴定出25种成分,各成熟期成分的种类、数量基本相同.挥发性物质成分以烯类为主,占含量的96%以上,其中又以柠檬烯和松油烯为主,分别占含量的44%和27%以上.这些主要成分的含量之和先上升后下降,在花后180 d达最高值,说明花后180 d应为佛手采收最佳期.%In this study,flesh citrus bergamot fiuits in 5 different mature periods were used for content analysis of volatile substances using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS).No obvious differences of the component amount were found in different periods and total 25 components were identified.Terpenes,including isolimonene (accounting for more than 44%) and terpinene (more than 27%) and so on,are the main component amounting for more than 96%.Changes of the total contents display a rising first and then falling trend,and achieve the highest level 180 days post-flowering,when half of the fruit is yellow.These results showed that 180 days post-flowering might be the best time for citrus bergamot harvesting.

  13. Variações no teor e na composição volátil de Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivada no campo e em casa de vegetação Variation in the content and volatile composition of Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivated in field and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira Botrel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition of the volatile oil of Hyptis marrubioides cultivated in field and greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, with ten replications for each type of cultivation. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The highest content of volatile oil was found for plants grown in field. The highest percentage of the compounds present in oils was observed in samples grown in the field, such as germacra-4(15,5,10(14-trien-1-α-ol (16.34%, β-caryophyllene (10.42%, γ-muurolene (12.83% and trans-thujone (9.98%. However, some compounds were found only in plants grown in a greenhouse, such as cis-muurol-5-en-4α-ol (10.84%, α-cadinol (3.06% and eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1β-ol (6.82%.

  14. Thermochromatography study of volatile polonium species in various gas atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Eichler, Robert; Piguet,David; Mendonça, Tania Melo; Stora, Thierry; Schumann, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Phenomena related to the volatilization of polonium and its compounds are critical issues for the safety assessment of the innovative lead–bismuth cooled type of nuclear reactor or accelerator driven systems. The formation and volatilization of different species of polonium and their interaction with fused silica was studied by thermochromatography using carrier gases with varied redox potential. The obtained results show that under inert and reducing conditions in the absence of moisture, elemental polonium is formed. Polonium compounds more volatile than elemental polonium can be formed if traces of moisture are present in both inert and reducing carrier gas. The use of dried oxygen as carrier gas leads to the formation of polonium oxides, which are less volatile than elemental polonium. It was also found that the volatility of polonium oxides increases with increasing oxidation state. In the presence of moisture in an oxidizing carrier gas, species are formed that are more volatile than the oxides and le...

  15. Composition, volatile components, and trace elements in andesitic melts of the Kurile-Kamchatka region%俄罗斯Kurile-Kamchatka地区安山质熔体的成分、挥发分组成和微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.L.Tolstykh; V.B.Naumov; A.D.Babansky

    2007-01-01

    Melt inclusions in minerals from some volcanoes of the Kurile-Kamchatka region were examined. The studied basaltic andesites and andesites were sampled from volcanoes of the Central Kamchatka depression ( Shiveluch and Bezymyannyi), Eastern Kamchatka volcanic belt (Avachinskii and Karymskii), and Iturup Island, Southern Kuriles (Kudryavyi). Basalts of the 1996 eruption of the Karymskii volcanic center and dacites of Dikii Greben' volcano, Southern Kamchatka were also studied. More than 260 melt inclusions from 31 rock samples were homogenized, and quenched glasses were analyzed using electron and ion microprobes. The compositions of melt inclusions in andesitic phenocrysts vary in silica contents from 56 to 80wt%. Al2O3 , FeO, MgO, CaO decrease and Na2O and K2O increase with increasing SiO2. Many inclusions ( about 80% ) are dacitic or rhyolitic. However, the compositions of silicic glasses ( >65wt% SiO2 ) in andesites significantly differ in TiO2 , FeO, MgO, CaO, and K2O contents from those in dacites and rhyolites. High-potassium melts (K2O 3.8 ~6.8wt% ) with various SiO2 from 51.4 to 77.2wt% were found in minerals of all volcanoes studied. This indicates a contribution of a component selectively enriched in potassium to magmas of the whole region. A great compositional diversity of melt inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts from the Bezymyannyi andesites suggests a complex history of plagioclase crystallization and magma evolution in the andesite formation. Melts from different volcanoes strongly vary in volatile contents. The highest H2O contents are found in the melts from Shiveluch (3.0 ~7.2wt%, 4.7wt% on average) and Avachinskii (4.7 ~4.8wt% ); while those are lower in melts of Kudryavyi (0.1 ~ 2.6wt% ), Dikii Greben' (0.4 ~ 1.8wt% ), and Bezymyannyi ( < 1wt% ). Chlorine contents are also variable. The lowest values are found in the Bezymyannyi melts (0.09wt% on average), the highest Cl contents are typical of melt inclusions in minerals from

  16. Investigation of Trace Element Content in the Seeds, Pulp, and Peel of Mashui Oranges Using Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shen, Mei; Ma, Ande; Han, Weili

    2017-06-16

    Fresh Mashui orange samples were pretreated with microwave digestion using an HNO3-H2O2 system. The levels of Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the seeds, pulp, and peel were then determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with collision cell technology (CCT) and kinetic energy discrimination (KED). The standard curve coefficient of determinations of the ten tested elements were between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The instrument detection limit was between 0.112 ng/L and 3.05 ng/mL. The method detection limit was between 0.0281 and 763 ng/g. The average recovery rate was between 85.0 and 117%. The current results showed that Mashui oranges are rich in three elements, namely Mg, K, and Ca. The concentrations of K and Ca were significantly higher than that of Mg in the peel. The content of K was the highest in the seeds. Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn had the second highest concentrations, and Fe was the highest in the seeds, while Cu was the lowest in the peel. As, Cd, and Pb (hazardous elements) had the lowest concentrations of all the tested elements.

  17. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, H. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmed, Doaa [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Eldakrouri, Ashraf [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-06-21

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  18. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    Non-treated wastewater is used for irrigation of aquatic food production systems in the peri-urban areas of the major cities in Southeast Asia. Therefore concern is that potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may accumulate in foods produced. Hanoi and Phnom Penh, the capitals of Vietnam and Cambodia...... polluted with As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. The sediment concentrations of Pb and Sb were also high. Of most concern was the observed Cd concentration in To Lich River which has a maximum of 427 mg kg-1 d.w. The Hanoi river sediment had a high retention capacity for PTEs. Logarithm to the maximum observed...

  19. Elemental contents in Napoleon's hair cut before and after his death: did Napoleon die of arsenic poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xilei; Alber, D; Henkelmann, R

    2004-05-01

    Whether or not Napoleon died of arsenic poisoning is an open question on which debate has been active since 1960. This work examined several of his hairs, cut at different times and in different places: two pieces cut the day after his death on the island of St. Helena (1821) and two pieces cut seven years earlier (1814) during his first exile on the island of Elba. INAA results show that all of the samples of Napoleon's hair have an elevated arsenic concentration. These results disfavor the arsenic poisoning theory. Aside from arsenic, 18 other elements are reported, providing additional information for examining the arsenic poisoning theory.

  20. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  1. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  2. Role of cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation in plants. Influence on photosynthesis and element content in two species of Brassicaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson Joensson, Helene

    2001-02-01

    Plants are exposed to many different stress factors during their lifetime. often more than one factor at a time. which highlights the importance of research regarding interaction among stress factors. Cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation (MB, 280-315 mm) are two potential stress factors in the environment, which have gained increased interest due to atmospheric pollution. In this work the interaction between Cd and UV-B radiation was investigated in two species of Brassicaceae; Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana, the latter including the wild type and phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3. In both species photosynthetic parameters and element content were studied after the plants were exposed to Cd and supplemental UV-B radiation for 14 days. A separate Cd uptake study was carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the effect of different Cd pretreatments on Cd uptake. The experiments showed that Cd was the dominant factor, but in Brassica napus, Cd+UV-B showed some interaction effects on energy dissipation and chlorophyll ratios. Generally, Cd decreased the chlorophyll content and influenced photosynthesis by altering oxygen evolution, non-photochemical quenching and the quantum yield. Cadmium had large effects on the content of essential elements, particularly in roots, that may be due to competition during uptake. The Cd uptake study showed that the wild type contained much higher amounts of Cd than the phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3, although Cd uptake is expected to be independent of phytochelatin content. Phytochelatins chelate and transport Cd to the vacuole, thus removing Cd from the cytosol. This compartmentation may disrupt a possible feedback mechanism in the cytosol.

  3. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  4. Elements of product service systems as a potential to achieve a sustainable development: bibliometry and content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ariente Neto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of product-service systems (PSS is presented as an innovative strategy when offering products and services. It aims at for minimizing environmental impacts through sustainable business models. This study aims to identify which potentialities can be explored with regard to the elements of a PSS in a configuration that favor to offer answers on sustainable issues. To do so, the literature was analyzed by a structured process of bibliographic review. Among the results, three aspects are highlighted: (i the wideness of product concept to add services through PSS life-cycle, (ii the configuration of infra-structure to support a PSS by establishing the necessary communication relatively to logistics services. Finally, the net of actors should be explored to obtain organizational proposals that contribute to PSS performance.

  5. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  6. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucie Barto(n)ová; Bohumír (C)ech; Lucie Ruppenthalová; Vendula Majvelderová; Dagmar Juchelková; Zdeněk Klika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S,CI,Br,As,Se,Cu,Ni,Zn,Ga,Ge,Rb,and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone.The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements.Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959),Cl (0.957),Cu (0.916),Se (0.898),Ni (0.866),As (0.861),Zn (0.742),Ge (0.717),and Ga (0.588) content.The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  7. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonová, Lucie; Cech, Bohumír; Ruppenthalová, Lucie; Majvelderová, Vendula; Juchelková, Dagmar; Klika, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S, Cl, Br, As, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Rb, and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone. The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements. Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959), Cl (0.957), Cu (0.916), Se (0.898), Ni (0.866), As (0.861), Zn (0.742), Ge (0.717), and Ga (0.588) content. The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  8. The Effect of Fish Size and Condition on the Contents of Twelve Essential and Non Essential Elements in Aristichthys nobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem*, A. Salam, S. S. Tahir1 and N. Rauf 1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation coefficients between fish size (body weight and total length and metal contents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd and Pb in whole fish (Aristichthys nobilis were determined. A total of 71 fish samples were collected from hatcheries and fish reservoirs located in Islamabad and Fatehjung. Highly significant (P<0.001 relationship between metal concentrations and fish size was found. Most of the metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb showed an isometric increase, while Mn, Fe and Co showed an allometric increase in with increasing body weight. All metals showed isometric increase, while, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Co showed positive allometric growth in relation to total length. The correlation coefficient (r between different variables and wet body weight, condition factor was found highly significant (P<0.001 in examined fish except for Na, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb while for total length the same results found except Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb. Variance inflation factor values of regression coefficients in multiple regression analysis for each variable were lesser than 10. The metal levels of the examined fish were lower than the recommended values in fish and fishery products set by FAO.

  9. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  10. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-01-01

    Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50–100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal–silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion. PMID:25404309

  11. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Emily A; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-12-02

    Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50-100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal-silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion.

  12. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  13. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  14. Volatile profile of wine Teran PTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teran PTP is a protected wine with a recognized traditional denomination produced from a grapevine variety ‘Refošk’ in winegrowing district Kras in Slovenia (European Union, 2009; Pravilnik, 2008. The aromatic profile of 82 Teran PTP wines produced in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 was monitored. Intotal the content of 16 volatile compounds was determined. The volatile compounds from wine were extracted following the liquid-liquid extraction and determined with a GC-MS method. The odour activity values and relative odour contributions were calculated for each volatile compound identified. Among sensorial important volatiles the highest odour activity values were determined for ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate. Other research papers also showed, that all red wines investigated except one contained ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate above sensory thresholds.

  15. Dephytinisation of soyabean protein isolate with low native phytic acid content has limited impact on mineral and trace element absorption in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Lena; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Kastenmayer, Peter; van Dael, Peter; Barclay, Denis

    2004-02-01

    Infant formulas based on soyabean protein isolate are often used as an alternative to cows'-based formulas. However, the presence of phytic acid in soya formulas has raised concern about the absorption of trace elements and minerals from these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mineral and trace element absorption from regular and dephytinised soya formula in healthy infants. Soyabean protein isolate with a relatively low native content of phytic acid was used for production of a regular soya formula (300 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula) and an experimental formula was based on dephytinised soya protein isolate (absorptions were measured by a stable isotope technique based on 72 h faecal excretion of non-absorbed stable isotopes (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) and by the chemical balance technique (Mn, Zn, Cu and Ca) in nine infants (69-191 d old). Fe absorption was also measured by erythrocyte incorporation 14 d after intake. The results from the present study demonstrated that Zn absorption, measured by a stable isotope technique, was significantly greater after dephytinisation (mean value 16.7 v. 22.6 %; P=0.03). No other statistically significant differences between the two formulas were observed. The nutritional benefit of dephytinisation was marginal in the present study. Based on these results, the use of soyabean protein isolate with low native content of phytic acid should be promoted for production of soya formulas and adequate addition of ascorbic acid to enhance Fe absorption should be ensured in the products.

  16. Possible Sources of Polar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    : surface layer of atomic/molecules over a regolith containing an assortment of cold-trapped elements (Na/Ca/Mg/K/Ag/Hg) and compounds (OH, CO, H2). In addition to the solar flux, cometary dust dominates the impact flux for particles less than 1g and dominates impact flashes observed telescopically (Cooke, pers. comm.). While large, volatile-rich impactors may be less frequent, they have the potential for injecting significant quantities (10-15%) into impact melts (Harris and Schultz, 2011). In addition, laboratory impact experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range used high-speed spectroscopy to illustrate the capture of volatile fractions below the surface during hypervelocity impacts. On the Moon, melt-trapped volatiles comprising the regolith would be gradually recycled during each lunation during impact gardening, thereby titrating the supply of volatiles to the polar deep freeze. Consequently, diverse sources likely contributed this potpourri of trapped cold-trapped volatile

  17. Removal Of Volatile Impurities From Copper Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, L.; Schuler, A.; Frei, A.; Sturzenegger, M.

    2005-03-01

    To study the removal of volatile impurities from two different copper concentrates they have been heated on a thermo balance to temperatures between 900 and 1500 C. This sample treatment revealed that both concentrates undergo strong weight losses at 500 and 700 C. They were attributed to the removal of sulfur. Elemental analyses of the residues by ICP spectrometry have shown that the thermal treatment efficiently removes the volatile impurities. Already below 900 C most of the arsenic is removed by evaporation, the largest fraction of lead and zinc is removed in the temperature interval of 1300-1500 C. It was observed that quartz in the concentrate leads to the formation of a silicon-enriched phase besides a metal rich sulfide phase. The former is interpreted as an early stage of a silicate slag. Elemental analysis showed that the formation of this distinct slag phase does not hinder the efficient removal of volatile impurities. (author)

  18. Emerging Equity Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Bekaert; Harvey, Campbell R.

    1995-01-01

    Returns in emerging capital markets are very different from returns in developed markets. While most previous research has focused on average returns, we analyze the volatility of the returns in emerging equity markets. We characterize the time-series of volatility in emerging markets and explore the distributional foundations of the variance process. Of particular interest is evidence of asymmetries in volatility and the evolution of the variance process after periods of capital market refor...

  19. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  20. Effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist treatment on elemental and biomolecular content and distribution in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, J.; Gajda, M.; Jawień, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Appel, K.; Dumas, P.

    2013-12-01

    Gene-targeted apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice display early and highly progressive vascular lesions containing lipid deposits and they became a reliable animal model to study atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist on the distribution of selected pro- and anti- inflammatory elements as well as biomolecules in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared (micro-FTIR) microspectroscopies were applied. Two-month-old apoE-KO mice were fed for following four months diet supplemented with AVE 0991 (0.58 μmol/kg b.w. per day). Histological sections of ascending aortas were analyzed spectroscopically. The distribution of P, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to correspond with histological structure of the lesion. Significantly lower contents of P, Ca, Zn and significantly higher content of Fe were observed in animals treated with AVE 0991. Biomolecular analysis showed lower lipids saturation level and lower lipid to protein ratio in AVE 0991 treated group. Protein secondary structure was studied according to the composition of amide I band (1660 cm-1) and it demonstrated higher proportion of β-sheet structure as compared to α-helix in both studied groups.

  1. Volatilization behaviors of diesel oil from the soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-ying; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Bing; MA Yu-xin; CAO Jing-hua

    2004-01-01

    The volatilization of diesel oil, Shengli crude oil and 90# gasoline on glass surface of petri dishes were conducted at the ambient temperature of 25℃. Diesel oil evaporates in a power manner, where the loss of mass is approximately power with time. 90# gasoline evaporates in a logarithmic with time. Where as the volatilization of Shengli crude oil fit either the logarithmic or power equation after different time, and has similar R2. And the effects of soil type and diesel oil and water content on volatilization behavior in unsaturated soil were studied in this paper. Diesel oil and water content in the soils play a large role in volatilization from soils. Appropriate water helps the wicking action but too much water stops it. The wicking action behaves differently in four different types of soils in the same volatilization experiment of 18% diesel oil content and air-dry condition.

  2. Impact of breeding region and season on the content of some trace elements and heavy metals in the hair of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygan-Szczegielniak, Dorota; Stanek, Magdalena; Giernatowska, Emilia; Janicki, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the season and the breeding region on the content of selected minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Cd) in the hair of dairy cows. The research material covered 114 Holstein-Friesian breed cows from three breeding centres in Poland, hereafterreferred to as A, B and C. Breeding centre A is located in Opolskie province, breeding centre B in Podlaskie province and breeding centre C in Kujawsko-Pomorskie province. The cows were kept in freestanding cowsheds with den boxes. Animal nutrition involved the use of the TMR system, considering division into nutrition groups. Hair was sampled in summer and in the period of winter and spring from the side of the body, directly behind the coastal arch. The Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe analysis was performed with atomic absorption spectrometry. The Pb and Cd content was assayed with the use of the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The results demonstrated the effect of season and breeding region on the level of the minerals and heavy metals assayed in the hair of cows being in the period of drying-off. The hair sampled in winter from cows from C demonstrated a higher concentration of most elements except for Fe than in material derived in summer. Hair sampled in winter from cows from the B centre showed higher Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations as compared with summer. Higher Cu, Mn, Fe and Pb concentrations were determined in hair sampled during winter from cows from A than in the material obtained in summer. The Cd content in the cow hair did not exceed the admissible norm, however, normal levels were exceeded for Pb in hair sampled in winter from cows from breeding centre C.

  3. Central leptin regulates total ceramide content and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1C proteolytic maturation in rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzón-Kulichenko, Elena; Schwudke, Dominik; Gallardo, Nilda; Moltó, Eduardo; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Shevchenko, Andrej; Andrés, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with insulin and leptin resistance, and increased ceramide contents in target tissues. Because the adipose tissue has become a central focus in these diseases, and leptin-induced increases in insulin sensitivity may be related to effects of leptin on lipid metabolism, we investigated herein whether central leptin was able to regulate total ceramide levels and the expression of enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in rat white adipose tissue (WAT). After 7 d central leptin treatment, the total content of ceramides was analyzed by quantitative shotgun lipidomics mass spectrometry. The effects of leptin on the expression of several enzymes of the sphingolipid metabolism, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG-1) in this tissue were studied. Total ceramide levels were also determined after surgical WAT denervation. Central leptin infusion significantly decreased both total ceramide content and the long-chain fatty acid ceramide species in WAT. Concomitant with these results, leptin decreased the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis (SPT-1, LASS2, LASS4) and ceramide production from sphingomyelin (SMPD-1/2). The mRNA levels of enzymes of ceramide degradation (Asah1/2) and utilization (sphingomyelin synthase, ceramide kinase, glycosyl-ceramide synthase, GM3 synthase) were also down-regulated. Ceramide-lowering effects of central leptin were prevented by local autonomic nervous system denervation of WAT. Finally, central leptin treatment markedly increased INSIG-1 mRNA expression and impaired SREBP-1c activation in epididymal WAT. These observations indicate that in vivo central leptin, acting through the autonomic nervous system, regulates total ceramide levels and SREBP-1c proteolytic maturation in WAT, probably contributing to improve the overall insulin sensitivity.

  4. Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanza, Elias C; Joseph, Mary; Premji, Shahirose S; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Mannion, Cynthia

    2014-04-15

    Geophagy, a form of pica, is the deliberate consumption of soil and is relatively common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, pregnant women commonly eat soil sticks sold in the market (pemba), soil from walls of houses, termite mounds, and ground soil (kichuguu). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements by testing soil samples. We conducted a cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 340 pregnant women, ranging in age from 15-49 years, who attended six government antenatal clinics in the Geita District, Tanzania. Structured interviews were conducted in June-August, 2012, to understand geophagy practices. In addition, soil samples taken from sources identified by pregnant women practicing geophagy were analysed for mineral element content. Geophagy was reported by 155 (45.6%) pregnant women with 85 (54.8%) initiating the practice in the first trimester. A total of 101 (65%) pregnant women reported eating soil 2 to 3 times per day while 20 (13%) ate soil more than 3 times per day. Of 155 pregnant women 107 (69%) bought pemba from local shops, while 48 (31%) consumed ground soil kichuguu. The estimated mean quantity of soil consumed from pemba was 62.5 grams/day. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc levels were found in both pemba and kichuguu samples. Cadmium and mercury were found only in the kichuguu samples. Based on daily intake estimates, arsenic, copper and manganese for kichuguu and copper and manganese for pemba samples exceed the oral Minimum Risk Levels designated by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Almost 50% of participants practiced geophagy in Geita District consistent with other reports from Africa. Both pemba and kichuguu contained chemical elements at varying concentration, mostly above MRLs. As such, pregnant women who eat soil in Geita

  5. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over time. Wi

  6. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  7. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  8. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

  9. Examining Moderate Volatile Loss through Lunar History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Killen, Rosemary M.; Airapetian, Vladimir; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2017-06-01

    While the Moon and bulk silicate earth (BSE) share many compositional similarities, a notable difference is the apparent depletion of moderate volatiles in lunar samples. Depletion of elements such as sodium and potassium relative to BSE composition has been observed in Apollo samples. The source of these depletions is poorly understood but may be a result of preferential accretion of volatile-rich melt in the inner disk to the Earth during Moon formation.However, recent Kepler data has indicated that stellar analogues to our Sun experience enhanced flare activity early in their evolution. This implies that the Sun may have had a higher frequency and energy of flares and associated Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) in its distant past. We examine the potential impacts of this increased activity on lunar exosphere generation and specifically on potential loss of moderate volatiles including sodium and potassium.We use a surface bounded exosphere model that incorporates multiple processes including photon stimulated desorption, kinetic sputtering and impact vaporization in order to study potential moderate volatile loss under a variety of different conditions. This model is informed by appropriate solar wind and CME properties, which includes CMEs of different energies. We also incorporate regolith overturn to determine ranges of potential bulk depletion of moderate volatiles from the lunar regolith.Our work is aimed at determining the potential impact of solar activity on the depletion of moderate volatiles in the lunar regolith. Such a contribution is important to ascertain in order to isolate the depletion of volatiles due to disk processes and may thus help constrain details of the Moon's formation. Finally, we also examine the potential of lunar abundances of moderate volatiles as an observational tracer of past solar activity.

  10. The influence of Citrosept addition to drinking water and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract on the content of selected mineral elements in the blood plasma of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Lechowski, Jerzy; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Zawiślak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to indicate the influence of Citrosept preparation and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, administered per os to growing turkey hens in 3 different dosages, on the content of selected mineral elements in blood plasma of slaughter turkey hens. An attempt was also made to specify the most effective dosage of the applied preparations with the highest efficiency as regards increased levels of examined macro- and microelements in the birds' blood. The research experiment was conducted on 315 turkey hens randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of 45 turkey hens. Group K constituted the control group without experimental additions of the above-mentioned preparations. When it comes to turkey hens which belonged to groups II-IV, Citrosept preparation was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group II - 0.011 ml/kg of bm; Group III - 0.021 ml/kg of bm; Group IV - 0.042 ml/kg bm. For birds which belonged to groups V-VII preparation, which was Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group V - 0.009 ml/kg of bm; Group VI - 0.018 ml/kg of bm, Group VII - 0.036 ml/kg bm. In the examined plant extracts and blood plasma of the birds the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe were identified. The use of examined extracts influenced the changes in the levels of all tested elements in slaughter turkey hens' blood plasma. An upward tendency was recorded which regarded the level of calcium and magnesium, and a downward tendency of sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in relation to the results achieved in the control group.

  11. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Lenz, M.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Winkel, L.H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the averag

  12. Impact of application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on callus induction, plant regeneration, element content and antioxidant enzyme activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharby Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nanomaterials and their potential applications have been given considerable attention by researchers in various fields, especially agricultural biotechnology. However, not much has been done to evaluate the role or effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP in regulating physiological and biochemical processes in response to salt-induced stress. For this purpose, some callus growth traits, plant regeneration rate, mineral element (sodium, potassium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents and changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX in tissues of five tomato cultivars were investigated in a callus culture exposed to elevated concentrations of salt (3.0 and 6.0 g L-1NaCl, and in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 and 30 mg L-1. The relative callus growth rate was inhibited by 3.0 g L-1 NaCl; this was increased dramatically at 6.0 g L-1. Increasing exposure to NaCl was associated with a significantly higher sodium content and SOD and GPX activities. Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1 was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1. This finding indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles should be investigated further as a potential anti-stress agent in crop production. Different tomato cultivars showed different degrees of tolerance to salinity in the presence of ZnO-NP. The cultivars Edkawy, followed by Sandpoint, were less affected by salt stress than the cultivar Anna Aasa.

  13. A 15 000-year record of climate change in northern New Mexico, USA, inferred from isotopic and elemental contents of bog sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Heikoop, J.M.; Fessenden, J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, P.A.; Allen, C.D.; Hess, M.; Larson, T.; Perkins, G.; Rearick, M.

    2010-01-01

    Elemental (C, N, Pb) and isotopic (??13C, ??15N) measurements of cored sediment from a small bog in northern New Mexico reveal changes in climate during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Abrupt increases in Pb concentration and ??13C values ca. 14 420 cal. YBP indicate significant runoff to the shallow lake that existed at that time. Weathering and transport of local volcanic rocks resulted in the delivery of Pb-bearing minerals to the basin, while a 13C-enriched terrestrial vegetation source increased the ??13C values of the sedimentary material. Wet conditions developed over a 300 a period and lasted for a few hundred years. The Younger Dryas period (ca. 12 700-11 500 cal. YBP) caused a reduction in terrestrial productivity reflected in decreasing C/N values, ??15N values consistently greater than 0??? and low organic content. By contrast, aquatic productivity increased during the second half of this period, evidenced by increasing ??13C values at the time of highest abundance of algae. Dry conditions ca. 8 000-6 000 cal. YBP were characterised by low organic carbon content and high Pb concentrations, the latter suggesting enhanced erosion and aeolian transport of volcanic rock. The range in ??13C, ??15N and C/N values in the sedimentary record fall within the range of modern plants, except during the periods of runoff and drought. The sedimentary record provides evidence of natural climate variability in northern New Mexico, including short- (multi-centennial) and long-(millennial) term episodes during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ammonia volatilization from sows on grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S. G.; Søgaard, H. T.; Møller, H. B.; Morsing, S.

    According to regulations, sows with piglets on organic farms must graze on pastures. Volatilization of ammonia (NH 3) from urine patches may represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) loss from these farms. Inputs of N are low on organic farms and losses may reduce crop production. This study examined spatial variations in NH 3 volatilization using a movable dynamic chamber, and the pH and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in the topsoil of pastures with grazing sows was measured during five periods between June 1998 and May 1999. Gross NH 3 volatilization from the pastures was also measured with an atmospheric mass balance technique during seven periods from September 1997 until June 1999. The dynamic chamber study showed a high variation in NH 3 volatilization because of the distribution of urine; losses were between 0 and 2.8 g NH 3-N m -2 day -1. Volatilization was highest near the feeding area and the huts, where the sows tended to urinate. Ammonia volatilization rate was linearly related to the product of NH 3 concentration in the boundary layer and wind speed. The NH 3 in the boundary layer was in equilibrium with NH 3 in soil solution. Gross NH 3 volatilization was in the range 0.07-2.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1 day -1 from a pasture with 24 sows ha -1. Ammonia volatilization was related to the amount of feed given to the sows, incident solar radiation and air temperature during measuring periods, and also to temperature, incident solar radiation and rain 1-2 days before measurements. Annual ammonia loss was 4.8 kg NH 3-N sow -1.

  15. Volatile properties of jet engine combustor particles during the partemis campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyeki, S.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Petzold, A. [Deutsche Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Wilson, C.W.

    2002-03-01

    The influence of fuel sulphur content (FSC) on exhaust particle properties from a jet engine combustor test rig was investigated during the EC PartEmis project. Volatile properties were measured using a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (V-TDMA). Measurements indicated that particles with diameter d <30 nm were more volatile than larger particles. (author)

  16. Influence of parasitism on trace element contents in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and its parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Bejcek, Vladimír; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Sulc, Miloslav; Száková, Jirina; Langrová, Iva

    2010-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in 56 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda) was studied. The levels of heavy metals were determined in the livers and kidneys of the animals depending on parasitism in the following ranges: Pb, 0.029-3.556; Cd, 0.055-9.967; Cr, 0.001-0.304; Cu, 4.15-41.15; Mn, 1.81-19.94; Ni: 0.037-0.831; Zn, 52.0-212.9 microg/g dry weight (dw). Cd in parasites (0.038-3.678 microg/g dw) were comparable with those in the livers of the host and lower than in the kidneys (0.095-6.032 microg/g dw). Contents of Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in cestodes were predominantly higher than those in the kidney and liver of the host. Median lead levels in Mesocestoides spp. (45.6 microg/g dw) were 52-fold higher than in the kidney and liver of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) infected by both parasites and median Pb values in T. leonina (8.98 microg/g dw) were 8-fold higher than in the tissues of the parasitized red fox. Bioaccumulation factors of copper, zinc, nickel, and manganese are lower than those of lead and mostly range from 1.9 to 24 for Mesocestoides spp. and from 1.5 to 6 for nematode T. leonina depending on the tissue of host and element. A significant decrease in the content of Pb was found in the kidney of animals infected by T. leonina (0.260 microg/g dw) as well as those infected by Mesocestoides spp. (0.457 microg/g dw) in comparison with the lead content (0.878 microg/g dw) in the kidneys of the nonparasitized red fox. Regardless of a bioaccumulation of copper and manganese in the parasites, a significant increase of the concentrations of Mn and Cu was observed in the host's livers infected predominantly by Mesocestoides spp.

  17. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong......In this paper, we scrutinize the cross-sectional relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. As a novelty, the idiosyncratic volatility is obtained by conditioning upon macro-Önance factors as well as upon traditional asset pricing factors. The macro-Önance factors are constructed...

  18. [Volatile Oil Analysis of Piper hongkongense form Different Hatbitats by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Xie, Feng-feng; Yan, Ping-hua; Gan, Ri-cheng; Zhu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the volatile oil in Piper hongkongense from five different habitats. The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components oil of each sample varied significantly. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene and nerolidol 2 were common constituents of five samples. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of fresh sample were higher than that of the old sample. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of Piper hongkongense from different habitats have sig- nificant differences, which are affected by habitats, harvest season, storage time and so on.

  19. On guidance and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billings, M.B.; Jennings, R.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Survey evidence suggests that managers voluntarily disclose information, particularly earnings guidance, with an aim toward dampening share price volatility. Yet, consultants and influential institutions advise against providing guidance — citing fears of litigation and market penalties associated w

  20. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    profit on well-developed markets. Dynamic participation features on cross asset portfolios are at rst sight a remedy to that dilemma. Based on volatility thresholds and portfolio re-balancing, the fund engineers try to create a "volatility guaranteed" investment opportunity by surfing on the unusual high...... concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  1. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...... the financial crisis is due to the increase in the volatility of the persistent volatility term. A set of Monte Carlo simulations highlights the robustness of the methodology adopted in tracking the dynamics of the parameters....

  2. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春

    2012-01-01

    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  3. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  4. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Minh, E-mail: minh.vo@metrostate.edu

    2011-09-15

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: > This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. > The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. > The volatility in each market is very persistent. > Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. > The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  5. GC-MS Analysis on the Components of Volatile Oil from Wu MedicineMentha haplocalyx and Measurement of Menthol Contents%吴药薄荷挥发油成分的GC-MS分析与薄荷醇含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝祎玮; 怀悦; 何翠翠

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对苏州市地区5个吴药薄荷药材挥发油成分、含量等相关的研究,为吴门药用植物资源的保护问题提供理论和实验依据.方法 采用水蒸汽蒸馏法进行挥发油的提取,运用GC-MS进行化学成分鉴定及含量测定,计算其相似度.结果 挥发油含量从0.2%至1.7% (mL/g)不等.除一个样品外,其余相似度都较高.结论 苏州地区吴药薄荷其化学成分丰富,薄荷醇含量较高,值得保护与开发.%OBJECTIVE To provide theoretical and experimental basis for protection of the Wu medicinal plant resources on the basis of study into the components and contents of volatile oil from mentha species in Suzhou region. Method Volatile oils were extracted with steam distillation, their chemical components were identified and contents were conducted by GC-MS to analyze their similarity. Result The contents of violate oil from five Mentha Haplocalyx samples varied from 0.2% to 1.7 % (mL/g). 9,8, 16,12 and 9 compounds in the oils were identified respectively. Besides, the menthol contents were determined with naphthol as the internal standard. The method is rapid, accurate and reproducible. With the help of computer aided similarity evaluation system, four samples were found high similarity. Conclusion: Since there are abundant chemical components and high levels of menthol in Mentha haplocalyx in Suzhou region, it is worthy of protection and development.

  6. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  7. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  8. Study of some Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants for the essential trace elemental contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.; Andhele, M.L. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Mumbai, Santacruz, Mumbai (India); Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Radiochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2009-07-01

    Elemental analysis of some medicinal plants used in the Indian Ayurvedic system was performed by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plants samples collected in summer, winter and rainy seasons was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed. (orig.)

  9. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Mohamad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a. The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA, adequate intake (AI and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.

  10. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  11. Comparison of Content of Naringin, Neohesperidin, Total Flavonoid and Volatile Oil in Different Batches of Citrus aurantium and Quality Evaluation%不同批次枳壳中柚皮苷、新橙皮苷、总黄酮、挥发油的含量比较及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元清; 严建业; 师白梅; 李顺祥; 罗堃; 王璐; 黄海卫

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较不同批次枳壳中柚皮苷、新橙皮苷、总黄酮、挥发油的含量,并评价其质量.方法:高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为Diamonsil C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相乙腈-水(20∶ 80)(磷酸调pH至3.0);检测波长283 nm,流速1 mL?min -1,柱温30℃,测定柚皮苷和新橙皮苷;以柚皮苷为对照,采用紫外-可见分光光度法在283 nm处测定总黄酮;采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取测定挥发油含量;以柚皮苷含量、新橙皮苷含量、总黄酮含量、挥发油含量为综合评价指标,采用Topsis法评价其质量.结果:柚皮苷含量范围在0%~6.12%,新橙皮苷含量在0%~4.55%,总黄酮含量在6.96% ~18.99%,挥发油量在0.2% ~2.0% (mL?g-1);17个批次样品质量差异较大.结论:17批次枳壳中柚皮昔、新橙皮苷、总黄酮、挥发油的含量有较大差异;柚皮苷、新橙皮苷含量达到2010年版《中国药典》标准的仅6批,质量评价方法可行.%Objective; To compare the content of naringin, neohesperidin, total flavonoids and volatile oil in different batches of Citrus aurantium and evaluate the quality. Method; The naringin and neohesperidin were detected by HPLC. The analytical column was a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 |xm). A mixture of acetonitrile-water (pH was adjusted to 3. 0 by phosphoric acid) (20: 80) was used as the mobile phase with the flow rate at 1 mL-min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 283 nm. The column temperature was set at 30 ℃. The UV spectrophotometry for the determination of total flavonoids is as follows; detection wavelength was at 283nm, and the reference substance was naringin. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation. Topsis was employed for evaluating quality with the content of naringin, neohesperidin, total flavonoids and volatile oil. Result; The naringin, neohesperidin, total flavonoids and volatile oil were in the ranges of 0%-6. 12% , 0%-4.55%, 6.96%-18.99% and 0. 2%-2. 0

  12. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  13. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  14. The content of elements in rainwater and its relation to the frequency of hospitalization for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia in Opole Voivodship, Poland, during 2000-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyguła, Renata; Bunio, Andrzej; Tubek, Sławomir

    2011-06-01

    Environmental factors play an essential role in the etiology of diseases of the hematopoietic system. Such factors include soil and water pollution and the presence of metals and toxic compounds in the air. Measuring the content of metallic elements in rainwater has become an accepted procedure for environmental pollution monitoring. In accordance with the above, it was decided to study relations between the content of selected elements in rainwater and hospitalization frequency due to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, C91 on ICD-10) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, C92 on ICD-10). It can be assumed that hospitalization frequency is a reliable indicator of exacerbations of these diseases. The annual average of hospitalizations due to a given disease during the years 2000-2002 was correlated with the annual average content of a given element in rainwater using the Spearman's correlation indicator to describe the relationship between the element content and the disease that is possibly a consequence of the element's presence in rainwater. In cases of CLL for all the subjected population and for men, no statistically significant correlations were found. For women, statistically significant correlations were found for chromium (r = 0.66), lead (r = 0.58), copper (r = 0.58), and cadmium (r = 0.51). For CML in all the studied population significant, negative correlations were found for magnesium (r = -0.6) and zinc (r = -0.52). In men, significant negative correlations were seen for magnesium (r = -0.69 and zinc (r = -0.55). No significant correlations were found in women. These results indicate the need of taking into account the environmental and gender factors in research connected with these diseases, which can be probably of help in improvements of therapy efficiency.

  15. Solubility of C-H-O-S Volatiles in Basaltic Melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesne, P.; Scaillet, B.

    2006-05-01

    Arc volcanism is known for his dangerousness because of the high contents H2O, CO2 and S (H2S or SO2 depending on the fO2 of the system). The behaviour of the volatiles C, H, O and S in basaltic melts is poorly known, yet the knowledge of the solubility of these volatiles is critical to understand volcanic degassing. A significant amount of work has been done to define the solubility laws of H2O, CO2 an S in silicic melts. However, such data are still scarce for basaltic liquids. To remedy this gap, we are conducting experiments on basaltic liquids at 1200°C, at pressures varying between 250 and 2000 bar and at high fO2 (NNO+2). Basaltic compositions from Vesuvius, Etna and Stromboli are equilibrated with an H2O+S and H2O+CO2+S rich fluid phase. After rapid quench, contents of H2O and CO2 in glasses are determined by using KFT and near/mid infrared spectroscopic measurements. Major elements and sulphur contents are determined by electron microprobe analyses. Microprobe analyses show that, at near H2O saturation, sulphur contents increase with pressure (from 2500 ppm at 250 bar, to 6700 ppm at 2000 bar for Etna and Stromboli compositions). The melt composition has an influence on the sulphur contents, in particular iron, as shown in previous work, and alkalies. In particular, potassium seems to have a negative role on sulphur: for similar pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and bulk S content, a difference of 3% in alkalinity induces a difference of 1000 to 2000 ppm of S contents. Results for basaltic melts equilibrated with H2O+CO2+S fluid phase will be presented at the meeting. Experimental results on H2O, CO2 and S solubilities in basaltic liquids will constitute a data base for subsequent experiments on degassing processes.

  16. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  17. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  18. Contents evaluation of some essential and toxic elements in children and elders diet by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao do conteudo de alguns elementos essenciais e toxicos em dietas de criancas e idosos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko

    1996-12-31

    Essential and toxic elements in the 19 diet samples from pre-school children and 23 diet samples from elderly people, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed and applied for determining Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, U, Th, W and Zn, based on retention of these elements in a Chelex-100 resin. In the case of As and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide). The contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates were also analysed. The results have been presented and discussed 135 refs., 29 figs., 36 tabs.

  19. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process.......In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  20. Changes in dark chocolate volatiles during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Lia M; Cadwallader, Keith R; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2012-05-09

    Chocolate storage is critical to the quality of the final product. Inadequate storage, especially with temperature fluctuations, may lead to a change in crystal structure, which may eventually cause fat bloom. Bloom is the main cause of quality loss in the chocolate industry. The impact of various storage conditions on the flavor quality of dark chocolate was determined. Dark chocolate was stored in different conditions leading to either fat or sugar bloom and analyzed at 0, 4, and 8 weeks of storage. Changes in chocolate flavor were determined by volatile analysis and descriptive sensory evaluation. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least-squares regression analysis (PLS). Volatile concentration and loss were significantly affected by storage conditions. Chocolates stored at high temperature were the most visually and texturally compromised, but volatile concentrations were affected the least, whereas samples stored at ambient, frozen, and high relative humidity conditions had significant volatile loss during storage. It was determined that high-temperature storage caused a change in crystal state due to the polymorphic shift to form VI, leading to an increase in sample hardness. Decreased solid fat content (SFC) during high-temperature storage increased instrumentally determined volatile retention, although no difference was detected in chocolate flavor during sensory analysis, possibly due to instrumental and sensory sampling techniques. When all instrumental and sensory data had been taken into account, the storage condition that had the least impact on texture, surface roughness, grain size, lipid polymorphism, fat bloom formation, volatile concentrations, and sensory attributes was storage at constant temperature and 75% relative humidity.

  1. [Analysis of volatile composition of different specification of Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ming; Ren, Bin; Guo, Jie-Wen; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Ruo-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    To analyse the volatile compositions of different specification of Panax notoginseng. Volatile compositions from different specification of Panax notoginseng were detected by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction with GC/MS. Terpenoids were the main compositions in different specification of Panax Notoginseng, and a-guaiene was the fundamental ingredient. The type, content and quantity of the compounds were different in different type of Panax notoginseng. Terpenoids were the main pharmacodynamics of the volatile compositions of Panax notoginseng and worthy of further study.

  2. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex...

  3. Stock markets liberalization affects volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Alin NISTOR; Maria-Lenuţa CIUPAC-ULICI; GHERMAN Mircea-Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the impact of liberalization, the results show that, in general, market opening is accompanied by a significant increase in market volatility. In particular, volatility tends to decrease due to large capital inflows and domestic growth.The study analyzes the impact of stock market liberalization on volatility in six emerging stock markets by using GARCH methodology. Theory on the effects of financial liberalization on volatility has been ambiguous, and empirical work has yielded con...

  4. Enhancement of antioxidant properties and increase of content of vitamin D2 and non-volatile components in fresh button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (higher Basidiomycetes) by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu-Yao; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Huang, Shih-Jeng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a popular culinary-medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, and γ-irradiation could extend its shelf life. Our objective was to study the content of vitamin D2 and the taste components and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts from A. bisporus with various doses of γ-irradiation. After irradiation, the vitamin D2 content of 5-10 kGy irradiated mushrooms was in the range of 5.22-7.90 µg/g, higher than that of the unirradiated control (2.24 µg/g). For all treatments, the total content of soluble sugars and polyols ranged from 113 to 142 mg/g, and the monosodium glutamate-like components ranged from 6.57 to 13.50 mg/g, among which the 2.5 kGy irradiated sample has the highest content of flavor 5'-nucleotide. About antioxidant properties, 10 kGy irradiated samples exhibited lower EC50 values than did other samples. EC50 values were less than 5 mg/mL for ethanolic extracts. Total phenols were the major antioxidant components and the total content was 13.24-22.78 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Based on the results obtained, γ-irradiation could be used to improve the vitamin D2 content and intensity of umami taste in fresh mushrooms. In addition, γ-irradiation not only maintained the antioxidant properties of mushrooms but also enhanced the antioxidant properties to some extent.

  5. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  6. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  7. Plant volatiles and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loreto, F.; Dicke, M.; Schnitzler, J.P.; Turlings, T.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted by plants represent the largest part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into our atmosphere. Plant volatiles are formed through many biochemical pathways, constitutively and after stress induction. In recent years, our understanding of the func

  8. Zircon Trace Element Contents and Refined U-Pb Crystallization Ages for the Tatoosh Pluton, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Du Bray, E. A.; John, D. A.; Mazdab, F. K.; Wooden, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    The 7x12 km Tatoosh pluton south of Mount Rainier consists of 4 petrographic/compositional phases, here termed Nisqually, Reflection, Pyramid, and Stevens, that intrude Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary wall and roof rocks; contacts between the 4 intrusive units are rarely exposed. We used the USGS-Stanford SHRIMP- RG to analyze, in a continuous session, zircons from each of 6 quartz monzodiorite (qmd), quartz monzonite (qm), or granodiorite (grd) samples for 206Pb/238U ages and, concurrently, U, Th, Hf, and REE concentrations. A round-robin procedure yielded statistically robust geochronological results. Ages that we reported previously (FM07) were compromised by instrument instability and by calibration differences between analytical sessions. Between 11 and 31 new analyses of zircons from each sample were evaluated using the TuffZirc and Umix Ages routines of Isoplot 3.41 (Ludwig, 2003). TuffZirc solidification ages for the intrusions are: Nisqually grd (Paradise Valley; 65.4% SiO2) 17.29 +0.37/-0.24 Ma, Nisqually grd (Christine Falls; 66.4%) 17.70 +0.30/-0.16 Ma, Reflection qm (Pinnacle Peak trail; 66.6%) 18.38 +0.45/-0.28 Ma, Pyramid qmd (58.5%) 18.58 +0.20/-0.15 Ma, Stevens grd (Stevens Canyon; 67.8%) 19.15 +0.15/-0.12 Ma, and Stevens grd (south of Louise Lake; 69.3%) 19.20 +0.31/-0.26 Ma (U-Th initial-disequilibrium corrected, ±2σ). Precision of the U-Pb data limits rigorous identification of antecrysts to those with ages ~1 Myr > solidification ages. Antecryst ages that produce subsidiary modes in relative probability diagrams for the two Stevens samples give weighted mean values of 20.18 ±0.26 Ma and 20.07 ±0.18 Ma. Wide ranges in trace element concentrations and ratios indicate that many analyzed zircons grew in highly fractionated residual liquids in high-crystallinity environments. Concentrations of Th and U in Tatoosh zircons vary by two orders of magnitude, cores tend to have higher Th, U, and Th/U than rims, and overgrowths that fill reentrants

  9. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... fi…rst order Markov process and show that our model is closely related to the CEV and Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard (2001) models for local volatility. We show that if measurement noise in the observable volatility proxies is not accounted for, then the estimated autoregressive parameter in the latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  10. Quantification of fluorite mass-content in powdered ores using a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy method based on the detection of minor elements and CaF molecular bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, C.; Pisonero, J., E-mail: pisonerojorge@uniovi.es; Bordel, N., E-mail: bordel@uniovi.es

    2014-10-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated as a fast and robust method to determine the fluorite (CaF{sub 2}) mass-content of powdered ore samples. Calibrating samples covering a wide CaF{sub 2} concentration range (from 2.3 to 97.6%) are employed. LIBS operating conditions are optimized for the analysis of elemental emission lines and molecular bands, respectively. In particular, LIBS emission intensities from different CaF molecular bands are evaluated to calibrate the fluorite concentration as an alternative to the use of atomic fluorine F I emission lines. Furthermore, the determination of LIBS emission signals from minor elements (e.g. Si I and Mg I) is studied to further improve the accuracy and precision of pure fluorite sample analyses (e.g. [CaF{sub 2}] > 75%). The proposed LIBS method avoids the tedious dissolution processes that are required by other analytical methods employed in mining industry for the quantitative analysis of fluorite. - Highlights: • Fluorite ore mass-content is determined using a LIBS system. • F I emission line at 685.60 nm is used to calibrate the fluorite mass-content. • CaF emission bands are used to quantify samples with low CaF2 concentrations. • Minor elements are used to quantify samples with high CaF2 concentrations.

  11. 对治疗糖尿病的传统中药中生命元素含量测定初步研究%Content Determination of Life Elements in Traditional Chinese Medicine to Cure Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲玲; 吴红艳; 关艳丽; 李鑫; 宗玉丽; 孟双; 孙玉禄; 孙丽梅; 于广峰

    2011-01-01

    The contents of some elements such as zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, chromium, selenium in several Chinese medicines most in use to treat diabetes were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry.The results showed that these selected Chinese medicines for treating diabetes were rich of life elements in content that closely related to the ailment, and the determined contents of the elements assumed a negative reciprocity with those within the body of diabetes patients.These provided certain information and theoretical foundation to explore the effective mechanism and the preparation technology of Chinese medicine.It may also serve as reference for the treatment of diabetic patients.%利用原子吸收分光光度法对几味治疗糖尿病的常用中药进行锌、镁、铁、铜、铬、硒元素的含量测定.结果表明,实验选取的中药中与糖尿病关系密切的生命元素含量较丰富,且所测元素含量与糖尿病患者体内其含量呈负相关性.为探讨中药的作用机理、中药配制工艺提供一定的信息和理论依据,对于糖尿病患者治疗具有参考价值.

  12. The role of volatiles in the genesis of cenozoic magmatism in Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Bonadiman, Costanza; Ferlito, Carmelo; Zanetti, Alberto; Ottolini, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    This study offers an innovative view of the petrogenetic processes responsible for the magmas erupted in the Western Antarctic Rift System (WARS) by studying the chemical composition and the volatiles content of basic lavas and olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI). Lavas come from three localities: Shield Nunatak (Mt. Melbourne), Eldridge Bluff and Handler Ridge. They are olivine-phyric basanites (42.41-44.80 SiO2 wt%; 3.11-6.19 Na2O+K2O wt%) and basalts (44.91-48.73 SiO2 wt%; 2.81-4.55 Na2O+K2O wt%) with minor clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Samples from Handler Ridge clearly differ by having the highest TiO2 (3.55-3.65 wt%), Rb, Ba, Nb, La, Zr despite their more primitive features (60.83-44.87 Mg#, MgO/(MgO+FeO) %mol). Olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) were analyzed for major element and volatiles (H2O. CO2, S, F, and Cl) after HT (1300°C) and HP (6 kbar) homogenization. Despite a larger variability, MI are compositionally comparable with the host lavas and are characterized by two distinct trends (high-Fe-Ti-K and low-Fe-Ti-K). The H2O content in MI ranges from 0.70 wt% to 2.64 wt% and CO2 from 25 ppm to 341 ppm (H2O/CO2 1). At comparable H2O contents, few samples show a higher CO2 values (1322 ppm to 3905 ppm) with a H2O/CO2 molar ratio down to 0.8. F and Cl content varies from 1386 ppm to 10 ppm and from 1336 ppm to 38 ppm respectively. Concentration of volatiles show a good correlation with alkalies, especially with K2O; Handler Ridge presents the highest total value of F and Cl (2675 ppm). Chondrite-normalized trace elements concentration in MI show an intraplate pattern with negative anomalies in Rb, K, Ti. Accordingly, to the lava contents, MI from Handler Ridge have a significantly higher concentration in Rb (12-45 ppm), Sr (700-834 ppm), Ba (433-554) and Nb (48.8-83.4 ppm) with respect to the other localities at comparable Mg#. Mantle melting mass balance calculations simulate the observed H2O, CO2 and Cl concentration by melting a spinel lhezolite from

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  14. Research on the Effects of the Contents of Radioactive Elements on Granularity and Climate Change: An Example of SZK1 and SZK2 Drill Holes Strata in the Fuzhou Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Rongzhang; Xu Xiwei; Li Jianping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the content of radioactive elements (U, Th, K) of strata in two drill holes in the Fuzhou basin, and combined with the result of spore-pollen analysis, the relationship between radioactivity and lithology and deposit environments is discussed and the results show that the content of radioactive substances is related to the granularity and lithology in sediment, and it is higher in argillaceous sediment (e.g. silt and clay), lower in sand sediment and in the middle in gravels between the above two kinds of sediment. The content of radioactive substances is also related to paleoclimate. A warm and humid environment is propitious to the deposition of radioactive substances, while a cool and dry climate is just the reverse.

  15. Importance of nickel in Fabaceae. Pt. 1. Comparative studies on the content of nickel and certain other elements in vegetative parts and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O.

    1985-02-28

    Vegetative parts and seeds of 15 Fabaceae were analyzed with respect to concentrations of Ni as well as K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. The distribution pattern of the examined elements is different. For the macronutrients and iron mostly a significant higher concentration could be found in the shoot, whilst micronutrients frequently were accumulated in the seed. Nickel is that element, which is accumulated relatively highest in the seed. This is a criterion for a specific importance of nickel, which is a compound of urease and in this function could be involved in the mobilization of nitrogen storage substances of the seed.

  16. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and...

  17. Scaling Foreign Exchange Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Batten; Craig Ellis

    2001-01-01

    When asset returns are normally distributed the risk of an asset over a long return interval may be estimated by scaling the risk from shorter return intervals. While it is well known that asset returns are not normally distributed a key empirical question concerns the effect that scaling the volatility of dependent processes will have on the pricing of related financial assets. This study provides an insight into this issue by investigating the return properties of the most important currenc...

  18. Determination of non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Choi, Tae Bong; Park, Hae-Kyong; Kim, Myunghee; Lee, In Koo; Kim, Jong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Organic acids are formed in food as a result of metabolism of large molecular mass compounds. These organic acids play an important role in the taste and aroma of fermented food products. Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste product that provides a major source of protein. The quantitative data for volatile and non-volatile organic acid contents of 18 samples of Doenjang were determined by comparing the abundances of each peak by gas (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean values of volatile organic acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid), determined in 18 Doenjang samples, were found to be 91.73, 29.54, 70.07 and 19.80 mg%, respectively, whereas the mean values of non-volatile organic acids, such as oxalic acid, citric acid, lactic acid and succinic acid, were noted to be 14.69, 5.56, 9.95 and 0.21 mg%, respectively. Malonic and glutaric acids were absent in all the tested samples of Doenjang. The findings of this study suggest that determination of organic acid contents by GC and HPLC can be considered as an affective approach to evaluate the quality characteristics of fermented food products.

  19. Exploring heterogeneous market hypothesis using realized volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.

  20. Comprehensive analysis for major, minor and trace element contents and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios in sediment reference materials, JSd-1 and MAG-1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Makishima, A.; Noordmann, J.; Tanaka, R.; Nakamura, E.

    In view of the requirement of a well-characterized and easily available aquatic sediment reference material, a comprehensive analysis comprising of fifty major, minor and trace elements as well as Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes were carried out...

  1. YEAR COMPARISON OF CONTENTS OF THE RISK ELEMENTS IN STREAM-SIDE SEDIMENTS IN THE UPPER FLOW OF THE RIVER NITRA

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Stanovič; Július Árvay; Michal Kujovský; Ľuboš Harangozo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was to compare the content of Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co and Hg in Upper Nitra riverside in years 2011 and 2012. The samples of riverside sediments were collected from 9 sites along the upper flow of Nitra river. Distance between the starting site Opatovce upon Nitra and end point site Topoľčany was about 50 km. Risk metals contents in the soil samples were determined and evaluated according Law 220/2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was the used analytical met...

  2. An Intelligent Analysis Model for Multisource Volatile Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the rapidly development of network and distributed computing environment, it make researchers harder to do analysis examines only from one or few pieces of data source in persistent data-oriented approaches, so as the volatile memory analysis either. Therefore, mass data automatically analysis and action modeling needs to be considered for reporting entire network attack process. To model multiple volatile data sources situation can help understand and describe both thinking process of investigator and possible action step for attacker. This paper presents a Game model for multisource volatile data and applies it to main memory images analysis with the definition of space-time feature for volatile element information. Abstract modeling allows the lessons gleaned in performing intelligent analysis, evidence filing and automating presentation. Finally, a test demo based on the model is also present to illustrate the whole procedure

  3. Discrete element modeling modeling of fault mechanics and permeability evolution for gas production and storage: Effect of shale content and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Hoedeman, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of clay in fault zones has a dramatic effect on both fault mechanics and permeability. Quantification of this effect relies on small scale laboratory experiments or indirect observations from hydrocarbon fields, for which systematic variation of clay content, clay distribution, and defo

  4. YEAR COMPARISON OF CONTENTS OF THE RISK ELEMENTS IN STREAM-SIDE SEDIMENTS IN THE UPPER FLOW OF THE RIVER NITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to compare the content of Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co and Hg in Upper Nitra riverside in years 2011 and 2012. The samples of riverside sediments were collected from 9 sites along the upper flow of Nitra river. Distance between the starting site Opatovce upon Nitra and end point site Topoľčany was about 50 km. Risk metals contents in the soil samples were determined and evaluated according Law 220/2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was the used analytical method for heavy metal levels determination. The average values of pH/KCl were 7,32 (2011 and 7,19 (2012, it means 1,8 % decreased value in comparison to 2011. In 2012 the average Cd sediment content was by 6% higher and the Hg content up to three times higher than those in 2011. The improvement of present situation would be to take effective measures such as better cleaning of waste water from the industrial enterprises and urban agglomeration as well as new waste water treatment plants building.

  5. Volatile Concentrations and H-Isotope Composition of Unequilibrated Eucrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Marschall, Horst R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hauri, Erik H.; Righter, Kevin; Berger, Eve L.

    2017-01-01

    Eucrites are among the oldest and best studied asteroidal basalts (1). They represent magmatism that occurred on their parent asteroid, likely 4-Vesta, starting at 4563 Ma and continuing for approx. 30 Myr. Two hypotheses are debated for the genesis of eucrites, a magma ocean model (2), and a mantle partial melting model. In general, volatiles (H, C, F, Cl) have been ignored for eucrites and 4-Vesta, but solubility of wt% levels of H2O are possible at Vestan interior PT conditions. Targeted measurements on samples could aid our understanding considerably. Recent studies have found evidence of volatile elements in eucrites, but quantifying the abundance of volatiles remains problematic (6). Volatile elements have a disproportionately large effect on melt properties and phase stability, relative to their low abundance. The source of volatile elements can be elucidated by examining the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H), as different H reservoirs have drastically different H isotope compositions. Recent studies of apatite in eucrites have shown that the D/H of 4-Vesta matches that of Earth and carbonaceous chondrites, however, the D/H of apatites may not represent the D/H of a primitive 4-Vesta melt due to the possibility of degassing prior to the crystallization of apatite. Therefore, the D/H of early crystallizing phases must be measured to determine if the D/H of 4-Vesta is equal to that of the Earth and carbonaceous chondrites.

  6. A study on the radiometric method for evaluating element migration from plastic packagings to its contents; Estudo do metodo radiometrico para avaliacao da migracao de elementos de embalagens plasticas para o seu conteudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez

    2008-07-01

    migration detection limits were determined. Results from the analyses of the neutron irradiated plastic packagings by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that in high density polyethylene packagings oxidative degradation can occur. Among the main advantages of the radiometric method application for element migration evaluation are its simplicity, no need of blank analysis and the possibility to obtain element migration to the food itself. The results obtained indicated the potentiality of using this method in the element migration evaluation from the plastic packagings to their contents. (author)

  7. Determination of protein content in powder food based on organic elemental analysis%基于有机元素分析的粉状食品中蛋白质含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟虹敏; 张华; 孙玉明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of protein content in food based on ele-mental analysis. Methods Protein contents of 16 kinds of powder food were determined by both elemental analysis and Kjeldahl’s method. Results based on two different methods were compared. Results The ele-mental analysis method could determine the protein content correctly, with good repeatability and accuracy, achieving comparable results to Kjeldahl’s method. The elemental analysis method showed more advantages such as little need of sample amount, simple experimental operation, high detecting efficiency and automaticity. Conclusion The elemental analysis method can be used to replace Kjeldahl’ s method for the determination of protein content in powder food.%  目的建立基于有机元素分析的粉状食品中蛋白质含量的测定方法。方法采用 VarioEL III型元素分析仪对16种粉状食品中蛋白质含量进行测定,并与传统经典蛋白质测定方法——凯氏定氮法进行比较。结果元素分析法可准确测定样品中蛋白质含量,方法重复性和准确度均很好,与凯氏定氮法相比,测定结果相近,并且具有相当的测量精度,且有操作简单、无需复杂样品前处理、无溶剂和污染、样品需求量少、分析速度快、自动化程度高等优点。结论元素分析法可作为凯氏定氮法的替代和补充方法,用于粉状食品中蛋白质含量的测定。

  8. The Measurement of Heavy Metal Element Content of Zn, Hg, Cu in Fruits and Vegetables Soil%果蔬土壤中重金属元素Zn, Hg, Cu含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒文; 董会平

    2015-01-01

    以甘肃省天水市麦积区花牛镇花牛村苹果种植地区土壤为研究对象采用火焰原子吸收光谱仪对土壤中的重金属元素Zn, Hg, Cu的含量进行了测定,各重金属元素的平均含量分别为: Zn的平均含量为26.27 mg/kg、 Hg的平均含量为0.617 mg/kg、 Cu的平均含量为11.67 mg/kg。结果表明,该地区的土壤可以安全的进行农业生产,土壤中的重金属不会通过食物链的作用对人类健康形成威胁和危害。%The soil of apple planting area in Tianshui, Gansu Province michael plot Huaniu town village as the research object, the content of heavy metal element Zn, Hg, Cu in soil was determined by air-acetylene flame FAAS.The average contents of all kinds of heavy metal elements were:the average content of zinc was 26.27 mg/kg, the average content of mercury was 0.617 mg/kg, the average content of coppe was 11.67 mg/kg. The results showed that the region's soil could be safe for agricultural production, heavy metals in the soil didn't threat and harm to human health through the food chain.

  9. Search for a meteoritic component in drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Platinum group element contents and osmium isotopic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Iain; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Coney, Louise; Ferrière, Ludovic; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian

    An attempt was made to detect a meteoritic component in both crater-fill (fallback) impact breccias and fallout suevites (outside the crater rim) at the Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana. Thus far, the only clear indication for an extraterrestrial component related to this structure has been the discovery of a meteoritic signature in Ivory Coast tektites, which formed during the Bosumtwi impact event. Earlier work at Bosumtwi indicated unusually high levels of elements that are commonly used for the identification of meteoritic contamination (i.e., siderophile elements, including the platinum group elements [PGE]) in both target rocks and impact breccias from surface exposures around the crater structure, which does not allow unambiguous verification of an extraterrestrial signature. The present work, involving PGE abundance determinations and Os isotope measurements on drill core samples from inside and outside the crater rim, arrives at the same conclusion. Despite the potential of the Os isotope system to detect even small amounts of extraterrestrial contribution, the wide range in PGE concentrations and Os isotope composition observed in the target rocks makes the interpretation of unradiogenic, high-concentration samples as an impact signature ambiguous.

  10. Evaluation of tissue metal and trace element content in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease using ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to assess the level of metals and trace elements in liver, serum, and hair of rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (ICP-DRC-MS). 56 female 3-months-old Wistar rats divided into two equal groups were fed either standard (10% calories from fat) or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (60% calories from fat in chow and 10% sucrose solution) for 6 weeks. Serum was examined for insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Liver histology was assessed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Metal and trace element concentrations were assessed by means of ICP-DRC-MS. Overfed animals were characterized by higher values of morphometric parameters. Liver examination revealed large and small droplet steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and necrosis, being characteristic for NAFLD. Animals with NAFLD were characterized by insulin resistance, atherogenic changes of lipid profile and increased ALT activity. Significantly decreased hepatic Co, Cu, I, Li, Mn, Se, Zn levels were observed in rats with NAFLD. At the same time, only hepatic Mn and Se levels remained decreased after adjustment for total protein. Overfed animals were characterized by significantly lower I, Li, and Mn levels in blood serum, whereas concentration of Co, Se, V, and Sr exceeded the control values. In general, the results of the study demonstrate that NAFLD significantly affects metal and trace element status in experimental animals.

  11. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  12. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  13. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  14. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water. The amounts of char (organic fraction and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis and high

  15. A Method for Software Requirement Volatility Analysis Using QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarso Anang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes of software requirements are inevitable during the development life cycle. Rather than avoiding the circumstance, it is easier to just accept it and find a way to anticipate those changes. This paper proposes a method to analyze the volatility of requirement by using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method and the introduced degree of volatility. Customer requirements are deployed to software functions and subsequently to architectural design elements. And then, after determining the potential for changes of the design elements, the degree of volatility of the software requirements is calculated. In this paper the method is described using a flow diagram and illustrated using a simple example, and is evaluated using a case study.

  16. SNC meteorites and their implications for reservoirs of Martian volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The SNC meteorites and the measurements of the Viking landers provide our only direct information about the abundance and isotopic composition of Martian volatiles. Indirect measurements include spectroscopic determinations of the D/H ratio of the Martian atmosphere. A personal view of volatile element reservoirs on Mars is presented, largely as inferred from the meteoritic evidence. This view is that the Martian mantle has had several opportunities for dehydration and is most likely dry, although not completely degassed. Consequently, the water contained in SNC meteorites was most likely incorporated during ascent through the crust. Thus, it is possible that water can be decoupled from other volatile/incompatible elements, making the SNC meteorites suspect as indicators of water inventories on Mars.

  17. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  18. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate d...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  19. 白背飞虱体内金属元素的含量动态及模拟分析%Dynamics and simulation modeling of the content of metal elements in Sogatella furcifera Horváth ( Homoptera, Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时嵩; 唐启义; 傅强; 彭奇; 程家安

    2011-01-01

    为明确金属元素在白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)体内的分布及其含量动态,将白背飞虱长翅成虫在实验室中用超纯水分别饲养0,24,48,96 h后测量其体重变化;并用电感耦合等离子体质谱(inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,ICP-MS)检测各个处理虫体内12种金属元素(Cu,Zn,Cd,Mn,Ca,Fe,Na,As,U,Mg,K和Pb)的含量.以白背飞虱整个体重(W)、有机体组织重量(O)、体内可排泄内容物重量(E)及可排泄内容物排出体外的速率(r)为参数,构建其体重变化的修正指数模型Wt=O+E(1-r)t.基于白背飞虱体内金属元素总含量(WCt)为有机体组织内含量(OC)和可排泄内容物中含量(EC)按两者百分率(OPt和EPt)加权之和,即WCt=OC·OPt+EC·EPt,分别估计白背飞虱体内组织和可排泄内容物中金属元素含量.模拟分析结果表明:Cu,Zn,Cd,Mn和Ca这5种元素在白背飞虱组织内的含量显著高于其可排泄内容物中的含量(P<0.05),表明这些金属元素可被昆虫有机体组织吸收、积累,并稳定地存在于昆虫的有机体组织之中.Fe,Na,As,U,Mg,K和Pb这7种元素在白背飞虱有机体组织内的含量与其可排泄内容物中的含量接近,其在有机体组织中和可排泄内容物中的分布差异不显著(P>0.05),以相对平衡状态存在于白背飞虱有机体组织和可排泄内容物中.该分析方法可能为其他小型和微型昆虫体内金属元素的分布、积累、排泄的研究提供借鉴.%To determine the distribution and dynamic excretion of metal elements, the test insects, adults of the Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) were subjected to feeding on deionized water for 0 h, 24 h, 48 h,and 96 h, respectively.The body weight changes were measured and the contents of twelve metal elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ca, Fe, Na, As, U, Mg, K and Pb) in S.furcifera were detected using ICP-MS technique.At the same time, we denote the entire body weight, the organic tissue weight, the

  20. Leaf and root volatiles produced by tissue cultures of Alpinia zerumbet (pers. Burtt & Smith under the influence of different plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles produced by plantlets of Alpinia zerumbet were obtained by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE. The effects of indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, thidiazuron and 6-benzylaminopurine on leaf and root volatile composition obtained by tissue cultures were investigated. A higher content of b-pinene and a lower content of sabinene were observed in leaf volatile of plantlets cultured in control, IAA and IAA+ TDZ media, as compared with those of donor plants. In vitro conditions were favorable to increase caryophyllene content. Volatile compounds from the root were characterized mainly by camphene, fenchyl-acetate and bornyl acetate; which constitute about 60% of total volatile.

  1. A preliminary study of the effect of phytoadditive carvacrol on the trace elements (Cu, Mn and Zn content in fish tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU YILMAZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoadditives have gained increasing interest as feed additives for fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether selected dietary phytoadditive can influence the bioavailability of several trace elements (Cu, Mn and Zn, which play an important role in the physiological processes. The experiments were carried out at a commercial trout farm. A total of 420 juvenile rainbow trout (mean weight ± SD = 10.79±0.57, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were randomly allocated into four different treatments with three replicates each. Fish were kept in raceways (3X0.8X0.4 m at 10±1°C with a natural photoperiod. Proper amount of carvacrol was sprayed on 1 kg of commercial trout diet to prepare four diets with 0 (Control, C0, 1 (C1, 3 (C3 and 5 (C5 carvacrol g/kg diet. Fish were fed to apparent satiation three times per day. The feeding trial lasted four weeks. Then, in different type of fish tissues (muscle, liver and pyloric caeca from fish fed with diets enriched in carvacrol, beneficial elements (Cu, Mn and Zn were analysed by atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the levels of Cu, Zn and Mn were especially significantly increase by C1 diet in all tissues (muscle, liver and pyloric caeca except muscle and pyloric caeca Zn. The results of this experiment indicate that the carvacrol had the ability to potentiate the trace element retention. Although bioaccumulations of Cu, Zn and Mn in the muscle, liver and pyloric caeca are well demonstrated, the exact mechanisms of phytoadditives are still only partially understood. More investigations are required to detail the mechanisms involved in phytoadditives this enhancement.

  2. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-01

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) & 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) &29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  3. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Majid, Amran Ab., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Sarmani, Sukiman, E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  4. 根区温度对水培生菜生长和矿质元素含量的影响%Effects of root zone temperature on the growth and mineral elements content of hydroponically-grown lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润儒; 朱月林; 高垣美智子; 矢守航; 杨立飞

    2015-01-01

    The plant growth and mineral elements content were studied in hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)under five different root zone temperatures.The results showed that with the increase of root zone temperature,the lettuce yield per plant increased first and then decreased,reaching the maximum value at 25 ℃,and the dry matter content was the highest.Effects of root zone temperature on lettuce leaf net photosyn-thetic rate and the content of mineral elements were similar to the yield.Under the treatment of 35 ℃ root zone temperature,the lettuce growth and mineral elements accumulation were significantly inhibited,and the nitrate content decreased significantly.The results indicated that the most suitable root zone temperature was 25 ℃ for the growth and mineral elements absorption of hydroponically-grown lettuce.%在水培条件下,研究了5个根区温度对生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)生长和矿质元素含量的影响。结果表明:随着根区温度的升高,生菜单株产量呈先增加后减少的趋势,在25℃时达到最大值,且干物质含量最高;根区温度对生菜叶片净光合速率和矿质元素含量的影响与对产量的影响相似,即在25℃时达到最大值。35℃根区温度处理下,根叶生长和地上部矿质元素的积累受到严重阻碍,生菜叶片硝酸盐含量显著下降。在5个根区温度处理中,25℃对水培生菜的生长及矿质元素的吸收最为适宜。

  5. Self-assembled three-dimensional non-volatile memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels; Berenschot, Erwin; Elwenspoek, Miko

    2010-01-01

    The continuous increase in capacity of non-volatile data storage systems will lead to bit densities of one bit per atom in 2020. Beyond this point, capacity can be increased by moving into the third dimension. We propose to use self-assembly of nanosized elements, either as a loosely organised assoc

  6. Of the necessity of knowledge of the natural pedo-geochemical background content in the evaluation of the contamination of soils by trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, D; Sterckeman, T

    2001-01-08

    In order to evaluate the contamination of the Dornach (Switzerland) site within the framework of the CEEM-Soil project, each participating team was allowed to take a maximum of 15 samples. The French team's sampling was organized in such a way as to answer the following questions: (i) what is the natural concentration of the soils at this site (local pedo-geochemical background content)?; (ii) what are the levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn contamination of the soil?; (iii) what is the depth reached by the surface contamination that is derived from atmospheric fallout?; (iv) how is the contamination spread along the longest axis of the area under study? The relationships between total Fe and the trace metals have allowed local variations in the natural pedo-geochemical background content to be detected and thus permitted the anthropogenic contamination to be estimated. There would appear to be a low level of Pb contamination over all the site investigated (an increase of the order of 5-10 mg kg(-1) on the background level), limited to the surface humus-bearing layers. There is also a significant contamination by Cu over all of the site (an increase of the order of 30-40 mg kg(-1)). This contamination has remained in the surface horizons (0-20 cm). Very high Zn and Cd concentrations have been found in the four surface (0-4 cm) and deep horizons (15-70 cm) taken under the forest and very much lower values in the samples taken from cultivated soils. The most likely explanation is an unequal inheritance between the upper part of the site (wooded with thinner very clayey soils) and the lower cultivated part of the site (with thicker less clayey soils developed in a loamy material). For various reasons, it seems unlikely that a contamination of the wooded part should be so much higher than the cultivated part due to the interception of atmospheric dust by the trees. The local pedo-geochemical background Cd and Zn content of the upper wooded part proved to be clearly higher than

  7. Effects of Feeding Systems on Meat Nutrient Contents, Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Compounds of Tibetan Pigs in Gannan Prefecture%饲养方式对甘南州藏猪肉营养成分、脂肪酸组成及挥发性化合物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志昶; 李永鹏; 韩玲

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different feeding systems on meat nutrient contents, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of Tibetan pigs from Gannan prefecture. Forty eight pigs were randomly assigned to four diets: pasture grazing group ( group Ⅰ ), basal diet group ( group Ⅱ ),basal diet with sunflower seed oil group ( group Ⅲ ) and basal diet with fish oil group ( group Ⅳ ). Nutrient contents, fatty acid compositions and volatile compounds were determined after slaughter after feeding 6 months. The results showed as follows: 1 ) compared with group Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, the CP content of group Ⅰ was decreased significantly ( P < 0.05 ), however, the moisture content was increased significantly ( P <0.05 ), and the ash and mineral contents had no significant difference (P >0.05 ). 2 )The C18:2n-6 content of group Ⅰ was significantly higher than that of group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ (P <0.01 ), but the C18:3n-3 content of group Ⅰ was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ and group Ⅰ ( P < 0.01 ), the P/S ratio of group Ⅲwas significantly higher than that of other groups ( P <0.01 ), and the n-3 fatty acid contents of group Ⅳ was significantly higher than that of group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ ( P <0.01 ). 3) The hydrocarbon content of group Ⅰ was significantly higher than that of other groups ( P < 0.05), aldehyde and sulphocompound of group Ⅰ was significantly lower than that of other groups (P <0.01 ), but the alcohol, ketone and acid showed no significant difference ( P > 0.05 ). These results indicate that pasture grazing has significant effects on nutrient contents of pork from Tibetan pig, but adding oil in basal diet has no significant difference. Different feeding modus can change the fatty acid compositions of pork from Tibetan pig, as well as the proportion of volatile compounds. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011,23 ( 4 ): 686-694 ]%本文旨在研究不同饲养方式对甘

  8. Volatile signals during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Scents play a key role in mediating reproductive interactions in many vertebrates including mammals. Nowadays, several studies indicate that humans seem to use remarkably olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive pheromones. Furthermore, over the past several years, it became increasingly clear that pheromone-like chemical signals probably play a role in offspring identification and mother recognition. Recently developed technical procedures (solid-phase microextraction and dynamic headspace extraction) now allow investigators to characterize volatile compounds with high reliability. We analyzed the volatile compounds in sweat patch samples collected from the para-axillary and nipple-areola regions of women during pregnancy and after childbirth. We hypothesized that, at the time of birth and during the first weeks of life, the distinctive olfactory pattern of the para-axillary area is probably useful to newborn babies for recognizing and distinguishing their own mother, whereas the characteristic pattern of the nipple-areola region is probably useful as a guide to nourishment.

  9. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  10. 某牧区乳酪制作中乳清的氨基酸组成及其有害元素分析%Analysis on amino acid contents and harmful elements in cheese whey in a pastoral area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 贾继民; 阿布力米提·伊力; 张建江; 马永红; 张华; 宋远新

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To determine the amino acid contents and harmful elements in cheese whey in a pastoral area. [Methods] The contents of amino acid, arsenic, mercury and lead were determined by liquid chromatography and atomic fluorescence spectrometer, and the amino acid contents in whey of this pastoral area was compared with that in human milk. [Results]The cheese whey of this pastoral area contained all the amino acid, and the content of aspartic acid was the highest {16. 67% ) , followed by glutamate (14.7% ) and serine (9.1% ). There was significant different in contents of amino acid between the cheese whey and human milk (P<0.05). The harmful elements (arsenic, mercury and lead) have not been found. [Conclusion]The cheese whey of this pastoral area contains all the amino acid, and its amino acid composition is similar to human milk. The harmful elements have not been found.%目的 测定新疆某牧区乳酪制作中乳清的氨基酸组成及有害元素.方法 采用液相色谱仪、原子荧光光度计分别测定氨基酸、砷、汞、铅含量,并将该牧区的乳清中氨基酸含量与人乳进行了比较.结果 该牧区乳酪制作中乳清氨基酸种类齐全,天冬氨酸的含量最高(16.67%),其次为谷氨酸(14.7%)、丝氨酸(9.1%),乳清中氨基酸含量与人乳有较大的差异,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).砷、汞、铅3种有害元素均未检出.结论 该牧区乳酪制作中乳清氨基酸种类齐全,与人乳氨基酸组成上有许多相似性,有害元素均未检出.

  11. Changes in volatiles and glycosides during fruit maturation of two contrasted tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtić, Simona; Ginies, Christian; Causse, Mathilde; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2009-01-28

    The relationship between fruit maturation and volatile contents was investigated in two contrasted Cervil (CER) and Levovil (LEV) tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) lines. As fruits ripened, their volatile contents mainly increased. Although some compounds displayed contrasting patterns, overall, volatiles were clearly more abundant and conferred stronger aromas to CER than to LEV fruits. This intervarietal difference in volatile contents yielding much lower volatile contents in LEV was further investigated to determine whether it is due to a higher capacity of volatile glycosylation within LEV as compared to CER. Again, glycosides mainly increased during fruit maturation and were more abundant within CER than within LEV. Overall glycoside findings were indicative of a superior capacity to biosynthesize rather than an inferior capacity to glycosylate volatiles of CER. Eugenol and 2-methoxyphenol volatiles were exceptional compounds as they remained at higher levels in maturing LEV than in CER. 2-Methylthioacetaldehyde was for the first time identified as putatively related to differences of aroma between lines, as it was abundant in Cervil but absent in Levovil. Considering the described odor value of these three products, they should contribute differently to the particular olfactive features of LEV and CER fruits.

  12. Immobilization of trace elements in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash by producing calcium sulphoaluminate cement after carbonation and washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Jamro, Imtiaz Ali; Chen, Qi; Li, Shaobai; Luan, Jingde; Yang, Tianhua

    2016-03-01

    The possibility of producing calcium sulphoaluminate cement (CSA) by adding municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash to raw meal was investigated. After subjecting MSWI fly ash to accelerated carbonation and washing with water (ACW), various amounts (i.e., 5, 10 and 15 wt%) of the treated ash were added to raw meal composed of a mixture of bauxite, limestone and gypsum. The mixtures were sintered in a laboratory-scale muffle furnace at temperatures of 1250°, 1300°, 1325° and 1350 °C for various durations. The influence of different quantities of MSWI fly ash on the mineralogy, major phase composition and strength development of the resulting clinker was studied, as was the effect of ash treatments on leaching and volatilization of trace elements. The ACW treatment reduced the volatilization ratio of trace elements during the clinkerization process. Volatilization ratios for lead, cadmium and zinc were 21.5%, 33.6% and 16.3%, respectively, from the ACW fly ash treatment, compared with ratios of 97.5%, 93.1% and 85.2% from untreated fly ash. The volatilization ratios of trace elements were ordered as follows: untreated fly ash > carbonated fly ash > carbonated and water-washed fly ash. The ACW process also reduced the chloride content in the MSWI fly ash by 90 wt% and prevented high concentrations of trace elements in the effluents.

  13. Effect of Se treatment on the volatile compounds in broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiayu; Wu, Jie; Zuo, Jinhua; Fan, Linlin; Shi, Junyan; Gao, Lipu; Li, Miao; Wang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive compounds but deteriorates and senesces easily. In the present study, freshly harvested broccoli was treated with selenite and stored at two different temperatures. The effect of selenite treatment on sensory quality and postharvest physiology were analyzed. Volatile components were assessed by HS-SPME combined with GC-MS and EN. The metabolism of Se and S was also examined. Results indicated that Se treatment had a significant effect on maintaining the sensory quality, suppressing the respiration intensity and ethylene production, as well as increasing the content of Se and decreasing the content of S. In particular, significant differences in the composition of volatile compounds were present between control and Se-treated. The differences were mainly due to differences in alcohols and sulfide compounds. These results demonstrate that Se treatment can have a positive effect on maintaining quality and enhancing its sensory quality through the release of volatile compounds.

  14. Titanium Dioxide Volatility in High Temperature Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, QynhGiao N.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) containing materials are of high interest to the aerospace industry due to its high temperature capability, strength, and light weight. As with most metals an exterior oxide layer naturally exists in environments that contain oxygen (i.e. air). At high temperatures, water vapor plays a key role in the volatility of materials including oxide surfaces. This study will evaluate cold pressed titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder pellets at a temperature range of 1400 C - 1200 C in water containing environments to determine the volatile hydroxyl species using the transpiration method. The water content ranged from 0-76 mole% and the oxygen content range was 0-100 mole % during the 20-250 hour exposure times. Preliminary results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor at these temperatures and the following reaction is the primary volatile equation for all three temperatures: TiO2 (s) + H2O (g) = TiO(OH)2 (g).

  15. Human transcription factor genes involved in neuronal development tend to have high GC content and CpG elements in the proximal promoter region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Sheng Long; Jia-Ming Qin; Tao Su; Qi-Hua Zhao; Yong-Hong Yi; Wei-Ping Liao

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in the development of the nervous system, but the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of these genes are poorly understood. Here we analyzed 5-kb of the 5' flanking genomic DNA sequences of 41 TF genes involved in neuronal development. The results showed that the TF genes tend to have higher GC contents in the proximal region and most of the TF genes have at least one proximal GC-rich (GC content > 60%) promoter with a CpG island. The promoter distribution analysis showed that the GC-poor promoters were sporadically distributed within the 5-kb flanking genomic sequence (FGS); however, more than half (37 of 70) of the GC-rich promoters were located in the proximal region between nucleotides -1 and -500. Luciferase assays showed that partial GC-rich promoters increased gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells and that CpG methylation repressed the promoter activity. This study suggests a potential general mechanism for regulation of TF expression.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility, chemical element content and morphology of magnetic mineral in surface sediment of Kamp Walker and Hubay rivers as an inlet of Sentani lake, Papua-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulaikah, Siti; Sisinggih, Dian; Bungkang, Yusuf; Dani, Zem; Ong, Mahfud David

    2017-07-01

    As an inlet of Sentani lake, Kamp Walker and Hubay rivers have a different environment characteristic, i.e. Kamp Walker has a proximate inhabitant, while Hubay has a relatively more natural environment. In this study, we conduct measurement of magnetic susceptibility, Fe content and morphology of magnetic mineral extracted from the two rivers surface sediment. The magnetic susceptibility of low frequency (χlf) of sediment samples from the two rivers are varies from 11.11 × 10-6 kg/m3 to 24.96 10-6 kg/m3 for Kamp Walker with dependence frequency susceptibility (χfd) from 0.031% to 0.367%. Meanwhile, for HubayRivers we find the χlf varies from 4.56 × 10-6 kg/m3 to 16.93 × 10-6 kg/m3 and χfd from 0.104% to 1.033%. Fe content of the sample from the two river are also has a different average i.e around 60% for Hubay and 50% for Kamp Walker, that may because of the source of magnetic minerals on sediment are mainly a lithogenic magnetic mineral in Hubay, and anthropogenic magnetic mineral in Kamp Walker. The morphology of magnetic mineral, based on the SEM image shows a rounded and crystalline shape.

  17. Initial H2O content and conditions of parent magma origin for Gorely volcano (Southern Kamchatka) estimated by trace element thermobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, D. P.; Portnyagin, M. V.; Krasheninnikov, S. P.; Mironov, N. L.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The formation conditions of the parental magmas of Gorely volcano, which is located behind a volcanic front in Southern Kamchatka, have been evaluated using the modern methods of micro-element thermobarometry. These magmas contained 1.7 ± 0.8 (2σ) wt % of H2O, the majority (82%) of which has been lost from inclusions. They crystallized at 1121 ± 17°C and an oxygen fugacity of ΔQFM 1.2 ± 0.2, and could have been produced by about 11% melting of an enriched MORB source (E-DMM) at a temperature of about 1270°C, and a pressure of about 1.5 GPa. A distinctive feature of Gorely volcano, compared with frontal volcanoes of Kamchatka, is the unusually high temperature (925 ± 20°C) of formation of the subduction component corresponding to the region of existence of water-bearing melts.

  18. Evolution of nutrients element content in soils dedicated to onion crop Evolución del contenido de elementos nutrientes en suelos cultivados con cebolla de bulbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Sonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the evolution of nutrient content in soils dedicated to commercial onion crop (Allium. cepa in the municipality of Tibasosa, Boyacá,Colombia, in a Sulfic endoaquepts soil, three treatments established: Without fertilization (T1, conventional fertilization used in the area (T2 and fertilization according to analysis of soils (T3. Samples were collected for analysis 20 days before plantation and 45, 90 and 120 days after sowing. The of contents macroelements showed the following order N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P and those of micronutrients, Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B. There were positive interactions among N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn and Cu/Mn and negative interactions among N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn and Zn/Mn affecting their concentration and availability. The results evidence that a balanced content of nutrients can increase the yield. Key words: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertility.El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la evolución del contenido de nutrientes en suelos destinados al cultivo comercial de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa en el municipio de Tibasosa, Boyacá. En un suelo sulfic endoaquepts se establecieron tres tratamientos: Sin fertilización (T1, con fertilización convencional de la zona (T2 y fertilización con base en el análisis de suelos (T3. Se recolectaron muestras para análisis 20 días antes de la siembra y a los 45, 90 y 120 días después de la siembra (DDS. Los contenidos de macroelementos se presentaron en el orden N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P y los de micronutrientes Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B existiendo interacciones positivas entre N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn y Cu/Mn y negativas entre N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn y Zn/Mn afectando su concentración y disponibilidad. Los análisis permitieron inducir que un contenido adecuado de nutrientes incrementa el rendimiento en la zona. Palabras claves: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertilidad.

  19. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  20. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  1. 高光谱成像技术快速检测生物质秸秆元素含量%Rapid detection of element content in straw biomass using hyperspectral imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛智有; 李晓金; 高海龙

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨生物质秸秆元素含量的快速检测方法,该文运用高光谱成像技术,结合多种数据优选方法对生物质秸秆中N、C、H、S、O元素含量快速检测的可行性进行研究。选取玉米、水稻、小麦、油菜4种类别共计188个秸秆样本,采集其反射高光谱图像,并测定元素含量。采用竞争性自适应重加权采样(competitive adaptive reweighted sampling,CARS)算法选取元素检测敏感变量,提取光谱维数据,结合偏最小二乘(partial least squares, PLS)算法,建立了基于高光谱光谱维数据的元素定量分析模型,N元素采用24个变量建立模型,验证集相关系数为0.923,均方根误差(root mean square error of validation set,RMSEP)为0.196%,相对分析误差(relative analysis error,RPD)为3.11;O元素仅采用10个光谱变量建立模型,验证集相关系数为0.876,均方根误差为1.015%,相对分析误差为2.32,N、O元素的模型可以用于实际应用;C、H、S元素相验证集相关系数均小于0.80,无法实际应用分析。采用独立成分分析(independent component analysis,ICA)算法结合权重系数法,提取IC1-IC5分析图像中特征光谱波段为572.09、643.69、685.14、766.79、819.55、964.01 nm,用6个特征光谱变量建立基于高光谱图像维数据的秸秆元素定量分析模型,N、C、H、S和O 5种元素无法用于实际检测。研究结果表明,采用高光谱成像技术并应用光谱维数据结合CARS-PLS算法可以实现秸秆N、O元素的有效检测。%In order to explore the content of element method for rapid detection of straw biomass, this paper has used the hyperspectral imaging technology, combined with a variety of methods for data optimization, to study the feasibility of fast detection on elements of N, C, H, S and O of straw biomass. Sample selection includes four categories (rice, wheat, canola and corn) totaling 188

  2. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    A commercial production was analysed at six stages during ripening. Water content, pH and bacterial counts were followed, and volatile compounds from sausages were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of all classes inc...

  3. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.;

    2001-01-01

    A commercial production was analysed at six stages during ripening. Water content, pH and bacterial counts were followed, and volatile compounds from sausages were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of all classes...

  4. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  5. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  6. Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Briere, Marie; Burgues, Alexandre; Signori, Ombretta

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the advantages of incorporating strategic exposure to equity volatility into the investment opportunity set of a long-term equity investor. They consider two standard volatility investments: implied volatility and volatility risk premium strategies. An analytical framework, which offers pragmatic solutions for long-term investors who seek exposure to volatility, is used to calibrate and assess the risk-return profiles of portfolios. The benefit of volatility exposure for a...