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Sample records for volatile element contents

  1. A history of violence: Insights into post-accretionary heating in carbonaceous chondrites from volatile element abundances, Zn isotopes and water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Pringle, Emily A.; Siebert, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may have been the carriers of water, volatile and moderately volatile elements to Earth. Investigating the abundances of these elements, their relative volatility, and isotopes of state-change tracer elements such as Zn, and linking these observations to water contents, provide vital information on the processes that govern the abundances and isotopic signatures of these species in CCs and other planetary bodies. Here we report Zn isotopic data for 28 CCs (20 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), as well as trace element data for Zn, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi in 16 samples (8 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), that display a range of elemental abundances from case-normative to intensely depleted. We use these data, water content data from literature and Zn isotopes to investigate volatile depletions and to discern between closed and open system heating. Trace element data have been used to construct relative volatility scales among the elements for the CM and CR chondrites. From least volatile to most, the scale in CM chondrites is Pb-Sn-Bi-In-Zn-Tl, and for CR chondrites it is Tl-Zn-Sn-Pb-Bi-In. These observations suggest that heated CM and CR chondrites underwent volatile loss under different conditions to one another and to that of the solar nebula, e.g. differing oxygen fugacities. Furthermore, the most water and volatile depleted samples are highly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Zn. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly indicate that heated CM and CR chondrites incurred open system heating, stripping them of water and volatiles concomitantly, during post-accretionary shock impact(s).

  2. Elemental volatility of HT-9 fusion reactor alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henslee, S.P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of elemental constituents from HT-9, a ferritic steel, proposed for fusion reactor structures, was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 800 to 1200 0 C for durations of 1 to 20 h. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy; molybdenum, manganese, and nickel were the primary constituents volatilized. Comparisons with elemental volatilities observed for another candidate fusion reactor materials. Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA), an austenitic stainless steel, indicate significant differences between the volatilities of these steels that may impact fusion reactor safety analysis and alloy selection. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry were used to investigate the oxide layers formed on HT-9 and to measure elemental contents within these layers

  3. Siderophile Volatile Element Partitioning during Core Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroch, D. C.; Hackler, S.; Rohrbach, A.; Klemme, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the nineteen sixties it is known, that the Earth's mantle is depleted relative to CI chondrite in numerous elements as a result of accretion and core-mantle differentiation. Additionally, if we take the chondritic composition as the initial solar nebular element abundances, the Earth lacks 85 % of K and up to 98 % of other volatiles. However one potentially very important group of elements has received considerably less attention in this context and these elements are the siderophile but volatile elements (SVEs). SVEs perhaps provide important information regarding the timing of volatile delivery to Earth. Especially for the SVEs the partitioning between metal melt and silicate melt (Dmetal/silicate) at core formation conditions is poorly constrained, never the less they are very important for most of the core formation models. This study is producing new metal-silicate partitioning data for a wide range of SVEs (S, Se, Te, Tl, Ag, As, Au, Cd, Bi, Pb, Sn, Cu, Ge, Zn, In and Ga) with a focus on the P, T and fO2dependencies. The initial hypothesis that we are aiming to test uses the accretion of major portions of volatile elements while the core formation was still active. The key points of this study are: - What are the effects of P, T and fO2 on SVE metal-silicate partioning? - What is the effect of compositional complexity on SVE metal-silicate partioning? - How can SVE's D-values fit into current models of core formation? The partitioning experiments will be performed using a Walker type multi anvil apparatus in a pressure range between 10 and 20 GPa and temperatures of 1700 up to 2100 °C. To determine the Dmetal/silicate values we are using a field emission high-resolution JEOL JXA-8530F EPMA for major elements and a Photon Machines Analyte G2 Excimer laser (193 nm) ablation system coupled to a Thermo Fisher Element 2 single-collector ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for the trace elements. We recently finished the first sets of experiments and can provide the

  4. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  5. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  6. Characterization of coal types by their content of volatile matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, A. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Qualitaetsstelle)

    1979-08-01

    First of all, the difference between mineral content and ash content, the effect of minerals on the content of volatile matter and the connection between the ash and volatile matter contents is examined. Then three processes are described, to determine the content of organic fuels in the volatile matter of hard coal. The results are compared and the applicability of the processes is assessed. The conversion formulae recommended for the ASTM and NCB classifications are examined regarding their applicability to German types of coal. Finally an equation is proposed, in order to calculate the estimated value for the content of water and mineral free fuel in volatile matter. Apart from the content of volatile matter in water free coal, one only needs the figures ash content and the mineral factor for this. The equation can also be used for mixtures the usability of the equation is tested for Ruhr coal.

  7. The predictive content of CBOE crude oil volatility index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Li; Li, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    Volatility forecasting is an important issue in the area of econophysics. The information content of implied volatility for financial return volatility has been well documented in the literature but very few studies focus on oil volatility. In this paper, we show that the CBOE crude oil volatility index (OVX) has predictive ability for spot volatility of WTI and Brent oil returns, from both in-sample and out-of-sample perspectives. Including OVX-based implied volatility in GARCH-type volatility models can improve forecasting accuracy most of time. The predictability from OVX to spot volatility is also found for longer forecasting horizons of 5 days and 20 days. The simple GARCH(1,1) and fractionally integrated GARCH with OVX performs significantly better than the other OVX models and all 6 univariate GARCH-type models without OVX. Robustness test results suggest that OVX provides different information from as short-term interest rate.

  8. Volatile elements in Allende inclusions. [Mn, Na and Cl relation to meteorite evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, L.; Ganapathy, R.

    1975-01-01

    New data are presented on the relatively volatile elements (Mn, Na, and Cl) in coarse- and fine-grained Ca/Al-rich inclusions of different textures and mineralogy in the Allende meteorite. It is shown that the coarse-grained inclusions condensed from the solar nebula at high temperature and contained vanishingly small quantities of volatile elements at that time. Later, volatiles were added to these during the metamorphism of the Allende parent body. The fine-grained inclusions were also affected by the addition of volatiles during this metamorphism but, unlike the coarse-grained ones, they incorporated large amounts of volatiles when they condensed from the solar nebula, accounting for their higher volatile element contents.

  9. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

    2014-01-01

    Depletions of siderophile elements in mantles have placed constraints on the conditions on core segregation and differentiation in bodies such as Earth, Earth's Moon, Mars, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Among the siderophile elements there are a sub-set that are also volatile (volatile siderophile elements or VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd), and thus can help to constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and in particular the Earth and Moon. One of the fundamental observations of the geochemistry of the Moon is the overall depletion of volatile elements relative to the Earth, but a satisfactory explanation has remained elusive. Hypotheses for Earth include addition during accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core, multiple stage origin, or addition after the core formed. Any explanation for volatile elements in the Earth's mantle must also be linked to an explanation of these elements in the lunar mantle. New metal-silicate partitioning data will be applied to the origin of volatile elements in both the Earth and Moon, and will evaluate theories for exogenous versus endogenous origin of volatile elements.

  10. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Hauri, Erik H; McCubbin, Francis M; Lapen, Thomas J; Berger, Eve L; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; Gaetani, Glenn A; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-05-28

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the 207 Pb- 206 Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  12. Composition of the earth's upper mantle. II - Volatile trace elements in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. W.; Wandless, G. A.; Petrie, R. K.; Irving, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used to determine the nine volatile elements Ag, Bi, Cd, In, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn in 19 ultramafic rocks, consisting mainly of spinel and garnet lherzolites. A sheared garnet lherzolite, PHN 1611, may approximate undepleted mantle material and tends to have a higher volatile element content than the depleted mantle material represented by spinel lherzolites. Comparisons of continental basalts with PHN 1611 and of oceanic ridge basalts with spinel lherzolites show similar basalt: source material partition factors for eight of the nine volatile elements, Sb being the exception. The strong depletion of Te and Se in the mantle, relative to lithophile elements of similar volatility, suggests that 97% of the earth's S, Se and Te may be in the outer core.

  13. Volatile element trends in gas-rich meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bart, G; Lipschutz, M E [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-09-01

    Study of 10 volatile elements (and non-volatile Co) in co-existing light and dark portions of 5 gas-rich chondrites indicates patterns of distinct but non-uniform enrichment of volatile elements. Only Cs is enriched in all samples; Bi and Tl enrichments covary. The observed enrichments are inconsistent with prior suggestions of admixture of C1 or C2 chondritic matter, whether pristine or partly devolatilized, but suggest that both light and dark portions of each chondrite represents a compositionally more extended sampling of parental nebular material than hitherto known.

  14. A volatile topic: Parsing out the details of Earth's formation through experimental metal-silicate partitioning of volatile and moderately volatile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, B. M.; Siebert, J.; Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Sossi, P.; Moynier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile and moderately volatile elements display different volatilities and siderophilities, as well as varying sensitivity to thermodynamic controls (X, P, T, fO2) during metal-silicate differentiation. The experimental determination of the metal-silicate partitioning of these elements permits us to evaluate processes controlling the distribution of these elements in Earth. In this work, we have combined metal-silicate partitioning data and results for S, Sn, Zn and Cu, and input these characterizations into Earth formation models. Model parameters such as source material, timing of volatile delivery, fO2 path, and degree of impactor equilibration were varied to encompass an array of possible formation scenarios. These models were then assessed to discern plausible sets of conditions that can produce current observed element-to-element ratios (e.g. S/Zn) in the Earth's present-day mantle, while also satisfying current estimates on the S content of the core, at no more than 2 wt%. The results of our models indicate two modes of accretion that can maintain chondritic element-to-element ratios for the bulk Earth and can arrive at present-day mantle abundances of these elements. The first mode requires the late addition of Earth's entire inventory of these elements (assuming a CI-chondritic composition) and late-stage accretion that is marked by partial equilibration of large impactors. The second, possibly more intuitive mode, requires that Earth accreted - at least initially - from volatile poor material preferentially depleted in S relative to Sn, Zn, and Cu. From a chemical standpoint, this source material is most similar to type I chondrule rich (and S poor) materials (Hewins and Herzberg, 1996; Mahan et al., 2017; Amsellem et al., 2017), such as the metal-bearing carbonaceous chondrites.

  15. Volatile characteristic of trace elements during microwave pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Kong, Ling-wen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Oil shale is abundant in the world. Today, the industry of oil shale retorting for producing shale oil is developing owing to high price of oil in the world. In order to study migratory behavior of trace elements in oil shale at microwave pyrolysis, tests were performed in laboratory with oil shale of the Huadian deposit of China at different powers from 400 to 700 W. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Co, Mn present in oil shale and shale char were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). By comparing the content of trace elements in oil shale and shale char, distribution characteristics of trace elements at retorting were studied. The overall trends of volatile ratio of trace elements are ascending with higher microwave power and higher than the conventional pyrolysis. The differences in the volatile ratio indicate that the trace elements investigated are bound with the oil shale kerogen and its mineral matter in different manner. So Float-sink experiments (FSE) were performed on oil shale. Huadian oil shale has more included mineral. The volatilization of organic matter is not the main reason for the volatilization of trace elements in oil shale. The trace elements combined with the mineral elements may be also certain volatility.

  16. Volatile elements - water, carbon, nitrogen, noble gases - on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of life-bearing volatile elements (water, carbon, nitrogen) on Earth is a fruitful and debated area of research. In his pioneering work, W.W. Rubey inferred that the terrestrial atmosphere and the oceans formed from degassing of the mantle through geological periods of time. Early works on noble gas isotopes were consistent with this view and proposed a catastrophic event of mantle degassing early in Earth's history. We now have evidence, mainly from noble gas isotopes, that several cosmochemical sources contributed water and other volatiles at different stages of Earth's accretion. Potential contributors include the protosolar nebula gas that equilibrated with magma oceans, inner solar system bodies now represented by chondrites, and comets. Stable isotope ratios suggest volatiles where primarily sourced by planetary bodies from the inner solar system. However, recent measurements by the European Space Agency Rosetta probe on the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko permit to set quantitative constraints on the cometary contribution to the surface of our planet. The surface and mantle reservoirs volatile elements exchanged volatile elements through time, with rates that are still uncertain. Some mantle regions remained isolated from whole mantle convection within the first tens to hundreds million years after start of solar system formation. These regions, now sampled by some mantle plumes (e.g., Iceland, Eifel) preserved their volatile load, as indicated by extinct and extant radioactivity systems. The abundance of volatile elements in the mantle is still not well known. Different approaches, such as high pressure experimental petrology, noble gas geochemistry, modelling, resulted in somewhat contrasted estimates, varying over one order of magnitude for water. Comparative planetology, that is, the study of volatiles on the Moon, Venus, Mars, Vesta, will shed light on the sources and strengths of these elements in the

  17. Agricultural management, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production from Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Furlan, Marcos Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information about organic and mineral fertilization, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production by the species Melissa officinalis. Elemental concentration was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. The elemental content and the main compounds vary according to agricultural management and season. The results indicate that the production of volatile oil main compounds from M. officinalis is correlated with the concentrations of Na, Co, Rb, Cd, Cs, La, Sm and Hf. (author)

  18. Volatile Element Fluxes at Copahue Volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Copahue volcano has a crater lake and acid hot springs that discharge into the Rio Agrio river system. These fluids are very concentrated (up to 6 % sulfate), rich in rock-forming elements (up to 2000 ppm Mg) and small spheres of native sulfur float in the crater lake. The stable isotope composition of the waters (delta 18O =-2.1 to + 3.6 per mille; delta D = -49 to -26 per mille) indicates that the hot spring waters are at their most concentrated about 70% volcanic brine and 30 % glacial meltwater. The crater lake waters have similar mixing proportions but added isotope effects from intense evaporation. Further dilution of the waters in the Rio Agrio gives values closer to local meteoric waters (delta 18O = -11 per mille; delta D = -77 per mille), whereas evaporation in closed ponds led to very heavy water (up to delta 18O = +12 per mille). The delta 34S value of dissolved sulfate is +14.2 per mille, whereas the native sulfur has values of -8.2 to -10.5 per mille. The heavy sulfate probably formed when SO2 disproportionated into bisulfate and native sulfur at about 300 C. We measured the sulfate fluxes in the Rio Agrio, which ranged from 20-40 kilotons S/year. The whole system was releasing sulfur at an equivalent rate of about 250-650 tons SO2/day. From the river flux sulfur values and the stochiometry of the disproportionation reaction we calculated the rate of liquid sulfur storage inside the volcano (6000 m3/year). During the eruptions of 1995/2000, large amounts of that stored liquid sulfur were ejected as pyroclastic sulfur. The calculated rate of rock dissolution (from rock- forming element fluxes in the Rio Agrio) suggests that the void space generated by rock dissolution is largely filled by native sulfur and silica. The S/Cl ratio in the hydrothermal fluids is about 2, whereas glass inclusions have S/Cl = 0.2, indicating the strong preferential degassing of sulfur.

  19. Determination of Trace and Volatile Element Abundance Systematics of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses 74220 and 15426 Using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. Carrie; Porrachia, Magali; McCubbin, Francis M.; Day, James M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Since their recognition as pyroclastic glasses generated by volcanic fire fountaining on the Moon, 74220 and 15426 have garnered significant scientific interest. Early studies recognized that the glasses were particularly enriched in volatile elements on their surfaces. More recently, detailed analyses of the interiors of the glasses, as well as of melt inclusions within olivine grains associated with the 74220 glass beads, have determined high H2O, F, Cl and S contents. Such elevated volatile contents seem at odds with evidence from moderately volatile elements (MVE), such as Zn and K, for a volatile- depleted Moon. In this study, we present initial results from an analytical campaign to study trace element abundances within the pyroclastic glass beads. We report trace element data determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for 15426 and 74220.

  20. Volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Moderately volatile elements (MVE) are key tracers of volatile depletion in planetary bodies. Zinc is an especially useful MVE because of its generally elevated abundances in planetary basalts, relative to other MVE, and limited evidence for mass-dependent isotopic fractionation under high-temperature igneous processes. Compared with terrestrial basalts, which have δ66Zn values (per mille deviation of the 66Zn/64Zn ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard) similar to some chondrite meteorites (∼+0.3‰), lunar mare basalts yield a mean δ66Zn value of +1.4 ± 0.5‰ (2 st. dev.). Furthermore, mare basalts have average Zn concentrations ∼50 times lower than in typical terrestrial basaltic rocks. Late-stage lunar magmatic products, including ferroan anorthosite, Mg- and Alkali-suite rocks have even higher δ66Zn values (+3 to +6‰). Differences in Zn abundance and isotopic compositions between lunar and terrestrial rocks have previously been interpreted to reflect evaporative loss of Zn, either during the Earth-Moon forming Giant Impact, or in a lunar magma ocean (LMO) phase. To explore the mechanisms and processes under which volatile element loss may have occurred during a LMO phase, we developed models of Zn isotopic fractionation that are generally applicable to planetary magma oceans. Our objective was to identify conditions that would yield a δ66Zn signature of ∼+1.4‰ within the lunar mantle. For the sake of simplicity, we neglect possible Zn isotopic fractionation during the Giant Impact, and assumed a starting composition equal to the composition of the present-day terrestrial mantle, assuming both the Earth and Moon had zinc 'consanguinity' following their formation. We developed two models: the first simulates evaporative fractionation of Zn only prior to LMO mixing and crystallization; the second simulates continued evaporative fractionation of Zn that persists until ∼75% LMO crystallization. The first model yields a relatively homogenous bulk solid

  1. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  2. TWO EXTRASOLAR ASTEROIDS WITH LOW VOLATILE-ELEMENT MASS FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.

    2012-01-01

    Using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we extend our previous ground-based optical determinations of the composition of the extrasolar asteroids accreted onto two white dwarfs, GD 40 and G241-6. Combining optical and ultraviolet spectra of these stars with He-dominated atmospheres, 13 and 12 polluting elements are confidently detected in GD 40 and G241-6, respectively. For the material accreted onto GD 40, the volatile elements C and S are deficient by more than a factor of 10 and N by at least a factor of 5 compared to their mass fractions in primitive CI chondrites and approach what is inferred for bulk Earth. A similar pattern is found for G241-6 except that S is undepleted. We have also newly detected or placed meaningful upper limits for the amount of Cl, Al, P, Ni, and Cu in the accreted matter. Extending results from optical studies, the mass fractions of refractory elements in the accreted parent bodies are similar to what is measured for bulk Earth and chondrites. Thermal processing, perhaps interior to a snow line, appears to be of central importance in determining the elemental compositions of these particular extrasolar asteroids.

  3. Volatility Spillovers Across User-Generated Content and Stock Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dieijen (Myrthe); A. Borah (Abhishek); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVolatility is an important metric of financial performance, indicating uncertainty or risk. So, predicting and managing volatility is of interest to both company managers and investors. This study investigates whether volatility in user-generated content (UGC) can spill over to

  4. Volatile and light lithophile elements in high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Hartley, Margaret E.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2017-05-01

    Melt inclusions formed during the early stages of magmatic evolution trap primitive melt compositions and enable the volatile contents of primary melts and the mantle to be estimated. However, the syn- and post-entrapment behaviour of volatiles in primitive high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from oceanic basalts remains poorly constrained. To address this deficit, we present volatile and light lithophile element analyses from a well-characterised suite of nine matrix glasses and 102 melt inclusions from the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e., Saksunarvatn ash) of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). High matrix glass H2O and S contents indicate that eruption-related exsolution was arrested by quenching in a phreatomagmatic setting; Li, B, F and Cl did not exsolve during eruption. The almost uniformly low CO2 content of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions cannot be explained by either shallow entrapment or the sequestration of CO2 into shrinkage bubbles, suggesting that inclusion CO2 contents were controlled by decrepitation instead. High H2O/Ce values in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (182-823) generally exceed values expected for EVZ primary melts (∼ 180), and can be accounted for by diffusive H2O gain following the entrainment of primitive macrocrysts into evolved and H2O-rich melts a few days before eruption. A strong positive correlation between H2O and Li in plagioclase-hosted inclusions suggests that diffusive Li gain may also have occurred. Extreme F enrichments in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (F/Nd = 51-216 versus ∼15 in matrix glasses) possibly reflect the entrapment of inclusions from high-Al/(Al + Si) melt pools formed by dissolution-crystallisation processes (as indicated by HFSE depletions in some inclusions), and into which F was concentrated by uphill diffusion since F is highly soluble in Al-rich melts. The high S/Dy of primitive inclusions (∼300) indicates that primary melts were S-rich in comparison

  5. Entropy-based implied volatility and its information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Xiao (Xiao); C. Zhou (Chen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper investigates the maximum entropy approach on estimating implied volatility. The entropy approach also allows to measure option implied skewness and kurtosis nonparametrically, and to construct confidence intervals. Simulations show that the en- tropy approach outperforms

  6. Partitioning of U, Th and K Between Metal, Sulfide and Silicate, Insights into the Volatile-Content of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Rapp, J.; Righter, M.; Pando, K.; Ross, D. K.; Andreasen, R.; Chidester, B.

    2016-01-01

    During the early stages of the Solar System formation, especially during the T-Tauri phase, the Sun emitted strong solar winds, which are thought to have expelled a portion of the volatile elements from the inner solar system. It is therefore usually believed that the volatile depletion of a planet is correlated with its proximity to the Sun. This trend was supported by the K/Th and K/U ratios of Venus, the Earth, and Mars. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, it was expected that Mercury is the most volatile-depleted planet. However, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer of MESSENGER spacecraft revealed elevated K/U and K/Th ratios for the surface of Mercury, much higher than previous expectations. It is possible that the K/Th and K/U ratios on the surface are not a reliable gauge of the bulk volatile content of Mercury. Mercury is enriched in sulfur and is the most reduced of the terrestrial planets, with oxygen fugacity (fO2) between IW-6.3 and IW-2.6 log units. At these particular compositions, U, Th and K behave differently and can become more siderophile or chalcophile. If significant amounts of U and Th are sequestered in the core, the apparent K/U and K/Th ratios measured on the surface may not represent the volatile budget of the whole planet. An accurate determination of the partitioning of these elements between silicate, metal, and sulfide phases under Mercurian conditions is therefore essential to better constrain Mercury's volatile content and assess planetary formation models.

  7. The Information Content of Corridor Volatility Measures During Calm and Turmoil Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Elyasiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of volatility is of paramount importance in finance because of the effects on risk measurement and risk management. Corridor implied volatility measures allow us to disentangle the volatility of positive returns from that of negative returns, providing investors with additional information beyond standard market volatility. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to propose different types of corridor implied volatility and some combinations of them as risk indicators, in order to provide useful information about investors’ sentiment and future market returns. Second, to investigate their usefulness in prediction of market returns under different market conditions (with a particular focus on the subprime crisis and the European debt crisis. The data set consists of daily index options traded on the Italian market and covers the 2005–2014 period. We find that upside corridor implied volatility measure embeds the highest information content about contemporaneous market returns, claiming the superiority of call options in measuring current sentiment in the market. Moreover, both upside and downside volatilities can be considered as barometers of investors’ fear. The volatility measures proposed have forecasting power on future returns only during high volatility periods and in particular during the European debt crisis. The explanatory power on future market returns improves when two of the proposed volatility measures are combined together in the same model.

  8. Organic and volatile elements in the solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remusat L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrites and comets have accreted primitive materials from the early solar system. Those materials include organics, water and other volatile components. The most primitive chondrites and comets have undergone few modifications on their respective parent bodies and can deliver to laboratories components that were present at the origin of the protosolar nebula. Here I present a review of the organic material and volatile components that have been studied in the most primitive chondrites, and the last data from the stardust mission about the cometary record. This paper focuses on materials that can be studied in laboratories, by mass spectrometry, ion probes or organic chemistry techniques.

  9. Time-related variation of volatile contents of Western Ghats volcanic formations, Deccan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Callegaro, Sara; Baker, Don R.; De Min, Angelo; Renne, Paul R.

    2016-04-01

    Deccan volcanism in India covered more than 1 million square km and reached a maximum thickness of about 3 km, as presently preserved in the Western Ghats volcanic lava piles. Volcanic activity started at about 66.4 Ma (Jawhar formation) and ended at about 65.5 Ma (Mahabaleshwar unit; Renne et al., 2015). Deccan volcanism straddled the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 66.0 Ma) and possibly contributed to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event through emission of gases such as SO2, CO2, Cl, F that may have triggered global climate changes. Severe pollution by volcanic gases is supported by the high S and Cl contents (up to 1400 and up to 900 ppm, respectively; Self et al., 2008) measured in a few olivine- and plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from the Jawhar, Neral, and Thakurvadi Formations (early lava flows, ca. 66.3-66.4 ± 0.1 Ma; Renne et al., 2015) and by magmatic S contents (up to 1800 ppm; Callegaro et al., 2014) calculated from S measurements in clinopyroxenes from the Mahabaleshwar unit (ca. 65.5 ± 0.1; Schoene et al., 2015). Here, we present new analyses of S, Cl, and F, obtained by ion-probe and synchrotron light micro-fluorescence analyses on clinopyroxenes and plagioclase phenocrysts from ?al? lava flow units of the Western Ghats. The volatile contents of the host magmas have been calculated from recently published clinopyroxene/basalt partition coefficients. These new data will describe the time-related variation of volatile elements hosted and eventually emitted by Deccan lavas and shed light on their environmental impact. References: Callegaro S. et al. (2014). Geology 42, 895-898. Renne P.R. et al. (2015). Science 350, 76-78. Schoene B. et al. (2015). Science 347, 192-184. Self S. et al. (2008). Science 319, 1654-1657.

  10. Modelling of Equilibrium Between Mantle and Core: Refractory, Volatile, and Highly Siderophile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Shofner, G.; Lee, C. -T.

    2013-01-01

    Siderophile elements have been used to constrain conditions of core formation and differentiation for the Earth, Mars and other differentiated bodies [1]. Recent models for the Earth have concluded that the mantle and core did not fully equilibrate and the siderophile element contents of the mantle can only be explained under conditions where the oxygen fugacity changes from low to high during accretion and the mantle and core do not fully equilibrate [2,3]. However these conclusions go against several physical and chemical constraints. First, calculations suggest that even with the composition of accreting material changing from reduced to oxidized over time, the fO2 defined by metal-silicate equilibrium does not change substantially, only by approximately 1 logfO2 unit [4]. An increase of more than 2 logfO2 units in mantle oxidation are required in models of [2,3]. Secondly, calculations also show that metallic impacting material will become deformed and sheared during accretion to a large body, such that it becomes emulsified to a fine scale that allows equilibrium at nearly all conditions except for possibly the length scale for giant impacts [5] (contrary to conclusions of [6]). Using new data for D(Mo) metal/silicate at high pressures, together with updated partitioning expressions for many other elements, we will show that metal-silicate equilibrium across a long span of Earth s accretion history may explain the concentrations of many siderophile elements in Earth's mantle. The modeling includes refractory elements Ni, Co, Mo, and W, as well as highly siderophile elements Au, Pd and Pt, and volatile elements Cd, In, Bi, Sb, Ge and As.

  11. Volatile Contents in Mafic Magmas from two Aleutian volcanoes: Augustine and Makushin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M. M.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Nye, C.; Faust Larsen, J.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    There are several competing theories for the origin of tholeiitic (TH) vs. calc-alkaline (CA) fractionation trends in arc magmas. One relates to water (TH-dry magma, CA-wet magma), another to pressure (TH-low pressure crystallization, CA-high pressure), and a third to primary magma composition (TH-low Si/Fe#, CA-hi Si/Fe#) These theories have been difficult to test without quantitative measures of the water contents and pressures of crystallization of arc magmas. We are in the process of studying several Aleutian arc tephra suites (phenocrysts and melt inclusions) with the aim of obtaining volatile element concentrations (by SIMS), major and trace element concentrations and thermobarometric data (by EMP and laser-ICPMS). We report preliminary results on olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Augustine and Makushin volcanoes that support the role of water in calc-alkaline fractionation. Basaltic melt inclusions from Augustine, a low-K2O, calc-alkaline volcano, are hosted in Fo80-82 olivine. The inclusions yield high water contents, up to 5 wt%, and contain 60-90 ppm CO2, 3000-4500 ppm S, and 3000-6000 ppm Cl. Inclusions record vapor-saturation pressures near 2 kbar. Cl/K2O ratios in Augustine inclusions (ave. 1.9) are among the highest documented in an arc setting, and likely record a Cl- and H2O- rich fluid from the subducting plate. High water contents in Augustine primary melts may have contributed to the strong calc-alkaline trend observed at this volcano. Basaltic melt inclusions from Pakushin, a medium-K2O, tholeiitic cone on the flanks of Makushin volcano, are hosted in Fo80-86 olivine. These inclusions have low water contents (pressures (high sulfur (2000-4000 ppm) and Cl (>2000 ppm) in Pakushin melt inclusions, however, indicate that degassing was minimal. The low water contents and low vapor saturation pressures recorded in Pakushin melt inclusions are consistent with development of its tholeiitic trend, but we cannot distinguish whether the low water

  12. Metal-Silicate-Sulfide Partitioning of U, Th, and K: Implications for the Budget of Volatile Elements in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Rapp, J.; Righter, M.; Pando, K.; Ross, D. K.; Andreasen, R.

    2016-01-01

    During formation of the solar system, the Sun produced strong solar winds, which stripped away a portion of the volatile elements from the forming planets. Hence, it was expected that planets closest to the sun, such as Mercury, are more depleted in volatile elements in comparison to other terrestrial planets. However, the MESSENGER mission detected higher than expected K/U and K/Th ratios on Mercury's surface, indicating a volatile content between that of Mars and Earth. Our experiments aim to resolve this discrepancy by experimentally determining the partition coefficients (D(sup met/sil)) of K, U, and Th between metal and silicate at varying pressure (1 to 5 GPa), temperature (1500 to 1900 C), oxygen fugacity (IW-2.5 to IW-6.5) and sulfur-content in the metal (0 to 33 wt%). Our data show that U, Th, and K become more siderophile with decreasing fO2 and increasing sulfur-content, with a stronger effect for U and Th in comparison to K. Using these results, the concentrations of U, Th, and K in the bulk planet were calculated for different scenarios, where the planet equilibrated at a fO2 between IW-4 and IW-7, assuming the existence of a FeS layer, between the core and mantle, with variable thickness. These models show that significant amounts of U and Th are partitioned into Mercury's core. The elevated superficial K/U and K/Th values are therefore only a consequence of the sequestration of U and Th into the core, not evidence of the overall volatile content of Mercury.

  13. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various

  14. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the total volatile acids content in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Piccini, J.L.; Quaranta, H.O.; Perez, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if there exist some kind of correlation between the evolution of the organoleptic characteristics of control and irradiated strawberry and the measured volatile acids content. Affirmative results would suggest that the V.A. content really corresponds to a quality index of the fruit. (orig./AJ)

  15. Modeling effects of moisture content and advection on odor causing VOCs volatilization from stored swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Liang, H M

    2000-05-01

    Two models for evaluating the contents and advection of manure moisture on odor causing volatile organic compounds (VOC-odor) volatilization from stored swine manure were studied for their ability to predict the volatilization rate (indoor air concentration) and cumulative exposure dose: a MJ-I model and a MJ-II model. Both models simulating depletion of source contaminant via volatilization and degradation based on an analytical model adapted from the behavior assessment model of Jury et al. In the MJ-I model, manure moisture movement was negligible, whereas in the MJ-II model, time-dependent indoor air concentrations was a function of constant manure moisture contents and steady-state moisture advection. Predicted indoor air concentrations and inhaled doses for the study VOC-odors of p-cresol, toluene, and p-xylene varied by up to two to three orders of magnitude depending on the manure moisture conditions. The sensitivity analysis of both models suggests that when manure moisture movement exists, simply MJ-I model is inherently not sufficient to represent a more generally volatilization process, which can even become stringent as moisture content increases. The conclusion illustrates how one needs to include a wide variety of manure moisture values in order to fully assess the complex volatilization mechanisms that are present in a real situation.

  16. Volatile (Cl, F and S) and major element constraints on subduction-related mantle metasomatism along the alkaline basaltic backarc, Payenia, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2017-01-01

    We present data on volatile (S, F and Cl) and major element contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from alkaline basaltic tephras along the Quaternary Payenia backarc volcanic province (~34°S–38°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The composition of Cr-spinel inclusions and h...

  17. Measurements of volatile compound contents in resins using a moisture analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Nagano, Futami; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2010-02-01

    The contents of volatile adhesive compounds, such as water, solvents, and residual unpolymerized monomers, affect the integrity and durability of adhesive bonding. However, there is no method available that can be used to rapidly assess the residual solvent or water contents of adhesive resins. This study examined the effectiveness of a digital moisture analyzer to measure the volatile compound contents of resins. Five self-etching adhesives and seven experimental light-cured resins prepared with different contents (0, 10, and 20% by weight) of water or solvents (acetone and ethanol) were examined in this study. The resins were prepared using different methods (with and without air blast or light-curing) to simulate the clinical conditions of adhesive application. Resin weight changes (% of weight loss) were determined as the residual volatile compound contents, using the moisture analyzer. After the measurements, the resin films were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The weight changes of the resins were found to depend on the amount of water or solvents evaporating from the resin. Water and solvents were evaporated by air blast or light-curing, but some of the water and solvents remained in the cured resin. The moisture analyzer is easy to operate and is a useful instrument for using to measure the residual volatile compound contents of adhesive resin.

  18. Geochemistry and volatile content of magmas feeding explosive eruptions at Telica volcano (Nicaragua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Rotolo, S. G.; Aiuppa, A.; Lanzo, G.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-07-01

    Telica volcano, in north-west Nicaragua, is a young stratovolcano of intermediate magma composition producing frequent Vulcanian to phreatic explosive eruptions. The Telica stratigraphic record also includes examples of (pre)historic sub-Plinian activity. To refine our knowledge of this very active volcano, we analyzed major element composition and volatile content of melt inclusions from some stratigraphically significant Telica tephra deposits. These include: (1) the Scoria Telica Superior (STS) deposit (2000 to 200 years Before Present; Volcanic Explosive Index, VEI, of 2-3) and (2) pyroclasts from the post-1970s eruptive cycle (1982; 2011). Based on measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] > 80) glass inclusions fall into 2 distinct clusters: a group of H2O-rich (1.8-5.2 wt%) inclusions, similar to those of nearby Cerro Negro volcano, and a second group of CO2-rich (360-1700 μg/g CO2) inclusions (Nejapa, Granada). Model calculations show that CO2 dominates the equilibrium magmatic vapor phase in the majority of the primitive inclusions (XCO2 > 0.62-0.95). CO2, sulfur (generally 400 MPa) and early crystallization of magmas. Chlorine exhibits a wide concentration range (400-2300 μg/g) in primitive olivine-entrapped melts (likely suggesting variable source heterogeneity) and is typically enriched in the most differentiated melts (1000-3000 μg/g). Primitive, volatile-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (entrapment pressures, 5-15 km depth) are exclusively found in the largest-scale Telica eruptions (exemplified by STS in our study). These eruptions are thus tentatively explained as due to injection of deep CO2-rich mafic magma into the shallow crustal plumbing system. More recent (post-1970), milder (VEI 1-2) eruptions, instead, do only exhibit evidence for low-pressure (P viscosity of resident magma in shallow plumbing system (< 2.4 km), due to crystallization and degassing.

  19. Distribution, movement, and evolution of the volatile elements in the lunar regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, E.K. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The abundances and distributions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in lunar soils are reviewed. Carbon and nitrogen have a predominantly extra-lunar origin in lunar soils and breccias, while sulfur is mostly indigeneous to the Moon. The lunar processes which effect the movement, distribution, and evolution of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, along with the volatile alkali elements sodium, potassium, and rubidium during regolith processes are discussed. Possible mechanisms which may result in the addition to or loss from the Moon of these volatile elements are considered. (Auth.)

  20. Distribution, movement, and evolution of the volatile elements in the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The abundances and distributions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in lunar soils are reviewed. Carbon and nitrogen have a predominantly extra-lunar origin in lunar soils and breccias, while sulfur is mostly indigeneous to the moon. The lunar processes which effect the movement, distribution, and evolution of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, along with the volatile alkali elements sodium, potassium, and rubidium during regolith processes are discussed. Possible mechanisms which may result in the addition to or loss from the moon of these volatile elements are considered.

  1. Determining fissile content of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P.; Grossman, L.N.; Schoenig, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination of the fissile fuel content of fuel for nuclear reactors. A nondestructive method is described for determining rapidly, accurately and simultaneously the fissile content, enrichment and location of fuel material which may also contain amounts of burnable poison, by detecting the γ-rays emitted from the fuel material due to natural radioactive decay. (U.K.)

  2. The lunar core can be a major reservoir for volatile elements S, Se, Te and Sb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, Edgar S; Lin, Yanhao; Dankers, Dian; Rai, Nachiketa; Berndt, Jasper; Matveev, Sergei; van Westrenen, Wim

    2017-11-06

    The Moon bears a striking compositional and isotopic resemblance to the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) for many elements, but is considered highly depleted in many volatile elements compared to BSE due to high-temperature volatile loss from Moon-forming materials in the Moon-forming giant impact and/or due to evaporative loss during subsequent magmatism on the Moon. Here, we use high-pressure metal-silicate partitioning experiments to show that the observed low concentrations of volatile elements sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and antimony (Sb) in the silicate Moon can instead reflect core-mantle equilibration in a largely to fully molten Moon. When incorporating the core as a reservoir for these elements, their bulk Moon concentrations are similar to those in the present-day bulk silicate Earth. This suggests that Moon formation was not accompanied by major loss of S, Se, Te, Sb from Moon-forming materials, consistent with recent indications from lunar carbon and S isotopic compositions of primitive lunar materials. This is in marked contrast with the losses of other volatile elements (e.g., K, Zn) during the Moon-forming event. This discrepancy may be related to distinctly different cosmochemical behavior of S, Se, Te and Sb within the proto-lunar disk, which is as of yet virtually unconstrained.

  3. Volatile release from self-assembly structured emulsions: effect of monoglyceride content, oil content, and oil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2013-02-20

    Monoglycerides (MGs) can form self-assembled structures in emulsions, which can be used to control volatile release. In this study, initial headspace concentrations (C(initial)), maximum headspace concentrations (C(max)), release rates, and partition coefficients of propanol, diacetyl, hexanal, and limonene were determined in MG structured oil-in-water emulsions using dynamic and static headspace analyses. For all of the volatile compounds, C(initial) values above structured emulsions were significantly lower than those above unstructured emulsions and decreased with increasing MG contents (p triglyceride emulsions than in soybean oil emulsions (p structured emulsions than in unstructured emulsions (p structured emulsions can be potentially used as delivery systems to modulate volatile release.

  4. Distribution of volatile and non volatile elements in grain-size fractions of Apollo 17 drive tube 74001/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1980-01-01

    A study of four samples of double drive tube 74001/2 originating from 12, 25, 38, and 58 cm depths indicates that the concentrations of major and nonvolatile elements are fairly uniform for the four layers and the individual size fractions, while volatile elements as well as Au and Ir are enriched in the smaller grain-size fractions. It is concluded from the measured Au/Ir ratios and from the absence of a surface enrichment of Co that the material in the drive tube 74001/2 is not the result of an impact of an iron meteorite into a lava lake, but originated in at least three volcanic eruptions. No indication of a later disturbance of the stratigraphy of the layers is observed. Exposure ages of 345,000 and 225,000 years result from Ir deposits for the two layers of 74002

  5. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  6. Influence of char texture and volatile matter content on NO emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Parra, J.B.; Moreno, A.H.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. National Vacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A low volatile bituminous coal was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor under nitrogen at different heating rates (5, 10, 50 and 150 C/min) up to a final temperature of 850 C. Textural characterisation (mercury porosimetry, adsorption isotherms of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, ASA) of the chars was carried out in order to study the influence of textural properties on char reactivity and NO emissions. The role of volatile matter content in the emission of nitrogen compounds was also investigated. A thermogravimetric analyser linked to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (TG-MS) was used to study the compounds evolved during pyrolysis and combustion. (orig.)

  7. Rust and schreibersite in Apollo 16 highland rocks - Manifestations of volatile-element mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    Rust is a manifestation of halogen and volatile-metal mobility in the lunar environment. Schreibersite is stable as the primary phosphorus-bearing phase in the highland rocks, a consequence of the inherently low oxygen fugacity within impact-generated melts. Apatite and whitlockite are subordinate in these rocks. The partitioning of P into phosphide in impact-generated melts, and the failure of phosphate to crystallize, effects a decoupling of the halogens and phosphorus. Of the Apollo 16 rocks, 63% contain rust, 70% contain schreibersite, and 52% contain both phases, thereby establishing the pervasiveness of volatile-elements throughout the highland rocks. The major portion of these volatile-bearing phases occur in impact melt-rocks or in breccia matrices. Rhabdites of schreibersite in some of the FeNi grains indicate that there is a meteoritic contribution to the phosphorus in these rocks. Cl/P2O5 ratios in lunar highland rocks are a function of secondary effects, with any apparent Cl-P correlations being coincidential. The present observations preclude the validity of models based on such elemental ratios in these rocks. The presence of rust in the clast laden matrices of pristine rocks indicates fugitive element localization. Pristine clasts may have been contaminated. The basis for a pristine volatile chemistry is questioned.

  8. Trace element content of precipitation in a remote area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Rain and snow, sampled over a period of 18 months at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, were analysed for 40 elements by thermal neutron activation analysis. Correlation analysis revealed that the elements detected could be divided into groups of similar behaviour. Storm tracks for the events sampled were obtained, but only generalizations as to the probable origin of the trace elements could be made. Deuterium content of the samples was not correlated with levels of trace elements. (author)

  9. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  10. Content of Chemical Elements in Wood-Destroying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the content of chemical elements in the dried fruiting bodies of edible wood decaying fungi such as Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes and Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. Powdered samples of fungi were mineralized in a microwave digestion. Twenty-one (21 chemical elements were detected in the plasma of the device ICP-MS AGILENT 7500c by accredited methods with the aid of calibration curves. The content of individual elements varied within a considerable range. The highest contents of K, Mn, Cu and Cd were found in the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea. Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes had the highest content of B and Mo. Significant differences were found in the content of elements in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Slovakia, Hungary and China. The highest content of Al was found in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Hungary. The Chinese oysters had a maximum contents of Ca, Mg, Co, Pb, As and U. The Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Lemešany (Slovakia had the highest contents of Na, Zn, Fe, Se, Ag, Hg and Cr. The difference of chemical element content could be influenced by the genotype of the fungus and by the composition of substrate on which mushroom grow up.

  11. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Allen, Charlotte; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (-52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua and Camellia sinensis leaves by handheld X-ray fluorescence. Traore Alassane, Diallo Mouhamadou, Gueye Papa El Hadji Omar, Wague Ahmadou, Lutgen Pierre, Sarr Ousmane, Mboup Souleymane ...

  13. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  14. Apatite: A New Tool For Understanding The Temporal Variability Of Magmatic Volatile Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M. J.; Humphreys, M.; Smith, V.; Pyle, D. M.; Isaia, R.

    2015-12-01

    The apatite crystal structure is capable of incorporating H2O, F and Cl, as well as trace CO2 and sulphur. These can be related to parental magma compositions through application of a series of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994), permitting apatite crystals to preserve a record of all major volatile species in the melt. Furthermore, due to the general incompatibility of P in other rock-forming minerals, apatite is ubiquitous in igneous systems and often begins crystallising early, such that apatite inclusions within phenocrysts record melt volatile contents throughout magmatic differentiation. In this work, we compare the compositions of apatite inclusions and microphenocrysts with pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy. These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to determine a time-series of magmatic volatile evolution in the build-up to eruption. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset during ascent, due to rapid H diffusion through the phenocryst hosts (Woods et al., 2000). Given the rapid diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), preservation of undersaturated compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved a few days to months before eruption and that it may have been the transition into a volatile-saturated state that ultimately triggered eruption. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Gualda et al., 2012

  15. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Goonetilleke, Ashantha [School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Allen, Charlotte [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia)

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (−52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. - Highlights: • Wet milling was used to produce pressed tablet sediment for LA-ICP-MS analysis. • Milling was effective for refractive elements with narrow range of particle size. • This is the first use of LA-ICP-MS for Hg analysis in sediment samples. • Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for most of the elements studied. • Detection limits down to parts per trillion were observed for some elements.

  16. Preliminary observations on trace element contents of the skin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in the content of magnesium [Mg], copper [Cu] and zinc [Zn] were carried in the skin and hair of 4 West African Dwarf goats. Each of the elements was found to be more abundant in the hair than in the skin. For each of the elements also there were differences in quantity from one region of the body to another.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Nutrients and Mineral Elements Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Mg), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) content, while P. pedicellatum has high ... INTRODUCTION ... central to animal production and productivity. .... for growth and serve as structural element in all plant ... the animal's body, it ensured correct maintenance of ... Ash content because Ash is the approximation of total.

  18. Origin of the earth's moon: constraints from alkali volatile trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutzberger, M.E.; Drake, M.J.; Jones, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Although the Moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to the Earth, these depletions are not in accord with simple volatility. For example, the Cs/Rb ratios of the Earth and Moon inferred from basalts are approximately one seventh and one half of the CI ratio, respectively. Volatility considerations alone predict that the lunar Cs/Rb ratio should be equal to or lower than the terrestrial ratio if the Moon was derived entirely from Earth mantle material. Thus hypotheses such as rotational fission which invoke derivation of lunar material entirely from the Earth's mantle may be excluded. The collisional ejection hypothesis of lunar origin requires at least 18% of lunar material to be derived from a projectile with dehydrated CI composition to match the lunar Cs/Rb ratio, and 25% to 50% to match both the lunar Cs/Rb ratio and absolute concentrations of Cs and Rb. It remains to be demonstrated that this relatively large contribution of projectile material is consistent with other elemental abundances and element ratios in the Moon. (author)

  19. A study on human hair element content as monitor for trace elements pollution in Eg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, N.; Metwally, E.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element content in human is a suitable indicator of exposure to trace element pollutants. Concentration levels of 12 trace elements in human head hair samples collected from more than 23 individuals have been determined. The collected hair samples were classified into four groups collected from workers at nuclear research center and others far away from the center. Neutron activation analysis technique was used in the preset study. The data reported for trace elements content in different hair samples were discussed. Significant differences were observed for several elements levels. comparative studies demonstrated that the concentration of some elements in hair of exposed workers, are greater than those corresponding to non exposed workers. Also, there was no clear significant correlation between the elements content of different hair samples and the age of the donors

  20. Major, Trace, and Volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, and Cl) Elements from 1000+ Hawaiian Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions Reveal the Dynamics of Crustal Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Global cycling of volatile elements (H2O, CO2, F, S, Cl) via subduction to deep mantle followed by entrainment and melting within ascending mantle plumes is an enigmatic process that controls key aspects of hot spot volcanism (i.e. melting rate, magma supply, degassing, eruptive style). Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios (e.g.187Os/188Os) at hot spots such as Hawaii reveal magmatic processes within deep-seated mantle plumes (e.g. mantle heterogeneity, lithology, and melt transport). Shield-stage lavas from Hawaii likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes. Hawaiian lavas display correlations among isotopes, major and trace elements [1] that might be expected to have an expression in the volatile elements. To investigate this link, we present Os isotopic ratios (n=51), and major, trace, and volatile elements from 1003 olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and their host minerals from tephra from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi volcanoes. The data show a strong correlation between MI volatile contents and incompatible trace element ratios (La/Yb) with Os isotopes of the same host olivines and reveal large-scale volatile heterogeneity and zonation exists within the Hawaiian plume. 'Loa' chain lavas, which are thought to originate from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite, have MIs with lower H2O, S, F, and Cl contents compared to 'Kea' chain lavas that were derived from more peridotite-rich sources. The depletion of volatile elements in the 'Loa' volcano MIs can be explained if they tapped an ancient dehydrated oceanic crust component within the Hawaiian plume. Higher extents of melting beneath 'Loa' volcanoes can also explain these depletions. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the

  1. Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, S; Phuong, T D

    1999-04-01

    Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on the content β-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs 137 source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in β-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific β-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and α -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 kGy ranging from 0.8 to 9

  4. Meteoritic Constraints on Models of the Solar Nebula: The Abundances of Moderately Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassen, Patrick; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The "moderately volatile" elements are those which condense (or evaporate) in the temperature range 650 - 1350 K, as a mix of material with solar abundances is cooled (or heated) tinder equilibrium conditions. Their relative abundances in chondritic meteorites are solar (or "cosmic", as defined by the composition of Cl meteorites) to within a factor of several, but vary within that range in a way that correlates remarkably well with condensation temperature, independent of chemical affinity. It has been argued that this correlation reflects a systematically selective process which favored the accretion of refractory material over volatile material from a cooling nebula. Wasson and Chou (Meteoritics 9, 69-94, 1974, and Wasson and co-authors in subsequent papers) suggested that condensation and settling of solids contemporaneously with the cooling and removal of nebular gas could produce the observed abundance patterns, but a quantitative model has been lacking. We show that the abundance patterns of the moderately volatile elements in chondritic meteorites can be produced, in some degree of quantitative detail, by models of the solar nebula that are designed to conform to observations of T Tauri stars and the global conservation laws. For example, even if the local surface density of the nebula is not decreasing, condensation and accretion of solids from radially inflowing gas in a cooling nebula can result in depletions of volatiles, relative to refractories, like those observed, The details of the calculated abundance patterns depend on (but are not especially sensitive to) model parameters, and can exhibit the variations that distinguish the meteorite classes. Thus it appears that nebula characteristics such as cooling rates, radial flow velocities, and particle accumulation rates can be quantitatively constrained by demanding that they conform to meteoritic data; and the models, in turn, can produce testable hypotheses regarding the time and location of the

  5. Relationships Between Element Contents in Polish Children's and Adolescents' Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długaszek, Maria; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    Environment, sex, and age are the main factors which determine the elemental composition of hair. The objective of the study is to determine the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in girls' and boys' hair in five age groups (within 1-19-year range) corresponding to successive human ontogenesis phases as well as to evaluate the relationships between these elements. Quantitative analysis has been carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Experimental results were analyzed using classic and principal component (PCA) statistical analyses. In particular, differences between contents of particularly Ca, Mg, and Zn in girls' and boys' hair were found, and substantial differences between age groups were stated. In general, larger amounts of Ca, Mg, and Zn as compared to boys' hair have been observed for girls' hair and higher toxic element (Pb, Cd) contents for boys were measured in some age groups. An increasing trend was found for bioelements (Ca, Mg, Zn) both for girls and boys in all age groups, while for Cu and Fe content, changes are insignificant and even decreasing for teenagers. The most frequently correlating element pairs are Ca-Mg, Ca-Zn, Mg-Zn, and Pb-Cd. Classic and PCA statistics show, in general, a satisfactory consistence. The elemental composition of hair varies depending on the gender and age of children and young people.

  6. Elemental content profiles in propolis from several cities of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aksoy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macro-element content profiles in propolis that have been previously used in traditional folk medicine have provided enough information to develop a classification of the geological origin of propolis. Within this study, we aim to contribute our research to existing literatüre, particularly through our use of EDXRF spectroscopy, which has not been used to study propolis before. The results of the study led us to conclude that the residues of heavy metals were a limited concentration in Turkish propolis samples. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the macro-element profiles in Turkish propolis from 18 different cities of Turkey. Methods: The macro-element of 22 raw propolis samples were investigated using Energy-Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Results: Turkish Propolis was discovered to be rich with minerals of potassium, sodium which could be more beneficial in human nutrition. Potassium content was at a relatively higher level than other elements in these samples, while calcium content was at alower level in those samples from various regions of Turkey. Conclusion: The elements of propolis that we studied were distinctive enough to make the discrimination of propolis from different locations in Turkey possible. The quantification by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry procedures provided good resolution of multi-element analysis in propolis samples.

  7. Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Stanger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described. The thermal and other properties are measured dynamically as a function of temperature of the coal without the need for equilibration at temperature. In particular, the technique allows for continuous elemental characterisation of tars as they are evolved during pyrolysis and afterwards as a function of boiling point. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the properties of maceral concentrates from a coal. The variation in heats of reaction, thermal conductivity and expansion as a function of maceral composition is described. Combined with the elemental analysis, the results aid in the interpretation of the chemical processes contributing to the physical and thermal behaviour of the coal during pyrolysis. Potential applications in cokemaking studies are discussed.

  8. Erosion of volatile elemental condensed gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, J.

    1991-11-01

    Erosion of the most volatile elemental gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment has been studied at the experimental setup at Risoe. The present work includes frozen neon, argon, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen and three hydrogen isotopes, deuterium, hydrogen deuteride and hydrogen. The yield of these condensed gases has been measured as a function of film thickness and primary energy for almost all combinations of primary particles (1-3 keV electrons, 5-10 keV hydrogen- and helium ions) and ices. These and other existing results show that there are substantial common features for the sputtering of frozen elemental gases. Within the two groups, the solid rare gases and the solid molecular gases, the similarity is striking. The hydrogenic solids deviate in some respects from the other elements. The processes that liberate kinetic energy for the particle ejection in sputtering are characteristic of the specific gas. (au) 3 tabs., 12 ills., 159 refs

  9. Technique for mass-spectrometric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurillovich, A.N.; Pimonov, Yu.I.; Biryukov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for mass-spectroimetric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuek claddings in the 2x10 -4 -1.5x10 -2 g range is developed. The relative standard deviation is 0.13. A character of moisture extraction from oxide uranium fuels in the 20-700 deg C temperature range is studied. Approximately 80% of moisture is extracted from the fuels at 300 deg C. The moisture content in fuel elements with granular uranium oxide fuels is measured. Dependence of fuel element moisture content on conditions of hot vacuum drying is shown. The technique permits to optimize the fuel element fabrication process to decrease the moisture content in them. 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo

    2000-01-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7α- and 7β- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions

  11. Biomass, Mineral Elements and Protein Contents of Six Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass, mineral elements and protein contents of six freshwater macrophytes found in Ghana are reported in this paper. The plants are Ceratophyllum demersum (a submerged plant), Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes (free-floating plants), Echinochloa pyramidalis and Typha domingensis (emergent plants) ...

  12. The relationship of element contents in erythrocyte with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li; Zhao Zhiying; Wang Zhenghua; Li Yanfen; Liu Nianqing; Liu Pingsheng; Xu qing; Liu Peng; Qian Qingfang

    1998-01-01

    The serum thyroid hormones (T 3 , T 4 , TSH, FT 3 and FT 4 ) level and the elements K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb in the erythrocyte in 76 cases is measured by radiometric assay in vitro (RIA and IRMA) and nuclear analytical technique (PIXE and INNA). According to thyroid hormones level, the cases are divided into four groups with hyperthyroid, normal, subhyperthyroid and hypothyroid. The difference and correlation of various parameters in four groups are compared by Oneway-ANOVA and Partial Correlation using SPSS/PC statistical package respectively. The results show that the content of Zn for hypothyroid group is significantly higher than hyperthyroid (P = 0.007) and sub-hyperthyroid (P = 0.046) groups, and the content of Zn for normal is lower than hypothyroid group but not significant difference (P = 0.083), the other elements contents are no significant difference among four groups. The highly significant linear correlation between the contents of K, Zn and Cu in the erythrocyte and T 3 , T 4 level ratio and TSH level is observed in hypothyroid and normal groups, the close correlation between the content of Se and serum T 4 and TSH level is also observed in hyperthyroid and sub-hyperthyroid groups. These suggest that trace elements may be important for the synthesis, metabolism and biological function of thyroid hormones

  13. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions

  14. The content of minerals and trace elements in meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, A.; Schelenz, R.; Gruenewald, T.; Frahm, H.; Heine, K.; Wiechen, A.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1981-07-01

    Within the frame work of the research programme 'School Feeding', 68 menu items of different producers were investigated for the content of the minerals calcium, chlorine, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, and for the trace elements antimony, barium, bromine, cesium, chromium, hafnium, iridium,cobalt, copper, manganese, mercury, rubidium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tin and zinc. For the analytical determination of the elements, instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorometry were applied. The studies showed that a calculation of the content of minerals and trace elements in meals on the basis of recipes and nutritive tables for raw foods is not justified, expect for sodium and phosphorus, because incorrect results can be obtained for the majority of meals. (orig./MG) [de

  15. A temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents at Campi Flegrei: Insights from texturally-constrained apatite analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Isaia, Roberto; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Pyle, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Apatite is capable of incorporating all major magmatic volatile species (H2O, CO2, S, Cl and F) into its crystal structure. Analysis of apatite volatile contents can be related to parental magma compositions through the application of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994). Once included within phenocrysts, apatite inclusions are isolated from the melt and preserve a temporal record of magmatic volatile contents in the build-up to eruption. In this work, we measured the volatile compositions of apatite inclusions, apatite microphenocrysts and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy (Stock et al. 2016). These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to decipher pre-eruptive magmatic processes. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset at shallow levels during ascent. Given the high diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), the preservation of volatile-undersaturated melt compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved 10 - 103 days before eruption. We suggest that late-stage transition into a volatile-saturated state caused an increase in magma chamber overpressure, which ultimately triggered the Astroni 1 eruption. This has major implications for monitoring of Campi Flegrei and other similar volcanic systems. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Stock et al., 2016, Nat. Geosci. Gualda et al., 2012. J. Pet., 53, 875

  16. Two-component mantle melting-mixing model for the generation of mid-ocean ridge basalts: Implications for the volatile content of the Pacific upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kei; Saal, Alberto E.; Myers, Corinne E.; Nagle, Ashley N.; Hauri, Erik H.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Niu, Yaoling

    2016-03-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element (CO2, H2O, F, Cl, S) contents and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the Northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR) off-axis seamounts, the Quebrada-Discovery-GoFar (QDG) transform fault system, and the Macquarie Island. The incompatible trace element (ITE) contents of the samples range from highly depleted (DMORB, Th/La ⩽ 0.035) to enriched (EMORB, Th/La ⩾ 0.07), and the isotopic composition spans the entire range observed in EPR MORB. Our data suggest that at the time of melt generation, the source that generated the EMORB was essentially peridotitic, and that the composition of NMORB might not represent melting of a single upper mantle source (DMM), but rather mixing of melts from a two-component mantle (depleted and enriched DMM or D-DMM and E-DMM, respectively). After filtering the volatile element data for secondary processes (degassing, sulfide saturation, assimilation of seawater-derived component, and fractional crystallization), we use the volatiles to ITE ratios of our samples and a two-component mantle melting-mixing model to estimate the volatile content of the D-DMM (CO2 = 22 ppm, H2O = 59 ppm, F = 8 ppm, Cl = 0.4 ppm, and S = 100 ppm) and the E-DMM (CO2 = 990 ppm, H2O = 660 ppm, F = 31 ppm, Cl = 22 ppm, and S = 165 ppm). Our two-component mantle melting-mixing model reproduces the kernel density estimates (KDE) of Th/La and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for our samples and for EPR axial MORB compiled from the literature. This model suggests that: (1) 78% of the Pacific upper mantle is highly depleted (D-DMM) while 22% is enriched (E-DMM) in volatile and refractory ITE, (2) the melts produced during variable degrees of melting of the E-DMM controls most of the MORB geochemical variation, and (3) a fraction (∼65% to 80%) of the low degree EMORB melts (produced by ∼1.3% melting) may escape melt aggregation by freezing at the base of the oceanic lithosphere, significantly enriching it in

  17. Oxygen isotopes and volatile contents of the Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: A confirmation of the deep mantle origin of H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kerr, Andrew C.

    2016-11-01

    We report O isotopes in olivine grains (Fo89-93) and volatile contents (CO2, H2O, F, S, Cl) in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from one Gorgona picrite and five komatiites with the aim of constraining the origin of H2O in these magmas. These samples have previously been analysed for major and trace elements and volatile concentrations (H2O, S, Cl) and B isotopes in melt inclusions. A distinctive feature of the included melts is relatively high contents of volatile components and boron, which show positive anomalies in, otherwise depleted, primitive mantle normalised trace and rare earth element patterns and range in δ11 B from -11.5 to 15.6‰. In this study, the olivines were systematically analysed for O isotopes (1) in the centre of grains, (2) near the grain boundaries and, (3) as close as possible to the studied melt inclusions. The majority of olivines (∼66%) are ;mantle;-like, 4.8 ‰ ≤δ18 O ≤ 5.5 ‰, with a subordinate but still significant number (∼33%) above, and only 2 grains below, this range. There is no systematic difference between the central and marginal parts of the grains. Higher than ;mantle; δ18OOl values are ascribed to low-T (Gorgona mafic and ultramafic magmas.

  18. Determination of the hydrogen content of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, M.; Petriu, F.; Toma, V.

    1995-01-01

    A new method and apparatus are reported for determination of the total hydrogen content by measurements on as-manufactured fuel elements, heated at prescribed temperature values between 200 degrees C and 600 degrees C. The method is based on the catalytic oxidation of the organic compounds and transformation of the hydrogen in the equivalent water quantity which is analysed by a special infrared detector. Different types of measurements for determination of the hydrogen content from graphite coating, UO 2 pellets and filling gas are presented. Also, experimental observation regarding water release and graphite thermal decomposition kinetic are discussed. (author)

  19. The effects of trace element content on pyrite oxidation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T.; Cliff, J. B.; Perea, D. E.; Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Large, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    variability of trace element content from the pyrite samples. These data were then used to select areas of interest for NanoSIMS analyses, which in turn was used to select areas for TEM and APT. These analyses show that the trace element content of pyrite can be highly variable, which may significantly affect the rate of pyrite oxidation.

  20. The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish Coffees

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Funda; Selvi, Nigar; Kıpçak, Seyhun; Özdemir, Özgül; Piskin, Mehmet; Moroydor Derun, Emek

    2015-01-01

    The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish CoffeesCoffee is one of the most popular drinks across the world and its enormous commercial and social importance is obvious. Coffee has become the essential consumption matter and one of the rituals of many societies for several years.Turkish people's first confrontation with it dates back to 16th century, in Ottoman era. Since then, because of the differences in terms of preparation and presentation styles, the coffee has been n...

  1. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  4. Process to determine light elements content of steel and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.A.L.T.M.H.; Castro, Martha T.P.O. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. LabLaser; Mac-Culloch, Joao N.L.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work reports a process to determine qualitatively and quantitatively elements of molar mass inferior to 23 within materials, by X rays spectra associated with multivariate data analysis, or chemometric analysis. The spectra is acquired between 5 keV and 22 keV when the materials are exposed to X radiation. Here is reported the direct determination of carbon content in steel and metallic alloys. The process is more effective when using spectral regions which are not usually used. From the analysis of these spectral regions which were not considered before, it was possible to detect light elements with molar mass lower than 23, which have low capacity of absorbing and emitting radiation, but have high capacity of scattering radiation. The process here reported has the advantage that X-Ray spectra obtained are calibrated multivariately, showing high potential for development in order to be used in a portable field equipment. (author)

  5. The Information Content of Treasury Bond Options Concerning Future Volatility and Price Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We study the relation between realized and implied volatility in the bond market. Realizedvolatility is constructed from high-frequency (5-minute) returns on 30 year Treasury bond futures.Implied volatility is backed out from prices of associated bond options. Recent nonparametric statisticaltech......We study the relation between realized and implied volatility in the bond market. Realizedvolatility is constructed from high-frequency (5-minute) returns on 30 year Treasury bond futures.Implied volatility is backed out from prices of associated bond options. Recent nonparametric...... components. We also introduce a new vector HAR (VecHAR) modelfor the resulting simultaneous system, controlling for possible endogeneity of implied volatility inthe forecasting equations. We show that implied volatility is a biased and inefficient forecast in thebond market. However, implied volatility does...

  6. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Lee, J.I.; Ahn, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  8. Measurement of Gas and Volatile Elements Production Cross Section in a Molten Lead-Bismuth Target

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    MEGAPIE is a project for a 1 MW liquid PbBi spallation source, to be built at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which will be an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the ADS concept and high power molten metal targets in general. In the design and construction of such a challenging project it is extremely important to evaluate the amount and type of gas and volatile elements which will be produced, for a reliable and safe operation of the experiment. Both stable (H, $^{4}$He and other noble gases) and radioactive isotopes are of interest. Currently, different design options are under consideration to deal with the gas produced during operation. \\\\ For a correct estimation of the production cross sections, a measurement with a liquid PbBi target and a proton beam of energy close to the one of MEGAPIE (575 MeV) is necessary. We would like to use the ISOLDE facility, which offers the unique opportunity via its mass spectrometric analysis of the elements present in the gas pha...

  9. Volatilization behavior of semivolatile elements in vitrification of high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Kato, Koh; Takahashi, Takeshi

    1991-11-01

    The effect of temperature on the volatilization of ruthenium, technetium, and selenium was observed in calcination experiments with simulated high-level liquid waste. Technetium and selenium were more volatile as calcining temperature increased. Ruthenium was less volatile when temperature exceeded 300degC. More than 80% of ruthenium that volatilized from room temperature to 500degC occurred between 200 and 300degC. A small amount of ruthenium volatilized above 300degC as well as below 135degC. (author)

  10. Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Murphy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08. Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8 can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m−3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m−3 and O:C (predicted O:C = 0.78 accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1 the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA aging rate constant, (2 assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3 the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4 heterogeneous chemistry, (5 the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6 biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, a low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging, keeping in mind that this study does not consider

  11. Volatile and non-volatile elements in grain-size separated samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanoli, R.; Gunten, H.R. von; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Meyer, G.; Wegmueller, F.; Gruetter, A.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1977-01-01

    Three samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils (75081, 72501 and 72461) were separated into 9 grain-size fractions between 540 and 1 μm mean diameter. In order to detect mineral fractionations caused during the separation procedures major elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses performed on small aliquots of the separated samples. Twenty elements were measured in each size fraction using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques. The concentration of the main elements in sample 75081 does not change with the grain-size. Exceptions are Fe and Ti which decrease slightly and Al which increases slightly with the decrease in the grain-size. These changes in the composition in main elements suggest a decrease in Ilmenite and an increase in Anorthite with decreasing grain-size. However, it can be concluded that the mineral composition of the fractions changes less than a factor of 2. Samples 72501 and 72461 are not yet analyzed for the main elements. (Auth.)

  12. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 μg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 μg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 μg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 μg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 μg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 μg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 μg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 μg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 μg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 μg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 μg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 μg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption

  13. Studies on tender wheatgrass: estimation of elemental content, bioaccessibility of essential elements and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Kulkarni, S.D.; Rajurkar, N.S.

    2008-08-01

    Tender wheatgrass is being consumed by human beings in juice form or as it is due to its antioxidant potential and medicinal value. Systematic studies were carried out to (i) estimate elemental profiles as a function of growth period and conditions, bioaccessibility of different elements and the antioxidant potential of the tender wheatgrass, (ii) determine the optimum growth period for obtaining maximum benefit and (iii) examine the possible correlation between antioxidant potential and mineral content. Wheatgrass was grown in four different conditions namely (i) tap water, (ii) tap water with nutrients, (iii) soil and tap water and (iv) soil with nutrient solution. The studies were carried out on the wheatgrass of 5-20 days old. For comparison with laboratory grown wheatgrass, a set of commercially available wheatgrass tablets and wheat seeds were also studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for concentration determination of elements in the wheatgrass, wheat seeds and wheatgrass tablets. A total of 15 elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Br, Fe and Zn were determined in the samples of shoots and roots of tender wheatgrass. A comparison with the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of different essential elements with that in tender wheatgrass revealed that wheatgrass is a good source of minerals for health benefits rather than a food supplement. Bioaccessible fractions of various elements were estimated by a chemical NAA method by subjecting the samples to in vitro gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion followed by NAA. The bioaccessibility concentrations by both the measurements were in the range of 9-60%. It was found that bioaccessibility of the elements studied was the highest from fresh wheatgrass and the lowest from wheat seeds. Accuracy of the NAA method was evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials, SRM 1573a (Tomato leaves) from NIST, USA and ICHTJ CTA-vtl-2 (Tobacco leaves) from INCT, Poland. The antioxidant

  14. Mechanisms of chemical generation of volatile hydrides for trace element determination (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Ulivo, A.; Dědina, Jiří; Mester, Z.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Wang, Q.; Welz, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 6 (2011), s. 1283-1340 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : borane complexes * chemical generation of volatile hydrides (CHG) * volatile hydrides Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.789, year: 2011

  15. Comparative study of anthocyanin and volatile compounds content of four varieties of Mexican roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) by multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, G A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Jiménez-Aparicio, A R; Vanegas-Espinoza, P E; Paredes-López, O; Del Villar-Martínez, A A

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of water-soluble pigments that provide red, purple or blue color to the leaves, flowers, and fruits. In addition, benefits have been attributed to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This study compared the content of total anthocyanins and volatile compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of four varieties of Mexican roselle, with different levels of pigmentation. The multivariable analysis of categorical data demonstrated that ethanol was the best solvent for the extraction of both anthocyanins and volatile compounds. The concentration of anthocyanin in pigmented varieties ranged from 17.3 to 32.2 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside/g dry weight, while volatile compounds analysis showed that geraniol was the main compound in extracts from the four varieties. The principal component analysis (PCA) allowed description of results with 77.38% of variance establishing a clear grouping for each variety in addition to similarities among some of these varieties. These results were validated by the confusion matrix obtained in the classification by the factorial discriminate analysis (FDA); it can be useful for roselle varieties classification. Small differences in anthocyanin and volatile compounds content could be detected, and it may be of interest for the food industry in order to classify a new individual into one of several groups using different variables at once.

  16. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  17. Comparative study of volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of pecan cultivars growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hawary, Seham S; Zaghloul, Soumaya S; El Halawany, Ali M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H

    2013-11-01

    The volatile oils obtained from the leaves of four pecan cultivars growing in Egypt were evaluated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. The selected cultivars (cv.) were Carya illinoinensis (Wangneh.) K. Koch. cv. Wichita, C. illinoinensis cv. Western Schley, C. illinoinensis cv. Cherokee, and C. illinoinensis cv. Sioux. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the volatile oils from samples of the different cultivars differ in composition and percentage of their components. β-Curcumene was found as the major constituent of the cv. Wichita oil, whereas germacrene D was the major component of cv. Sioux, cv. Cherokee, and cv. Western Schley. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer Method by measuring the zone of inhibition of growth. All volatile oils displayed an antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial strains. On the other hand, only the volatile oil of cv. Wichita showed an antifungal effect on Aspergillus flavus. This work has identified candidates of volatile oils for future in vivo studies to develop antibiotic substitutes for the diminution of human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the variations of the volatile oil components and antimicrobial potencies of the different studied cultivars, necessitate identifying the cultivars used in future studies.

  18. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr DIALLO

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... The mineral elements are present in different kinds of herbal leaves in various proportions .... rare earth elements (Dy, Eu, Gd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were not detected in ..... behaviour of leached aluminum in tea infusions. The Sci.

  19. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Volatile Compounds and Inositol Hexakisphosphate (IP6) Content in Wholemeal Wheat Bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd Noor, Nor Qhairul Izzreen B

    . The volatile compounds were extracted with dynamic headspace extraction and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results were evaluated using multivariate data analysis and ANOVA. In paper I, the crumb fermented at high temperature (32°C) had higher relative areas of the Maillard reaction...

  1. Study of volatile oil and lipid content of Jasonia montana (vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oils, prepared by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of three patches of Jasonia montana (vahl.) collected in May, August and November were subjected separately to GC/Ms analysis. Camphor, endoborneol, endobornyl acetate, intermedeol, 1, 8-cineole, 1-α-terpineol, and α-pinene, represented the major ...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Pppp... - Determination of Weight Volatile Matter Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives A Appendix A to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection... Reactive Adhesives 1.0Applicability and Principle 1.1Applicability: This method applies to the... reactive adhesives. Reactive adhesives are composed, in large part, of monomers that react during the...

  3. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinova, L.

    1993-01-01

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Changes in volatile composition and sensory attributes of wines during alcohol content reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Rocco; Blackman, John W; Torley, Peter J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2017-01-01

    A desirable sensory profile is a major consumer driver for wine acceptability and should be considered during the production of reduced-alcohol wines. Although various viticultural practices and microbiological approaches show promising results, separation technologies such as membrane filtration, in particular reverse osmosis and evaporative perstraction, in addition to vacuum distillation, represent the most common commercial methods used to produce reduced-alcohol wine. However, ethanol removal from wine can result in a significant loss of volatile compounds such as esters (ethyl octanoate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate) that contribute positively to the overall perceived aroma. These losses can potentially reduce the acceptability of the wine to consumers and decrease their willingness to purchase wines that have had their alcohol level reduced. The change in aroma as a result of the ethanol removal processes is influenced by a number of factors: the type of alcohol reduction process; the chemical-physical properties (volatility, hydrophobicity, steric hindrance) of the aroma compounds; the retention properties of the wine non-volatile matrix; and the ethanol level. This review identifies and summarises possible deleterious influences of the dealcoholisation process and describes best practice strategies to maintain the original wine composition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Elemental content in ground and soluble/instant coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Iskander, F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of thirty-four elements in twelve coffee brands has been measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples investigated included four brands of commercially available ground coffee and eight brands of soluble/instant coffee. The elements measured were Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, U, V, Yb and Zn. Twenty four elements were found to be below the detection limit in one or more samples. These elements were Ce, Cr, Fe, V, As, Eu, Ba, Dy, Gd, Hf, La, Lu, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Yb, Tm, and U. (author)

  6. The origin of volatile element depletion in early solar system material: Clues from Zn isotopes in chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Paniello, Randal; Hezel, Dominik C.

    2017-06-01

    Volatile lithophile elements are depleted in the different planetary materials to various degrees, but the origin of these depletions is still debated. Stable isotopes of moderately volatile elements such as Zn can be used to understand the origin of volatile element depletions. Samples with significant volatile element depletions, including the Moon and terrestrial tektites, display heavy Zn isotope compositions (i.e. enrichment of 66Zn vs. 64Zn), consistent with kinetic Zn isotope fractionation during evaporation. However, Luck et al. (2005) found a negative correlation between δ66Zn and 1/[Zn] between CI, CM, CO, and CV chondrites, opposite to what would be expected if evaporation caused the Zn abundance variations among chondrite groups. We have analyzed the Zn isotope composition of multiple samples of the major carbonaceous chondrite classes: CI (1), CM (4), CV (2), CO (4), CB (2), CH (2), CK (4), and CK/CR (1). The bulk chondrites define a negative correlation in a plot of δ66Zn vs 1/[Zn], confirming earlier results that Zn abundance variations among carbonaceous chondrites cannot be explained by evaporation. Exceptions are CB and CH chondrites, which display Zn systematics consistent with a collisional formation mechanism that created enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes relative to the trend defined by CI-CK. We further report Zn isotope analyses of chondrite components, including chondrules from Allende (CV3) and Mokoia (CV3), as well as an aliquot of Allende matrix. All chondrules are enriched in light Zn isotopes (∼500 ppm on 66Zn/64Zn) relative to the bulk, contrary to what would be expected if Zn were depleted during evaporation, on the other hand the matrix has a complementary heavy isotope composition. We report sequential leaching experiments in un-equilibrated ordinary chondrites, which show sulfides are isotopically heavy compared to silicates and the bulk meteorite by ca. +0.65 per mil on 66Zn/64Zn. We suggest isotopically heavy sulfides were

  7. Radioactivity and trace element contents of commercial chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafauti, S.; Pulhani, V.; Dahiya, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive elements uranium, thorium and their daughters are present ubiquitously in the environment and are transferred to man through various pathways. Both, U and Th can cause radiological and toxic hazards. The ingestion dose pathway calculations involve analysis of all kinds of food or edible materials. A large population in India and Asian subcontinent are addicted to commercially available chewing tobacco. This practice is reported to have lead to increased consequences of cancer. Trace elements (Fe, Co, Mn, Zn etc.) are essential but may also prove to be toxic if present in excess. Besides these the hazards of heavy elements like Pb and Cd have also increased in the current polluted environment. In this study most of the commercially available brands of gutkha and chewing tobacco were collected. The radioactive elements U and Th were analyzed in them by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Trace elements Fe, Co, Mn, Zn, and toxic heavy elements Pb, Cd, Ni etc. were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Th and U were in the range 0.02-0.11 mg/g and 0.02-0.08 mg/g respectively. The cancer risk due to U, Th, Pb and Cd were calculated and are found to be low. (author)

  8. APXS of First Rocks Encountered by Curiosity in Gale Crater: Geochemical Diversity and Volatile Element (K and ZN) Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. E.; King, P. L.; Gellert, R.; Elliott, B.; Thompson, L.; Berger, J.; Bridges, J.; Campbell, J. L; Grotzinger, J.; Hurowitz, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) on the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater [1] is the 4th such instrument to have landed on Mars [2]. Along the rover's traverse down-section toward Glenelg (through sol 102), the APXS has examined four rocks and one soil [3]. Gale rocks are geochemically diverse and expand the range of Martian rock compositions to include high volatile and alkali contents (up to 3.0 wt% K2O) with high Fe and Mn (up to 29.2% FeO*).

  9. Mineral Elements Content of some Coarse Grains used as staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of mineral elements were carried out on some coarse grains used as staple food in Kano metropolis. The levels of Magnesium, Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper and Zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and that of Sodium and Potassium were obtained using flame photometer ...

  10. Study of new technique of solid combustible materials to determination of volatile elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, R.C. de.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique for direct trace element analysis of solid combustible materials is described. The samples (up to 10 mg) are weighed on a graphite platform wich is then placed in a quartz tube, at the focal point of three infrared lamps. When the lamps are turned on, the sample burns in a stream of air, and the resulting dry aerosol containing volatile elements such as Hg, Cd, Bi, Tl, Zn, Pb and Cu is carried into the mixing chamber and thence into the flame, where the atomic absorption measurement is carried out. This technique overcomes chemical sample preparation steps, avoiding contaminations of losses associated with these steps. A ''furnace in flame'' system where the aerosol is transported to a flame heated T-tube is also described. The influence of flame stoichiometry, observation height, platform material and air flux intensity was studied inorder to determine optimal analytical conditions. (author) [pt

  11. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Nutrients and Mineral Elements Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crude protein (Cp) ad crude fibre (Cf) content than A. gayanus. The high Cp .... protein. This gives an indication of relatively high quality of this grass species as livestock feed than its counterpart. Proteins play an important role in Carbon- dioxide fixation during .... Ruminant Nutrition, 1st edition, Macmillan Press. Ltd, London ...

  13. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yanqun; Bock, Laurent; Schvartz, Christian; Colinet, Gilles; Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Chenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 mg/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil) of Pb and Zn > or =1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu related to relief, stoniness, soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu. Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M > L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  14. [Content of mineral elements of Gastrodia elata by principal components analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-ling; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-chang; Luo, Chun-li; Huang, Ming-jin; Luo, Fu-lai; Wang, Hua-lei

    2015-03-01

    To study the content of mineral elements and the principal components in Gastrodia elata. Mineral elements were determined by ICP and the data was analyzed by SPSS. K element has the highest content-and the average content was 15.31 g x kg(-1). The average content of N element was 8.99 g x kg(-1), followed by K element. The coefficient of variation of K and N was small, but the Mn was the biggest with 51.39%. The highly significant positive correlation was found among N, P and K . Three principal components were selected by principal components analysis to evaluate the quality of G. elata. P, B, N, K, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mg were the characteristic elements of G. elata. The content of K and N elements was higher and relatively stable. The variation of Mn content was biggest. The quality of G. elata in Guizhou and Yunnan was better from the perspective of mineral elements.

  15. Assessment of factors influencing trace element content of mushrooms from European part of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Okina, O.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The results on trace element content in 12 species of basidial mushrooms from the European part of Russia are presented. Difference in the elemental content of wild and cultivated mushrooms is demonstrated. Assessment of technogenic contamination impact on trace element content of champignons is given. It was revealed that in the described conditions the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Boletus edulis is not observed. High content of the mentioned elements in these mushrooms is caused by high content of their mobile forms in soil. It was shown that the high concentration of mobile forms of metals in soil establishes in the process of natural many years' accumulation of organic matter followed by its decomposition

  16. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  17. Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)

  18. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Neggache, H.; Larbi, R.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 and 1.4 x 10 11 n x cm -2 x s -1 , respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  19. Effects of gasoline aromatic content on emissions of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes from a four-stroke motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng

    2013-01-01

    A new four-stroke carburettor motorcycle engine without any engine adjustments was used to study the impact of fuel aromatic content on the exhaust emissions of organic air pollutants (volatile organic compounds and carbonyls). Three levels of aromatic content, i.e. 15, 25, and 50% (vol.) aromatics mixed with gasoline were tested. The emissions of aromatic fuel were compared with those of commercial unleaded gasoline. The results indicated that the A 15 (15 vol% aromatics in gasoline) fuel exhibited the greatest total organic emission improvement among these three aromatic fuels as compared with commercial gasoline, reaching 59%. The highest emission factors of alkanes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups appeared in the reference fuel (RF) among all of the test fuels. A 15 showed the highest emission reduction in alkanes (73%), aromatics (36%), and carbonyls (28%), as compared to those of the RF. The highest emission reduction ofalkenes was observed when using A25 as fuel. A reduction in fuel aromatic content from 50 to 25 and 15 vol% in gasoline decreased benzene and toluene emissions, but increased the aldehyde emissions. In general, the results showed that the highest emission reductions for the most of measured organic pollutants appeared when using A 15 as the fuel.

  20. Effect of cytokinins on in vitro multiplication, volatiles composition and rosmarinic acid content of Thymus leucotrichus Hal. shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekircan, Tuba; Yaşar, Ahmet; Yıldırım, Sercan; Sökmen, Münevver; Sökmen, Atalay

    2018-03-01

    An efficient in vitro multiplication protocol was designed to Thymus leucotrichus , a subshrub and perennial herb growing naturally in the Northwest of Turkey. Of all basal media studied, Murashige and Skoog medium was found to be superior to the others, providing higher shoot formation and the maximum shoot length. Varying concentrations of cytokinins, i.e., 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, 2-isopentenyladenine and kinetin were supplemented in the nutrient media to observe their effects on shoot development and biomass. Rosmarinic acid content and volatile compositions of both naturally growing plants and in vitro multiplied plantlets were also evaluated. 6-benzyladenine (1.0 mg/L) and kinetin (0.5 mg/L) were found to be optimum for shoot number and shoot elongation, respectively. Thidiazuron (1.0 mg/L) was superior for biomass production. Rosmarinic acid content of in vitro multiplied plants was found to be higher than that of wild plants, reaching a maximum with 0.5 mg/L 2-isopentenyladenine, which yielded 10.15 mg/g dry weight. The highest thymol content was obtained with 1.0 mg/L kinetin (55.82%), while thidiazuron (0.1 mg/L) increased carvacrol production (12.53%). Overall, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L kinetin was determined to be the most favorable medium studied.

  1. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  2. Investigation of the impact of trace elements on anaerobic volatile fatty acid degradation using a fractional factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles; Heaven, Sonia; Longhurst, Philip

    2017-11-15

    The requirement of trace elements (TE) in anaerobic digestion process is widely documented. However, little is understood regarding the specific requirement of elements and their critical concentrations under different operating conditions such as substrate characterisation and temperature. In this study, a flask batch trial using fractional factorial design is conducted to investigate volatile fatty acids (VFA) anaerobic degradation rate under the influence of the individual and combined effect of six TEs (Co, Ni, Mo, Se, Fe and W). The experiment inoculated with food waste digestate, spiked with sodium acetate and sodium propionate both to 10 g/l. This is followed by the addition of a selection of the six elements in accordance with a 2 6-2 fractional factorial principle. The experiment is conducted in duplicate and the degradation of VFA is regularly monitored. Factorial effect analysis on the experimental results reveals that within these experimental conditions, Se has a key role in promoting the degradation rates of both acetic and propionic acids; Mo and Co are found to have a modest effect on increasing propionic acid degradation rate. It is also revealed that Ni shows some inhibitory effects on VFA degradation, possibly due to its toxicity. Additionally, regression coefficients for the main and second order effects are calculated to establish regression models for VFA degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  4. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of elements' content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate elements' content and anti-microbial effects of two Malaysian plants, Pereskia bleo and Goniothalamus umbrosus. Elements' analysis was carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis combined with Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (EDX, VPSEM).

  5. Determination of volatile trace elements in terrestrial minerals and lunar soils by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Wegmueller, F.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure is reported for the simultaneous determination of Au, Cd, Ge, Hg, In, Sb, Te and Zn in 5-50 mg aliquots of minerals and lunar soils. After irradiation with thermal neutrons the samples are dissolved in digestion bombs by HF/HClO 4 . Sulfide precipitates provide the necessary group separations. The purified elements are measured on Ge(Li) detectors. Accuracy and precision are generally better than 10%. (author)

  6. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of the elemental content in cigarettes by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a worldwide habit, has a very bad and hazardous effect on the human body. Neutron activation analysis technique is used in the present study. Different kinds of cigarette brands have been collected from local and foreign markets representing ten countries all over the world. All the selected samples are irradiated in first Ins has reactor, ER-1 in Egypt. A comprehensive study of the elemental content in cigarette samples under investigation has been carried out. Concentrations of the polluting elements, tracers' content and more than twenty elements have been determined. The obtained data resulting from the present work are discussed

  8. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, Naeem, E-mail: naeem.saqib@oru.se; Bäckström, Mattias, E-mail: mattias.backstrom@oru.se

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  9. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, Ildikó [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Soran, Maria-Loredana, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Niinemets, Ülo [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Copolovici, Lucian [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Institute of Technical and Natural Sciences Research-Development of “Aurel Vlaicu” University, 2 Elena Drăgoi Street, Arad 310330 (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, > 17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation represents a stress for the plants. • Microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles. • O. basilicum irradiation with microwaves increases the essential oil content. • Microwave pollution can constitute a threat to the

  10. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, Ildikó; Soran, Maria-Loredana; Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, > 17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation represents a stress for the plants. • Microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles. • O. basilicum irradiation with microwaves increases the essential oil content. • Microwave pollution can constitute a threat to the

  11. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  12. Radiocarbon content of synthetic and natural semi-volatile halogenated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, C.M.; Xu Li; Eglinton, T.I.; Boon, J.P.; Faulkner, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    New developments in molecular-level 14 C analysis techniques enable clues about natural versus commercial synthesis of trace organic contaminants. - Some halogenated organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been suggested to have natural sources but separating these compounds from their commercially synthesized counterparts is difficult. Molecular-level 14 C analysis may be beneficial since most synthetic compounds are manufactured from petrochemicals ( 14 C-free) and natural compounds should have 'modern' or 'contemporary' 14 C levels. As a baseline study, we measured, for the first time, the 14 C abundance in commercial PCB and PBDE mixtures, a number of organochlorine pesticides, as well as one natural product 2-(3', 5'-dibromo-2'-methoxyphenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole. The latter compound was isolated from a marine sponge and is similar in structure to a PBDE. All of the synthetic compounds were 14 C-free except for the pesticide toxaphene, which had a modern 14 C abundance, as did the brominated natural compound. The result for toxaphene was not surprising since it was commercially synthesized by the chlorination of camphene derived from pine trees. These results suggest that measuring the 14 C content of halogenated organic compounds may be quite useful in establishing whether organic compounds encountered in the environment have natural or synthetic origins (or both) provided that any synthetic counterparts derive from petrochemical feedstock

  13. Contents of several elements in trees grown on the serpentine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Katayama, Yukio; Takada, Jitsuya; Nishimura, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of Mg-, Ca-, Cr-, Mn-, Fe- and Ni-content in akamatsu (P. densiflora), konara (Q. serrata) and ryoubu (C. barbinervis) which were grown on the serpentine soil, as well as in soil, were performed by the neutron activation method or the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It turned out that contents of these elements was higher in leaves than wood. It was also found that Ni content in the leaves of konara as well as of ryoubu reflected the concentration of the acid extractable Ni in the serpentine soil. The elemental contents in akamatsu leaves were heavily affected by the characteristic contents of the serpentine soil. It is suggested that these trees are available for the indicator of soil-environment. (author)

  14. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  15. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  16. Contents of trace elements in blood of healthy old people assayed by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xinyu; Tong Hongli; Wang Ling; Zhou Heping; Tian Yaping

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the levels of 11 trace elements in serum of healthy old people to provide scientific basis for prevention and treatment of geriatric diseases, the serum were separated from blood samples according to standard procedure. The serum samples were underwent digestion, elimination of nitric acid, volume fixation and then assayed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of Al in elderly people's serum is higher than those in young people (P<0.01), while the contents of V, Cr, Cu and Se in elderly people's serum were lower than those in young people (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in other trace elements between two groups. The contents of some trace elements in elderly people's serum changed significantly. (authors)

  17. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  18. A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia

    2016-07-21

    Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with

  19. Relationships Between Element Contents in Polish Children’s and Adolescents’ Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Długaszek, Maria; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Environment, sex, and age are the main factors which determine the elemental composition of hair. The objective of the study is to determine the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in girls’ and boys’ hair in five age groups (within 1–19-year range) corresponding to successive human ontogenesis phases as well as to evaluate the relationships between these elements. Quantitative analysis has been carried out using atomic abso...

  20. A study of relationship of element contents in human hair with some respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaolin; Wu Lanlan; Yuan Ling; Huang Liyun; Jia Zhanxiang; Chen Yang

    1994-01-01

    19 elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, Cu, Zn, etc., in hair of 65 patients with chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and cor-pulmonale diseases and 65 healthy people have been investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that the contents of Ca and Mg are lower and Fe, As and Co are higher in the hair of patients than in healthy persons. The contents of Ca and Mg are lower and Fe is higher in the hair of patients during attack periods of chronic bronchitis than in relaxed periods. The differences are significant (P<0.05-0.01). The content of Ca is closely related to that of Mg in hair (P<0.01). The contents of inorganic elements in the Chinese medicine cough and asthma capsule used to treat chronic bronchitis have been determined. The results show that the contents of elements Ca, Mg, Sr, etc., are higher in this medicine than the average amounts of these elements in 120 other Chinese medicines. (author) 15 refs.; 8 tabs

  1. Study of the elemental content in mollusk from Uruguayan's coast by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, G.; Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Mendez, Silvia

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to establish a starting point on the content of trace elements, either with a toxic and/or nutritional interest, in Uruguayan coastal mollusks. The River Plate is located between Argentina and Uruguay and has an estuarine nature. It is thus a zone with distinctive features among the South American Atlantic coasts. The analysis techniqe employed is X-ray fluroescence, which is non-destructive and multi-elemental. A simple way of sample preparation is proposed, which does not use reagents that may introduce foreign elements, and is therefore low cost. tabs

  2. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Alias Mohamad; Jagir Singh, Jasbir Kaur

    1987-09-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding.

  3. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias Mohamad Yusof; Jasbir Kaur Jagir Singh

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)

  4. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  5. Variability of total and mobile element contents in ash derived from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Ochecová, P.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 11 (2013), s. 1376-1385 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : biomass combustion * fly ash * bottom ash * element contents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  6. Elemental contents in soil samples in Wad Hamid, River Nile State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Khansaa Elawad Elhag

    2016-03-01

    In the present study a total of 30 samples were collected from Wad Hamid River Nile State. Sampling area of (two feddan) of agricultural soil. The sampling area was divided in two locations (fertile and non fertile soil). The samples were analyzed for their content of 13 elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np). 10 samples from location 1 (non-fertile soil) and 20 samples from location 2 (fertile soil). X-ray fluorescence (X RF) Spectrometer (system used based on 1"0"9"Cd excitation 1"0"9"Cd source which has an average energy of 22.6 kev and able to excite the elements from Z = 13 to 92 using K and L lines) used to identify the elemental concentration in soil samples. The reliability of X RF technique as multi elements detecting method for measuring elements concentration in soil sample , (IAEA-SOIL-7) standard reference material was used. Measured values found in agreement with the certified values. The average elemental concentration of K,Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np in location 1 were 878, 29690, 13400, 983, 70380, 10.07, 19.07, 40.92,261.4, 23.59,294.8, 47.82, while the average elemental concentration in location 2 were 9848, 27780, 13076,13076,989, 68135, 9.6, 96.3 19.86, 43.7, 225.5, 22.49, 284.75, 46.15, respectively. comparison between the average elemental concentration in fertile soil and non-fertile was done correlations between element were performed Cluster analyses of element in soil samples were obtained comparison between this study and data from literature were done. The elemental concentration in location 1 (non- fertile soil) are higher than location 2 ( fertile soil) because the plant absorbed fertilizer of soil and transfer most elements in soil to plant. (Author)

  7. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Sun Ha Kim; Gwang Min Sun; Jong Myoung Lim; Jong Hwa Moon; Kye Hong Lee; Young Jin Kim; Jong Il Choi; Ju Woon Lee

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  8. Elemental content in cigarette components and its distribution as determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, Y.E.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a world-wide habit. Has a very bad and hazardous effects on the human body. In the present study, different kinds of cigarette brands have been collected from local and foreign markets representing ten countries all over the world. All the selected samples were irradiated in first Inshas reactor (IR-1) in Egypt. A comprehensive study of the elemental contents in cigarette samples under investigation has been carried out by using neutron activation analysis technique. Concentrations of the polluting elements and tracer contents of cigarette tobacco have been determined. The elemental distribution of the component (tobacco. ash. filter before and after smoking and wrapping paper) of some kinds of cigarettes has been studied. The obtained data resulting from the present work were discussed

  9. Evaluation of trace elements contents in healthy and seborrhoeic skin samples by SRTXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace elements content in seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) skin lesions as well in normal skin and compare them. These data was acquired by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF). It focused elements with atomic number greater than 14. This stage of research was supported by LNLS - Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, from the same patient, has involved 5 males and females with ages varying from 34 to 80 years old. The results have shown the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in healthy skin. The comparison with lesion contents has revealed significant differences in contents of Fe, K, Cr, and Zn. (author)

  10. Effect of organic substrates on available elemental contents in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Y.S.; Sun, M.; Li, Y.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School for Agriculture & Biology

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the changes of available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts of organic substrates (peat moss, charred rice husk, chicken manure, sawdust, turfgrass clipping and weathered coal) were studied and compared with that in the water extracts. Results showed that available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts are significantly different between organic substrates, whereas ionic concentrations are basically under steady condition after treatment for 36-108 h. Ionic contents in the nutrient solution extracts are not equal to the value of adding ionic concentrations in the supplied nutrient solution to that in the water extract. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed for adjusting the composition of supplied nutrient solution to match plant requirements in the organic soilless culture system.

  11. Evaluation of trace elements contents in healthy and seborrhoeic skin samples by SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace elements content in seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) skin lesions as well in normal skin and compare them. These data was acquired by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF). It focused elements with atomic number greater than 14. This stage of research was supported by LNLS - Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, from the same patient, has involved 5 males and females with ages varying from 34 to 80 years old. The results have shown the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in healthy skin. The comparison with lesion contents has revealed significant differences in contents of Fe, K, Cr, and Zn. (author)

  12. Content of selected elements in Boletus badius fruiting bodies growing in extremely polluted wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Gąsecka, Monika; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse levels of 17 trace elements and 5 major minerals in 11 Boletus badius fruiting bodies able to grow in extremely polluted waste (flotation tailings) and polluted soil in southern Poland. The presented data widen the limited literature data about the abilities of wild-growing mushroom species to grow on heavily contaminated substrates. Content of elements in waste, soil and mushrooms was analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS - Hg). The industrial areas differed greatly as regards the content of elements in flotation tailings and soil; therefore differences in Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ca, K, Mg, Na and P accumulation in mushrooms were observed. The highest contents of elements in mushrooms were observed for: As, Al, Cu and Zn (86 ± 28, 549 ± 116, 341 ± 59 and 506 ± 40 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively). Calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values were higher than 1 for Al (15.1-16.9), Fe (10.6-24.4) and Hg (10.2-16.4) only. The main value of the presented results is the fact that one of the common wild-growing mushroom species was able to grow on flotation tailings containing over 22 g kg(-1) of As and, additionally, effective accumulation of other elements was observed. In view of the high content of the majority of analysed elements in fruiting bodies, edible mushrooms from such polluted areas are nonconsumable.

  13. The information content of implied volatilities of options on eurodeposit futures traded on the LIFFE: is there long memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cifarelli, giulio

    2002-01-01

    Under rather general conditions Black - Scholes implied volatilities from at-the-money options appropriately quantify, in each period, the market expectations of the average volatility of the return of the underlying asset until contract expiration. The efficiency of these expectation estimates is investigated here, for options on two major short term interest rate futures contracts traded at the LIFFE, using a long memory framework. Over the 1993 – 1997 time interval the performance of im...

  14. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  15. Trace elements contents in sea water along 200 km strip of the Hadramout coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shawafi, N. A.; Al-Kahali, M. S.; Ba-Isa, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The contents of trace elements in the sea water samples, collected from five sites along the coast of Hadramout were determined. The mean concentrations values for Cd, Co, Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and V were 0.800, 0, 0.306, 0.027, 0.074, 0.065, 0.065, 0.054, 0.024, 0.034 and 0.046 μg/1 respectively. The results show an increase in concentrations of trace elements compared to previous study. Nevertheless, the studied sites are not considered to be dangerously polluted, despite the recent increase in oil and human activities along the coast. (author)

  16. Studies in Bangladesh on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, M.; Miah, M.F.K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to characterize a Reference Asian Man for radiation protection a study on the ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection has been taken up by the IAEA/RCA among the Asian Countries. Representative sampling sample collection, appropriate techniques for analysis, quality assurance etc. for the study of this project are important parameters for accurate measurements. Some elemental composition in drinking supply water (Tap water and ground water) in the Dhaka city in Bangladesh has been presented in this paper. (author)

  17. The Elemental content of Niue Island soils as an indicator of their origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The major and trace element contents of 241 Niue Island lateritic soils were determined, mainly by X-ray fluorescence, to deduce soil origins. The analyses showed very low SiO 2 content, and a high content of Mg, P, V, Cr, Sr, Y, Hg, and α-counts, compared with other laterites worldwide. The distribution patterns are consistent with derivation by weathering from calcite and dolomite rather then from deposted volcanic ash. Weathering is a particularly novel explanation for the origin of the relatively high content of P in these soils. The soils contain a negative Ce anomly, consistent with an origin from seawater or coral, but not volcanic ash. If recent results showing in situ formation of magnetite in soils are applicable, the soil mineralogy is wholly from calcite is also consistent with the relative lack of volcanic ash on the seabed nearby, and very low deposition of aeolian dust. The radioactivity content is consistent neither with calcite/dolomite wathering, nor volcanic ash orgin, but may have originated, like a few of the stable elements, from rising hydrothermal solutions. (authors). 67 refs.; 8 figs.; 6 tabs

  18. Capture analysis of element content of a substance with other neutron methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Neutron analysis method of determining element composition have found wide range of applications in industry thanks to different types of interaction of neutron with substances /1/. With the aim of widening the range of problems to be solved, on the basis of the device /2/ for determining the element content of substance, possibilities of combining the method based on the use of neutron capture gamma-ray spectrometry with other neutron methods, in particular neutron activation analysis and neutron absorption analysis were studied. In this radionuclide source ( 252 Cf) with the yield of 1,5 x 10 7 neutron/sec is used. By means of using neutron capture gamma radiation spectrometry the possibilities of determining some elements (H, B, N, S etc. ), which are not determined by very widely used method, activation analysis. These elements can be determined by both the semiconductor and scintillation detectors with parameters fitting the manufacturing requirements. And for a number of elements ( B, Cl, Cd, Sm, Gd) very high limits of determination ( up to 10- 5 %) are possible using semiconductor Ge (Li) -detectors with high resolution. Possibility of determination of some 'well' activated elements ( K, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc etc.) in samples of ore and products of their processing using the neutron-activation analysis. For 1 hour of irradiation on the experimental device quite accurate analytical peak, of these elements are obtained, allowing to determine them qualitatively. However, with decreasing neutron yield of radionuclide source it becomes more difficult to achieve the necessary parameters both in neutron capture and activation analysis. Experimental works on determination of some elements with large cross-sections of capture ( B, Cd, Sm ) by absorption of neutrons in the investigated substance, i.e. using the neutron absorption analysis method with absence of other large capture cross section elements in the samples being studied

  19. Contents of trace elements in meadow mushrooms as results of PIXE, NAA and AAS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, J.; Sieniawski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Contents of heavy elements in mushrooms from the Dresden area and from some parts of Poland, by use of three methods of measurement (PIXE, AAS and NAA) were determined, with the special interest focused on wild growing and cultivated meadow mushrooms. The ability for accumulation of Se, Cu, Ag and Cu was established. In some wild growing mushrooms the values of Cd, Hg, As and Pb exceeded allowed limits for human nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. Bioaccessible contents of inorganic elements in plant based edible materials by INAA and ICPMS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    We report total metal contents and their Bioaccessibility concentrations from Momordica Charantia (karela), Asparagus racemosus (satavari), Terminalia arjuna (arjuna bark) and Syzyzium cumini (jamun). The metal bioaccessibilities were determined by treating the dried powdered samples sequentially in gastric and intestinal fluid of porcine origin and the concentrations of the elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). (author)

  1. The carbon isotope ratios and contents of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Sun Guchou; Wang Wei

    1989-01-01

    Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The .delta.13C value were from -26.4 to -32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of δ13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higher Cup in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine

  2. Studies in Japan on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Shiraishi, K.; Yukawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    Data on intake of elements through foods, water and air, and concentration or Content of such elements in body tissues are essential part of the ICRP Reference Man recommended by ICRP for use in setting body composition and also deriving essential parameters for internal dose assessment models particularly for biokinetics or metabolism of radionuclides and their stable elements (1). However, in the RCA region, these data are comparatively scarce and it has been felt necessary to accumulate relevant data of high quality, reflecting the progress in analytical and related methods. In the present CRP (Phase 2), ingestion and organ content of elements of importance in internal dose assessment for the general public, i.e. Sr, Cs, I, Th and U as of the primary priority, are to be studied by performing chemical analysis following collecting representative samples in each participating country under proper quality control and assurance program (2). The data to be accumulated will enrich our knowledge in metabolic characteristics on the national, regional and global basis, after the large amount of data accumulated particularly on the physical characteristics and organ measurements in the first phase of Reference Asian Man CRP. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan will participate the present phase of CRP following the current concepts on the 'Reference Man'-oriented studies in the RCA region (3). The CRP will supplement the already existing data in Japan and extend them for some elements for which our data are to be further accumulated in ingestion and tissue content in normal and healthy Japanese adult males and females. The NIRS is requested to function as a Central Reference Laboratory (CRL) to promote the CRP in co-operation with the IAEA and the NIST as well as participating laboratories (2)

  3. Studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhu Hongda; Chen Rusong

    1998-01-01

    In order to ensure the representative sampling for ingestion study a sampling strategy that took account of all relevant ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic variables was devised by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, CAPM for the first total diet study in China. Total diet samples was prepared as 'market basket' samples. Based on the information of food consumption, composition and cookery obtained by the diet consumption survey, the 12 categories of food were collected from nearby markets and cooked by local cookery. For investigation the relationship between elements intake and organ content the specimens for organ content study will be collected from the subjects of sudden death inhabited in the region where the diet samples to be collected for ingestion study. The analytical technique that will be used to determine trace elements of interest in specimens of diet and organs have been proposed, for I that is ENAA, for Cs and Sr that is FAAS or ICP-MS, and for U and Th that is ICP-MS. At last the report summarized the information on trace element content of drinking water supplies in China. (author)

  4. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  5. In-situ studies on volatile jet exhaust particle emissions - impacts of fuel sulfur content and environmental conditions on nuclei-mode aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F.; Baumann, R.; Petzold, A.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Fiebig, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Brock, C.A. [Denver Univ., CO (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2000-02-01

    In-situ measurements of ultrafine aerosol particle emissions were performed at cruise altitudes behind the DLR ATTAS research jet (RR M45H M501 engines) and a B737-300 aircraft (CFM56-3B1 engines). Measurements were made 0.15-20 seconds after emission as the source aircraft burned fuel with sulfur contents (FSC) of 2.6, 56 or 118 mg kg{sup -1}. Particle size distributions of from 3 to 60 nm diameter were determined using CN-counters with varying lower size detection limits. Volatile particle concentrations in the aircraft plumes strongly increased as diameter decreased toward the sizes of large molecular clusters, illustrating that apparent particle emissions are extremely sensitive to the smallest particle size detectable by the instrument used. Environmental conditions and plume age alone could influence the number of detected ultrafine (volatile) aerosols within an order of magnitude, as well. The observed volatile particle emissions decreased nonlinearly as FSC decreased to 60 mg kg{sup -1}, reaching minimum values of about 2 x 10{sup 17} kg{sup -1} and 2 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1} for particles >3 nm and >5 nm, respectively. Volatile particle emissions did not change significantly as FSCs were further reduced below 60 mg kg{sup -1}. Volatile particle emissions did not differ significantly between the two studied engine types. In contrast, soot particle emissions from the modern CFM56-3B1 engines were 4-5 times less (4 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}) than from the older RR M45H M501 engines (1.8 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1}). Contrail processing has been identified as an efficient sink/quenching parameter for ultrafine particles and reduces the remaining interstitial aerosol by factors 2-10 depending on particle size.

  6. A neutron activation study of trace element contents in plants growing on soils of different acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, J.; Loebersli, E.; Steinnes, E.; Naeumann, R.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of a research program on the influence of soil acidification on metal uptake in plants, the present work was carried out in order to investigate the feasibility of instrumental neutron activation analysis for this purpose. The work was restricted to elements yielding medium- or long-lived radionuclides on neutron activation. Elements studied include Na, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Cs, Ba and La. The material analyzed was from a comparison of trace element contents in natural vegetation from corresponding coniferous forest locations in South Norway, which is considerably exposed to acidic deposition from long-range atmospheric transport, and Central Norway, which is far less affected. In particular, Rb and Cs show pronounced differences between the two regions regarding concentration levels in certain plant species. (author) 8 refs.; 4 figs

  7. A neutron activation study of trace element contents in plants growing on soils of different acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, J.; Loebersli, E.; Naeumann, R.; Steinnes, E.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a research program on the influence of soil acidification on metal uptake in plants, the present work was carried out in order to investigate the feasibility of instrumental neutron activation analysis for this purpose. The work was restricted to elements yielding medium- or long-lived radionuclides on neutron activation. Elements studied include Na, Sc, Cr, Ge, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Cs, Ba and La. The material analyzed was from a comparison of trace element contents in natural vegetation from corresponding coniferous forest locations in South Norway, which is considerably exposed to acidic deposition from long-range atmospheric transport, and Central Norway, which is far less affected. In particular Rb and Cs show pronounced differences between the two regions regarding concentration levels in certain plant species. (author)

  8. Dietary investigation by trace element content in bones of ancient inhabitants of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busetto, M.; Giordani, L.; Brandone, A.; Cattaneo, C.; Mazzucchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism. The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B) Burial of the Longobard family found in Campione d'Italia (North of Lombardy) active between the 7th and 9th century A.D.; (C) Medieval necropolis of a Longobard community, found in a village near Cremona (SE of Lombardy) active in the 7th century A.D. Structures of bones and their trace element content seem to put in evidence on some differences in the way of life of the three investigated groups. (author)

  9. Studies on Elemental Contents of Some Biological and Environmental Materials Using Nuclear And Atomic Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Aziz, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    study raises ethical and medical concerns about the implications of using eye-liners with high toxic elemental content in Egypt.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Simple Rectangular Microstrip Sensor for Determination Moisture Content of Hevea Rubber Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, NZ; Ramli, MR; Razak, NNANA; Abbas, Z.

    2018-04-01

    The Finite Element Method, FEM has been successfully used to model a simple rectangular microstrip sensor to determine the moisture content of Hevea rubber latex. The FEM simulation of sensor and samples was implemented by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation includes the calculation of magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient and was compared to analytical method. The results show a good agreement in finding the magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient when compared with analytical results. Field distributions of both the unloaded sensor as well as the sensor loaded with different percentages of moisture content were visualized using FEM in conjunction with COMSOL software. The higher the amount of moisture content in the sample the more the electric loops were observed.

  11. Comparative study of the volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy M. Soliman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled oils of the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaf and Psidium cattleianum Sabine (strawberry guava was determined by GC/MS analysis to identify their chemotypes. Moreover, in vitro antimicrobial activity of these volatile oils against selected bacteria, yeast, and mycelia fungi was studied. The yield of the volatile oil hydrodistilled from the leaves of P. guajava L. and P. cattleianum Sabine was 1.6 and 2.69 g/kg on fresh weight basis, respectively. Limonene was the major identified hydrocarbon in P. guava leaves’ oil (54.70%, whereas, 1, 8-cineole was the major identified oxygenated monoterpenoid (32.14% in common guava leaves. The foliar oil of P. cattleianum was predominated by the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon; β-caryophyllene representing 28.83% of the total oil make-up. The antibacterial activity of guava leaf oil was more pronounced against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than that of strawberry guava leaves, while P. cattleianum showed a higher activity against ess. The MIC of the volatile oil of the leaves of P. guajava against S. aureus was 6.75 μg/ml, while that of P. cattleianum exhibited MIC value of 13.01 μg/ml against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results demonstrated that the volatile oil of both Psidium species showed different chemotypes. Moreover, the volatile oils of guava and strawberry guava leaves might be good candidates as antimicrobial agents.

  12. Element content and particle size characterization of a mussel candidate reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Santos, Rafaela G. dos; Martinelli, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of certified reference materials is an important tool in the quality assurance of analytical measurements. To assure reliability on recently prepared powder reference materials, not only the characterization of the property values of interest and their corresponding uncertainties, but also physical properties such as the particle size distribution must be well evaluated. Narrow particle size distributions are preferable than larger ones; as different size particles may have different analyte content. Due to this fact, the segregation of the coarse and the fine particles in a bottle may lead to inhomogeneity of the reference material, which should be avoided. In this study the element content as well as the particle size distribution of a mussel candidate reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP was investigated. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to the determination of 15 elements in seven fractions of the material with different particle size distributions. Subsamples of the materials were irradiated simultaneously with elemental standards at the IEA-R1 research nuclear reactor and the induced gamma ray energies were measured in a hyperpure germanium detector. Three vials of the candidate reference material and three coarser fractions, collected during the preparation, were analyzed by Laser Diffraction Particle Analysis to determine the particle size distribution. Differences on element content were detected for fractions with different particle size distribution, indicating the importance of particle size control for biological reference materials. From the particle size analysis, Gaussian particle size distribution was observed for the candidate reference material with mean particle size μ = 94.6 ± 0.8 μm. (author)

  13. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range...... of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate......, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB...

  14. Elemental analysis of samples of biological origin relative to their protein content by means of charged particle bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Demeter, I.; Varga, L.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Keszthelyi, L.

    1981-04-01

    The particle excited X-ray emission (PIXE) and the 14 N(d,p) 15 N nuclear reaction is combined for simultaneous elemental composition and nitrogen content determination in biological samples. Using the correlation between nitrogen and proton content the elemental composition is related to the protein content of the sample. The principles and main characteristics of the method are described and illustrative applications are also given. (author)

  15. A study on the radiometric method for evaluating element migration from plastic packagings to its contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez

    2008-01-01

    migration detection limits were determined. Results from the analyses of the neutron irradiated plastic packagings by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that in high density polyethylene packagings oxidative degradation can occur. Among the main advantages of the radiometric method application for element migration evaluation are its simplicity, no need of blank analysis and the possibility to obtain element migration to the food itself. The results obtained indicated the potentiality of using this method in the element migration evaluation from the plastic packagings to their contents. (author)

  16. Study in Malaysia on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawiah, H.; Khalik Haji Wood, A.; Shahrom, A.W.; Halim Mansar, A.

    1998-01-01

    Involvement in the Reference Asian man project, Phase 2 began at the project, formulation meeting in Hitachinaka City, Japan in February 1995. The objective of the project is to look into the ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. The data on ingestion of radionuclides from diet and deposition in tissues are important for estimating internal dose for radiation protection. The meeting agreed the elements of primary interest are caesium, iodine, strontium, thorium and uranium in samples of representative diets and autopsy specimens of liver, muscle, thyroid, bone, and kidney. This report will highlight the methodology for implementation of the project including defining the study groups, sampling duplicate diet and autopsy specimens and the analytical techniques involved. Emphasis will be given to nuclear-related analytical technique (NAA) together with a complementary technique (AAS) available in our institution. Some data on trace element contents of local marine and fresh water fishes and milk was reported. Included also a brief discussion on drinking water quality in Malaysia and some information on related studies available. The information on drinking water will be very useful to the present study since water is part of daily diet. (author)

  17. Natural activity and element content of soil and plant in Sungkai Wildlife Conservation Centre, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiatutadawiah Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    The study has been carried out to determined the natural radioactivity concentration and the elemental content of soil and plant in Sungkai Wildlife Conservation Centre, Perak. For the determination of radioactivity concentration samples were filled into the counting bottle according to the height of the standard samples. Samples were then kept for 30 days to reach the secular equilibrium. After 30 days samples were counted directly using gamma spectrometry. For the determination of the elemental content samples were digested using acidic solution until the solution became clear. Samples were then diluted to 100 ml using distilled water and 10 ml aliquots were introduce to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that the radioactivity concentration of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226 and K-40 in soil were in the range of 40.02 ± 12.50 Bq/ kg - 184.8± 11.40 Bq/ kg, 31.76 ± 1.84 Bq/ kg - 66.12 ± 4.30 Bq/ kg, 11.0 ± 0.48 Bq/ kg - 29.71 ± 1.64 Bq/ kg and 27.53 ± 6.93 Bq/ kg - 184.01 ± 8.64 Bq/ kg respectively. In this study 20 elements were found both in soil and plant. Iron showed the highest concentration in soil (22178.92 ± 8826.77 mg/ kg) while Potassium showed the highest concentration in plants (64052.33 ± 14958.16 mg/ kg). (author)

  18. Variations of selected trace element contents in two layers of red deer antlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giżejewska Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hard antlers of deer are unique bioindicators of environmental metal pollutions, but sampling methods presented in the literature are inconsistent. Due to the specific growth pattern of antlers and their histological structure, sampling methods described in the literature were reviewed, the suitability of using mixed samples of both antler layers as element bioindicators was assessed, and the codified method of antler sampling used for bioindication was described. Material and Methods: Lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron in trabecular and cortical parts of hard antlers of red deer (Cervus elaphus were determined using different methods of atomic absorption spectrometry (depending on the element. Results: Mean mercury content in trabecular bone (0.010 ±0.018 mg/kg was 5 times higher than in cortical bone (0.002 ±0.003 mg/kg. Mean iron concentration was approximately 15 times higher in trabecular (239.83 ±130.15 mg/kg than in cortical bone (16.17 ±16.44 mg/kg. Concentrations of other analysed elements did not differ statistically between antler layers. Conclusion: In mixed antler samples, concentrations of mercury and iron depend on the particular antler layer contents. This therefore warrants caution when comparing results across studies and specification of the sampling methodology of antlers is highly recommended.

  19. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Polish Climate Conditions on Content and the Chemical Variation of Volatiles in the Roots of Six Eleutherococcus Species and Their Potential Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Załuski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the term of the climate influence on essential oil and aroma components of six Eleutherococcus species [E. senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim. Maxim., E. setchuensis (Harms Nakai, E. sessiliflorus (Rupr. & Maxim. S. Y. Hu, E. gracilistylus (W. W. Smith S. Y. Hu, E. henryi Oliv., E. divaricatus (Siebold & Zucc. S. Y. Hu ] cultivated in Poland. The hydrodistilled volatiles of the samples were ranged from 0.2% to 0.4%. The components of the determined volatiles were analyzed by GC/MS/MS. Thirty of the same compounds were present in all samples. Major components of the samples were (E,E-farnesol (43.6-6.9%, (E,Z-farnesol (7.2-0.7%, (Z,E-farnesol (1.4-0.1%, tetradecanoic acid (9.91-2.08%, and pentadecanoic acid (12.8-3.5%. Highest (E,E-farnesol content (43.6% was determined in the roots of E. divaricatus. This compound may be considered as chemical marker of the species. This is the first time, when the analysis of volatiles in the roots of Eleutherococcus spp. cultivated in Poland was performed. This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation and pharmacological activity of active principles.

  1. Elemental analysis of essential and toxic content in tea and its infusion used by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th-Rina Mulyaningsih

    2011-01-01

    Concentration of metal elements K, Ca, Mn, Mg, Fe, Na, Zn, Rb, Br, Cr, Cs, La,Sc and Co from 14 samples of green and black tea with aroma of jasmine, vanilla, roselle flower and tea infusion have been determined by means of neutron activation analysis. The Samples were chosen from the domestic product and were collected from Supermarket in Serpong region. Neutron irradiation of the samples was carried out in the Irradiation Facility of the RSG-GAS reactor at thermal neutron flux in the order of 1,013ncm -2 s -1 .The working procedures follow the Standard Operating Procedures of FNCA. As of the quality control the reference material of SRM-NIST 1573a Tomato leaves and NIST 1,547 Peach leaves have been applied. The analysis results show that concentration of the elements variate depending on the sort of tea.Concentration of Ca, K, Mg dan Mn have a rather high value namely >100 mg/kg. Concentration of Ca and K have values in a range of 1,135.36 - 9,123.21 and 1,064.41-2,473.12 mg/kg as well as Mg of 2,725.6 - 5,528.5; and Mn of 95.38 - 815.48 mg/kg.Concentration of Na, Fe, Co, La, Cr, Br, Sc, Cs, Rb and Zn <100 mg/kg. Most elements in these tea were released into the infusions at different percentages in a range of 27.89 - 68.94% depending on the sort of the tea. There were not detected toxic elements Hg, Cd and As except Cr with low concentration. Therefore tea drinks are adequately good enough as essential elements source and content no toxic elements. (author)

  2. Content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in sediments of rivers receiving wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcussen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Holm, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from Hanoi city is discharged into rivers that supply water for various agricultural and aquacultural food production systems. The aim of this study was to assess the content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in the sediment and pore water of the main wastewater receiving rivers. The sediment was polluted with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) with maximum concentrations of 73 As, 427 Cd, 281 Cr, 240 Cu, 218 Ni, 363 Pb, 12.5 Sb and 1240 Zn mg kg -1 d.w. Observed distribution coefficients (log 10 K d,obs ) were calculated as the ratio between sediment (mg kg -1 d.w.) and pore water (mg L -1 ) concentrations. Maxima log 10 K d,obs were >4.26 Cd, >6.60 Cu, 4.78 Ni, 7.01 Pb and 6.62 Zn. The high values show a strong PTE retention and indicate the importance of both sorption and precipitation as retention mechanisms. Sulphide precipitation was a likely mechanism due to highly reduced conditions. - Sorption and precipitation processes are important in retention of potentially toxic elements in Hanoi river sediment and prevent elements entering food production systems

  3. Trace element contents in atmospheric suspended particles: inferences from instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Boix, A.; Sanfeliu, T.; Martynov, V.V.; Piven, P.I.; Kabina, L.P.; Souschov, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of trace element concentrations in total suspended particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in two different areas in Northeastern Spain (a rural area influenced by the emissions of a large coal-fired power station, and the urban and industrial areas of Castellon). Total suspended particles were sampled by means of standard MCV high- and medium-volume captors, using cellulose membrane filters of 0.8 and 0.45 μm pore size. Preliminary research was performed on the homogeneous distribution of elements in the sample filters and on the study of blank filters for the calculations of the background average element contents. The results obtained allowed to distinguish different major anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the atmosphere at the sampling sites: (a) Zr, Hf, Sc, U and Th are related to atmospheric pollution derived from the ceramic industry of the Castellon area; (b) As, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se, Zn are related to traffic and other industrial emission in the Castellon area, and As, Cr, Sb and Zn to power generation emissions in the rural area. (orig.). With 3 figs., 5 tabs

  4. The content of arbitration agreement: Facultative elements as an instrument for exercising contractual freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of an arbitration agreement is of great practical importance, given the effect its provisions may have on the rights and interests of the parties in the arbitration proceedings. Beside the mandatory elements, an arbitration agreement may include numerous facultative provisions, where parties express their contractual freedom, limited only by the imperative law and institutional arbitration rules. Even in cases when contractual provisions are contrary to the imperative law, in many states, the policy of maintaining arbitration agreement would result in ignoring the problematic provisions. The list of facultative elements of an arbitration agreement is practically limitless; among other elements, it may include: time limitations on the validity of an arbitration agreement; determinations referring to the composition of the arbitration tribunal; detailed rules pertaining to the procedure, decision-making processes and content of the arbitration award as well as its annulment; provisions on the choice of law; the right of third parties to intervene; joinder, consolidation and the authority of arbitration tribunal to decide as amiable compositeur or ex aequo et bono. The development of international commerce as well as arbitration legislature and practice, featuring transactions of ever-increasing complexity, have brought about the need to establish dispute resolution mechanisms modulated according to their specific characteristics. The customary practice of concluding arbitration agreements in the form of standardized and simple clauses is being challenged by the growing complexity of international trade. Therefore, not only should a modern arbitration agreement clearly demonstrate the parties' intent to submit a dispute to arbitration but it should also conform the arbitration procedure (as much as possible] to the content of the parties' relationship and the dispute that has emerged or may arise thereof.

  5. Element Content of Surface and Underground Water Sources around a Cement Factory Site in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Richard Egbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cement production is associated with heavy metal emissions and environmental pollution by cement dust. The degree of contamination of drinking water sources by major and trace elements present in cement dust generated by united cement factory (UNICEM is still uncertain. This study estimated the element content of ground and surface water samples (hand-dug wells, boreholes and streams around the factory site to determine the impact of cement dust exposure on the water levels of these elements. Methods: This study was conducted at UNICEM at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Drinking water samples (5 from each location were collected from the cement factory quarry site camp, 3 surrounding communities and Calabar metropolis (45 km away from factory serving as control. The lead (Pb, copper (Cu, manganes (Mn, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn and arsenic (As levels of samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD post hoc at P = 0.05. Results: As and Pb content of samples from camp were above the WHO recommendations of 0.01mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. Chromium and cadmium content of all water samples were above and others below WHO recommendations. Water levels of Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ca and Si were significantly elevated (though below WHO recommendations in camp than other locations (P<0.05. Conclusion: Production of cement results in As, Pb, Cr and cd contamination of drinking water sources near the factory. Treatment of all drinking water sources is recommended before public use to avert deleterious health consequences.

  6. Device for determining element contents of lignite mass flows by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Maul, E.; Rose, W.; Wagner, D.

    1987-01-01

    A simple device is presented, apt for continuous operation, to determine the element contents of bulk goods of flowable materials with a suitable granularity, in particular of lignite mass flows to assess the coal quality. Several kilograms of samples can be reproducibly dosed and homogeneously activated by a device consisting of a shielding container with activation chamber and radiation source, a measuring unit with detectors, and a source container, and characterized by a blade wheel in the activation chamber which causes the dosing and homogeneous activation of the sample

  7. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Ahmed, S.; Rahman, A; Waheed, S.; Chaudhary, M.M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1997-01-01

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  8. Interactive effects of genotype and food quality on consumer growth rate and elemental content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Clay; Wagner, Nicole D; Frost, Paul C

    2017-05-01

    Consumer body stoichiometry is a key trait that links organismal physiology to population and ecosystem-level dynamics. However, as elemental composition has traditionally been considered to be constrained within a species, the ecological and evolutionary factors shaping consumer elemental composition have not been clearly resolved. To this end, we examined the causes and extent of variation in the body phosphorus (P) content and the expression of P-linked traits, mass specific growth rate (MSGR), and P use efficiency (PUE) of the keystone aquatic consumer Daphnia using lake surveys and common garden experiments. While daphnid body %P was relatively constrained in field assemblages sampled across an environmental P gradient, unique genotypes isolated from these lakes showed highly variable phenotypic responses when raised across dietary P gradients in the laboratory. Specifically, we observed substantial inter- and intra-specific variation and differences in daphnid responses within and among our study lakes. While variation in Daphnia body %P was mostly due to plastic phenotypic changes, we documented considerable genetic differences in daphnid MSGR and PUE, and relationships between MSGR and body P content were highly variable among genotypes. Overall, our study found that consumer responses to food quality may differ considerably among genotypes and that relationships between organismal life-history traits and body stoichiometry may be strongly influenced by genetic and environmental variation in natural assemblages. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. A geochemical study of lithospheric mantle beneath Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): main evidences from volatile content in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Pelorosso, Beatrice; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Coltorti, Massimo; Italiano, Francesco; Bonadiman, Costanza

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical study of ultramafic xenoliths from Northern Victoria Land (Green Point, GP and Handler Ridge, HR), is carried out in order to investigate the features of the lithosphere mantle beneath the Western Antarctic Ridge System (WARS). The majority of samples is spinel anhydrous lherzolite with rare presence of secondary phases (secondary cpx and glass). Geothermobarometric calculations, based on the Fe/Mg distribution among the peridotite minerals reveal that Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath Handler Ridge records temperatures and redox conditions higher then Greene Point (P fixed at 15 Kbar). Moreover, geochemical models evidence that, GP mantle domain represents a residuum after ˜7 to 21 % of partial melting in the spinel stability field, which was variably affected by interaction with infiltrating melts, acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic (Pelorosso et al., 2016). Fluid inclusions (FI) entrapped in olivine and pyroxene crystals were investigated for elemental and isotopic contents of both, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) and CO2. He, Ar and Ne concentrations range from 1.52×10-14 to 1.07×10-12, from 4.09×10-13 to 3.47×10-11and from 2.84×10-16 to 7.57×10-14 mol/g, respectively, while the CO2amounts are between 7.08×10-10 and 8.12×10-7 mol/g. The 3He/4He varies between 5.95 and 20.18 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air), being the lowest and the highest values measured in the He-poorer samples. Post-eruptive input of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic 4He seems to influence mainly the samples associated to a lower He concentrations, increasing and decreasing respectively their primordial 3He/4He values, that for all the other samples range between 6.76 and 7.45 Ra. This range reasonably reflects the isotope signature of mantle beneath the investigated areas. The 4He/40Ar* ratio corrected for atmospheric-derived contamination ranges between 0.004 and 0.39. The lowest 4He/40Ar* values (4He/40Ar*correspondence of

  10. Content and Bioaccumulation of Nine Mineral Elements in Ten Mushroom Species of the Genus Boletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and bioconcentration potential of nine elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn in ten species of wild edible Boletus and the corresponding underlying soils were analyzed. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Boletus showed relative abundant contents of P, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na and less of Zn, Cu, and Mn. Caps compared to stalks were enriched in P, K, Cu, Mg, and Zn, while stalks were enriched in Mn. The elements such as P and K were accumulated (BCF>1, while Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were excluded (BCF<1 in the fruiting bodies. The correlation analysis indicated high correlations between Cu, Mn, Ca, and Fe in the mushrooms as compared to the corresponding soils. Significant correlations were also obtained between Cu-P (r=0.775, Fe-P (r=0.728, and Zn-P (r=0.76 for caps and Cu-Mg (r=0.721, Fe-Mg (r=0.719, Zn-Mg (r=0.824, and Zn-P (r=0.818 for stalks. The results of this study imply that ability of fungi to accumulate elements from substrate could be influenced by mushroom species and underlying soil substrates.

  11. Content and Bioaccumulation of Nine Mineral Elements in Ten Mushroom Species of the Genus Boletus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Gao

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and bioconcentration potential of nine elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn) in ten species of wild edible Boletus and the corresponding underlying soils were analyzed. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Boletus showed relative abundant contents of P, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na and less of Zn, Cu, and Mn. Caps compared to stalks were enriched in P, K, Cu, Mg, and Zn, while stalks were enriched in Mn. The elements such as P and K were accumulated (BCF > 1), while Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were excluded (BCF < 1) in the fruiting bodies. The correlation analysis indicated high correlations between Cu, Mn, Ca, and Fe in the mushrooms as compared to the corresponding soils. Significant correlations were also obtained between Cu-P (r = 0.775), Fe-P (r = 0.728), and Zn-P (r = 0.76) for caps and Cu-Mg (r = 0.721), Fe-Mg (r = 0.719), Zn-Mg (r = 0.824), and Zn-P (r = 0.818) for stalks. The results of this study imply that ability of fungi to accumulate elements from substrate could be influenced by mushroom species and underlying soil substrates.

  12. Application of Fast Neutron Activity for Analysing Element Content on the Air Particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin Nuraini; Ngasifudin; Sunardi; Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    The research on application of fast neutron activation analysis for analysing element content on the air particulate has been done. The research about analysis of the particulate matters contained in non industrial traffic territory of Surakarta and full industrial traffic territory of Karanganyar, had been done using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis Method. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis method is one of the element analysis method which it's basic principle causes radioactivity appearance from the samples after being irradiated by neutron. The qualitative analysis method is based on the measuring of specific energy which was radiated by radioactive's nucleus and quantitative analysis method is based on the measuring of the intensity of each peak gamma energy. The qualitative analysis results showed, some element were identified i.e : 51 V ; 200 Pb, 27 Al and 52 Cr. The result showed that Pb level is 2.21 ± 0.09x10 -1 mg/m 3 in non industrial traffic territory of Surakarta and 2.78 ± 0.11x10 -1 mg/m 3 full industrial traffic territory of Karanganyar, this value greater than threshold value according 6.0x10 -2 mg/m 3 . (author)

  13. Impact of salinity on element incorporation in two benthic foraminiferal species with contrasting magnesium contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerken, Esmee; de Nooijer, Lennart Jan; van Dijk, Inge; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2018-04-01

    Accurate reconstructions of seawater salinity could provide valuable constraints for studying past ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and sea level change. Controlled growth experiments and field studies have shown the potential of foraminiferal Na / Ca as a direct salinity proxy. Incorporation of minor and trace elements in foraminiferal shell carbonate varies, however, greatly between species and hence extrapolating calibrations to other species needs validation by additional (culturing) studies. Salinity is also known to impact other foraminiferal carbonate-based proxies, such as Mg / Ca for temperature and Sr / Ca for sea water carbonate chemistry. Better constraints on the role of salinity on these proxies will therefore improve their reliability. Using a controlled growth experiment spanning a salinity range of 20 units and analysis of element composition on single chambers using laser ablation-Q-ICP-MS, we show here that Na / Ca correlates positively with salinity in two benthic foraminiferal species (Ammonia tepida and Amphistegina lessonii). The Na / Ca values differ between the two species, with an approximately 2-fold higher Na / Ca in A. lessonii than in A. tepida, coinciding with an offset in their Mg content ( ˜ 35 mmol mol-2 versus ˜ 2.5 mmol mol-1 for A. lessonii and A. tepida, respectively). Despite the offset in average Na / Ca values, the slopes of the Na / Ca-salinity regressions are similar between these two species (0.077 versus 0.064 mmol mol-1 change per salinity unit). In addition, Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca are positively correlated with salinity in cultured A. tepida but show no correlation with salinity for A. lessonii. Electron microprobe mapping of incorporated Na and Mg of the cultured specimens shows that within chamber walls of A. lessonii, Na / Ca and Mg / Ca occur in elevated bands in close proximity to the primary organic lining. Between species, Mg banding is relatively similar, even though Mg content is 10 times lower and

  14. Addition of wood chips in red wine during and after alcoholic fermentation: differences in color parameters, phenolic content and volatile composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kyraleou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the time of wood chip addition on phenolic content, color parameters and volatile composition of a red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko was evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak and Acacia were added in the wine during and after fermentation. Various chemical parameters of wines were studied after one, two and three months of contact with chips. The results showed that the addition of oak chips during alcoholic fermentation did not favor ellagitannin extraction and the reactions involved in tannin condensation and anthocyanin stabilization. Moreover, wines fermented with wood chips contained higher contents of whiskey lactones, eugenol, ethyl vanillate and acetate esters while their ethyl ester content was lower compared with the wines where chip addition took place after fermentation. Practical Application: The outcomes of this study would be of practical interest to winemakers since they could improve the control over the wood extraction process. When chips are added after fermentation wines seem to have a greater ageing potential compared to the wines fermented with chips due to their higher ellagitannin content and enhanced condensation reactions. On the other hand, color stabilization and tannin polymerization occur faster when chips are added during fermentation resulting in shorter ageing periods suitable for early consumed wines.

  15. Combining content and elements of communication into an upper-level biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P; Pellock, Samuel J; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Cox, James R

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established techniques and incorporated them into various presentations throughout the course. Three students describe their use of specific resources and how the skills learned relate to their future career. The importance and relevance of science communication are receiving unprecedented national attention. The academic scientific community must respond by incorporating more communication-centered instruction and opportunities in the classroom and laboratory. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Impact of traffic routes on the content of trace elements in soils in Warsaw agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komorowski Artur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the content of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd in soils near the main traffic routes of the Warsaw agglomeration. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of soil contamination with trace metals at different distances from the road (by the side the road and 50 meters away from the road. In the soil 50 m away from the road in Łomianki ‘low contamination’ was found for zinc and ‘elevated content’ for copper according to the IUNG guidelines, but the amounts of the trace elements were not found to exceed the permissible levels as specified in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment of 1 September 2016.

  17. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the evaluation of the U(3) content of the matrix elements of one-and two-body operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanagas, V.; Alcaras, J.A.C.

    1991-09-01

    An expression for the U(3) content of the matrix elements of one- and two-body operators in Elliott's basis is obtained. Three alternative ways of evaluating this content with increasing performance in computing time are presented. All of them allow an exact representation of that content in terms of integers, avoiding rounding errors in the computer codes. The role of dual bases in dealing with non-orthogonal bases is also clarified. (author)

  19. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  20. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de

    2003-01-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  1. Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Country report, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The main elements of radiological importance to be studied under the CRP are Strontium, Cesium, Iodine, Uranium and Thorium. Total diets for daily intake of human consisting of eleven common food samples were collected from the local market of Dhaka, the central part of the Country. The food samples were collected on market basket basis and according to the statistical dietary survey for the people of age ranging from 20-50 years. The number of frequency for the sample collection for the total daily diets was eleven, five for man and six for women. After collection, the food items were washed, cleaned and dried at room temperature and weighed and then cooked as is normally eaten in the Bangladeshi style. The cooked samples were then homogenized using commercial blender, mortar and pestle. The samples were then dried at 100-110 deg. C in an electric oven. Before drying a pail of the cooked samples was kept separately in polyethylene bottles with screw caps for iodine determination. Percentage of moisture content of these samples was calculated which varied from max 55.5% to min 40.4%. Ile dried samples were then kept in polyethylene bottles and tight with screw caps and then stored in refrigerator for elemental analysis. (author)

  2. Addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements to favor volatile fatty acid consumption during anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Moscoviz, Roman; Ruiz, Diane; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-07-01

    The effect of supplementing granular activated carbon and trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance of consecutive batch reactors treating food waste was investigated. The results from the first batch suggest that addition of activated carbon favored biomass acclimation, improving acetic acid consumption and enhancing methane production. Adding trace elements allowed a faster consumption of propionic acid. A second batch proved that a synergy existed when activated carbon and trace elements were supplemented simultaneously. The degradation kinetics of propionate oxidation were particularly improved, reducing significantly the batch duration and improving the average methane productivities. Addition of activated carbon favored the growth of archaea and syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that interactions between these microorganisms were enhanced. Interestingly, microbial analyses showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were predominant. This study shows for the first time that addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements may be a feasible solution to stabilize food waste anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of trace elements in wool fibre by instrumental neutron activation analysis and relation between trace element contents and quality of wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eozyol, H.

    1990-01-01

    Wool samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and 17 elements, Al, Ag, Au, As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Se and Zn were measured quantitatively. The presence of seven others, Ce, Eu, I, Mo, Te and W was noted. Since several elements, such as Cd, Hg and Pb could not be conveniently determined by NAA, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used instead. Cu and Zn were also analyzed by NAA and AAS to compare these two methods. Mechanical properties of samples were measured and the relations between the trace element contents and properties were investigated. (author) 16 refs.; 7 tabs

  4. Exploration of the Drosophila buzzatii transposable element content suggests underestimation of repeats in Drosophila genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Nuria; Guillén, Yolanda; Delprat, Alejandra; Kapusta, Aurélie; Feschotte, Cédric; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-05-10

    Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D. buzzatii st-1 and j-19 genome. Between 10.85 and 11.16 % of the D. buzzatii st-1 genome is made up of TEs, between 7 and 7,5 % of D. buzzatii j-19 genome, while TEs represent 15.35 % of the D. mojavensis genome. Helitrons are the most abundant order in the three genomes. TEs in D. buzzatii are less abundant than in D. mojavensis, as expected according to the genome size and TE content positive correlation. However, TEs alone do not explain the genome size difference. TEs accumulate in the dot chromosomes and proximal regions of D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis chromosomes. We also report a significantly higher TE density in D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis X chromosomes, which is not expected under the current models. Our easy-to-use correction method allowed us to identify recently active families in D. buzzatii st-1 belonging to the LTR-retrotransposon superfamily Gypsy.

  5. [Content of mineral elements in the diet of students of physical education faculty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokshanova, A L; Nikitiyk, D B; Pozdniakov, A L

    2013-01-01

    Research of the diet of students of the Faculty of Physical Education found discrepancy of caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms accompanied by a deficiency of some mineral elements. Thus, this research found discrepancy of a diet in caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms. Calorie deficiency in both groups is caused for lack of all macro- and micronutrients, but mostly for lack of carbohydrates with an average glycemic index, fruit, and vegetables that have prebiotic properties and mineral-rich elements. Deficiency in the diet of young men 9.6% of the total protein and 23.5% of carbohydrates was accompanied for lack 15.5% of calcium. In the group of girls the results showed a decrease of the required amounts of calcium, magnesium and iron of 36.4; 7.5 and 1.5% respectively, which was displayed against a background of reducing the consumption of the total protein 25.1 and 36.0% of carbohydrates. As a result, basic nutrition of students practicing sports requires rationalization and adjustment. To improve the biological value of the diet it is advisable for students to use daily dairy products and other sources of animal protein in their diets. It is also necessary to introduce fruit and vegetables as a source of dietary fibers and mineral elements. Created in both groups deficiency of calcium and biologically high-grade proteins of animal origin can be eliminated by various dairy products in which calcium and phosphorus are in easily digestible form and in a balanced quantity. Despite the considerable amount of calcium in many foods (meat, bread, cereals, vegetables) calcium is assimilated with difficulty from these products. The exception is the calcium of milk, curd, cheese and other dairy products. The ration between calcium and phosphorus in milk is 1:1-1.4:1. For example, taking 0.5 liters of milk provides 600 mg of assimilable calcium intake.

  6. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  7. Volatilization mechanism of certain elements in a method of semiquantitative spectrographic analysis; Mecanismo de volatilizacion de ciertos elementos en un metodo de analisis espectrografico semicuantitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Guerra, J P

    1972-07-01

    The efficiency of the compounds GeO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} and SrCO{sub 3} as spectrochemical buffers, in the development of a semiquantitative spectrographic method of analysis, that can be applied to the determination of 47 elements in different matrices, has been tested. It has been shown that trough the use of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} or Geo{sub 2} adequate accuracy is obtained, attaining with the latter the detection of much lower concentrations, specially for the elements Mo. Ti, V and W. In order to account for the different behaviour of these elements their volatilization mechanism has been studied. MoB{sub 2}, TiB{sub 2}, VB{sub 2}.{delta}WB and {epsilon}-WB were found, by x-ray diffraction analysis, to be reaction products in the case of mixtures with Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. (Author)

  8. Application of titration methods for measuring the contents of ammonium nitrogen and volatile fatty acids in agricultural biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Michał; Lisowski, Aleksander; Lisowska, Barbara

    2017-12-20

    The aim of our research was to assess a relatively new method of estimating ammonium nitrogen concentration in anaerobic digestion of plant substrates. We analysed our own data, received from the anaerobic digestion of maize silage (PM), as well as data published by Purser et al. (2014) who measured energy crops and slurry (ECS), and food waste (FW). In our study, the process was monitored for VFA content that was determined by gas chromatography, and for the content of ammonium nitrogen determined using the HACH LANGE LCK 303 cuvette test. We created polynomial regression models that bind the content of ammonium nitrogen with the volume of H 2 SO 4 used to titrate the sample from initial pH to pH 5. To estimate parameters of model, the PM dataset was used. The obtained models were positively validated using ECS and FW datasets. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of the Purser et al. method with an average absolute error of less than 223mgl -1 of the VFA concentration, which was approximately 20-times less than the level that caused inhibition. In conclusion, we can affirm the suitability of using titration methods to assess the ammonium nitrogen content of bioreactors with a stable composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatile and siderophile trace elements in anorthositic rocks from Fiskenaesset, West Greenland: comparison with lunar and meteoritic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen trace elements (Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, Ir, Ni, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, Zn) were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation and 13 other elements (Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Sc, Sm, Tb, Yb) by instrumental neutron activation in a total of 12 rocks from the layered anorthositic complex at Fiskenaesset, West Greenland, and in the plagioclase-rich unbrecciated eucrite, Serra de Mage. The results are discussed and compared with lunar and meteoritic analogues. (author)

  10. Element fractionation by sequential extraction in a soil with high carbonate content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkowski, Margareta; Hirner, Alfred V.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of carbonate and other buffering substances in soils on the results of a 3-step sequential extraction procedure (BCR) used for metal fractionation was investigated. Deviating from the original extraction scheme, where the extracts are analysed only for a limited number of metals, almost all elements in the soils were quantified by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in the initial samples as well as in the residues of all extraction steps. Additionally, the mineral contents were determined by X-ray diffractometry. Using this methodology, it was possible to correlate changes in soil composition caused by the extraction procedure with the release of elements. Furthermore, the pH values of all extracts were monitored, and certain extraction steps were repeated until no significant pH-rise occurred. A soil with high dolomite content (27%) and a carbonate free soil were extracted. Applying the original BCR-sequence to the calcareous soil, carbonate was found in the residues of the first two steps and extract pH-values rose by around two units in the first and second step, caused mainly by carbonate dissolution. This led to wrong assignment of the carbonate elements Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and also to decreased desorption and increased re-adsorption of ions in those steps. After repetition of the acetic acid step until extract pH remained low, the carbonate was completely destroyed and the distributions of the elements Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba as well as those of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were found to be quite different to those determined in the original extraction. Furthermore, it could be shown that the effectiveness of the reduction process in step two was reduced by increasing pH: Fe oxides were not significantly attacked by the repeated acetic acid treatments, but a 10-fold amount of Fe was mobilized by hydroxylamine hydrochloride after complete carbonate destruction. On the other hand, only small amounts of Fe were released anyway. Even repeated reduction steps did not

  11. Carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism of the mantle surrounding the Hawaiian plume: Evidence from volatiles, trace elements, and radiogenic isotopes in rejuvenated-stage lavas from Niihau, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jacqueline; Clague, David A.; Cousens, Brian; Monsalve, Maria Luisa; Uhl, Jessika

    2008-09-01

    We present new volatile, trace element, and radiogenic isotopic compositions for rejuvenated-stage lavas erupted on Niihau and its submarine northwest flank. Niihau rejuvenated-stage Kiekie Basalt lavas are mildly alkalic and are isotopically similar to, though shifted to higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 206Pb/204Pb than, rejuvenated-stage lavas erupted on other islands and marginal seafloor settings. Kiekie lavas display trace element heterogeneity greater than that of other rejuvenated-stage lavas, with enrichments in Ba, Sr, and light-rare earth elements resulting in high and highly variable Ba/Th and Sr/Ce. The high Ba/Th lavas are among the least silica-undersaturated of the rejuvenated-stage suite, implying that the greatest enrichments are associated with the largest extents of melting. Kiekie lavas also have high and variable H2O/Ce and Cl/La, up to 620 and 39, respectively. We model the trace element concentrations of most rejuvenated-stage lavas by small degrees (˜1% to 9%) of melting of depleted peridotite recently metasomatized by a few percent of an enriched incipient melt (0.5% melting) of the Hawaiian plume. Kiekie lavas are best explained by 4% to 13% partial melting of a peridotite source metasomatized by up to 0.2% carbonatite, similar in composition to oceanic carbonatites from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, with lower proportion of incipient melt than that for other rejuvenated-stage lavas. Primary H2O and Cl of the carbonatite component must be high, but variability in the volatile data may be caused by heterogeneity in the carbonatite composition and/or interaction with seawater. Our model is consistent with predictions based on carbonated eclogite and peridotite melting experiments in which (1) carbonated eclogite and peridotite within the Hawaiian plume are the first to melt during plume ascent; (2) carbonatite melt metasomatizes plume and surrounding depleted peridotite; (3) as the plume rises, silica-undersaturated silicate melts are also

  12. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart, E-mail: s.t.wagland@cranfield.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  13. The stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon and elemental contents in modern and fossil seabird guano from Northern Chile - Marine sources and diagenetic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lucassen

    Full Text Available Seabird excrements (guano have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano. Where possible, 14C systematics is used for age information. The nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of the marine prey (Peruvian anchovy of the birds is complex as it shows strong systematic variations with latitude. The detailed study of a modern profile that represents a few years of guano deposition up to present reveals systematic changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition towards heavier values that increase with age, i.e. depth. Only the uppermost, youngest layers of modern guano show compositional affinity to the prey of the birds. In the profile, the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs by degassing, and non-volatile elements like phosphorous and calcium are passively enriched in the residual guano. Fossil guano deposits are very low in nitrogen and low in carbon contents, and show very heavy nitrogen isotopic compositions. One result of the study is that the use of guano for tracing nitrogen and carbon isotopic and elemental composition in the marine food web of the birds is restricted to fresh material. Despite systematic changes during diagenesis, there is little promise to retrieve reliable values of marine nitrogen and carbon signatures from older guano. However, the changes in isotopic composition from primary marine nitrogen isotopic

  14. [Study on the Identification of Geographical Indication Wuchang Rice Based on the Content of Inorganic Elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-le; Zheng, Yan-jie; Tang, Lu; Su, Zhi-yi; Xiong, Cen

    2016-03-01

    Wuchang rice is a geographical indication product in China. Due to its high quality and low production, the phenome- non of fake is more and more serious. An effective identification method of Wuchang rice is urgent needed, for the maintenance of its brand image and interest of consumers. Base on the content of inorganic elements which are analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in rice, the identification model of Wuchang rice is studied combining with principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher discrimination and artificial neural network (ANN) in this paper. The effect on the identification of samples is poor through PCA, while the samples from Wuchang area and other areas can be identified accurately through Fisher discrimination and ANN. The average accurate identification ratio of training and verification set through Fisher discrimination is 93.5%, while the average accurate identification ratio through ANN is 96.4%. The ability to identify of ANN is better than Fisher discrimination. Wuchang rice can be identified accurately through the result of this research which provides a technology for the protection of geographical indications of this product.

  15. Open-water and under-ice seasonal variations in trace element content and physicochemical associations in fluvial bed sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Carr, Meghan K; Meissner, Anna G N; Jardine, Tim D; Jones, Paul D; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-11-01

    Across the circumpolar world, intensive anthropogenic activities in the southern reaches of many large, northward-flowing rivers can cause sediment contamination in the downstream depositional environment. The influence of ice cover on concentrations of inorganic contaminants in bed sediment (i.e., sediment quality) is unknown in these rivers, where winter is the dominant season. A geomorphic response unit approach was used to select hydraulically diverse sampling sites across a northern test-case system, the Slave River and delta (Northwest Territories, Canada). Surface sediment samples (top 1 cm) were collected from 6 predefined geomorphic response units (12 sites) to assess the relationships between bed sediment physicochemistry (particle size distribution and total organic carbon content) and trace element content (mercury and 18 other trace elements) during open-water conditions. A subset of sites was resampled under-ice to assess the influence of season on these relationships and on total trace element content. Concentrations of the majority of trace elements were strongly correlated with percent fines and proxies for grain size (aluminum and iron), with similar trace element grain size/grain size proxy relationships between seasons. However, finer materials were deposited under ice with associated increases in sediment total organic carbon content and the concentrations of most trace elements investigated. The geomorphic response unit approach was effective at identifying diverse hydrological environments for sampling prior to field operations. Our data demonstrate the need for under-ice sampling to confirm year-round consistency in trace element-geochemical relationships in fluvial systems and to define the upper extremes of these relationships. Whether contaminated or not, under-ice bed sediment can represent a "worst-case" scenario in terms of trace element concentrations and exposure for sediment-associated organisms in northern fluvial systems

  16. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  17. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species II. A comparison of aluminium, barium and nutritional element contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare accumulation efficiency of Al, Ba and nutritional elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na) exhibited by six edible mushrooms collected in particular regions of Poland during the last 20 years. The studied mushroom species were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus and Xerocomus badius. The highest and the lowest concentrations of the elements in tested mushroom species were 11 - 410, 34 - 337, 16785 - 34600, 140 - 607, 12 - 75 and 16 - 143 mg kg(-1)d.m., respectively. The highest average concentrations of Al, Mg and Mn were observed in Suillus luteus fruiting bodies, while for Ba, Ca, K and Na it was in Lactarius deliciosus. BCF >1 was found for K and Mg in all tested mushroom species and additionally for the highest Ca and Na concentrations of all tested mushroom species except for C. cibarius and S. luteus, respectively. For the other tested elements (Al, Ba, Fe and Mn) BCF values < 1 were recorded.

  18. Correlation of trace element content in air particulates with solar meteorological data in the atmosphere of Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Grimanis, A.P.; Viras, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    Relation between the trace element content in air particulates and solar meteorological data in the atmospheric environment of Athens, Greece, was studied. For this purpose, Sm, Br, As, Na, K, La, Ce, Cr, Ag, Sc, Fe, Zn, Co, Sb, Th were determined by INAA in respirable aerosols collected during winter 1993-1994. The results showed that the average cloudiness, sunshine, and the total solar radiation (sun and sky) on a horizontal surface, (3 variables) have no relation with trace element variation. However, diffuse solar radiation (sun and sky) on a horizontal surface seems to have statistically significant relationship with some of the trace element variation. It forms a single component with some trace elements after the application of the factor analysis. The increase of the same solar variable in the Athens City center, is one of the factors which cannot permit the emission of trace elements in the atmospheric environment from dust soil and car tires. (author)

  19. Comparison Elements on STG DICE cell for Content-Addressable Memory and Simulation of Single-Event Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Stenin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison elements on base the STG DICE cell and the logical element “Exclusive OR” for a content-addressable memory were designed and simulated. The comparison element contains two identical joint groups of transistors that are spaced on the chip by the distance of four micrometers, so the loss of data in STG DICE cell practically excluded. On the characteristics of the new 65-nm CMOS comparison element, we predict the hardness of these item to single event rate (SER more to hundred times compared to elements on 6-transistors cells and the standard DICE cell with distances 0.5-0.6 μm between mutually sensitive nodes.

  20. Effect of electromagnetic fields and antioxidants on the trace element content of rat teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan MS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Sinan Dogan,1 Mehmet Cihan Yavas,2 Yasemin Yavuz,3 Sait Erdogan,4 İsmail Yener,4 İbrahim Simsek,1 Zeki Akkus,5 Veysel Eratilla,6 Abdulsamet Tanik,7 Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag2 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Harran University, Şanliurfa, 2Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 5Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 6Department of Prosthodontics, 7Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs, from a high-voltage source, on rat teeth in terms of changes in trace elements (TEs and the effect of antioxidants (melatonin [MLT] and Ganoderma lucidum [GL] in counteracting these effects. We used adult male Wistar albino rats with a mean weight of 250–300 g and divided the rats into eight groups. The groups were subjected to an ELF-EMF that was applied with a high-voltage line for 8 hours/day for 26 days (Groups I, II, and III or 52 days (Groups V, VI, and VII. Groups IV and VIII were the 26- and 52-day control/sham groups, respectively. Groups II and VI were treated with GL, and Groups III and VII were treated with MLT. MLT and GL were administered daily based on the weight of the animals and appropriate standards. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized, and their anterior teeth were extracted. The teeth were preserved in pure water before evaluating the major TEs. At the end of the study, TE concentrations (in mg/kg were assessed in the control and test groups. Compared with Group V, statistically significant differences in the concentrations of zinc (Zn and strontium (Sr were found for Group VII (ELF-EMF + MLT (P<0.05. Therefore, ELF-EMF exposure can change the content of certain TEs in teeth and, after

  1. Effect of plant cultivation methods on content of major and trace elements in foodstuffs and retention in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Østergaard, Lars F.; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    major and trace element contents of dried foodstuffs (carrots, kale, peas, potatoes and apples) grown in two consecutive years, as well as mineral retention determined in 36 rats (second generation in a multi-generation study) fed diets based on these foodstuffs from one year. RESULTS: Overall...

  2. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S.M.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  3. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  4. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  5. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  6. Effects of rare earth and acid rain pollution on plant chloroplast ATP synthase and element contents at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    Combined rare earth and acid rain pollution has become a new environmental problem, seriously affecting plant survival. The effects of these two kinds of pollutants on plant photosynthesis have been reported, but the micro mechanisms are not very clear. In this research, we studied the effects of lanthanum [La(III), 0.08, 1.20 and 2.40 mM] and acid rain (pH value = 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5) on the ATPase activity and gene transcription level and the functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts. The results showed that the combined 0.08 mM La(III) and pH 4.5 acid rain increased the ATPase activity and gene transcription level as well as contents of some functional elements. But other combined treatments of acid rain and La(III) reduced the ATPase activity and gene transcription level as well as functional element contents. The change magnitude of the above indexes at rice booting stage was greater than that in seedling stage or grain filling stage. These results reveal that effects of La(III) and acid rain on ATPase activity and functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts are related to the combination of La(III) dose and acid rain intensity and the plant growth stage. In addition, the changes in the ATPase activity were related to ATPase gene transcription level. This study would provide a reference for understanding the microcosmic mechanism of rare earth and acid rain pollution on plant photosynthesis and contribute to evaluate the possible environmental risks associated with combined La(III) and acid rain pollution. The effects of La(III) and acid rain on activity and gene transcription level of rice chloroplast ATPase and contents of functional elements were different at different growth stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  8. Element Content Analysis of Edible Insect of Ghana (Curculionidae: Sitophilus zeamais) Using EDXRF Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞAN, Zeynep; GÜROL, Ali; İNCEKARA, Ümit; TAHİDU, Osman Damba

    2016-01-01

    The overall study objective was to develop baseline information on the heavy elements concentration in edible insect Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and to evaluate the contamination levels of this insect. Twelve heavy elements (V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sn, Sb, I, La, Ce, Pb) were analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The element concentration showed trend of Cu>Zn>Sn>Sb>Mn>Fe>I=La>Ce>Br>V>P...

  9. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  10. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  11. NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents of soil samples prepared for proficiency testing--a stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, H; Scharf, H

    2001-06-01

    In view of its intended use as a sample for proficiency testing or as a reference material the stability of the extractable trace element contents of a soil from an irrigation field was tested using the extraction with 1 mol/L ammonium nitrate solution according to DIN 19730. Therefore, changes of the extractability of sterilized and non sterilized soil samples stored at different temperatures were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Sets of bottles were kept at -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C, about +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C, respectively. The NH4NO3 extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined immediately after bottling and then after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months with ICP-AES or ETAAS. Appropriate storage conditions are of utmost importance to prevent deterioration of soil samples prepared for the determination of NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents. Temperatures above +20 degrees C must be avoided. The observed changes in the extractability of the metals (especially for Cr and Cu) most likely could be related to thermal degradation of the organic matter of the soil. There is no need to sterilize dry soil samples, because microbiological activity in soils with a low moisture content appears to be negligible with regard to trace element mobilization.

  12. Contents evaluation of some essential and toxic elements in children and elders diet by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko

    1996-01-01

    Essential and toxic elements in the 19 diet samples from pre-school children and 23 diet samples from elderly people, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed and applied for determining Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, U, Th, W and Zn, based on retention of these elements in a Chelex-100 resin. In the case of As and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide). The contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates were also analysed. The results have been presented and discussed

  13. Contents of toxic elements in biological environment of pregnant women of all reproductive age give birth first time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markevych V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to investigate the toxic contents of microelements in serum and erythrocytes of pregnant women in the early, middle and old reproductive age in the case of the first delivery. Patients and methods. The study was conducted in the third trimester of pregnancy on 36.08±0.59 weeks of gestation. Reproductive age of pregnant women was 16.33±0.21, 24.67±0.37 and 36.14±0.77 years respectively. The content of toxic ME (chromium, nickel, lead and cobalt in the biological substrates was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer C — 115 MI. Results. We found that pregnant women regardless of reproductive age who gave birth for the first time had high level of nickel both in serum and in red blood cells. With the growth of reproductive age we saw accumulation of toxic chromium in serum. Much less content of cadmium in red blood cells and possibly other tissues in pregnant women of older reproductive age apparently linked to the more conscious and responsible attitude to their health condition, the process of pregnancy and a healthy lifestyle and above except the main source of cadmium — smoking. The lowest content of lead in red blood cells is determined in the women of middle reproductive age. At the same time serum and erythrocytic content of lead in any group was not higher its level in healthy pregnant women. Conclusion. Nowadays very actual is researching of placenta as a body that provides trace element balance in system «mother—placenta—fetus». To determine the role of placenta in protecting the fetus from exposure of toxic elements reasonable is investigation of their content in the placenta and its functions — barrier penetration, depositing of essential and toxic elements.

  14. Effect of mixed 60Co γ-rays and rare earth elements on sugar content and yield of beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianzhong; Yi Huying; Yu Hongbin; Hao Yuhuai; Ma Dongyan

    2004-01-01

    The effect on sugar content and yield of beet was studied by using 60 Co γ-ray and rare earth elements (REE) to treat seeds of beet. The results indicated that 60 Co γ-ray of 50 Gy and seed-soaking in 750 g/hm 2 of farm REE could improve the root growth of beet, raise the sugar content of beetroot by 11.9% and yield by 13.5% compared to that of CK. The differences reached the significant level. (authors)

  15. Effect of mixed 60Co γ-rays and rare earth elements on sugar content and yield of beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianzhong; Yi Huying; Yu Hongbin; Hao Yuhuai

    2004-01-01

    The effect on sugar content and yield of beet was studied by using 60 Co γ-ray and rare earth elements (REE) to treat seeds of beet. The results indicated that 60 Co γ-ray of 50 Gy and seed-soaking in 750 g/hm 2 of farm REE could improve the root growth of beet, raise the sugar content of beetroot by 11.9% and yield by 13.5% compared to that of CK. The differences reached the significant level

  16. Total Protein Content Determination of Microalgal Biomass by Elemental Nitrogen Analysis and a Dedicated Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Templeton, David W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Accurately determining protein content is important in the valorization of algal biomass in food, feed, and fuel markets, where these values are used for component balance calculations. Conversion of elemental nitrogen to protein is a well-accepted and widely practiced method, but depends on developing an applicable nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor. The methodology reported here covers the quantitative assessment of the total nitrogen content of algal biomass and a description of the methodology that underpins the accurate de novo calculation of a dedicated nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor.

  17. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  18. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  19. Mineral content in Sphagnum mosses from ombrotrophic bogs of southwestern Poland: pattern in species and elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisław Wojtuń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe were analyzed in 11 Sphagnum species from ombrotrophic bogs in southwestern Poland. The material included species from wet to dry microsites. The highest levels of elements were recorded for S. lindbergii, whereas S. balticum and S. cuspidatum were poorest in elements. The microhabitat gradient from hummock to hollow species is clearly reflected by decreasing concentrations of Ca and Mg, and increasing concentration of Na. Phosphorus, K and N were much more enriched into moss tissues than the remaining elements. These three nutrients were also accumulated in the upper green parts of mosses, while the concentrations of Na and Fe were higher in the bottom brown parts. There were no differences in Ca and Mg between the green and brown segments.

  20. INAA and ETAAS of toxic element content of fruits harvested and consumed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were employed to determine the toxic elements in fourteen fruits harvested in Pakistan. As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se were determined using INAA. Cadmium and Pb were determined using ETAAS. The intake levels of all toxic elements have been calculated. The data show that dates supply the maximum amount of most of the toxic elements. Peels of apple and pear have also been investigated and were found to contain higher concentration of toxic elements than their edible parts. The reliability of the techniques has been established by the use of standard reference materials. This study shows that all investigated fruits cultivated and consumed in Pakistan are safe for human consumption. (author)

  1. Application of Fast Neutron Activation to Determinate of N, P and K Element Contents in the Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyatni E; Yazid M; Nuraini E; Sunardi

    2003-01-01

    The application of fast neutron activation to determinate of N, P and K element contents in the sludge has been performed. The aim of this research is to determine the content of N, P and K elements in the sludge for the possibility of reuse as organic fertilizer. Sludge sample was taken from waste water retainer at Bantul Waste Water Treatment Plant. The sample was dried and ground, then irradiated using 14.7 MeV fast neutron from neutron generator. Result was qualitatively and quantitatively analyses using gamma spectrometer. The result showed that the sludge contains N with energy 511 keV, P with energy 1778 keV and K with energy 1273 keV. The concentration of N is (4.101 ± 0.007) mg/g, P is = (640.510 ± 14.34) mg/g and K = (3.045 ± 0.064) mg/g. (author)

  2. Study on the prediction of soil heavy metal elements content based on visible near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Huanyuan; Du, Yichun

    2018-06-01

    The estimation of soils heavy metal content can reflect the impending surroundings of surface, which lays theoretical foundation for using covered vegetation to monitor environment and investigate resource. In this study, the contents of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in 44 soil samples were collected from Fufeng County, Yangling County and Wugong County, Shaanxi Province and were used as data sources. ASD FieldSpec HR (350-2500 nm), and then the NOR, MSC and SNV of the reflectance were pretreated, the first deviation, second deviation and reflectance reciprocal logarithmic transformation were carried out. The optimal spectroscopy estimation model of nine heavy metal elements of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb was established by regression method. Comparing the diffuse reflectance characteristics of different heavy metal contents and the effect of different pretreatment methods on the establishment of soil heavy metal spectral inversion model. The results of chemical analysis show that there was a serious Hg pollution in the study area, and the Cd content was close to the critical value. The results show that: (1) NOR, MSC and SNV were adopted for the acquisition of visible near-infrared. Combining differential transformation can improve the information of heavy metal elements in the soil, and use the correlation band energy Significantly improve the stability and predictability of the model. (2) The modeling accuracy of the optimal model of nine heavy metal spectra of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb by PLSR method were 0.70, 0.79, 0.69, 0.81, 0.86, 0.58, 0.55, 0.99, 0.62. (3) The optimal estimation model of different elements using different treatment methods has better stability and higher precision, and can realize the rapid prediction of nine kinds of heavy metal elements in this region.

  3. Study on the prediction of soil heavy metal elements content based on visible near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Huanyuan; Du, Yichun

    2018-06-15

    The estimation of soils heavy metal content can reflect the impending surroundings of surface, which lays theoretical foundation for using covered vegetation to monitor environment and investigate resource. In this study, the contents of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in 44 soil samples were collected from Fufeng County, Yangling County and Wugong County, Shaanxi Province and were used as data sources. ASD FieldSpec HR (350-2500nm), and then the NOR, MSC and SNV of the reflectance were pretreated, the first deviation, second deviation and reflectance reciprocal logarithmic transformation were carried out. The optimal spectroscopy estimation model of nine heavy metal elements of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb was established by regression method. Comparing the diffuse reflectance characteristics of different heavy metal contents and the effect of different pretreatment methods on the establishment of soil heavy metal spectral inversion model. The results of chemical analysis show that there was a serious Hg pollution in the study area, and the Cd content was close to the critical value. The results show that: (1) NOR, MSC and SNV were adopted for the acquisition of visible near-infrared. Combining differential transformation can improve the information of heavy metal elements in the soil, and use the correlation band energy Significantly improve the stability and predictability of the model. (2) The modeling accuracy of the optimal model of nine heavy metal spectra of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb by PLSR method were 0.70, 0.79, 0.69, 0.81, 0.86, 0.58, 0.55, 0.99, 0.62. (3) The optimal estimation model of different elements using different treatment methods has better stability and higher precision, and can realize the rapid prediction of nine kinds of heavy metal elements in this region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of nuclear related analytical techniques for the determination of ingestion and body content of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojosubroto, H.; Santoso, D.; Widjajakusuma, B.

    1998-01-01

    A number of observations revealed that various human disease states are associated with measurable abnormalities of trace element levels. Until present there is no data on trace element levels in human tissues and dietary intake representing the population in Indonesia. Trace element level in various biological materials, especially human serum related to health syndrome (e.g. acute myocardial infarction and goiter prevalences) was performed by National Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with relevant institutes. The present study is concerned with determination of ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, Sr, I, Th and U). Quantitation of the elements in the samples will be determined by neutron activation analysis, complemented by nuclear related analytical techniques, e.g. inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples to be analyzed consist of (a) total diets and individual staple foodstuffs, (b) autopsy specimens of liver, lung, kidney, muscle, thyroid and bone, and (c) drinking water. It seems difficult for us to define nationally representative specimens of total diets and individual staple foodstuffs. Based on these facts, in the first year activity samples of dietary intake from various socio economic levels of population in West Java will be collected. Human tissue sample is obtained from autopsy of normal persons who are killed in traffic accident or homicide victim. Traces of Th and U in drinking water are determined by neutron activation analysis following preconcentration of these elements in chelating resin Chlelex 100. (author)

  5. The content of mineral elements on whole blood and hair in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... The mineral content of forage, whole blood and hair samples of Moschus sifanicus were analyzed and ... of the Chinese State Key Protected Wildlife List in 2002. ... of the comparison group match, the result shows that.

  6. Growth and elemental content of two tree species growing on abandoned coal fly ash basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.L.; Adriano, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Differences in aboveground tissue concentrations of trace elements were assessed for sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis L.) growing on two abandoned coal fly ash basins and a control soil. The wet basin (pH = 5.58) had originally received precipitator ash in an ash-water slurry, while the dry basin (pH = 8.26) had received both precipitator and bottom ash in dry form. In general, trees from the wet basin exhibited elevated trace element concentrations in comparison to the controls, while the dry basin trees exhibited reduced concentrations. On eof the most striking differenced in elemental concentrations among the ash basin and control trees was observed for Mn, with the control trees exhibiting concentrations orders of magnitude greater than the ash basin trees. Differences in foliar trace element concentrations among the sites can generally be explained by differences in substrate trace element concentrations and/or substrate pH. While trees from the wet ash basin generally had the highest trace element concentrations, these trees also attained the greatest height and diameter growth, suggesting that the elevated trace element concentrations in the wet basin substrate are not limiting the establishment of these two species. The greater height and diameter growth of the wet basin trees is presumably a result of the greater water-holding capacity of the substrate on this site. Differences in growth and tissue concentrations between sweetgum and sycamore highlight the importance of using more than one species when assessing metal toxicity or deficiency on a given substrate

  7. Use of INAA in the preparation of a set soil Reference Materials with certified values of total element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Horakova, J.; Soukal, L.

    1997-01-01

    A set of certified Reference Materials was prepared consisting of four natural agricultural soils with normal (n) and elevated (e) levels of element contents: CRM 7001 Light Sandy Soil (n), CRM 7002 Light Sandy Soil (e), CRM 7003 Silty Clay Loam (n), and CRM 7004 Loam (e). In these materials, certified and/or information values of the total contents of the elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and their fractions extractable by aqua regia, boiling and cold 2M nitric acid were derived from an interlaboratory comparison in which 28 laboratories participated. Highly precise and accurate procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were employed for homogeneity testing and also for certification of the total element contents. For comparation purposes, NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment was analyzed by INAA, as well. The INAA results obtained compared very well with the certified and/or information values for four soil CRMs and also with NIST values for SRM-2704. From this agreement, a very high reliability of the new soil CRMs can be inferred. (author)

  8. Studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhu Hongda; Chen Rusong

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate internal dose and derive annual limits of intake for radionuclides in the field of Radiation Protection, it is necessary to study the parameters of ingestion of radionuclides from diet, deposition in tissues and following metabolism of the radionuclides. But these kinds of parameters may be influenced by intake of nutrients and inorganic constituents of diets, for example, a relatively higher uptake rate and longer retention time of radioiodine in thyroid of person who's diet poor of stable iodine. So there is a need to have accurate knowledge of corresponding stable elements intake and their concentration in organs, especially for some trace elements of importance in radiological protection such as Caesium, Iodine, Strontium, Thorium and Uranium. A IAEA RCA CRP on 'Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological protection' was formulated in 1995 and initiated after the first RCM CRP on the project, held in Manila, Philippine 1-4 July 1996. This is the progress report for studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection after the first RCM

  9. The influence of physical activity on hair toxic and essential trace element content in male and female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Irina P; Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Berezkina, Elena S; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the current study is to estimate the effect of different physical activity levels on hair trace element content in male and female students. A total of 113 students (59 women and 54 men) of P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl, Russia) took part in the current investigation. According to the level of the physical activity, all students were divided into three groups: high, medium, and low physical activity. Essential and toxic metal content (μg/g) in hair samples was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D + NWR213 (Perkin-Elmer, USA). The obtained data show that hair iodine, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and tin levels are not related to physical activity in male and female students. At the same time, increased physical activity is associated with decreased hair copper, vanadium, bismuth, and mercury content in comparison to the low physical activity groups. Students with higher physical activity are also characterized by significantly higher hair cobalt, iron, manganese, selenium, cadmium, lithium, and lead concentrations. Finally, statistical analysis has revealed maximal gender differences in hair trace element content in the high physical activity groups, whereas in the low activity groups, the hair metal concentrations were nearly similar in females and males.

  10. Discrimination and risk assessment due to the volatile compounds and the inorganic elements present in the Greek marc distillates Tsipouro and Tsikoudia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos H. Soufleros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Tsipouro and Tsikoudia are two denominations with geographic indications of the traditional Greek marc distillate, which is produced in continental Greece and in the island of Crete respectively. It is produced by the Greek winegrowers as well as by the professional distillers. To provide data on the safety of domestic Tsipouro and Tsikoudia distillates for human consumption and to draw conclusions from any essential results, which might have an impact on the quality of this product, 23 samples were analysed for: (a Volatile compounds by the use of gas chromatography, (b Inorganic elements, using atomic absorption spectrometry and (c the pH values through-out using standard methods. Data revealed differences between these two denominations, which have been confirmed by the application of a statistic analysis and a PCA. Thus, Tsikoudia was found to contain statistically higher amounts of acetalde-hyde. However, the levels that have been observed did not exceed the official limits. Most of the Tsipouro and Tsikoudia samples also contained low concentrations of estragol, an anise compound, lead and copper, which do not represent a risk to consumer health due to their toxicity. On the other hand, the total concentration of higher alcohols was higher than the official minimum limit (140 g.hl-1 Absolute Alcohol-AA, while the amylic alcohols rarely exceeded 300 g.hl-1 AA. The high concentrations of ethyl acetate (>300 g.hl-1 AA and ethyl lactate in a few samples showed the necessity of limiting unwanted fermentations in the grape pomace. The analytical study showed that the quality of the marc distillate is, generally, satisfactory. However, it revealed great differences between Tsipouro and Tsikoudia even among the samples of each denomination and, con-sequently, these domestic distillates need standardization and a more systematic production.

  11. Trace element content of ginger and sage medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Larbi, R.; Yagoubi, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used to multielemental determination in the Zingiber Officinalis and Salvia Officinalis, plants used in traditional medicine therapy in Algeria and in most countries. The concentrations of five elements Co, Cr, Sc, Sb and Rb have been determined by long irradiation time with 2.13E12 n.cm -2 s -1 thermal flux at NUR Algerian Reactor, all these elements are present at trace level the implication in Human health is discussed. The quality control of the measurements has been evaluated by analysing of HAY (V-10) IAEA - Standard reference material

  12. Monitoring the content and intake of trace elements from food in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, N. L.; Møller, A.

    2002-01-01

    slightly. The distribution in dietary intake of the five trace elements was estimated by combining the mean trace element concentrations with food consumption data from 1837 Danes aged 15-80 years. The lead intake for 1993-97 showed a decrease in comparison with similar estimates from the previous...... of the distribution in cadmium intake amounts to 34% of PTWI, which is relatively high, and therefore calls for a more detailed future risk assessment. The intakes of lead and mercury were 11% of PTWI and, like the intake of nickel, did not cause any health concern in the adult population. The Danes ingest close...

  13. Implications for behavior of volatile elements during impacts—Zinc and copper systematics in sediments from the Ries impact structure and central European tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodovská, Zuzana; Magna, TomáÅ.¡; Žák, Karel; Kato, Chizu; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric; Skála, Roman; Ježek, Josef

    2017-10-01

    Moldavites are tektites genetically related to the Ries impact structure, located in Central Europe, but the source materials and the processes related to the chemical fractionation of moldavites are not fully constrained. To further understand moldavite genesis, the Cu and Zn abundances and isotope compositions were measured in a suite of tektites from four different substrewn fields (South Bohemia, Moravia, Cheb Basin, Lusatia) and chemically diverse sediments from the surroundings of the Ries impact structure. Moldavites are slightly depleted in Zn ( 10-20%) and distinctly depleted in Cu (>90%) relative to supposed sedimentary precursors. Moreover, the moldavites show a wide range in δ66Zn values between 1.7 and 3.7‰ (relative to JMC 3-0749 Lyon) and δ65Cu values between 1.6 and 12.5‰ (relative to NIST SRM 976) and are thus enriched in heavy isotopes relative to their possible parent sedimentary sources (δ66Zn = -0.07 to +0.64‰; δ65Cu = -0.4 to +0.7‰). In particular, the Cheb Basin moldavites show some of the highest δ65Cu values (up to 12.5‰) ever observed in natural samples. The relative magnitude of isotope fractionation for Cu and Zn seen here is opposite to oxygen-poor environments such as the Moon where Zn is significantly more isotopically fractionated than Cu. One possibility is that monovalent Cu diffuses faster than divalent Zn in the reduced melt and diffusion will not affect the extent of Zn isotope fractionation. These observations imply that the capability of forming a redox environment may aid in volatilizing some elements, accompanied by isotope fractionation, during the impact process. The greater extent of elemental depletion, coupled with isotope fractionation of more refractory Cu relative to Zn, may also hinge on the presence of carbonyl species of transition metals and electromagnetic charge, which could exist in the impact-induced high-velocity jet of vapor and melts.

  14. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tall, Y.

    2008-03-01

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  15. Trace elements content of sudanese local snuff and its agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R. E.; Eltayeb, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Toombak is a local form of snuff widely used in Sudan. Dipping snuff is a common habit in Sudanese male subject. Many reports have related at the high incidence rate of oral cancer and other types of cancer in Sudanese subjects to this habit. trace elements such as Cu, Co, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry in soil on which toombak is grown and toombak eaves. The average concentration (μg/g) of these elements in soil and toombak leaves were found to be 60.8 and 18.1 (Cu), 72.2 and 50.9 (Zn), 48.4 and 19.9 (Co), 398.6 and 211.7 (Mn), 17391.9 and 6410.7 (Fe), 16.1 and 5.3 (Cr), 27.7 and 7.9 (Pb), 7.2 and 4.8 (Cd), respectively. Soil to plant transfer factor was determined and found to be less than unity. The correlation coefficient between concentrations of trace elements in soils, and their soil-to-toombak transfer factors divided the elements into two groups, first group have inverse correlation while the second group is independent of their soil concentration. (Author)

  16. Application of nuclear analytical techniques to investigate trace element content in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.

    1985-01-01

    The study performed as a joint project with the IAEA includes those foodstuffs which are being used widely in Iran. It was investigated their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of their trace elements in metabolism. Various analytical techniques was assessed and compared. The methods involved in the study were ASS, PIXE and NAA (instrumental and radiochemical)

  17. Assessment of the essential element and heavy metal content of edible fish muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Santiago, S. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.L. [Instituto de Investigacao das Pescas e do Mar, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of some essential and toxic elements in the muscle of ten species of commercial fish consumed in Portugal. We combined two different techniques for determination of the elements - energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Sr and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry for analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The latter technique was used because of its higher sensitivity, because these elements were not detected by EDXRF. The results obtained show a similar pattern for the trace elements. K and Ca are present at the highest concentrations in all the samples studied, from 0.6-1.3% and from 0.04-0.08%, respectively, followed by Zn, Fe, Sr, Se, and Rb. Sr is present at higher concentrations than Rb in all the species studied except meagre. Concentrations of the elements in octopus do not follow this pattern - Fe is present at a higher concentration than Zn. Low concentrations of Cr (0.66-1.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Ni (0.11-0.24 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cd (0.01-0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Hg (0.49-2.74 {mu}g g{sup -1}), and Pb (0.02-0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were observed in all the samples analysed. The concentration of Hg was highest in Helicolenus dactylopterus - 5.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} in one sample. (orig.)

  18. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakharani, M.A.; Shar, Q.G.; Shaikh, S.

    2005-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  19. High contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in stream waters of a Cu-Pb-Zn mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2002-01-01

    Stream waters draining an old mining area present very high rare earth element (REE) contents, reaching 928 microg/l as the maximum total value (sigmaREE). The middle rare earth elements (MREEs) are usually enriched with respect to both the light (LREEs) and heavy (HREEs) elements of this group, producing a characteristic "roof-shaped" pattern of the shale Post-Archean Australian Shales-normalized concentrations. At the Fenice Capanne Mine (FCM), the most important base metal mine of the study area, the REE source coincides with the mine tailings, mostly the oldest ones composed of iron-rich materials. The geochemical history of the REEs released into Noni stream from wastes in the FCM area is strictly determined by the pH, which controls the REE speciation and in-stream processes. The formation of Al-rich and mainly Fe-rich flocs effectively scavenges the REEs, which are readily and drastically removed from the solution when the pH approaches neutrality. Leaching experiments performed on flocs and waste materials demonstrate that Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides play a key role in the release of lanthanide elements into stream waters. The origin of the "roof-shaped" REE distribution pattern as well as the peculiar geochemical behavior of some lanthanide elements in the aqueous system are discussed.

  20. Essential trace elements content in a sudanese meal of cooked Hibiscus Sp. leaves as determined by both X-ray florescence and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.M; Taha, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Essential trace elements content of a Sudanese meal of cooked Karkadi plant leaves (Hibiscus Sp)was determined and found to be several folds higher than the average trace element content of Sudanese food as determined in twenty nine daily consumed mixed diets. Therefore, this plant can act as a promising natural supplement in cases of deficiency provided it is grown in a trace element rich soil. (Author)

  1. A comprehensive analysis of the content of heavy rare-earth elements and platinum in snow samples to assess the ecological hazard of air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Tarasova, N. P.; Trunova, A. N.; Sychkova, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    Snow samples from the territory of the Setun River Valley Wildlife Sanctuary are analyzed for the content of rare-earth elements, heavy metals, and other hazardous elements by the inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry method. The changes in the concentrations of rare-earth elements, Pt, Pd, and indicator ratios of elements in the solid fractions of snow are revealed. A trend toward a decrease in the content of several elements northeastward of the Moscow Ring Road (MRR) is established. The level of seasonal atmospheric contamination of the area under study is assessed, and a possible source is identified.

  2. Effects of woody elements on simulated canopy reflectance: implications for forest chlorophyll content retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrelst, J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Malenovsky, Z.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2010-01-01

    An important bio-indicator of actual plant health status, the foliar content of chlorophyll a and b (Cab), can be estimated using imaging spectroscopy. For forest canopies, however, the relationship between the spectral response and leaf chemistry is confounded by factors such as background (e.g.

  3. Trace element contents in raw materials and products of the confectionary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnar, J.; Kiss, B.

    1984-01-01

    Based on measurements by X-ray radiation analysis, the zinc content of raw ingredients for the confectionary industry varies between 27,2 and 56,4 mg/kg and their copper content between 6,2 and 34,3 mg/kg. The same values for bitter chocolates: 22,3 to 28,8 mg/kg for zinc and 10,8 to 18,8 mg/kg for copper resp.; values in milk chocolates: 15,9 to 19,8 mg/kg (zinc) and 2,6 to 6,1 mg/kg (copper). Contents of zinc and copper in cocoa powders are much higher than the above values: 78,1 to 102,5 mg/kg (zinc) and 45,9 to 48,6 mg/kg (copper), resp. Zinc and copper contents in the end products depend in the first place on the raw ingredients; contamination during manufacturing is unlikely. (author)

  4. Automatic checking of heavy element content in polymetallic ores directly in transportation containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvaritsa, V.P.; Mamikon'yan, S.V.; Nagornyj, V.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    An automatic measuring instrument has been developed and used to check rapidly the content of lead in ores transported by trolley cars, dump trucks, dump cars or other open containers. The measuring technique is based on gamma backscattering and X-ray fluorescence. Influences of container movements, volumetric density changes and matrix effects on the achievable accuracy are briefly discussed

  5. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  6. Study of the trace element content in human cataractous lenses by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouris, T.; Theodossiadis, G.; Papadopoulou, C.; Kanias, G.D.; Baikraktari-Kouri, E.

    1986-01-01

    Cataract is a very common disease of the eye lens known since the ancient times. Different mechanisms are responsible for the biogenesis of cataract but the greater number of scientists agree with the theory that cataract formation can be attributed to metabolism disorders in the lens. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied in this work for the determination of the following trace elements: antimony, cobalt, iron, rubidium, selenium and zinc in human lenses with mature cataract. The obtained results are statistically treated and correlated with age and sex of patients. Based on these findings the concentration of each studied element does not have any correlation with the age and/or sex of the patients i.e. when the lens becomes totally opaque. (author)

  7. Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chery, C.C.; Herremans, S.; Van Lierde, V.; Vanhaecke, F.; Jasekera, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

  8. Determination of the Element Contents in Turkish Coffee and Effect of Sugar Addition

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fercan; A. S. Kipcak; O. Dere Ozdemir; M. B. Piskin; E. Moroydor Derun

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage with many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Coffee consumption continues to increase due to its physiological effects, its pleasant taste, and aroma. Robusta and Arabica are two basic types of coffee beans. The coffee bean used for Turkish coffee is Arabica. There are many elements in the structure of coffee and have various effect on human health such as Sodium (Na), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). In this...

  9. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  10. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  11. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  12. Determination of rare earth element content in yttrium aluminium garnet crystals by absorption spectrophotometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejl'man, M.L.; Kolomijtsev, A.I.; Baskakova, Z.M.; Bagdasarov, Kh.S.; Kevorkov, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of determination of relative and absolute contents of impurity trivalent REE ions in yttrium aluminium garnet of (YAG) monocrystals has been studied by the absorption spectrophotometry method. Absorption spectra in UV and visible regions YAG monocrystals doped by REE are studied. For each admixture the characteristic lines or absorption bands not overlapping with lines of other admixtures are defined and investigated. The extinction coefficients of characteristic lines are determined which allow one to measure absolute REE admixture concentrations in garnet crystals. A conclusion is drawn that the absorption spectrophotometry method permits to measure REE admixture content in YAG monocrystals within the concentration range of approximately 1x10sup(-3)-5 mas. % with an accuracy not less than 20% (with sample thickness of approximately 1 cm)

  13. Estimation of Trace Elements (Iodine and Iron Content in Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Belykh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of iodine and iron content in breast milk (n = 88 has been carried out. The study shows that the concentration of iodine and iron in breast milk of the women did not correspond to the physiological needs of an infant. It has been demonstrated that the use of iron-containing vitamin-mineral supplements during lactation has no significant effect on the level of iron in breast milk. The iodine content in breast milk depends on the iodine subsidies. It is shown that the level of micronutrients in breast milk is not affected by the presence of gestational maternal anemia and goiter, due date and place of residence of the family. It is concluded that a statistically significant impact on the level of iodine in the breast milk of combined iodine prophylaxis (acceptance by the mother during lactation drugs potassium iodide (200 mg/day due to the use of iodized salt.

  14. Major and trace element and volatile constraints on magma systematics of seamounts and axial ridge glasses from the East Pacific Rise between 8°N and 12°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, M. L.; Kelley, K. A.; Wanless, V. D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    The East Pacific Rise is a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge system (6-16cm/yr) consisting of many spreading ridges and transform faults. Focusing on a well-studied segment between 8-12°N, we present new SIMS measurements of magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, S, Cl, F) and new LA-ICP-MS trace element data in both on-axis and off-axis glasses, coupled with previously published data and use these data to relate melt composition to crystallization and melting processes. The seamounts range in composition from evolved (MgO = 5.54 wt%) to fairly primitive (MgO = 9.70 wt%), whereas on-axis samples have a narrower range of MgO (5.85 - 8.83 wt%). Seamounts span a wide range of enrichment in trace element compositions (La/Sm 0.45 - 4.63; Th/La 0.02 - 0.14; K/Ti 0.02 - 0.66), whereas on-axis glasses reflect NMORB compositions (La/Sm 0.5 - 1; Th/La 0.035 - 0.07; K/Ti 0.05 - 0.15). Light rare earth elements in the seamounts vary from depleted to enriched and have variable Eu anomalies (0.79 - 1.10), while on-axis samples have NMORB patterns with more negative Eu anomalies (0.74 - 1.00). The H2O content of the seamounts ranges from dry (0.05 wt%) to fairly wet (0.96 wt%), whereas on-axis samples have a narrower range (0.15 - 0.31 wt%). Cl contents show variable mixing between seawater and a magmatic component, with seamounts assimilating more seawater. Magmatic liquid lines of descent (LLD), recorded in glass, reflect fractional crystallization of olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene, consistent with modal phenocryst abundances of the rocks. A multi-element approach (e.g., MgO vs. Al2O3, CaO, CaO/Al2O3), constrains LLDs, providing fractionation slopes, allowing mafic basalt compositions to be accurately corrected back to primary melts in equilibrium with Fo90. Using these melts, pressures and temperatures of melt equilibration can be constrained using melt thermobarometry. On-axis samples reflect higher PT conditions (1371°C; 1.37 GPa), although within error of seamounts (1340

  15. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 hours. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples

  16. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi......The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  17. Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Jørgensen, Karin; Holm, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive aquatic or semi-aquatic production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) for human consumption takes place in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of 38 elements in soil and water spinach cultivated under different degrees of wastewater exposure...... in Hanoi, Vietnam. The results showed no effect of wastewater use on the overall element concentrations in soil and water spinach. Mean soil concentrations for selected potentially toxic elements at the studied field sites had the following ranges 9.11-18.7 As, 0.333-0.667 Cd, 10.8-14.5 Co, 68-122 Cr, 34...... concentrations in water spinach were 0.139 As, 0.032 Cd, 0.135 Cr, 2.01 Cu, 39.1 Fe, 57.3 Mn, 0.16 Ni, 0.189 Pb and 6.01 Zn mg kg(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). The site and soil content of organic carbon were found to have high influence on the water spinach element concentrations whereas soil pH and the total soil...

  18. Selected element contents formation in linseed plants (Linum usitatissimum L. depending on the phase of development and plant part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A single factor (variety strict field experiment was carried out in 1999-2000 at the experimental station of the Department of Plant Production, Agricultural University of Krakow located at Prusy near Cracow to study the changes in selected macro-and microelement concentrations in the top parts of linseed and the uptake of these elements during vegetation at the characteristic phases of development, including also the plant parts, i.e. leaves, stems, seeds and straw. On the basis of obtained results it was demonstrated that microelement contents in the linseed top parts changed considerably with the plant growth. The levels of Cr, Zn,Cd, Fe and Mn were highest at budding, while Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn levels were lowest at full maturity phase. Linseed grown in the area unpolluted with trace elements did not reveal the ability to accumulate excessive amounts of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe and Mn, undesired from the usefulness for consumption point of view. Cadmium, irrespective of the examined stage of plant development, revealed high capacity for an excessive accumulation in the top parts. The contents and reciprocal ratios of macroelements in plants changed variously with their growth. The highest Na and K contents were noticed at budding phase, Ca at vegetative stage (arborescent and Mg at the initial budding. The widest Ca:P ratio and K:(Ca+Mg ratio occurred at budding, whereas K:Na ratio at full maturity phase. Linseed accumulated macro- and microele ments in the yield at various rates. Among the analysed elements Cd, Zn and Ni were taken up proportionally to increasing yields of linseed top part biomass.

  19. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inmaculada González-Martín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions. The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53, calcium (0.83, 94, iron (0.69, 134 potassium (0.95, 117, magnesium (0.70, 99, phosphorus (0.94, 24 zinc (0.87, 10 chromium (0.48, 0.6 nickel (0.52, 0.7 copper (0.64, 0.9 and lead (0.70, 2 in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  20. Stratospheric particles: Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence determination of trace element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.; Flynn, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The first trace element analyses on stratospheric particles using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) are reported. Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Se and Br were detected. Concentrations for chondritic particle U2022G1 are within a factor of 1.7 of CI for all elements detected with the exception of Br which is 37 times CI. Chondritic particle W7029*A27 is also near CI for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ge but enriched in Ga, Se, and Br by factors of 5.8, 3.5 and 8.4, respectively. The third particle of the cosmic dust class also showed high Br enriched relative to CI by a factor of 28. Br was also detected at a high level in an aluminum-rich particle classified as probable artificial terrestrial contamination but exhibiting a chondritic Fe/Ni ratio. Br was not detected in a fifth particle also classified terrestrial and exhibiting a crustal Fe/Ni ratio. If the high Br has a pre-terrestrial origin, the ubiquity of the effect suggests that a large fraction of the chondritic interplanetary dust particles derive from a parent body (bodies) not sampled in the meteorite collection. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.N.; Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  2. Study on the contents of trace rare earth elements and their distribution in wheat and rice samples by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingxin; Zhao Hang; Wang Yuqi

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 8 REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in wheat and rice samples have been determined by RNAA. The contents and distributions of REE in each part of the plants (i.e. root, leaf, stem, husk and seed) and their host soils were studied, which included samples applied with rare earth elements in farming and control samples. The effects of applying rare earth on the uptake of REE by the plants and the REE accumulation in the grains of human health were also discussed. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Relationship between radiocesium contamination and the contents of various elements in the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant seriously contaminated a large area in northeast Japan with a large amount of radioactive material. Consequently, various organisms, including arthropods, in the ecosystem have been contaminated with radiocesium ("1"3"7Cs) through the food chain. We previously showed that the web spider Nephila clavata was contaminated with "1"3"7Cs and that the level of contamination, which varied among spider individuals, was independent of the amount of prey consumed. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms that could determine the level of "1"3"7Cs contamination in N. clavata. We first demonstrated the patterns of contents of over 30 elements in N. clavata that were collected at two forest sites (PS and ES) in Fukushima and then focused on the relationships between the contents of the alkali metals Li, Na, K, and Rb and the accumulation of "1"3"7Cs in the spiders; Cs is an alkali metal and is expected to act similarly to Li, Na, K, and Rb. We also focused on the content of the non-alkali element, Cu, which is an essential element for oxygen transport in spiders. We found that Na content correlated positively with "1"3"7Cs accumulation at both sites, which suggested that "1"3"7Cs accumulation in N. clavata was related with the dynamics of Na. The K–, Rb–, and Cu–"1"3"7Cs relationships were site specific; the relationships were significant at site PS, but not significant at site ES. Factors causing the site specific relationships and the probable pathway for "1"3"7Cs transfer from soil to plants and then to higher trophic levels are discussed in terms of the transfer processes of the alkali metals. - Highlights: • Accumulation of "1"3"7Cs and various elements in web spiders was investigated. • "1"3"7Cs accumulation positively correlated with that of K, Rb, Na, and Cu. • Accumulation of alkali metals determined the level of "1"3"7Cs contamination. • K–, Rb–, Cu–"1"3"7Cs relationships were

  4. X-ray fluorescence diffractionless analyzer for determining light element content in iron ore mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksa, L.K.; Kochmola, N.M.; Bondarenko, V.P.; Bogdanov, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Diffractionless X-ray fluorescence analyzer for detecting calcium oxide and silicon dioxide contents in dry iron ore materials has been developed. The analyzer includes a charging unit, sample-conveying device, spectrometric units for detecting calcium and silicon, computing racks and sample-removing device. Results of calcium oxide and silicon dioxide analyses in iron ore mixtures are presented. Errors are evaluated. It is shown that the analyzer provides high accuracy of one-time determinations, as well as reading constancy for a long time

  5. Relation between Cutting Surface Quality and Alloying Element Contents when Using a CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Litecká

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of material content on changes in the quality parameters of the cutting surface when cutting with a laser. The study focuses on experiments to find the effect of material structure and cutting parameters on surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and precision of laser cutting. The experimental results are shown in graphs which illustrate the suitability of materials for achieving required cutting surface quality parameters. These results can be used for optimizing production in practical applications using a laser cutting machine.

  6. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  7. TRACE ELEMENT CONTENTS IN TOPSOIL LOCATED NEAR STEEL PLANT IN KRAKOW-NOWA HUTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mundała

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of cadmium, lead and zinc contents in topsoils of arable land located in vicinity Steel Plant in Krakow-Nowa Huta. Soil samples were collected in autumn 2007 from the 0-20 cm layer placed in a west-east trnsect of 7,5 km length. It started approximately 5km east form the border of the steel plant. .Sampled area is characterized by high level of agriculture, where the dominant crops have been vegetables, mainly cabbage and cauliflower. It was found, the soil was not contaminated with heavy metals. All samples met the requirements of the Polish Minister of the Environment. Also the assessment according to Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation method showed only incerased content 60% in case of zinc and only 13% for Cd. Any levels of pollution were not observed. There also decreasing trend of accumulation were stated as a function of growing distance from the steel plant.

  8. Determination of rare-earth elements content in granitic rocks by argon plasma emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merodio, J.C.; Martinez, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed that enables the rare-earth elements in granitic rocks to be measured sequentially, using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source spectrometer with medium spectral resolution (0,02nm). The rocks were dissolved in an open system with a mixture of nitric-hydrofluoric-perchloric acids. Any residues remaining at this stage were removed by filtration and digested using a mini-fusion method with lithium tetraborate. Prior to the excitation in the spectrometer the rare-earth group was separated from other constituents using cation-exchange chromatography. A detailed study of spectral interferences and the evaluation of the detection limits have been performed. Five geochemical reference sample (granitic rocks) were analyzed and the obtained results agree favourably with recommended values and with reported determinations, using high spectral resolution ICP spectrometry. (Author) [es

  9. Evaluation of various digestion procedures for trace element contents of some food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, Sule; Tuzen, Mustafa; Saracoglu, Sibel; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    The levels of trace elements in different types of food material consumed in Turkey were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Food samples were digested with dry ashing, wet ashing and microwave digestion procedures in this study. The microwave digestion procedure was chosen for the digestion of all the food samples because it required shorter time and made higher recovery (specially for Se). Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al and Se were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) were found below 10%. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials. Moreover, this procedure was easier to use when compared with dry and wet digestions

  10. Seasonal variation of element contents in lichen transplants in setubal peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, A. P.; Freitas, M. C.; Reis, M.; Woterbeek, B.Th.

    1999-01-01

    The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado Estuary) is densely industrialised, and therefore air pollution should be studied in more detail there. Transplants of lichen Parmelia sulcata Taylor were suspended in nylon bags Setubal Peninsula, following a 2.5x2.5 km grid. In each of the 47 places two sets of four transplants each were hanged. Care was taken i) in covering the sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, ii) in building a hanging system which could rotate according to the wind direction, iii) in orienting each one set towards the wind and the other set against the wind. For one-year period and every 3 months, one transplant of each set was collected. In this work, we present the results obtained by INAA for Al, Ca, V, and As, in the transplants oriented towards the wind, after 3, 6, and 9 months of exposure

  11. Essential element contents in food groups from the second Brazilian total diet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogi, J.B.; Avegliano, R.P.; Maihara, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Total diet study (TDS) has been considered as one of the most appropriate approaches to estimate dietary exposure of essential elements. This paper presents preliminary results of concentrations and average dietary daily intakes of Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn from the 2nd Brazilian TDS. Nineteen groups from a Food List which represents the daily intake of the population from the Brazilian southeastern region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The dietary daily intake values for Ca (641 mg), Fe (19.6 mg), K (2738 mg), Na (2466 mg), Se (56.4 μg), and Zn (15.3 mg) were higher than the 1st Brazilian TDS. (author)

  12. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  13. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  14. Determination of Elements and Carbon Content of Stainless Steel Welded Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Find out defects or problems of welds are not so simple from time to time. Specially, if weld has been made in rough environmental conditions like high temperature, dusty wind and humidity. It is important to assure have good conditions to realize basic step of welding. For welding, have been used welding procedures specification and procedure qualification record. However, difficult conditions, documentations rightness or human errors are always here. Common weld defects like cracks, porosity, lack of penetration and distortion can compromise the strength of the base metal, as well as the integrity of the weld. According of site inspection, there were suspicion of inclusions, leaker or segregation in root of weld. Surface treatment after welding and keep the intervals between single welds to not overheat the pipes. To recognize those suspicions, mechanical testing around weld joint, determination of carbon content and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy will be done.

  15. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  16. Qualitative characterisation of cultivated and wild edible plants: Mineral elements, phenols content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Disciglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the qualitative characteristics of several edible wild herbaceous species, including those most consumed in Foggia Province (southern Italy. Analysis of qualitative characteristics was performed for the edible parts of 11 wild species (Beta vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Centaurea solstitialis L., Cichorium intybus L., Scolymus hispanicus L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Borago officinalis L., Diplotaxis erucoides L., Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L. DC, Sinapis arvensis L., Portulaca oleracea L. and three cultivated species (C. intybus, B. officinalis, D. tenuifolia. The plants were collected from areas in the Foggia countryside, and the edible part of each species was analysed for dry matter, protein, cation and anion contents as well as total phenols and antioxidant activities. Among the cations, calcium was the most differentiated among species, ranging 784 mg kg–1 fresh weight (Fw for B. vulgaris to 5886 mg kg–1 Fw for S. hispanicus. The nitrate contents were also highly variable, from 75 mg kg–1 Fw for C. intybus to 3874 mg kg–1 Fw for D. tenuifolia. Total polyphenols ranged from 1054 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg kg–1 Fw for C. solstitialis to 3664 mg GAE mg kg–1 Fw for S. arvensis. Antioxidant activities ranged from 839 mg Trolox equivalents (TE kg–1 Fw for B. vulgaris to 5658 mg TE kg–1 Fw for C. intybus. Significant differences were also noted between wild and cultivated plants in the qualitative parameters. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were higher in wild C. intybus and B. officinalis than in their cultivated counterparts. Multivariate analysis (cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis allowed integration of the ANOVA data to determine the qualitative characteristics of the wild species that contribute most to group differences. The results of the present study aims to improve current knowledge about edible wild species as vegetable sources in the Mediterranean diet.

  17. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial area in Romania: variation of element contents with the height of exposure site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culicov, O.; Yurukova, L.; Mocanu, R.; Frontasyeva, V.; Sarbu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and the moss-bag transplant technique were used to investigate the variation of element contents with the height of the exposure site of Sphagnum girgensohnii samples in the strongly polluted town of Baia Mare, Romania, according to a novel sampling design. Moss collected from the background area in Moscow region, Russia, was hanged in bags at 3 locations spread within an area of one square kilometre, and analyzed after 4 months of exposure. At each location a number of 15 samples were suspended at 6 different levels above the ground: 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 m. A total of 35 elements were determined by NAA at IBR-2 reactor in Dubna, Russia. Discriminant Analysis allowed depicting the differences between the accumulation patterns of moss at different levels of exposure and at various locations. The concentration of only twenty four and twenty five elements of thirty five provided sufficient information to enable classification rules to be developed for identifying moss samples according with their height of exposure and location, respectively. The most discriminant elements have the F values (indicating the statistical significance in the discrimination between groups) descending in the following order: K, Rb, Sb, Cs, Zn, Cl for the location model and Ca, Cd, As, Sr, Ba, Cl for the height model. A good agreement have been observed between the groups obtained by applying Discriminant Analysis and the origin of the samples. A small number of elements are significant for the separation of moss-bags by height in individual locations. The parameter ?variation in concentration by height? is less significant than the parameter ? variation in concentration by location?

  18. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  19. Content of selected elements and low-molecular-weight organic acids in fruiting bodies of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. from unpolluted and polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Gąsecka, Monika; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Zalicka, Sylwia; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) investigate the potential of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. to accumulate 53 elements from unpolluted acidic sandy soil and polluted alkaline flotation tailing sites in Poland, (ii) to estimate the low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) profile and contents in fruit bodies, and finally (iii) to explore the possible relationship between elements and LMWOA content in mushrooms. The content of most elements in fruiting bodies collected from the flotation tailings was significantly higher than in mushrooms from the unpolluted soils. The occurrence of elements determined in fruiting bodies of B. badius has been varied (from 0.01 mg kg -1 for Eu, Lu, and Te up to 18,932 mg kg -1 for K). The results established the high importance of element contents in substrate. Among ten organic acids, nine have been found in wide range: from below 0.01 mg kg -1 for fumaric acid to 14.8 mg g -1 for lactic acid. Lactic and succinic acids were dominant in both areas, and citric acid was also in high content in polluted area. The correlation between element contents and the individual and total content of LMWOAs was confirmed.

  20. Nutritional Content and Elemental and Phytochemical Analyses of Moringa oleifera Grown in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A. Valdez-Solana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a tree distributed in Mexican semiarid and coastal regions. M. oleifera is used in practice in the treatment of various diseases and is available without a medical prescription, often in the form of an herbal infusion for everyday use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition and nutritional values of dried M. oleifera leaf powder collected from two different regions in Mexico. All samples of M. oleifera exhibited moisture levels varying from 3.06 to 3.34%, lipids from 10.21 to 10.31%, fiber from 7.29 to 9.46%, ashes from 10.71 to 11.18%, crude protein from 10.74 to 11.48%, and carbohydrates from 54.61 to 57.61%. The predominant mineral elements in the leaf powder according to ICP-MS were Ca (2016.5–2620.5 mg/100 g, K (1817–1845 mg/100 g, and Mg (322.5–340.6 mg/100 g. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic and chlorogenic acids and flavonoids (rutin, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, and kaempferol. We concluded that Lombardia M. oleifera samples could be employed in edible and commercial applications. Our results showed that the highest mean value of As from the San Pedro samples exceeds the recommended level and may constitute a health hazard to consumers.

  1. Elemental contents in leaves and bark of neem (Azadirachta Indica) - a versatile medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Verma, Kavita; Choudhury, R.P.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Azadirachta Indica, commonly known as neem touches the daily life of every Indian as all of its parts are widely used. Neem leaves are used as insecticide and antiseptic whereas its extracts and oil are clinically effective in curing eczema and other skin diseases. Fresh leaves and bark of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) collected from different locations in Roorkee were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Ca, CI, K, Mg, Na and P) and 15 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by short (1 min) and long (7 h) neutron irradiation neutron followed by high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Also Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). P was determined by counting the β-activity from 32 P using an end-window GM counter. Peach leaves (SRM 1547) from NIST, USA and Mixed Polish Herbs (MPH-2) from INCT, Poland were analyzed for data validation. Most elemental contents varied in a wide range. However, mean and median values in most cases are comparable. Elemental contents of V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn in leaves have been particularly attributed to its use in the treatment of diabetes. Linear correlations were observed between K and CI (r =0.96) and Rb and Cs (r = 0.97) in Neem leaves. Leaves were particularly enriched in K, Mg, Zn and Rb whereas bark was enriched in Ca, Mn and Fe. Petroleum ether extract of dried Neem leaves was analyzed for organic constituents; 1,1,2,3-tetramethyl cyclopropane, methyl phenyl sulfone, n-hexanedecanoic acid and 9,12,15-octadecatrienal in soluble fraction and bicyclo octa 1,3,5 triene 7-(3-butenyl) and 2-hydroxymethyl 1-methoxy 9,10 anthracenediene in insoluble fraction. Compounds were separated by column and thin layer chromatography and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

  2. Investigation of element contents of natural diamond crystals of different gemological features by INAA and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, D.S.; Ulugmuradov, S.; Didyk, A.Y.; Gasanov, M.; Solodova, J.P.; Sedova, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The work presented aims at understanding the role of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities on the natural diamond ( Type Ι ) quality, microstructure and morphology having different gemological features for identification their deposit. An according of the Kimberly Process there is Certification Scheme for regulating trade in diamonds to exclude 'bloody' diamonds. The 'four C's' criteria (color, clarity, carat weight, cut) had for decades been used by gemologists worldwide to evaluate precious gem diamonds. Those four parameters were believed to determine the value of the stones. Some 10 years ago gemologists added to those traditional criteria a fifth C, signifying Confidence. The role of the fifth C in pricing precious stones increased over time. An according of the Kimberly Process it is necessary to determine diamond deposit. Impurity content of natural diamonds is basic feature to for identification their deposit. We have used autoradiographic technique for investigation of spatial impurity distributions in natural diamond crystals. It is based on the secondary beta irradiation registration. Impurities were identified by energy lines of the gamma spectra obtained and by half-life periods. We bring information which allow to clarify the spatial distributions of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities depended inner morphology of diamond crystal. It was established several types of impurity distributions depending from inner morphology of diamond crystals. Results of INAA and autoradiographic study of natural diamonds use for to make of international data for identification their deposit

  3. Elemental content changes in hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus due to mercury contamination: a study using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, A.; Oliveira, A.P.; Barroso, R.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, A.P.; Braz, D.; Cardoso, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueiredo, M.B.; Azambuja, P. [Fundacao Instituto Osvaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gonzalez, M.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, the effects of pollution on the health of humans and other vertebrates have been extensively studied. However, the effects on some invertebrates are comparatively unknown. Research has demonstrated that toxic metals interfere with the reproduction, development and immune defenses of some terrestrial and marine invertebrates. Depending on environmental conditions, pollution produces chronic and acute effects on different systems and organs of animals. In general, some more toxic elements like arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and nickel in contact with organisms change cellular structures, enzyme activities, and in some cases destroy the physiological integrities of the tissues. In insects, the effects of pollutants depend upon the species studied. In this work, we investigated the changes in elemental contents in the hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus on 2 and 5 days after feeding on blood containing mercury chloride. R. Prolixus is an obligated hematophagous Hemiptera and one of the most important insect vectors of trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The SR-TXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) beamline facility in Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory LNLS/Brazil. The major elements Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, K were found in all hemolymph samples analysed. Insects treated with HgCl2 had reduced Cl and Ca levels, whereas the same treatment had enhanced Br levels in comparison with non- treated control insects. (author)

  4. Trace element content and molecular biodiversity in the epiphytic moss Leptodon smithii: two independent tracers of human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Valeria; Terracciano, Stefano; Giordano, Simonetta

    2009-03-01

    This paper focuses on chemical composition of the epiphytic moss Leptodon smithii, gathered on Quercus ilex bark, assessed in seven sites located in urban and extra-urban/remote areas of southern Italy, a poorly surveyed geographic area. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in moss tissue are generally more abundant in moss gathered in the urban sites; among extra-urban/remote sites Valle delle Ferriere showed the highest metal concentrations, mostly related to an industrial activity occurred in the past. L. smithii chemistry seems influenced by airborne dust locally enhanced by erosion phenomena, long-range transport of pollutants and marine aerosols. Element content in moss is compared with genetic variability of L. smithii estimated in the same sites. Pearson's correlation coefficient between gene diversity and total element load (r=-0.851; p=0.03) suggests that anthropogenic pressure, determining habitat disturbance and fragmentation, leads both to genetic impoverishment consequent to population shrink, and to a higher accumulation in moss tissues, as a consequence of increased airborne major/trace elements. Thus, the coupled evaluation of chemical composition in mosses and gene diversity may prove a useful tool to highlight environmental disturbance in a gradient of land use.

  5. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Germination, Growth, Elements, Protein and Photosynthetic Pigments Contents in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Askary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of fossil fuels in industries and the transport sector has led to an increase in concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and their derivatives and ozone (O3. In addition to dry and wet deposition of these gases has been the major route of influx in ionic form into the ecosystem. This investigation was evaluated the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR with different pH (6.8 as control, 6.5, 6, 5.5, 5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3 and 2.5 on germination, growth, elements, protein, photosynthetic pigments contents of Lycopersicon esculentum in hydroponic culture. Experiments were conducted at research laboratory of arak university in summer of 1391. Results were showed that from pH=6.8 until pH=5/5 significantly increased P and K and protein content, root and shoot dry and wet weight. SAR exposure with high acidity (pH=5/5 until pH=2.5 significantly suppressed germination, growth index, measured elements as P and K, protein and photosynthetic pigments, while significant increased sulphur contect from 150% to 550% compared to controls. Maximal amounts sulphur were measured in pH=2/5. Acid rain in low pH were decrease plant growth and make protein and incearsed sulphur content in leaf. As regards, low acidity promoted the growth of tomato plants and high acidity inhibit, Therefore, it is recommended that tomato plants cultures in soils with low acidity.

  6. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K 2 SO 4 ] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey. The antimicrobial activities of seed ethanol extracts and seed oil were tested in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli, (E. coli) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) using the disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle was determined spectrophotometrically by monitoring the disappearance of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH•) at 517 nm according to the method described by Brand-Williams et al .[17] The phenolic contents in the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle were determined according to the procedure described by Slinkard and Singleton[19] with a slight modification of using a Folin-Ciocalteu phenolic reagent. The amount of total flavonoid in the ethanolic extracts was measured by aluminum chloride [AlCl 3 ] colorimetric assay. The ions in aerosol samples were determined by using Dionex ICS 1100 Series ion chromatography. Seed and seed oils obtained from obvious doses of potassium sulfate [0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha -1 fertilizer applications showed antimicrobial activities against E. coli , A. niger and P. aeruginosa . The application of 90 kg ha -1 of K 2 SO 4 on seed oil resulted in the highest antimicrobial activities. At 100 µg mL -1 and 200 µg mL -1 , except the highest

  7. Problems of criterions of sanitary evaluation of fodder phosphates of an increased content of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarski, T.P.; Krynski, A.

    1984-01-01

    In samples of 15 fodder phosphates a proper activity of natural radionuclides K-40, Ra-226 and Th-228 was determined. It was found that the content of K-40 in the examined phosphates was from 0 to 113.6 mBq/g (0-3.07 pCi/g), Ra-226 from 5.6 to 2523.4 mBq/g (0.15-68.2 pCi/g) and Th-228 from 11.1 to 100 mBq/g (0.3-2.7 pCi/g). On the basis of the obtained data the quantity of uranium in fodder phosphates and the quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk of cows fed on these phosphates was estimated. It was found that the quantity of uranium in phosphates was harmless for animals. It was admitted that the criterion of phosphates evaluation on the basis of quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk is not sufficient for drawing conclusion about their sanitary value. For a complex evaluation of fodder phosphates a limit value of radioactive activity of Ra-226 37 mBq/g (1 pCi/g) is proposed. Considering the possibility of air pollution in fodder factories a disuse of phosphates in production in which the activity of Ra-226 increases to 0.37 mBq/g (10 pCi/g) and of Th-228 to 75 mBq/g (2pCi/g) was proposed. The proposed criterion of evaluation concerns all phosphates used in Poland. (author)

  8. Preparation of bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney reference materials and the certification of the contents of nine elements of toxicological and nutritional interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagstaffe, P.J.; Muntau, H.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of 3 meat reference materials (bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney) and the steps taken to confirm their homogeneity and stability are described. Details are presented of a preliminary intercomparison and of the final collaborative exercise which led to the certification of the contents of 9 elements of toxicological and nutritional importance. Indicative values are given for the contents of a further 9 elements in these materials. (orig.)

  9. An Assessment of the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Icing Research tunnel has been using an Icing Blade technique to measure cloud liquid water content (LWC) since 1980. The IRT conducted tests with SEA Multi-Element sensors from 2009 to 2011 to assess their performance in measuring LWC. These tests revealed that the Multi-Element sensors showed some significant advantages over the Icing Blade, particularly at higher water contents, higher impingement rates, and large drop sizes. Results of these and other tests are presented here.

  10. Stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces the concept of stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time and, hence, extends standard stochastic volatility (SV) models to allow for an additional source of randomness associated with greater variability in the data. We discuss how stochastic volatility...... of volatility can be defined both non-parametrically, where we link it to the quadratic variation of the stochastic variance process, and parametrically, where we propose two new SV models which allow for stochastic volatility of volatility. In addition, we show that volatility of volatility can be estimated...

  11. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels; Alliages d'uranium a faible teneur pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H.; Laniesse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small {alpha} grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [French] Sont decrits la structure et les proprietes d'alliages a faible teneur, contenant de 0,1 a 0,5 pour cent en poids de Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo ou une combinaison de ces elements. L'etude des cinetiques et du mode de transformation permet de choisir le traitement thermique le plus favorable. On a cherche a mettre, au point des alliages se pretant a une mise en oeuvre industrielle economique et presentant une structure a petits grains {alpha}, sans orientation preferentielle marquee, avec des precipites tres fins et stables ainsi qu'une bonne resistance au fluage. Les proprietes physiques et la resistance mecanique de ces alliages sont decrites entre la temperature ambiante et 600 deg C. Irradies sous forme d'elements combustibles de dimensions normales, ces alliages ont montre un bon comportement. (auteurs)

  12. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels; Alliages d'uranium a faible teneur pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H; Laniesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small {alpha} grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [French] Sont decrits la structure et les proprietes d'alliages a faible teneur, contenant de 0,1 a 0,5 pour cent en poids de Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo ou une combinaison de ces elements. L'etude des cinetiques et du mode de transformation permet de choisir le traitement thermique le plus favorable. On a cherche a mettre, au point des alliages se pretant a une mise en oeuvre industrielle economique et presentant une structure a petits grains {alpha}, sans orientation preferentielle marquee, avec des precipites tres fins et stables ainsi qu'une bonne resistance au fluage. Les proprietes physiques et la resistance mecanique de ces alliages sont decrites entre la temperature ambiante et 600 deg C. Irradies sous forme d'elements combustibles de dimensions normales, ces alliages ont montre un bon comportement. (auteurs)

  13. The impact of lifestyle factors on age-related differences in hair trace element content in pregnant women in the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Voronina, Irina; Terekhina, Olga; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Bohan, Tatiana G; Agarkova, Lyubov A; Kovas, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements play a significant role in the regulation of human reproduction, while advanced age may have a significant impact on trace element metabolism. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of lifestyle factors on age-related differences in hair trace element content in pregnant women in the third trimester. A total of 124 pregnant women aged 20–29 (n = 72) and 30–39 (n = 52) were ex- amined. Scalp hair trace element content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D (Perkin Elmer, USA) after microwave digestion. The results showed that the elder pregnant women had 36% (p = 0.009), 14% (p = 0.045), and 45% (p = 0.044) lower hair Zn, V, and Cd content, and 16% (p = 0.044) higher hair B levels – in comparison to the respective younger group values. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the age of the women had a significant influence on hair V and Zn levels. B content was also significantly influenced by age at first intercourse, smoking status, and specific dietary habits. None of the lifestyle factors were associated with hair Cd content in pregnant women. Hair V levels were also affected by following a special diet. Interestingly, alcohol intake did not have a significant impact on hair trace element content. These data indicate that lifestyle factors have a significant influence on age-related changes in hair trace elements during pregnancy that may impact the outcome of pregnancy.

  14. A numerical investigation of the influence of radiation and moisture content on pyrolysis and ignition of a leaf-like fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Yashwanth; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; C.W. Lautenberger; David Weise

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thermal radiation and moisture content on the pyrolysis and gas phase ignition of a solid fuel element containing high moisture content were investigated using the coupled Gpyro3D/FDS models. The solid fuel has dimensions of a typical Arctostaphylos glandulosa leaf which is modeled as thin cellulose subjected to radiative heating on...

  15. The association between content of the elements S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue from Danes and Greenlandic Inuit examined by dual hierarchical clustering analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jens; Milman, Nils; Pind, Niels

    2014-01-01

    contents according to calculated similarities, one clustering elements according to correlation coefficients between the element contents, both using Euclidian distance and Ward Procedure. RESULTS: One dendrogram separated subjects in 7 clusters showing no differences in ethnicity, gender or age...

  16. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    , fish, soil and sediment from wastewater-fed production systems in Hanoi and Phnom Penh. Another aim was to assess the food safety risks of water spinach and fish with respect to PTEs. The third aim was to assess PTE retention capacity of river sediment in Hanoi and the governing retention mechanisms...... the concentration range observed for water spinach grown at agricultural soil not exposed to wastewater in Malaysia. Water spinach grown at sites of high and low wastewater exposure did not show a significantly higher accumulation of PTEs compared to sites without wastewater exposure. In Phnom Penh, water spinach...... than 11% of the tolerable intake for each element. The PTE content of water spinach in Hanoi and Cheung Ek Lake in Phnom Penh constituted low food safety risks for consumers. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle, skin and liver of fish grown in wastewater-fed systems in Hanoi and Phnom were low...

  17. Low-activation Mn-Cr austenitic stainless steel with further reduced content of long-lived radioactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Saida, T.; Hirai, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Kusuhashi, M.; Sato, I.; Hatakeyama, T. [The Japan Steel Works Ltd., Chatsu-machi 4, Muroran 051-8505 (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steel based on Mn-Cr non-magnetic steels has been developed. The alloying elements of long-life activation, such as Ni, Mo and Co, were eliminated and substituted with Mn along with an addition of N. A Mn-Cr austenitic stainless steel, 24.5Mn-13.5Cr-0.02C-0.2N, has been developed successfully. Examined material properties, including mechanical, thermal and magnetic properties, as well as weldability and characteristics of corrosion resistance, are presented. It was found that the alloy has excellent material properties virtually equivalent to those of 316SS. In this study, the applicability of the Schaeffler, DeLong and Hull constitution diagrams for the stainless steels with low Ni and high Mn contents was also examined. The boundary conditions distinguishing the single austenite phase from the others have been identified for the Mn-Cr steels. (orig.) 22 refs.

  18. Low-activation Mn Cr austenitic stainless steel with further reduced content of long-lived radioactive elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Saida, Tomikane; Hirai, Shouzou; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo; Hatakeyama, Tsuyoshi

    1998-06-01

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steel based on Mn-Cr non-magnetic steels has been developed. The alloying elements of long-life activation, such as Ni, Mo and Co, were eliminated and substituted with Mn along with an addition of N. A Mn-Cr austenitic stainless steel, 24.5Mn-13.5Cr-0.02C-0.2N, has been developed successfully. Examined material properties, including mechanical, thermal and magnetic properties, as well as weldability and characteristics of corrosion resistance, are presented. It was found that the alloy has excellent material properties virtually equivalent to those of 316SS. In this study, the applicability of the Schaeffler, DeLong and Hull constitution diagrams for the stainless steels with low Ni and high Mn contents was also examined. The boundary conditions distinguishing the single austenite phase from the others have been identified for the Mn-Cr steels.

  19. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  20. The influence of iodine and selenium supplementation on trace elemental contents in erythrocyte of the cretinism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nianqing; Liu Pingsheng

    2001-01-01

    The contents of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb in the erythrocyte of 5 groups of rats, were measured by PIXE and XRF. Four groups of the cretinism rats were continuously fed the feed from epidemic cretinism area. zone sandstone-type uranium deposit mineral haloes of intesupplementation. Control group was normal rats fed normal feed. Five weeks later the blood samples were collected. The erythrocyte was separated for the determination of elemental concentrations, the serum for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones T3, T4, FT3, FT4 and rT3 status. The comparison among five groups and the correlation between elements and thyroid hormones were performed by using SPSS/PC statistical package. The results showed that comparing with non-supplementation or control groups the concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, or Rb in the groups of I and/or Se supplementation were significantly fluctuating, while thyroid hormones T4, FT4 and rT3 significantly increased

  1. The Hazard Content of Cadmium, Lead, and Other Trace Elements in Some Medicinal Herbs and Their Water Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad A. Ababneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 54 samples belonging to 23 herbal species (15 individuals and 8 mixtures were analyzed for their contents of heavy metals in the raw materials and in their water infusions. Trace and toxic elements in these samples were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES following acid digestion. The order of decreasing mean metal concentrations in raw materials (mg/kg was found to be as follows: Fe (440 > Mn (162 > Zn (45.8 > Cu (12 > Pb (10.4 > Ni (5.4 > Cr (2.9 > Co (0.91 > Cd (0.5. It was found that 21% of the analyzed samples contain both Cd and Pb above their permissible limits. However, the infusions produced from these plants were found to contain fewer amounts of metals than the raw materials. Studied metals had the following mass transfer percentages to the infusion solutions (Fe: 3.5%, Cd: 14%, Cr: 15%, Pb: 20%, Co: 29%, Ni: 31%, Zn: 36%, Cu: 48%, and Mn: 53%. The estimated daily intake calculated for the toxic elements Pb and Cd through the consumption of herbal infusions was far below the tolerable daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  2. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  3. [Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province and evaluation of its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Lan; Huang, Yi-Zong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Zhu; Hu, Ying; Qiao Min; Li, Jin; Xiang, Meng

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province was studied. The results showed that copper mining and smelting could increase the content of rare earth elements in soils and crops. Rare earth elements content in farmland soils of the surrounding Yinshan Lead Zinc Copper Mine and Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 112.42 to 397.02 mg x kg(-1) and 48.81 to 250.06 mg x kg(-1), and the average content was 254.84 mg x kg(-1) and 144.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average contents of rare earth elements in soils in these two areas were 1.21 times and 0.68 times of the background value in Jiangxi province, 1.36 times and 0.77 times of the domestic background value, 3.59 times and 2.03 times of the control samples, respectively. Rare earth elements content in 10 crops of the surrounding Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 0.35 to 2.87 mg x kg(-1). The contents of rare earth elements in the leaves of crops were higher than those in stem and root. The contents of rare earth elements in Tomato, lettuce leaves and radish leaves were respectively 2.87 mg x kg(-1), 1.58 mg x kg(-1) and 0.80 mg x kg(-1), which were well above the hygienic standard limit of rare earth elements in vegetables and fruits (0.70 mg x kg(-1)). According to the health risk assessment method recommended by America Environmental Protection Bureau (USEPA), we found that the residents' lifelong average daily intake of rare earth elements was 17.72 mg x (kg x d)(-1), lower than the critical value of rare earth elements damage to human health. The results suggested that people must pay attention to the impact of rare earth elements on the surrounding environment when they mine and smelt copper ore in Jiangxi.

  4. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  5. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  6. Restitic or not? Insights from trace element content and crystal - Structure of spinels in African mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaz, Davide; Musco, Maria Elena; Petrelli, Maurizio; Caldeira, Rita; De Min, Angelo; Marzoli, Andrea; Mata, Joao; Perugini, Diego; Princivalle, Francesco; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Bensaid, Idris Ali Ahmadi; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2017-05-01

    The lithospheric architecture of Africa consists of several Archean cratons and smaller cratonic fragments, stitched together and flanked by polycyclic fold belts. Here we investigate the structure and chemistry of spinels from lithospheric mantle xenoliths from distinct tectonic settings, i.e. from the Saharan metacraton in Libya (Waw-En-Namus) which could show archaic chemical features, Cameroon (Barombi Koto and Nyos Lakes) where the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle was modified during the Pan-African event and fluxed by asthenospheric melts of the Tertiary Cameroon Volcanic Line and Morocco (Tafraoute, Bou-Ibalrhatene maars) in the Middle Atlas where different metasomatic events have been recorded. From a structural point of view it is to notice that the Libyan spinels can be divided into two groups having different oxygen positional parameter (u > 0.2632 and u Morocco spinels show a Tc in the range 630-760 °C. About 150 different spinels have been studied for their trace element content and it can be seen that many of them are related to Cr content, while Zn and Co are not and clearly distinguish the occurrences. Differences in the trace element chemistry, in the structural parameters and in the intracrystalline closure temperatures suggest that a different history should be considered for Cameroon, Morocco and LB I and LB II spinels. Even if it was not considered for this purpose, we tentatively used the Fe2 +/Fe3 + vs. TiO2 diagram that discriminate between peridotitic and the so-called "magmatic" spinels, i.e. spinel crystallized from melts. LB I and LB II spinels plot in the peridotitic field while Cameroon and Morocco spinels fall in the magmatic one. Consequently, the xenoliths sampled from a probably juvenile SCLM at the edge of the most important lithospheric roots (i.e. Cameroon and Morocco) apparently have spinels possibly fractionated in situ from percolating melts and do not represent a real spinel-peridotite facies. On the contrary mantle

  7. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 h. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilizized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples. (orig.)

  8. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  9. Background element content of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: A supra-national state of art implemented by novel field data from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, Elva; Incerti, Guido; Capozzi, Fiore; Adamo, Paola; Bargagli, Roberto; Benesperi, Renato; Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Giordano, Simonetta; Puntillo, Domenico; Ravera, Sonia; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Tretiach, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    In biomonitoring, the knowledge of background element content (BEC) values is an essential pre-requisite for the correct assessment of pollution levels. Here, we estimated the BEC values of a highly performing biomonitor, the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, by means of a careful review of literature data, integrated by an extensive field survey. Methodologically homogeneous element content datasets, reflecting different exposure conditions across European and extra-European countries, were compiled and comparatively analysed. Element content in samples collected in remote areas was compared to that of potentially enriched samples, testing differences between medians for 25 elements. This analysis confirmed that the former samples were substantially unaffected by anthropogenic contributions, and their metrics were therefore proposed as a first overview at supra-national background level. We also showed that bioaccumulation studies suffer a huge methodological variability. Limited to original field data, we investigated the background variability of 43 elements in 62 remote Italian sites, characterized in GIS environment for anthropization, land use, climate and lithology at different scale resolution. The relationships between selected environmental descriptors and BEC were tested using Principal Component Regression (PCR) modelling. Elemental composition resulted significantly dependent on land use, climate and lithology. In the case of lithogenic elements, regression models correctly reproduced the lichen content throughout the country at randomly selected sites. Further descriptors should be identified only for As, Co, and V. Through a multivariate approach we also identified three geographically homogeneous macro-regions for which specific BECs were provided for use as reference in biomonitoring applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Informational and emotional elements in online support groups: a Bayesian approach to large-scale content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Ulrike; Powell, John A

    2016-05-01

    This research examines the extent to which informational and emotional elements are employed in online support forums for 14 purposively sampled chronic medical conditions and the factors that influence whether posts are of a more informational or emotional nature. Large-scale qualitative data were obtained from Dailystrength.org. Based on a hand-coded training dataset, all posts were classified into informational or emotional using a Bayesian classification algorithm to generalize the findings. Posts that could not be classified with a probability of at least 75% were excluded. The overall tendency toward emotional posts differs by condition: mental health (depression, schizophrenia) and Alzheimer's disease consist of more emotional posts, while informational posts relate more to nonterminal physical conditions (irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, asthma). There is no gender difference across conditions, although prostate cancer forums are oriented toward informational support, whereas breast cancer forums rather feature emotional support. Across diseases, the best predictors for emotional content are lower age and a higher number of overall posts by the support group member. The results are in line with previous empirical research and unify empirical findings from single/2-condition research. Limitations include the analytical restriction to predefined categories (informational, emotional) through the chosen machine-learning approach. Our findings provide an empirical foundation for building theory on informational versus emotional support across conditions, give insights for practitioners to better understand the role of online support groups for different patients, and show the usefulness of machine-learning approaches to analyze large-scale qualitative health data from online settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Transport of volatile fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective fuel elements during normal and reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Bonin, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been used to model the vapour transport of radioactive fission products released into the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective nuclear fuel elements. The model accounts for both diffusive and bulk-convective transport. Convective transport becomes important as a result of a significant release of gaseous fission products into the gap during a high-temperature reactor accident. However, during normal reactor operation, diffusion is shown to be the dominant process of transport. The model is based on an analysis of several in-reactor tests with operating defective fuel elements, and high-temperature annealing experiments with irradiated fuel specimens. ((orig.))

  12. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  13. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, I, Sr, U, Th etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of our investigation work carried out from November 1996 to April 1998 in the field of 'Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection'. This work related to the Co-ordinated Research Programme for Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2. The data reported are the daily individual intake of the elements of interest for some different socio-economic groups of Vietnamese population living in Hanoi, Hochiminh city Vinh Phu and Dalat areas. The obtained results showed that the average content for four elements (Cs, I, U, Th) in Vietnamese dietary intakes slightly changes from area to area in dependence on geographical, natural and socio-economical conditions, on type and composition of foods. (author)

  14. The determination of the C, N, O and trace element content of Triticum aestivum by activation analysis, X-ray excitation and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Dahn, E.; Dietze, H.J.; Freyer, K.; Geisler, M.; Hartmann, G.; Jung, K.; Schelhorn, H.

    1979-01-01

    The results of determinations of the C, N, O and trace element content of grains, sprouts and leaves of Triticum aestivum by means of various methods of activation analysis, X-ray excitation and mass spectrometry are presented. The C and O contents were determined by X-ray excitation; the O, N, P and Si contents were measured by NAA with 14-MeV neutrons, and the trace elements were determined by NAA with thermal neutrons. A mass-spectrometric survey analysis confirmed the results obtained by NAA. The use of neutron-induced nuclear reactions together with autoradiography enabled a representative picture to be formed of the spatial distribution in two dimensions of 14 N in biological specimens. (author)

  15. Partitioning of elements during coal combustion and leaching experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wen-feng; Qin Yong; Song Dang-yu; Wang Jun-yi [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Resources and Earth Science

    2009-04-15

    The mineral component and content of sulfur and 42 major and trace elements of the feed coal, fly and bottom ashes collected from Shizuishan coal-fired power plant, Ningxia, China were analyzed using AFS, INAA, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, XRD. Based on the coal combustion and leaching experiments, the partitioning of these elements during coal combustion and the leaching behavior of the 11 potentially hazardous elements, including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Th and U were investigated. The results show that the distribution of elements in the fly and bottom ashes is controlled by their volatilities and modes of occurrence in the coal. The degree of volatilization of elements may be mainly associated with boiling/melting points of these elements and their compounds. The elements easily volatilized, organically bound or associated with sub-micrometer and nano minerals (e.g. Al and Na) tend to be enriched in the fine fractions of fly ash, and most elements do not vaporize which are approximately equally partitioned in the fly and bottom ashes. The emission rates of As, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are notably influenced by the temperature ranging from 877 to 1300{sup o}C. The leaching behavior of elements depend significantly on their geochemical properties and modes of occurrence. The elements with a low degree of volatilization are not easily leached, while volatile elements easily leached under the acid conditions. Arsenic, B Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, S, Sb and Se show a higher emission rate during coal combustion, and the leached concentrations of Cd, Co, Mo, Ni and U in the acid media exceed their limited concentrations recommended in relevant environment quality standards for water, which will harm the environment. 32 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Stock return, seasonality and asymmetric conditional volatility in steel & iron subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chirila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained following the testing of five hypotheses regarding conditional return and volatility of the most listed European stocks in the steel & iron subsector. The following elements of the stocks are analysed: time variation of volatility, seasonality of return and volatility, relationship between return and volatility and volatility asymmetry. The results obtained confirm for all the analyzed stocks the existence of volatility variation in time, the lack of correlation between return and volatility, the existence of asymmetry phenomenon of volatility and the presence in some stocks of the seasonality effect both for return and volatility.

  17. Volatility in GARCH Models of Business Tendency Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Dwi A. S.; Wage, Sutarman; Hartono, Ateng

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to obtain a model of business tendency index by considering volatility factor. Volatility factor detected by ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity). The ARCH checking was performed using the Lagrange multiplier test. The modeling is Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) are able to overcome volatility problems by incorporating past residual elements and residual variants.

  18. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  19. Effect of the diet amended with risk elements contaminated soil on risk elements content in tissues and hematological parameters of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Novosadová, Z.; Zídek, Václav; Fučíková, A.; Zídková, J.; Miholová, D.; Tlustoš, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2012), s. 430-441 ISSN 1212-1819 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400400806 Program:IA Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : risk elements * soil ingestion * liver * kidney * bones * Rattus norvegicus Subject RIV: GG - Livestock Rearing Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2012

  20. Uncertainty of Volatility Estimates from Heston Greeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pfante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a widely recognized measure of market risk. As volatility is not observed it has to be estimated from market prices, i.e., as the implied volatility from option prices. The volatility index VIX making volatility a tradeable asset in its own right is computed from near- and next-term put and call options on the S&P 500 with more than 23 days and less than 37 days to expiration and non-vanishing bid. In the present paper we quantify the information content of the constituents of the VIX about the volatility of the S&P 500 in terms of the Fisher information matrix. Assuming that observed option prices are centered on the theoretical price provided by Heston's model perturbed by additive Gaussian noise we relate their Fisher information matrix to the Greeks in the Heston model. We find that the prices of options contained in the VIX basket allow for reliable estimates of the volatility of the S&P 500 with negligible uncertainty as long as volatility is large enough. Interestingly, if volatility drops below a critical value of roughly 3%, inferences from option prices become imprecise because Vega, the derivative of a European option w.r.t. volatility, and thereby the Fisher information nearly vanishes.

  1. The Influence of the Addition of Polyacrylic Hydrogel on the Content of Proteins, Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk Protein Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Ž. Kostić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate and bovine serum albumin (BSA were treated with polyacrylic hydrogel to establish whether the hydrogel could be used for decontamination of heavy metal ions from milk protein-based products. The obtained results indicated that swelling of hydrogel in these solutions had different effects on their mineral, trace element and total protein content. Total protein and phosphorus content increased in milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate solutions after swelling of hydrogel without changes in their protein compositions. On the other hand, the protein content in BSA solution decreased after swelling. The content of Na did not change in milk protein concentrate solution, whereas it significantly increased in whey protein concentrate solution after hydrogel swelling. The content of Ca and Mg was reduced after the swelling in milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate solutions for 20.3–63.4 %, depending on the analysed sample and the mineral. The content of Zn did not change during swelling, whereas the content of Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb significantly decreased after hydrogel swelling in all analysed samples. According to the obtained results, the addition of polyacrylic hydrogel to milk and whey protein concentrate solutions can significantly decrease the content of heavy metal ions without affecting their protein composition. Therefore, this work could be useful in developing a new technological process for heavy metal purification of milk protein-based products.

  2. The content of natural radioactive elements and artificial radioisotopes in Moldova's soils; Continutul unor elemente radioactive naturale si radioizotopi artificiali in solurile Moldovei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiev, Gr. [Univ. de Stat din Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Nedealcov, S.; Jigau, Gh. [Centrul Republican de Pedologie Aplicata, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The results of multiyear investigations of natural radionuclide (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, K-40) and artificial isotopes (Sr-90, Cs-137, I-131) content on soil and plants are presented. Six anomalous polluted areas were detected after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. (authors)

  3. The Forecast Performance of Competing Implied Volatility Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiaras, Leonidas

    This study examines the information content of alternative implied volatility measures for the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index from 1996 until 2007. Along with the popular Black-Scholes and "model-free" implied volatility expectations, the recently proposed corridor implie......, volatility definitions, loss functions and forecast evaluation settings....

  4. Studies in Korea on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. December 1996 - April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung Yeon Cho

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements including 5 important elements such as U, Th, Cs, Sr and I in Korean total diet and 4 most frequently consuming Korean foodstuffs have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. One day representative mixed diet of adult Korean was collected from the data based on the food diary of 77 healthy subjects at the age between 20 to 50

  5. Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert...

  6. Effect of air pollution on epiphytic lichen vegetation and element contents of a lichen and pine needles at Valkeakoski, South Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksovirta, K; Olkkonen, H

    1979-01-01

    The macrolichen vegetation on Pinus sylvestris L. and the contents of S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe and Zn in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and needles of Pinus sylvestris were investigated in relation to air pollution at 55 study stations in and around the industrial town of Valkeakoski, southern Finland. The air pollutants are emitted mainly by the wood pulp industry. The parameters of the lichen vegetation (occurrence of species, number of species, cover of the vegetation and the damage index) did not give a good picture of the distribution of air pollutants, because the environmental conditions were not exactly the same at the different study stations. The accumulation of the elements was more effective in the lichen than in pine needles and the lichen element contents agreed better with the pattern of the prevailing winds. The correlations between the contents of the different pollutant elements were also stronger in the lichen than in pine needles. The most reliable indices of pollutant substances originating from combustion of fuel oil and the wood pulp industry were the sulfur and vanadium contents of the lichen, while the calcium, titanium and iron concentrations of the lichen gave a good idea of the distribution of dust raised from the roads by traffic. 11 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Species-specific content of As, Pb, and other elements in pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Alam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, Md. Mizanur

    2014-01-01

    Content of arsenic and lead and 10 other potentially toxic elements (Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mg,Mn, Se, Sr and Zn) was determined in tilapia and pangas from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh. Tilapia had 1.6- to 4.3-fold higher content of Mn, As, Sr, and Ba than pangas, possibly caused...... by different feeding habits of the two fish. The other elements had similar concentrations in both species. Content of As in tilapia and pangas was 0.37 and 0.11 μg g−1, respectively, while Pb made up 0.056 and 0.051 μg g−1, respectively. Water treatment during the farming period (sand filtration and probiotic...... bacteria) and final depuration in groundwater for up to 48 h had no effect on content of the elements. For As, consumption of 100 g fresh fish per day contained 1.3% (pangas) and 5% (tilapia) of the maximum tolerable daily intake according to FAO recommendations. Relative to whole tilapia froma lake near...

  8. An Assessment of the Icing Blade and the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith Foss

    2017-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn has recently switched to from using the Icing Blade to using the SEA Multi-Element Sensor (also known as the multi-wire) for its calibration of cloud liquid water content. In order to perform this transition, tests were completed to compare the Multi-Element Sensor to the Icing Blade, particularly with respect to liquid water content, airspeed, and drop size. The two instruments were found to compare well for the majority of Appendix C conditions. However, it was discovered that the Icing Blade under-measures when the conditions approach the Ludlam Limit. This paper also describes data processing procedures for the Multi-Element Sensor in the IRT, including collection efficiency corrections, mounting underneath a splitter plate, and correcting for a jump in the compensation wire power. Further data is presented to describe the repeatability of the IRT with the Multi-Element sensor, health-monitoring checks for the instrument, and a sensing-element configuration comparison.

  9. Trace elements partitioning during coal combustion in fluidized bed under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haixin; Zhao, Changsui; Liang, Cai; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Huichao [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere on trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Se) partitioning during combustion of Xuzhou bituminous coal in a 6 kWth fluidized bed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) were used to determine trace elements contents in raw coal, bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas. The results indicate that with bed temperature increase, the relative enrichment of all the trace elements except Cr in bottom ash decreases suggesting that their volatility is enhanced. The relative enrichments of hardly volatile elements, like Cr and Mn in fly ash increase with bed temperature increase while those of partially volatile and highly volatile elements in fly ash are opposite. The relative enrichments of trace elements except Cr and Mn in fly ash are higher than those in bottom ash. Increasing bed temperature promotes elements like As, Se and Hg to migrate to vapor phase, Mn to migrate to fly ash and Cr to migrate to both bottom ash and fly ash. 21%O{sub 2}/79%CO{sub 2} atmosphere improves the volatility of Cr, Mn, Co, Se and their migration to fly ash, while restrains the volatility of As, Ni, Pb. It has little effect on the volatility of Hg but improves its migration to fly ash. Mass balance ratio was also calculated to observe trace elements distribution in bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas. There is no much difference in trace elements distribution between the two atmospheres. It can be seen that the trace elements proportion in fly ash is much greater, and more than 40% of Hg is distributed in the gas phase. Most of Hg and Se volatilize during combustion. The mass balance ratios are 87 {proportional_to} 129% which is considered acceptable.

  10. Integration of auto analysis program of gamma spectrum and software and determination of element content in sample by k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Quang Vinh; Truong Thi Hong Loan; Mai Van Nhon; Huynh Truc Phuong

    2014-01-01

    Integrating the gamma spectrum auto-analysis program with elemental analysis software by k-zero method is the objective for many researchers. This work is the first stepin building an auto analysis program of gamma spectrum, which includes modules of reading spectrum, displaying spectrum, calibrating energy of peak, smoothing spectrum, calculating peak area and determining content of elements in sample. Then, the results from the measurements of standard samples by a low level spectrometer using HPGe detector are compared to those of other gamma spectrum auto-analysis programs. (author)

  11. Investigation of the elemental contents of some environmental samples from the Blue Nile and White Nile around Khartoum area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Kamal Khalifa

    1997-10-01

    This work was performed to evaluate the environmental pollution at the Blue Nile (BN) and White Nile (WN) around Khartoum state. Samples of soil, sediments, plants, fish and water were collected from the studied area and analyzed. The concentrations of some elements (K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, Rb, Na, P, Zn, Br, Y, Zr, and Pb) were determined using the following analytical methods; atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), flame photometry, colorimetry and ultra violet spectrometry (UV). The data obtained was compared with the data from literature. The data was statistically analyzed to compare the results obtained by the different methods. The results of most elements determined by more than one method were significantly similar. The statistical analysis together with the chemical analysis revealed that the soil and sediments of the BN and WN are significantly different. The extent of pollution was determined by calculating the enrichment factors. The enrichment factors in sediments were calculated using both Fe and Ti as reference elements where values were almost equal. Some elements were slightly enriched at some sites but not to a degree to indicate a serious pollution. The accumulation of elements in plants as a clue for pollution was also calculated. Some elements; P, Cu and Zn were accumulated. The elemental concentrations in fish and water were not that high but water was still higher than the WHO recommended concentrations. (Author)

  12. Phosphate effect on the content of selected elements in a lettuce variety grown at a contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Saiki, M.; Maihara, V.A.; Moreira, E.G.; Trevizam, A.R.; Muraoka, T.; Silva, M.L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of superphosphate fertilizer in remediating a contaminated soil with potentially toxic elements. For this, different phosphorus doses were used in a number of lettuce plants. The element concentrations determined in their leaves were compared with those found in control lettuce plants. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used to determine element concentration in lettuce leave samples. The application of 250 mg kg -1 of P was the most effective treatment to reduce the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sb and Zn in lettuce leaves. (author)

  13. Studies in the Philippines on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance to radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The first Coordinated Research Program on Reference Asian Man (RAM) was conducted for a period of six years. The study dealt with the collection of data in four areas namely: (1) anthropometric measurements, (2) organ mass measurements, (3) nutritional and dietary intake, and (4) pulmonary and water balance studies. Based on the research needs with reference to radiation protection, dietary intake and tissue analysis appear to be important aspects of the RAM. Information to be generated from the elemental analysis of food and tissue would be used to characterize the intake, retention and release of radioactive elements coming from different population groups. This study also aims to establish the elemental composition profile of the average Filipino using simple and accurate methods of measurements. This report will present the protocol which is based to the extent possible on prescribed procedures required for the study. A standardized Protocol to be used in the study is important since stable elements are present only in trace quantities in biological samples of interest. The procedures presented in this document include: collection of one day diet samples and tissue samples (lung, liver, skeletal muscle, thyroid, bone and kidney) from average healthy adult Filipino. The sample treatment and preparation, analytical measurements, data evaluation and reporting will complete said protocol. The elements that are of importance to radiation protection are iodine, cesium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. The essential minor elements are calcium, potassium and sodium. Trace elements like copper. manganese, iron, selenium and zinc will also be included in the analysis. Concentrations of common toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium and lead may likewise be reported in this study. (author)

  14. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  15. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (I, Cr, Sr, Th, U etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1998-01-01

    To study on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection for population in Vietnam we need to select representative population groups. This can be done using some basic information about relevant ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical factors of Vietnam. It is also very importance to know the average food consumption, a characteristics and nutritive value of Vietnamese diet and the daily nutritional intake for this population groups. A general discussion have been made on proposal of sample collection, using analytical techniques to determine the elements of interest. There are also some primary results of analysis of iodine content in different kinds of foodstuffs in natural water and human urine. (author)

  16. Co-ordinated research project: ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Reference Asian man project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This First Research Co-ordination Meeting on Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements was held at the Hotel Rembrandt,Quezon City, the Philippines. Information on individual participant's plans for participation in the CRP, and the progress achieved so far on this and related topics is presented in each country's report. The major themes covered include sampling of diets and tissues, analytical techniques used, analytical quality assurance and data reporting of results

  17. Results of investigation of trace element content in nucleic acids and histones, isolated from human leucaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikashvili, Eh.L.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kharabadze, N.E.; Desai, A.S.; Foley, G.E.; Harvard Cancer Commission, Boston, MA

    1977-01-01

    Trace metals in purified nucleic acids and histones, extracted from lymphocyte cell culture of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia or infections mononucleosis and healthy donors were determined with the activation analysis method. In the lymphocyte DNA of patients with infections mononucleosis and healthy donors the content of Co ++ , Sb ++ , Fe +++ , Zn ++ , turned out to be high, while in the lymphoblast DNA of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia lower concentrations of these metals were detected, with the exception of Co ++ , the content of which is 20 times higher than in the DNA, extracted from the lymphocytes of healthy donors. In the general histone of the leukemic cells the content of the most of trace metals is higher than in the general lymphocyte histone of healthy donors. The exception is Zn ++ , the content of which is lower

  18. Calibration and correction of LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS analyses for element contents and isotopic ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS have been the techniques of choice for achieving accurate and precise element content and isotopic ratio, the state-of-the-art technique combines the advantages of low detection limits with high spatial resolution, however, the analysis accuracy and precision are restricted by many factors, such as sensitivity drift, elemental/isotopic fractionation, matrix effects, interferences and the lack of sufficiently matrix-matched reference materials. Thus, rigorous and suitable calibration and correction methods are needed to obtain quantitative data. This review systematically summarized and evaluated the interference correction, quantitative calculation and sensitivity correction strategies in order to provide the analysts with suitable calibration and correction strategies according to the sample types and the analyzed elements. The functions and features of data reduction software ICPMSDataCal were also outlined, which can provide real-time and on-line data reduction of element content and isotopic ratios analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  19. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.t.c.deloos-vollebregt@tudelft.nl

    2008-07-15

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 deg. C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 deg. C up to 1000 deg. C.

  20. Contents of chemical elements in tissues of European badger (Meles meles affected by ovarian tumour – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Bukovjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher concentrations of chemical elements in animal tissues may be associated with tumours and may explain cancerogenity. In this study, selected chemical elements were measured in the liver, kidneys, muscles and tissues affected by tumour in a dead female European badger (Meles meles with a metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for the assessment of concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. AMA 254 analyser was used for the assessment of mercury concentration. Concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and total Hg amounted to 0.031, 0.16, 7.74, 44.54, 0.67, 0.67, and 0.36 mg·kg-1 in the tumour tissue. This is the first detection of ovarian tumour in a European badger (Meles meles which was systematically examined for the presence of chemical elements.

  1. Elemental contents determination in two different zones of Mexico City on the 1987-88 and 1994-95 winters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz G, R.V.

    1996-01-01

    During the 1987-1988 and 1994-1995 winters, there were taken samples of aerosols in Mexico City, in two different places, using an integral type of sampler which determines the total amount of suspended particulates; these samples were analyzed by the multi-element analysis technique called PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). One of the sites corresponds to the Alvaro Obregon area and the other to the Azcapotzalco area (a place near to the18 de Marzo Refinery). There were determined 16 elements, heavy metals, whose concentrations show differences for both sites and periods, standing out for this study the behavior of S, V and Pb. (Author)

  2. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  3. Hot char-catalytic reforming of volatiles from MSW pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Dezhen; Arena, Umberto; He, Pinjing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatile from MSW pyrolysis is reformed with hot char from the same pyrolysis process. • The yields of syngas increase evidently with H 2 being the main contributor and the major component of the syngas. • Pyrolysis oil becomes light and its composition distribution is narrowed. • The HHV, volatile elements and alkali metals contents in the char decrease. • The emissions including SO 2 , NO, NO 2 and HCN changed after reforming process. - Abstract: Volatile products obtained from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW), including syngas and pyrolysis oil, were forced to contact the hot char from the same pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a fixed bed reactor to be reformed. The yields and properties of syngas, char and pyrolysis liquid were investigated; and the energy re-distribution among the products due to char reforming was quantified. The preliminary investigation at lab scale showed that hot char-catalytic reforming of the volatiles leads to an increase in the dry syngas yield from 0.25 to 0.37 N m 3 kg −1 MSW at 550 °C. Accordingly, the carbon conversion ratio into syngas increases from 29.6% to 35.0%; and the MSW chemical energy transferred into syngas increased from 41.8% to 47.4%. The yield of pyrolysis liquid products, including pyrolysis oil and water, decreased from 27.3 to 16.5 wt%, and the molecular weight of the oil becoming lighter. Approximately 60% of the water vapour contained in the volatiles converted into syngas. After reforming, the concentrations of SO 2 and HCN in the syngas decreases, while those of NO and NO 2 increase. The char concentrations of N, H, C and alkali metal species decreased and its higher heating value decreased too.

  4. Elemental contents in hair of children from Zanzibar in Tanzania as bio-indicator of their nutritional status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mohammed, N.K.; Mizera, Jiří; Spyrou, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2008), s. 125-128 ISSN 0236-5731. [Kailua Kona, Hawaii, 03.04.2006-07.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * malnourished children * trace-elements Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008

  5. The Contents of Selected Risk Elements and Organic Pollutants in Soil and Vegetation within a Former Military Area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladková, A.; Száková, J.; Havelcová, Martina; Najmanová, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 325-342 ISSN 1532-0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Military area * risk elements * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * mobility * plant-availability Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.189, year: 2015

  6. Effect of Nb element content in U-Zr-Nb alloy on hardness, microstructure and phase formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrukan; M Husna Al Hasa; Jan Setiawan; Slamet Pribadi

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to determine the effect of Nb element in the U-Zr alloys on hardness, microstructure and phase formation has been done. The addition of Nb element would effect the hardness, microstructure and phase which formed. The U-Zr-Nb alloy was made with the variation of Nb 2%, 5% and 8% by melting in an electric arc melting furnace that equipped with water cooling and the argon atmosphere. The U-Zr-Nb alloy to be cut divided to some testing, such as hardness test, microstructure, and phase analysis. Hardness testing was done by Vickers hardness testing equipment, microstructure by an optical microscope, and diffraction pattern by XRD and phase analysis was done by GSAS. Hardness testing results showed that the addition of 2% to 5% Nb element in U-Zr alloys will increased in hardness, but the addition of Nb element over 5% the hardness was decreased. Observations the microstructure showed that the addition of 2% to 5% Nb element, grains were formed from fine into coarse. Phase analysis for diffraction pattern showed that the phase changed from αU and γU (Zr,Nb)at 2% Nb to be αU, γU (Zr,Nb) and δ1 (UZr_2) phase at 5% and 8% Nb. Phase changes was followed by changes in its compositions. The composition of αU at 2% Nb was 40% increased to 81% at 5% Nb and decreased to 3.9% at 8% Nb. The composition of γU decreased from 59,86% to 14,91% with increased Nb from 2% to 5% and further increased to 52,74% at 8% Nb. (author)

  7. Impact of the breeding region and the season on the content of the selected mineral elements in the hair of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of the season and the breeding region on the content of selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of dairy cows. The research material was made up of 114 polish Holstein-Friesians breed cows from three breeding centres in Poland: Kombinat Rolny Sp. z o. o. - Kietrz (the opolskie province, Hodowla Zarodowa Zwierząt Sp. z o.o. - Knyszyn (the podlaskie province and Ośrodek Hodowli Zarodowej Sp. z o.o. - Osięciny (the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The cows were kept in freestanding cowsheds with den boxes. The animal nutrition involved the use of the TMR system, considering the division into nutrition groups. The hair was sampled in summer and in the period of winter and spring from the side of the body, right behind the coastal arch. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na and K was performed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The study revealed seasonal variations in the content of mineral elements in the hair of dry cows and a region-dependent differentiation. The highest content of the quantity elements in question was found in the hair of the cows from Osięciny. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of cows from Osięciny was statistically significantly higher than in the hair collected in winter from the animals from Knyszyn and Kietrz. The lowest values of the determined elements were noted in the hair of cows bred in Knyszyn. The investigation of the correlation between the amounts of the elements, based on an analysis of all samples of hair, revealed a positive correlation between Na and K cations, as well as between Mg and Ca cations.

  8. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  9. Variações no teor e na composição volátil de Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivada no campo e em casa de vegetação Variation in the content and volatile composition of Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivated in field and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira Botrel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition of the volatile oil of Hyptis marrubioides cultivated in field and greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, with ten replications for each type of cultivation. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The highest content of volatile oil was found for plants grown in field. The highest percentage of the compounds present in oils was observed in samples grown in the field, such as germacra-4(15,5,10(14-trien-1-α-ol (16.34%, β-caryophyllene (10.42%, γ-muurolene (12.83% and trans-thujone (9.98%. However, some compounds were found only in plants grown in a greenhouse, such as cis-muurol-5-en-4α-ol (10.84%, α-cadinol (3.06% and eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1β-ol (6.82%.

  10. Content of chemical elements in tree rings of lodgepole pine and whitebark pine from a subalpine Sierra Nevada forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Darren R. Anderson

    1990-01-01

    The wood of lodgepole pines and whitebark pines from a high elevation site in the east central Sierra Nevada of California was analyzed for chemical content to determine whether there were any temporal patterns of chemical distribution in tree rings. Cores were taken from 10 trees of each species and divided into 5-year increments for chemical analysis. Correlation...

  11. Qualitative and Quantitative Content Determination of Macro-Minor Elements in Bryonia Alba L. Roots using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Kislichenko, Viktoria; Naddaf, Ahmad; Cholak, Irina; Yemelianova, Oksana

    2016-06-01

    To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine. Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace. The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88.000 for P, 7.800 for Al, 0.130 for Mn, 105.000 for Mg, 0.030 for Pb, 0.052 for Ni, 0.030 for Mo, 210.000 for Ca, 0.130 for Cu, 5.200 for Zn, 13.000 for Na, 1170.000 for K, 0.780 for Sr, 0.030 for Co, 0.010 for Cd, 0.010 for As, and 0.010 for Hg. Toxic elements such as Cd and Pb were also found but at very low concentration. Among the analyzed elements, K was the most abundant followed by Ca, Mg, P, Si, Fe, Na, and Zn, whereas Hg, As, Cd, Co, Mo, and Pb were found in low concentration. The results suggest that the roots of Bryonia alba L. plant has potential medicinal property through their high element contents present. Moreover, it showed that the AAS method is a simple, fast, and reliable for the determination of elements in plant materials. The obtained results of the current study provide justification for the usage of such fruit in daily diet for nutrition and for medicinal usage in the treatment of various diseases.

  12. Trace element and fluoride contents in the materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry and in the vicinity ecosystem of phosphogypsum piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Shemali, K.; Abdul Ghany, B.; Kanakri, S.

    2010-09-01

    Increasing environmental awareness made this study focus on the determination of trace element and fluoride concentrations in the Syrian phosphogypsum (PG) and in the environment vicinity of the PG-piles. The data revealed that the Syrian PG contained 0.6, 15.6, 4.7, 0.14 and 3.5 mg kg -1 of Cu, Zn, Cr, Se and Ni respectively; whereas the concentrations of the most toxic elements i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg were less than the detection limits. Fluoride content in PG was 0.47%. The presence of PG piles showed no impact on the runoff, ground and lake waters in the area, but increased the concentration of fluoride in the air particulates. Fluoride concentration was double the permissible airborne threshold in the eastern sites of PG-piles which could be due to the prevailing western and north-western winds in the region studied. Similarly, enhanced concentrations of fluoride were recorded for the eastern soil samples with a geo mean of 247 mg kg -1 (in the surface layer). The content of trace elements in plants was element and plant specific and influenced by the elemental concentration in soil, soil texture and ph. The maximal mean of fluoride was found in the plants species of the eastern sites (699 mg kg -1 ) which mainly related to PG-erosion and airborne deposition. It may be concluded that the main impact of PG-piles was to increase the concentration of fluoride in the surrounding area. A national adapted action should be taken in order to regulate PG piles. (Author)

  13. Thermochromatography study of volatile polonium species in various gas atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Eichler, Robert; Piguet,David; Mendonça, Tania Melo; Stora, Thierry; Schumann, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Phenomena related to the volatilization of polonium and its compounds are critical issues for the safety assessment of the innovative lead–bismuth cooled type of nuclear reactor or accelerator driven systems. The formation and volatilization of different species of polonium and their interaction with fused silica was studied by thermochromatography using carrier gases with varied redox potential. The obtained results show that under inert and reducing conditions in the absence of moisture, elemental polonium is formed. Polonium compounds more volatile than elemental polonium can be formed if traces of moisture are present in both inert and reducing carrier gas. The use of dried oxygen as carrier gas leads to the formation of polonium oxides, which are less volatile than elemental polonium. It was also found that the volatility of polonium oxides increases with increasing oxidation state. In the presence of moisture in an oxidizing carrier gas, species are formed that are more volatile than the oxides and le...

  14. Trace element content of human hair determined using neutron activation analysis as monitor of exposure effects to environmental metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutkiewicz, T.; Paprotny, W.; Sokolowska, D.; Kulka, E.; Woyciechowska, E.; Dybczynski, R.; Sterlinski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of 17 trace elements, mainly metals, in small hair samples by neutron activation analysis was elaborated. The number of elements determined in one sample made it possible to assess quickly the exposure of human population in a given region. The hair samples after careful washing according to procedure elaborated previously were irradiated in high reactor neutron flux (approximately 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The activities of samples were measured three times (for different decay times) by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer. A new version of the comparator technique, called a triple-single comparator method, was applied for quantitative analysis. The statistical methods used for planning of sampling and preliminary results on evaluation of analytical data are also described. (author)

  15. Some investigation on trace elements content of Iranian breads using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Fatemi, K.; Moazezi, A.; Mahmoodzadeh, A.; Koushkestani, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since bread is consumed as a principal dietary staple by the majority of Iranian communities, actual natural portion of required protein and energy are provided via bread. Therefore, with respect to this matter, a considerable amount of needed minerals must also be met through this way. Literature survey indicates some elemental deficiencies as the result of consumption of bread in Iran. On the other hand, essentiality of these elements to human which are mostly in the range of trace amounts, makes this investigation very much important and interesting from both sides, nutritionally and instrumentally. To meet the above requirements, applications of very sensitive analytical tools are unavoidable. Hence, atomic absorption spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis both RNAA and INAA are employed. Results are controversial and constructive

  16. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis of lead and calcium content of primary teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Guerra, Carolina de; Fernanda Gerlach, Raquel; Graciele Villela Pinto, Nivia; Coutinho Cardoso, Simone; Moreira, Silvana; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Teixeira Alves Peixoto, Iza; Henrique Meloni, Carlos; Lemos Mota, Carla; Fernando de Oliveira, Luis; Braz, Delson; Cely Barroso, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Primary teeth were analyzed by micro-SRXRF. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental distribution of lead and calcium in different regions of primary incisor of children living in a notoriously contaminated area (Santo Amaro da Purificacao, Bahia State, Brazil). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45 deg. incidence, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil).

  17. Rare earth elements concentration in mushroom cultivation substrates affects the production process and fruit-bodies content of Pleurotus ostreatus and Cyclocybe cylindracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2018-04-20

    Concentrations of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) and two actinides were determined for the first time both in cultivated mushrooms and in their production substrates by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of REEs on cultivation parameters and composition of the final product was assessed, together with their potential use for authentication purposes. The concentrations of REEs varied greatly among seven cultivation substrates and correlated with measurements in Cyclocybe cylindracea mushrooms; no such correlation was established in Pleurotus ostreatus. Reduction of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin in substrates during P. ostreatus cultivation was positively correlated with REE concentrations, which also affected the production performance depending on the species examined. In all cases, a negative correlation was established between bioconcentration factors (BCF) in mushrooms and REE content in substrates, while the effect of substrate composition on BCF values varied according to the element studied. The estimated daily intake values of REEs through mushroom consumption was at much lower levels than those reported as potentially harmful for human health. The content of REEs in cultivation substrates and in mushrooms revealed that the bioaccumulation of elements differed in each fungus. The nature/origin of substrates seemed to affect the concentration of REEs in mushrooms to a considerable extent. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. EFFECT OF SOLE AND ASSOCIATIVE ACTIONS OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR AND INOCULATION SULFUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS CONTENTS OF PEPPER PLANTS AND THE USED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of elemental sulfur (E.S rate (2.5 g/kg soil and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on pepper plant and some chemical properties of two representative soil samples varying in their texture and CaCO3 content. Pepper was grown in Shobrakheet clay loam and Nobaria sandy loam soils for 50 days. Each soil was treated with elemental sulfur (2.5 g kg-1 soil and inoculated with two sulfur oxidizing bacteria (S.O.B. No.8 and S.O.B. ATCC 8158. Elemental sulfur with or without sulfur oxidizing bacteria increased shoot dry weights of pepper plants as compared with control. The highest effect was observed with E.S + ATCC 8158 treatment which resulted in increasing the pepper shoot dry weights from 1.36 to 2.08 g pot-1 with the clay loam soil and from 0.77 to 1.37 g pot-1 with the sandy loam soil. The same treatment resulted in the highest plant content of S, N, P, K and micronutrients.

  19. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  20. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  1. User generated content: an exploration and analysis of the temporal qualities and elements of authenticity and immediacy in UGC

    OpenAIRE

    Drakopoulou, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    User Generated Content (UGC) is the term used to describe videos and pictures taken by the public and shown on prominent news corporations, the press and TV news. UGC as evidence and its properties of immediacy and eyewitness quality allow for this genre to become an integral part of experiencing a news event. UGC’s significance is formulated by its evidential power and not because of its photojournalistic qualities. UGC is made significant because of its eyewitness qualities, immediacy and a...

  2. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  3. Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive.

  4. Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Reference Asian man, phase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Aslam, M.; Akram, M.; Rashid, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Second Phase of Reference Asian Man Project is in progress with the collaboration of IAEA under Regional Co-operative Agreement to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure of the country. In this regard dietary samples are being collected from various ecological areas of Pakistan on market basket method. During this Project year, twenty two (22) diet samples were collected, prepared and stored for Neutron Activation Analysis. The stable radionuclides of our primary interest are Sr, Cs, Th, U, I, Ca and K whereas other essential and toxic elements have secondary importance. (author)

  5. Reference Asian man phase-2 entitled 'Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Hussain, M.; Orfi, S.D.; Atta, M.A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.

    1998-01-01

    The second phase of Reference Asian Man project was started with the collaboration of IAEA to strengthen the radiation protection infra-structure of the country. In this regard dietary samples are being collected from various ecological areas of Pakistan. The sample collection is being made on market basket method. Four diet samples were collected, prepared and stored in the refrigerator for analysis with the help of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) . The stable radio nuclide of our interest are Sr, Cs, Th, U, I. The other minor, essential trace and toxic elements are Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sc, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb. (author)

  6. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, H.; Ahmed, Doaa; Eldakrouri, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  7. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, H. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmed, Doaa [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Eldakrouri, Ashraf [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-06-21

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  8. [MONITORING OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND ELEMENTS IN THE SNOW COVER IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS AT THE TERRITORY OF THE MOSCOW REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A A; Karpova, E A; Malysheva, A G; Mikhaylova, R I; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of snow cover pollution by heavy metals and elements (zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, strontium, manganese, fluorine, lithium) was performed in 20 districts of the Moscow region in 2009, 2012 and 2013. The assessment of the levels of contamination by heavy metals and elements was given by means of comparison of them with the average values in the snow cover near Moscow in the end of the last century and in some areas of the world, that no exposed to technological environmental impact. 7 districts of Moscow region were characterized by a high content of lead and cadmium in the snow water. It requires the control of water, soil and agricultural products pollution.

  9. Investigation of Trace Element Content in the Seeds, Pulp, and Peel of Mashui Oranges Using Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shen, Mei; Ma, Ande; Han, Weili

    2018-03-01

    Fresh Mashui orange samples were pretreated with microwave digestion using an HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 system. The levels of Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the seeds, pulp, and peel were then determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with collision cell technology (CCT) and kinetic energy discrimination (KED). The standard curve coefficient of determinations of the ten tested elements were between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The instrument detection limit was between 0.112 ng/L and 3.05 ng/mL. The method detection limit was between 0.0281 and 763 ng/g. The average recovery rate was between 85.0 and 117%. The current results showed that Mashui oranges are rich in three elements, namely Mg, K, and Ca. The concentrations of K and Ca were significantly higher than that of Mg in the peel. The content of K was the highest in the seeds. Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn had the second highest concentrations, and Fe was the highest in the seeds, while Cu was the lowest in the peel. As, Cd, and Pb (hazardous elements) had the lowest concentrations of all the tested elements.

  10. Certification of trace element contents (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Na, Pb and Zn) in a fly ash obtained from the combustion of pulverised coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griepink, B.; Colinet, E.; Guzzi, G.; Haemers, L.; Muntau, H.

    1983-01-01

    The element contents of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Na, Pb and Zn of a fly ash from pulverised coal are certified. The procedures and their results for the homogenisation, the contamination and homogeneity checks and the analytical campaign are reported. The certified mass fractions and indicative values for Cr, Ni, Th, V and water soluble sulphate are given. The work was carried out within the framework of the activities of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) of the Commission of the European Communities. (orig.) [de

  11. Certification of the methylmercury content in SRM 2977 mussel tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) and SRM 1566b oyster tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutschku, S; Schantz, M M; Horvat, M; Logar, M; Akagi, H; Emons, H; Levenson, M; Wise, S A

    2001-02-01

    The methylmercury content in two new marine bivalve mollusk tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been certified using results of analyses from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and two other laboratories. The certified concentrations of methylmercury were established based on the results from four and six different (independent) analytical methods, respectively, for SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue (13.2 +/- 0.7 microg/kg) and SRM 2977 Mussel Tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) (36.2 +/- 1.7 microg/kg). The certified concentration of methylmercury in SRM 1566b is among the lowest in any certified reference material (CRM).

  12. Role of cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation in plants. Influence on photosynthesis and element content in two species of Brassicaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson Joensson, Helene

    2001-02-01

    Plants are exposed to many different stress factors during their lifetime. often more than one factor at a time. which highlights the importance of research regarding interaction among stress factors. Cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation (MB, 280-315 mm) are two potential stress factors in the environment, which have gained increased interest due to atmospheric pollution. In this work the interaction between Cd and UV-B radiation was investigated in two species of Brassicaceae; Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana, the latter including the wild type and phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3. In both species photosynthetic parameters and element content were studied after the plants were exposed to Cd and supplemental UV-B radiation for 14 days. A separate Cd uptake study was carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the effect of different Cd pretreatments on Cd uptake. The experiments showed that Cd was the dominant factor, but in Brassica napus, Cd+UV-B showed some interaction effects on energy dissipation and chlorophyll ratios. Generally, Cd decreased the chlorophyll content and influenced photosynthesis by altering oxygen evolution, non-photochemical quenching and the quantum yield. Cadmium had large effects on the content of essential elements, particularly in roots, that may be due to competition during uptake. The Cd uptake study showed that the wild type contained much higher amounts of Cd than the phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3, although Cd uptake is expected to be independent of phytochelatin content. Phytochelatins chelate and transport Cd to the vacuole, thus removing Cd from the cytosol. This compartmentation may disrupt a possible feedback mechanism in the cytosol.

  13. In vivo energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for measuring the content of essential and toxic trace elements in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.; Ovchjarenko, N.; Zaichick, S.

    1999-01-01

    The calibration and application of a facility, based on energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis (EDXRF) using 109 Cd as an excitation source, for in vivo and in vitro estimation of Ca, Pb, Sr and Zn in tooth enamel is described. During the in vivo measurements, the device ensures tissue protection of face and mouth cavity from radiation, and only a small part of tooth surface under study is irradiated. To calibrate the facility, the contents of Ca, Sr and Zn were analyzed simultaneously in the enamel of 50 teeth by EDXRF and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Standards prepared from powdered tooth enamel with additions of chemically pure lead compounds were used to calibrate for lead graduation. Enamel calcium is suggested as an internal standard during in vivo EDXRF of teeth. The content of enamel Sr, Zn and Pb was determined by EDXRF in 35 permanent intact teeth of teenagers and adults. It was shown that lead concentration didn't exceed 3 μg/g for all the teeth

  14. Compton suppression instrumental neutron activation analysis performance in determining trace- and minor-element contents in foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Dionisio, I.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, several food items were purchased from large commercial outlets in Coimbra, Portugal. Such items included meats (chicken, pork, beef), eggs, rice, beans and vegetables (tomato, carrot, potato, cabbage, broccoli, lettuce). Elemental analysis was carried out through INAA at the Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN, Portugal), the Nuclear Energy Centre for Agriculture (CENA, Brazil), and the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab of the University of Texas at Austin (NETL, USA). At the latter two, INAA was also associated to Compton suppression. It can be concluded that by applying Compton suppression (1) the detection limits for arsenic, copper and potassium improved; (2) the counting-statistics error for molybdenum diminished; and (3) the long-lived zinc had its 1115-keV photopeak better defined. In general, the improvement sought by introducing Compton suppression in foodstuff analysis was not significant. Lettuce, cabbage and chicken (liver, stomach, heart) are the richest diets in terms of human nutrients. (author)

  15. Elements of product service systems as a potential to achieve a sustainable development: bibliometry and content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ariente Neto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of product-service systems (PSS is presented as an innovative strategy when offering products and services. It aims at for minimizing environmental impacts through sustainable business models. This study aims to identify which potentialities can be explored with regard to the elements of a PSS in a configuration that favor to offer answers on sustainable issues. To do so, the literature was analyzed by a structured process of bibliographic review. Among the results, three aspects are highlighted: (i the wideness of product concept to add services through PSS life-cycle, (ii the configuration of infra-structure to support a PSS by establishing the necessary communication relatively to logistics services. Finally, the net of actors should be explored to obtain organizational proposals that contribute to PSS performance.

  16. Assessment of Energetic Compounds, Semi-volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements in Streambed Sediment and Stream Water from Streams Draining Munitions Firing Points and Impact Areas, Fort Riley, Kansas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, R.L.; Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of energetic compounds (explosive and propellant residues) and associated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and trace elements in streambed sediment and stream water from streams draining munitions firing points and impact areas at Fort Riley, northeast Kansas, was performed during 2007-08 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army. Streambed sediment from 16 sampling sites and stream-water samples from 5 sites were collected at or near Fort Riley and analyzed for as many as 17 energetic compounds, 65 SVOCs, and 27 trace elements. None of the energetic compounds or SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment collected from sites within the Fort Riley Military Reservation. This may indicate that these compounds either are not transported from dispersal areas or that analytical methods are not sensitive enough to detect the small concentrations that may be transported. Concentrations of munitions-associated trace elements did not exceed sediment-quality guidelines recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and are not indicative of contamination of streambed sediment at selected streambed sampling sites, at least in regards to movement from dispersal areas. Analytical results of stream-water samples provided little evidence of contamination by energetic compounds, SVOCs, or associated trace elements. Perchlorate was detected in 19 of 20 stream-water samples at concentrations ranging from an estimated 0.057 to an estimated 0.236 ug/L (micrograms per liter) with a median concentration of an estimated 0.114 ug/L, substantially less than the USEPA Interim Health Advisory criterion (15 ug/L), and is in the range of documented background concentrations. Because of these small concentrations and possible natural sources (precipitation and groundwater), it is likely that the occurrence of perchlorate in stream water is naturally occurring, although a definitive identification of the source of perchlorate in

  17. Recent applications of nuclear analytical methods to the certification of elemental content in NIST standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.; Zeisler, R.; Mackey, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Well-characterized, certified reference materials (CRMs) play an essential role in assuring the quality of analytical measurements. NIST has been producing CRMs, currently called NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), to validate analytical measurements for nearly one hundred years. The predominant mode of certifying inorganic constituents in complex-matrix SRMs is through the use of two critically evaluated, independent analytical techniques at NIST. These techniques should have no significant sources of error in common. The use of nuclear analytical methods in combination with one of the chemically based analytical method at NIST eliminates the possibility of any significant, common error source. The inherent characteristics of the various forms of nuclear analytical methods make them extremely valuable for SRM certification. Instrumental NAA is nondestructive, which eliminates the possibility of any dissolution problems, and often provides homogeneity information. Radiochemical NAA typically provides nearly blank-free determinations of some highly important, but difficult elements at very low levels. Prompt-gamma NAA complements INAA, and provides independent determinations of some key elements. In addition, all significant uncertainty components can be evaluated for these techniques, and we believe these methods can meet all the requirements of a primary method of measurement as defined by ISO and the CCQM. NIST has certified several SRMs using INAA and RNAA as primary methods. In addition, NIST has compared measurements by INAA and PGAA with other primary methods as part of the CCQM intercomparisons of national metrology institutes. Some significant SRMs recently certified for inorganic constituents with contributions from the nuclear analytical methods include: Toxic Substances in Urine (SRM 2670a), Lake Superior Fish Tissue (SRM 1946), Air Particulate on Filter Media (SRM 2783), Inorganics in Marine Sediment (SRM 2702), Sediment for Solid Sampling (Small

  18. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-01-01

    Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50–100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal–silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion. PMID:25404309

  19. The Effect of Fish Size and Condition on the Contents of Twelve Essential and Non Essential Elements in Aristichthys nobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem*, A. Salam, S. S. Tahir1 and N. Rauf 1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation coefficients between fish size (body weight and total length and metal contents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd and Pb in whole fish (Aristichthys nobilis were determined. A total of 71 fish samples were collected from hatcheries and fish reservoirs located in Islamabad and Fatehjung. Highly significant (P<0.001 relationship between metal concentrations and fish size was found. Most of the metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb showed an isometric increase, while Mn, Fe and Co showed an allometric increase in with increasing body weight. All metals showed isometric increase, while, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Co showed positive allometric growth in relation to total length. The correlation coefficient (r between different variables and wet body weight, condition factor was found highly significant (P<0.001 in examined fish except for Na, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb while for total length the same results found except Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb. Variance inflation factor values of regression coefficients in multiple regression analysis for each variable were lesser than 10. The metal levels of the examined fish were lower than the recommended values in fish and fishery products set by FAO.

  20. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-11-03

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  2. The association between content of the elements S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue from Danes and Greenlandic Inuit examined by dual hierarchical clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jens; Milman, Nils; Pind, Niels; Pedersen, Henrik; Mulvad, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analysis of previous studies evaluating associations between content of elements sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and bromine (Br) in normal and cirrhotic autopsy liver tissue samples. Normal liver samples from 45 Greenlandic Inuit, median age 60 years and from 71 Danes, median age 61 years. Cirrhotic liver samples from 27 Danes, median age 71 years. Element content was measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Dual hierarchical clustering analysis, creating a dual dendrogram, one clustering element contents according to calculated similarities, one clustering elements according to correlation coefficients between the element contents, both using Euclidian distance and Ward Procedure. One dendrogram separated subjects in 7 clusters showing no differences in ethnicity, gender or age. The analysis discriminated between elements in normal and cirrhotic livers. The other dendrogram clustered elements in four clusters: sulphur and chlorine; copper and bromine; potassium and zinc; iron. There were significant correlations between the elements in normal liver samples: S was associated with Cl, K, Br and Zn; Cl with S and Br; K with S, Br and Zn; Cu with Br. Zn with S and K. Br with S, Cl, K and Cu. Fe did not show significant associations with any other element. In contrast to simple statistical methods, which analyses content of elements separately one by one, dual hierarchical clustering analysis incorporates all elements at the same time and can be used to examine the linkage and interplay between multiple elements in tissue samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  4. Platinum-group element contents of Karelian kimberlites: Implications for the PGE budget of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W. D.; O'Brien, H.; Peltonen, P.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane

    2017-11-01

    We present high-precision isotope dilution data for Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd and Re in Group I and Group II kimberlites from the Karelian craton, as well as 2 samples of the Premier Group I kimberlite pipe from the Kaapvaal craton. The samples have, on average, 1.38 ppb Pt and 1.33 ppb Pd, with Pt/Pd around unity. These PGE levels are markedly lower, by as much as 80%, than those reported previously for kimberlites from South Africa, Brazil and India, but overlap with PGE results reported recently from Canadian kimberlites. Primitive-mantle-normalised chalcophile element patterns are relatively flat from Os to Pt, but Cu, Ni and, somewhat less so, Au are enriched relative to the PGE (e.g., Cu/Pd > 25.000). Pd/Ir ratios are 3,6 on average, lower than in most other mantle melts. The PGE systematics can be largely explained by two components, (i) harzburgite/lherzolite detritus of the SCLM with relatively high IPGE (Os-Ir-Ru)/PPGE (Rh-Pt-Pd) ratios, and (ii) a melt component that has high PPGE/IPGE ratios. By using the concentrations of iridium in the kimberlites as a proxy for the proportion of mantle detritus in the magma, we estimate that the analysed kimberlites contain 3-27% entrained and partially dissolved detritus from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, consistent with previous estimates of kimberlites elsewhere (Tappe S. et al., 2016, Chem. Geol. 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.08.019).

  5. Nuclear microprobe investigation into the trace elemental contents of carotid artery walls of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Minqin; Huang En; Beck, Konstanze; Rajendran, Reshmi; Wu, Ben J.; Halliwell, Barry; Watt, Frank; Stocker, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that causes lesions in large and medium-sized arteries. There is increasing evidence that the function of vascular endothelial cells is impaired by oxidation reactions, and that metal ions may participate in these processes. The nuclear microscopy facility in NUS, which has the ability to focus a 2 MeV proton beam down to sub micron spot sizes, was used to investigate the trace elemental changes (e.g. Zn and Fe) in atherosclerotic lesions in the common carotid artery of apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high fat diet. In this preliminary study, which is part of a larger study to investigate the effects of probucol on carotid artery atherosclerosis, two sets of mice were used; a test set fed a high fat diet +1% probucol, and a control set which was fed a high fat diet only. The results show that the Zn/Fe ratio was significantly higher in the media of arteries of probucol treated animals without overlying lesion (4.3) compared to the media with overlying lesion (1.3) (p = 0.004) for test mice. For the control mice, the arterial Zn/Fe ratio was 1.8 for media without overlying lesion, compared with 1.0 for media with overlying lesion (p = 0.1). Thus, for media without overlying lesion, the Zn/Fe ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in probucol-treated (4.3) than control mice (1.8), whereas there was little difference in the ratios between the two groups in media with overlying lesion (1.3 compared with 1.0). These preliminary results are consistent with the idea that the levels of iron and zinc concentrations within the artery wall may influence the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery

  6. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  7. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  8. INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR AND/OR INOCULATION WITH SULFUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA ON GROWTH, AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SORGHUM PLANTS GROWN ON DIFFERENT SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of elemental sulfur(E.S rates (300 and 600 ppm and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria (S.O.B. ATCC 8158 on growth and nutrients content of sorghum plants grown on different soils (sandy soils(I & II and clay loam soil.The obtained results could be summarized in the followings:Sorghum plants:Significant increases over the control were observed in fresh and dry weights of sorghum plant as well as its content of SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu by using all the sulfur and/or the oxidizing bacteria treatments. Addition of E.S (300 & 600 ppm in combination with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly increased both fresh and dry weights as well as SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents of sorghum plants grown on the used soils as compared with either of them alone.E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm significantly increased the fresh and dry weights as well as all the studied nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the different soils as compared with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment alone. The highest rate of E.S (600 ppm significantly increased all the previous parameters under study as compared with the lower rate (300 ppm. The highest values of fresh and dry weights as well as nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the used soils were obtained by 600 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment followed by 600 ppm E.S; 300 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158; 300 ppm E.S; S.O.B. ATCC 8158 and control treatments in decreasing order.The used soils:E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm and/or S.O.B. ATCC 8158 decreased pH values of the used soils after 3, 6 and 9 weeks from sowing as compared with their corresponding control treatments. The values of pH of sand soil (I and clay loam soil slightly decreased by time i.e they decreased from 3 weeks to 9 weeks from plantation. E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm with or without inoculation the used soils with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly

  9. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  10. Petrographic And Geochemical Relationships And Environmentally Significant Trace Element Contents Of Miocene Coals in The Çayirli (Erzincan) Area, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin Erik, Nazan

    2014-05-01

    This study has done related to the petrographic, coal-quality and the environmental influences of the Çayırlı coal field in the Eastern Anatolia. The region is one of the best examples of a continental collision zone in the world and located in a North-south converging collision zone between the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates. The geological units on the North of the basin are the peridotites and on the South, the Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous limestone. Tertiary sedimentary units also occupy a significant part of the geological features. Lower Miocene sediments include recifal limestone, marls, green clay and coal seams. The Çayırlı mining area in Eastern Anatolia region, contains these Miocene aged coals. These coals is characterized by high vitrinite and inertinite and low liptinite contents. The coals are Bituminous coal rank, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.53 to 0.58%. Chemically, the coal in this study is characterised by low moisture, ash yield and sulfur content. The Çayırlı coal consist mainly of SiO2 and CaO, with secondary Fe2O3, Al2O3, and minor proportions of TiO2, P2O5 and other oxides. Several trace elements of environmental concern namely As, U and Be in Çayırlı coal are above the world averages, while Ni and Pb concentrations are less than the world average. However, As, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, U and V contents of this coal are below Turkish averages. It can clearly observed that the concentration of the elements is highest in the high ash coal levels. Among the potentially hazardous trace elements, Be, Co, Ni, Se and U may be of little or no health and environmental concerns, wheras As, Pb, Sb, and Th require further examination for their potential health and environmental concerns. These properties may be related to evaluation of the coal forming environment from more reducing contitions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for investigated coals. On the basis of analytical data, there is no possibility that

  11. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  12. The economic potential of some pegmatites from the Kenhardt area in relation to the trace-element content of their border zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Forty-one samples collected from the border zones of pegmatites were analysed for their lithium, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, uranium, thorium, bismuth, and tin contents. A technique developed previously was used in an attempt to classify the pegmatites as containing economically significant quantities of these rare elements or as barren. Twenty-one of the samples were collected from pegmatites that were known (from previous attempts to mine them) to be either economically significant or barren, and were used as a control group; 75 per cent of these samples were classified correctly. Of twenty samples from pegmatites of unknown economic potential, two were classified as economically significant. However, in view of the low rate of success of classification of the control group, it is considered that further refinement of the technique is necessary before classification of a pegmatite as containing economically significant amounts of minerals can be considered to be conclusive

  13. Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzynski, K. [Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Dalen, H. [Bergen Univ. (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs.

  14. Evaluation of Metal Elements and Pesticide Content of Water and Sediment Samples of Bribin Underground River at Gunung Kidul (Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Taftazani; Tri-Rusmanto

    2005-01-01

    Determination of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Hg, Cd, Co elements, compound of Carbophuran and DDT content in sediment and water of Bribin Underground River at Gunung Kidul has been carried out. Sampling has been done in March and September 2004 as grab sample. Determination of heavy metal used Neutron Activation Analysis method (NAA), determination of DDT compound used gas chromatography (GC) method and of carbophuran compound used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis result showed that 5 heavy metals i.e.: Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Hg, and also carbophuran have been detected in water sample. In sediment sample have been detected heavy metals of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Hg, Cd, Cr, Co and corbophuran compound. DDT compound has not been detected in sediment as well as water samples. The concentrations of pesticide and elements of the water samples in wet season were less than that of dry season, and reverse with that of sediment samples. The influence of sampling locations was not significance. Result of water analysis will be compared to standard quality of Water of B group stated by Governor of Yogjakarta Special Province (SK Gubernur DIY / 1991) and Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia (MENKES RI Number 907/2002). (author)

  15. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from the earth parts of the Artemisia taurica Willd. and Salvia kronenburgii Rech. Fil. plants and their effects on xanthine oxidase enzyme were studied. The chemical contents of each volatile oil were determined by applying gas chromatograpghy-mass ...

  16. The content of some of the essential elements in the fruit of the (Diospyros L. persimmon of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. Ю. Хохлов

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article mentions that the special attention is deserved by such persimmon varieties being included into the collection of Garden: Nikita Burgundy – the most famous of the hardiest varieties, widely used in industrial horticulture grade foreign breeding Hana Fuyu and a new, high-yielding variety of domestic breeding Souvenir of Autumn. Plant varieties included into the studying, grow in the same conditions at the collection site, which is located 200 meters from the coast at a height of 20-40 m above its level. Trees are 15 years old, planting scheme is 6x6 meters. The selected varieties belong to the group of constant tart on their quality whose fruits are edible only when fully ripe Varieties are characterized by high winter hardiness and disease resistance, which allows minimizing the chemicals using for plants treating and creates the conditions for organic food. The chemical composition fruits studying of three oriental persimmons varieties have performed high content of potassium, so it affords their using as a general tonic. The obtained results have revealed that according to the content of essential elements the leading fruit of variety Souvenir Autumn is considered to be, the less valuable are fruits of Nikita Burgundy, and Hana Fuyu fruits on this indicator are intermediate.

  17. Heavy metal content and element analysis of infant formula and milk powder samples purchased on the Tanzanian market: International branded versus black market products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, M; McCulloch, C R; Schoder, D

    2018-07-30

    Milk powder is a food for malnourished African children and for healthy infants of women with HIV/AIDS. High demand and low purchasing power has resulted in a huge informal, black market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-three milk powder batches were analyzed for 43 chemical elements using ICP-MS One sample (2.3%) was contaminated at a lead concentration of 240 µg/kg dry weight exceeding the European threshold (130 µg/kg dry weight). Macroelement contents revealed a trend decreasing in concentration through skimmed, full cream products to infant formulae. Concentration ranges by dry weight differed in respect of uncertainty intervals of  ±10%. Median Ca, K and P concentrations declined from 11.14 g/kg to 3.21 g/kg, 14.11 g/kg to 4.95 g/kg and 9.12 g/kg to 2.75 g/kg dry mass, respectively. Milk powder samples obtained from the Tanzanian black market were comparable in respect of nutritional and chemical content to international branded full cream products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  19. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  20. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized

  1. Seasonal variations of trace element contents in leaves and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. in urban and industrial regions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the ability of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. to capture heavy metals, and whether its capacity to absorb metals from soil is associated with surrounding ecological characteristics and sources of pollution. We studied the seasonal accumulation of B, Cu, Sr and Zn in leaves and bark, and the chlorophyll content in the common deciduous tree Aesculus hippocastanum L. in four urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities. The research included plants from a control site located within the zone of a former oak forest. Our findings suggest that there are potential ecological risks around Smederevo, Belgrade and Obrenovac due to elevated concentrations of B and Zn relative to the average concentrations described for worldwide soils, as well as national regulations. Substantial and toxic foliar accumulation of B was observed in Smederevo and Belgrade, and of Sr in both plant tissues at all sites. However, the Cu and Zn contents in leaves were not enough to meet the physiological needs of plants. Chlorophyll a and the total carotenoid content peaked in August under the most unfavorable conditions of the year, which may be considered as an adaptive mechanism. The obtained results showed the remarkable complexity of environmental conditions and the difficulties A. hippocastanum, as a species, has to overcome. Under conditions of different types of urban and industrial pollution, A. hippocastanum showed great element accumulation potential and could be regarded as both an accumulator and a response indicator, since its leaves are quite susceptible to damage. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  2. The volatility of HOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of HOI has been measured using a mass spectrometer to analyze the gas phase above an aqueous solution. The HOI in solution was generated continuously in a flow reactor that combined I/sup -/ and OCl/sup -/ solutions. The analysis has resulted in a lower limit of 6X10/sup 3/ mol . dm/sup -3/ . atm/sup -1/ for the equilibrium constant for the reaction HOI(g)/equilibrium/HOI(aq). This value is a factor 30 greater than the best previous estimate. This new limit for HOI volatility results in higher total iodine partition coefficients, particularly for solutions with pH>8. The upper limit for the equilibrium constant is consistent with essentially zero volatility for HOI. The effect of HOI volatility on total iodine volatility is briefly discussed as a function of solution chemistry and kinetics

  3. Volatilization of iodine from soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1985-04-01

    Elevated levels of 129 I, a long-lived fission product, are present in the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing and fuel reprocessing. To aid in understanding the anomalous behavior of this element, relative to natural I ( 127 I), in the vicinity of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, preliminary laboratory-growth chamber studies were undertaken to examine the possible formation of volatile inorganic and organic I species in soil and plant systems. Inorganic 129 I added to soil was volatilized from both the soil and plant during plant growth, at average ratios of 2 x 10 -3 %/day soil and 9 x 10 -3 %/day foliage, respectively. Volatilization rates from soil were an order of magnitude less in the absence of growing roots. Less than 2% of soil or plant volatiles was subsequently retained by plant canopies. Volatile I, chemically characterized by selective sorption methods, consisted principally of alkyl iodides formed by both soil and plant processes. However, plants and soils containing actively growing roots produced a larger fraction of volatile inorganic I than soil alone. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Principal volatil components of Txakoli of Bizkaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Escobal

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the Txakoli of Bizkaia, a wine produced in the Basque Country. This note gives account of the volatile content of the wine which has been awarded by the Denominacíon de Origen Bizkaiko Txakolina quality label (BOPV, 1994.

  5. Volatiles Of Lysimachia Paridiformis Var. Stenophylla, Lysimachia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-one compounds were identified in the leaves of L. fortumei, accounting for 94.72% of the total volatile fraction. ... Conclusion: The results showed that the main composition types were similar in the three plants, but the content was different, which indicated that the similar composition types provided the same medical ...

  6. Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ikinci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L. were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree−1, largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha−1 in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant, K, Ca, Mg, Fe

  7. Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanza, Elias C; Joseph, Mary; Premji, Shahirose S; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Mannion, Cynthia

    2014-04-15

    Geophagy, a form of pica, is the deliberate consumption of soil and is relatively common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, pregnant women commonly eat soil sticks sold in the market (pemba), soil from walls of houses, termite mounds, and ground soil (kichuguu). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements by testing soil samples. We conducted a cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 340 pregnant women, ranging in age from 15-49 years, who attended six government antenatal clinics in the Geita District, Tanzania. Structured interviews were conducted in June-August, 2012, to understand geophagy practices. In addition, soil samples taken from sources identified by pregnant women practicing geophagy were analysed for mineral element content. Geophagy was reported by 155 (45.6%) pregnant women with 85 (54.8%) initiating the practice in the first trimester. A total of 101 (65%) pregnant women reported eating soil 2 to 3 times per day while 20 (13%) ate soil more than 3 times per day. Of 155 pregnant women 107 (69%) bought pemba from local shops, while 48 (31%) consumed ground soil kichuguu. The estimated mean quantity of soil consumed from pemba was 62.5 grams/day. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc levels were found in both pemba and kichuguu samples. Cadmium and mercury were found only in the kichuguu samples. Based on daily intake estimates, arsenic, copper and manganese for kichuguu and copper and manganese for pemba samples exceed the oral Minimum Risk Levels designated by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Almost 50% of participants practiced geophagy in Geita District consistent with other reports from Africa. Both pemba and kichuguu contained chemical elements at varying concentration, mostly above MRLs. As such, pregnant women who eat soil in Geita

  8. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  9. Ammonia volatilization from sows on grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S. G.; Søgaard, H. T.; Møller, H. B.; Morsing, S.

    According to regulations, sows with piglets on organic farms must graze on pastures. Volatilization of ammonia (NH 3) from urine patches may represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) loss from these farms. Inputs of N are low on organic farms and losses may reduce crop production. This study examined spatial variations in NH 3 volatilization using a movable dynamic chamber, and the pH and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in the topsoil of pastures with grazing sows was measured during five periods between June 1998 and May 1999. Gross NH 3 volatilization from the pastures was also measured with an atmospheric mass balance technique during seven periods from September 1997 until June 1999. The dynamic chamber study showed a high variation in NH 3 volatilization because of the distribution of urine; losses were between 0 and 2.8 g NH 3-N m -2 day -1. Volatilization was highest near the feeding area and the huts, where the sows tended to urinate. Ammonia volatilization rate was linearly related to the product of NH 3 concentration in the boundary layer and wind speed. The NH 3 in the boundary layer was in equilibrium with NH 3 in soil solution. Gross NH 3 volatilization was in the range 0.07-2.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1 day -1 from a pasture with 24 sows ha -1. Ammonia volatilization was related to the amount of feed given to the sows, incident solar radiation and air temperature during measuring periods, and also to temperature, incident solar radiation and rain 1-2 days before measurements. Annual ammonia loss was 4.8 kg NH 3-N sow -1.

  10. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  11. Impact of application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on callus induction, plant regeneration, element content and antioxidant enzyme activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharby Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nanomaterials and their potential applications have been given considerable attention by researchers in various fields, especially agricultural biotechnology. However, not much has been done to evaluate the role or effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP in regulating physiological and biochemical processes in response to salt-induced stress. For this purpose, some callus growth traits, plant regeneration rate, mineral element (sodium, potassium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents and changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX in tissues of five tomato cultivars were investigated in a callus culture exposed to elevated concentrations of salt (3.0 and 6.0 g L-1NaCl, and in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 and 30 mg L-1. The relative callus growth rate was inhibited by 3.0 g L-1 NaCl; this was increased dramatically at 6.0 g L-1. Increasing exposure to NaCl was associated with a significantly higher sodium content and SOD and GPX activities. Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1 was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1. This finding indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles should be investigated further as a potential anti-stress agent in crop production. Different tomato cultivars showed different degrees of tolerance to salinity in the presence of ZnO-NP. The cultivars Edkawy, followed by Sandpoint, were less affected by salt stress than the cultivar Anna Aasa.

  12. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  13. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  14. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  15. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  16. Trace element content of human head hair as a function of sex, age, sphere of life, colour of the hair and localisation. Der Spurenelementgehalt des menschlichen Kopfhaares in Abhaengigkeit von Geschlecht, Alter, Lebensraum, Haarfarbe und Lokalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simaitis, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hair specimens from 247 probands were examined by absorption spectroscopy following wet ashing with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The specimens were not pre-treated. The investigations related to the elements Zn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Pb, Cu, Al, Cd, Sb, Tl, As and Hg. For each element the optimal working conditions were established and laid down in tables. The influences of sex, age and origin were investigated. Differences regarding sex and age were found for the elements Mg, Ca, Cd and Al. The results can be useful in the detection of environmental impacts and intoxications with heavy metals and metalloids and to mark such collectives off from normally exposed ones, as well as in the diagnosis of some diseases. On the basis of the trace element distribution in the hair it may even be possible to trace sources of heavy metal emissions. The deviations from the trace element content are also useful for the purposes of forensic medicine and crime detection.

  17. Two reports: (i) Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission. (ii) Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Isaev, S.G.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Pshakin, G.M.

    1998-10-01

    The document includes the following two reports: 'Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission' and 'Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting. A separate abstract was prepared for each report

  18. Teores de elementos minerais em algumas populações de Camu-Camu Content of mineral elements in some populations of camu-camu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia K.O Yuyama

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu, caçari, ou araçá d'água (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K McVaugh é um arbusto da família Myrtaceae, disperso em quase toda a Amazônia. É uma espécie tipicamente silvestre mas com grande potencial econômico e nutricional. Entretanto, no que se refere a elementos minerais, poucas informações são disponíveis na literatura. Considerando a essencialidade dessas informações na nutrição humana e objetivando contribuir na elaboração de uma Tabela de composição de alimentos a nível regional e nacional, determinou-se os elementos minerais em algumas populações de camu-camu, pela Técnica de Ativação com Nêutrons Instrumental. Verificou-se que em relação aos macro elementos minerais, nos frutos de camu-camu analisados, as maiores concentrações foram para potássio, com uma variação de (62,6±0,4 a 144,1±08 mg % e cálcio (9,5±0,3 a 10,6±0,5 mg%. A concentração de sódio nos frutos foi baixa (90,7±16,5 µg%. A população Uatumã-9 apresentou maiores concentrações de zinco (472,0±8,3µg%, molibdênio (6,2±0,6µg% e cromo (19,9±1,7 µg%, seguida da população Uatumã 24 em cobalto (2,4±0,03 mg%. Dessa forma, o consumo de camu-camu pode contribuir para atingir a ingestão adequada das recomendações de elementos minerais nos diferentes grupos populacionais da região Amazônica.Camu-camu, caçari, or araçá d'água (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh is a shrub of the Myrtaceae family, dispersed through almost all the Amazonia. It is a typically wild species but with great economic and nutritional potential. However, few information on its mineral content is available in the literature. Considering the importance of these information for the human nutrition, and, objectiving to contribute in the elaboration of a Table of food composition the regional and national level, was determined the mineral elements in some populations of camu-camu, by neutron activation analysis. According to the results, the greater

  19. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  20. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  1. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  2. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-08-01

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl4, MOCl2, MCl6-, and MOCl42 with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl4, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔHsub, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl4 on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl62- surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the "one-atom-at-a-time" gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  3. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  4. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  5. Volatilization: a soil degassing coefficient for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Thibault, D.H.; Smith, P.A.; Hawkins, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Iodine, an element essential to some animals, is ubiquitous in the biosphere. Unlike other metallic elements, molecular I is volatile, and other inorganic species present in aerated soils, such as I - and IO 3 - , may also volatilize as hydrides, hydrogen iodide (HI), or hydrogen iodates (HIO 3 , HIO 4 ). Methyl iodide has been measured in soils, and it is likely evolved from soils and plants. The long-lived radioisotope 129 I is abundant in nuclear wastes, and its high solubility in groundwater makes it an important element in the performance assessment of underground disposal facilities. Overestimates of soil I residence half-times by traditional foodchain models may be due to underestimation of volatilization. Field and lysimeter experiments over a 3-year period, and direct trapping experiments in the laboratory are reported. The results, combined with values from the literature, indicate the soil I degassing coefficient for a wide range of soil types, vegetated and bare, wet and dry, is lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 2.1 x 10 -2 year -1 , a range of 1.8 x 10 -4 to 3.1 year -1 and a geometric standard deviation of 3.0. The results of a biosphere model simulation including degassing reduces soil I concentrations fivefold and increases air concentrations 25-fold at steady state, compared to simulations without degassing. (author)

  6. Major- and trace elements in grain size fractions of the Apollo-17 core of the drilled sample 74001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Gunten, H.R. von; Jost, D.; Meyer, G.; Wegmueller, F.

    1980-01-01

    Two layers of a drill sample were examined, one from a depth of 38 cm and the other from 58 cm depth. Neutron activation analysis was used for one group of elements, and radiochemical analysis for another. Over a range of grain size from 36 to 450 μm, the trace elements U, Co, and La were found to uniformly distributed, as was iron. The top layer consistently showed a 5-8% higher content. The volatile trace elements Ge and Cd were found to be enriched in the smaller grain sizes. This contradicts previous assumptions of an enrichment of the more volatile elements in top layers owing to more rapid cooling of volcanic eruptions. (R.S.)

  7. Study of some Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants for the essential trace elemental contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.; Andhele, M.L.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some medicinal plants used in the Indian Ayurvedic system was performed by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plants samples collected in summer, winter and rainy seasons was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed. (orig.)

  8. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Mohamad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a. The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA, adequate intake (AI and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.

  9. [Analysis of chemical constituents of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-long; Xiong, Tian-qin; Liao, Jia-yi; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Yu-min; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Cui-xian

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the chemical components of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang. The volatile oils were extracted by water steam distillation. The chemical components of essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS and quantitatively determined by a normalization method. 103 components were separated and 87 components were identified in the volatile oil of Zingiberis Rhizoma. 58 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Myristicae Semen. 49 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Amomi Rotundus Fructus. 89 components were separated and 63 components were identified in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Eucalyptol, β-phellandrene and other terpenes were the main compounds in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Changes in the kinds and content of volatile components can provide evidences for scientific and rational compatibility for Jia Ga Song Tang.

  10. 2-22 Study of Oxidation/reduction Volatilization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan; Cunmin[1; Cao; Shiwei[1; Tian; Yuan[1; Qin; Zhi[1

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced dry head-end processing of spent fuel reprocessing, the oxidation-reduction volatilization technology will use for pulverizing uranium oxide ceramic pellets, decladding, and removal of most of volatile and semi-volatile fission elements, 3H, 14C, Kr, Xe, I, Cs, Ru and Tc, from fuel prior to main treatment process. The AIROX and ORIOX process, including circulation of oxidation in oxygen atmosphere and reduction in hydrogen atmosphere, researched on international at present, is considered to be the first choice for head-end processing.

  11. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-01-01

    Understanding volatile elements in the early solar system is a key step toward understanding the processes of planetary formation and the composition of Earth, but the origin of volatiles on Earth is not well understood. In this article, we present measurements of silicon isotope ratios in angrites, a class of meteorites dating from the first few million years after condensation of solids from the solar nebula. We show that the silicon isotope composition of angrites is consistent with a depl...

  12. VOLATILE LEAF OIL CONSTITUENTS OF OCIMUM AMERICANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum americanum L. growing in Western Kenya were analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 36 compounds, representing a total of 88.51% of the total oil, were identified. The oil was classified as terpinen-4-ol-type according to the terpinen-4-ol content (43.21%). To the best ...

  13. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  14. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  15. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  16. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  17. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  18. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl 4 , MOCl 2 , MCl 6 − , and MOCl 4 2 with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl 4 , the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH sub , of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH sub (RfCl 4 ) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl 2 on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl 4 on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl 2 or MOCl 4 2− complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl 4 on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl 6 2− surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations

  19. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  20. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  1. Essays on nonparametric econometrics of stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Volatility is a concept that describes the variation of financial returns. Measuring and modelling volatility dynamics is an important aspect of financial econometrics. This thesis is concerned with nonparametric approaches to volatility measurement and volatility model validation.

  2. Headspace Analysis of Volatile Compounds Coupled to Chemometrics in Leaves from the Magnoliaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace volatile analysis has been used for volatiles profiling in leaves of 4 Magnolia species with a total of 75 compounds were identified. Monterpene hydrocarbons dominated the volatile blend of M. calophylla (86%, M. acuminata (78%, M. virginiana (70% and M. grandiflora (47% with b -pinene and b -ocimene occurring in the largest amounts, whereas sesquiterpenes were the most abundant compounds in M. grandiflora (39%. High levels of oxygenated compounds were only found in M. virginiana volatile blend (11.4% with 2-phenylethyl alcohol as major component. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on volatiles content revealed the close relationship between M. acuminata and M. calophylla.

  3. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  4. Contents evaluation of some essential and toxic elements in children and elders diet by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao do conteudo de alguns elementos essenciais e toxicos em dietas de criancas e idosos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko

    1996-12-31

    Essential and toxic elements in the 19 diet samples from pre-school children and 23 diet samples from elderly people, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed and applied for determining Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, U, Th, W and Zn, based on retention of these elements in a Chelex-100 resin. In the case of As and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide). The contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates were also analysed. The results have been presented and discussed 135 refs., 29 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Contents evaluation of some essential and toxic elements in children and elders diet by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao do conteudo de alguns elementos essenciais e toxicos em dietas de criancas e idosos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko

    1997-12-31

    Essential and toxic elements in the 19 diet samples from pre-school children and 23 diet samples from elderly people, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed and applied for determining Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, U, Th, W and Zn, based on retention of these elements in a Chelex-100 resin. In the case of As and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide). The contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates were also analysed. The results have been presented and discussed 135 refs., 29 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection...... and identified or characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 120 VOCs were characterized by retention index and mass spectra. Fifty-three compounds were characterized as terpenoid compounds, among which 18 could be identified. Among the VOCs were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, esters, ketones....... The relationship between the excretion of geosmin and the production of spores was examined for one isolate. A good correlation between headspace geosmin and the number of spores was observed, suggesting that VOCs could be used to indicate the activity of these microorganisms in heterogeneous substrates....

  7. Determination of elemental content in the Rumanova, Uhrovec, Vel'ke Borove, Kosice and Chelyabinsk chondrites by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaizer, J.; Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Porubčan, V.; Povinec, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 3 (2017), s. 2085-2096 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ordinary chondrite * INAA * elemental composition * distriburion patterns * rare earth elements Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  8. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershina, V., E-mail: V.Pershina@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt D-64291 (Germany); Borschevsky, A. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz D-55128, Germany and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, 0745 North Shore MSC, Auckland (New Zealand); Iliaš, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovského 40, SK-974 00 Banská Bystrica (Slovakia); Türler, A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl{sub 4}, MOCl{sub 2}, MCl{sub 6}{sup −}, and MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2} with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl{sub 4}, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH{sub sub}, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH{sub sub}(RfCl{sub 4}) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl{sub 2} on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl{sub 2} or MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  10. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  11. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  12. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  13. Measurements of non-volatile aerosols with a VTDMA and their correlations with carbonaceous aerosols in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Heidi H. Y.; Tan, Haobo; Xu, Hanbing; Li, Fei; Wu, Cheng; Yu, Jian Z.; Chan, Chak K.

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters were conducted at a suburban site in Guangzhou, China, in February and March 2014 using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) and an organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC / EC) analyzer. Low volatility (LV) particles, with a volatility shrink factor (VSF) at 300 °C exceeding 0.9, contributed 5 % of number concentrations of the 40 nm particles and 11-15 % of the 80-300 nm particles. They were composed of non-volatile material externally mixed with volatile material, and therefore did not evaporate significantly at 300 °C. Non-volatile material mixed internally with the volatile material was referred to as medium volatility (MV, 0.4 transported at low altitudes (below 1500 m) for over 40 h before arrival. Further comparison with the diurnal variations in the mass fractions of EC and the non-volatile OC in PM2.5 suggests that the non-volatile residuals may be related to both EC and non-volatile OC in the afternoon, during which the concentration of aged organics increased. A closure analysis of the total mass of LV and MV residuals and the mass of EC or the sum of EC and non-volatile OC was conducted. It suggests that non-volatile OC, in addition to EC, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.

  14. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  15. Melt inclusion evidence for a volatile-enriched (H2O, Cl, B) component in parental magmas of Gorgona Island komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, V.; Sobolev, A.; McDonough, W.

    2003-04-01

    Late Cretaceous komatiites of Gorgona Island are unambiguous samples of ultra-mafic melts related to a hot and possibly 'wet' mantle plume. Despite significant efforts in studying komatiites, their volatile abundances remain largely unknown because of significant alteration of rocks and lack of fresh glasses. This work presents major, trace and volatile element data for 22 partially homogenised (at 1275oC and 1 bar pressure) melt inclusions in olivine (Fo 90.5-91.5) from a Gorgona Isl. komatiite (# Gor 94-3). Major element compositions (except FeO which is notably lower by up to 5 wt% as a result of post-entrapment re-equilibration) and most lithophile trace elements of melt inclusions are indistinguishable from the whole rock komatiites. With the exception of three inclusions that have low Na, H2O, Cl, F and S (likely compromised and degassed during heating) most compositions are characterised by relatively constant and high volatile abundances (H2O 0.4-0.8 wt%, Cl 0.02-0.03 wt%, B 0.8-1.4 ppm). These are interpreted as representative of original volatiles in parental melts because they correspond to the internal volatile pressure in the closed inclusions significantly exceeding 1 bar pressure of heating experiment. Although H2O is strongly enriched (PM-normalised H2O/Ce 10-17) its concentrations correlate well with many elements (e.g. Yb, Er, Y, Ti, Sr, Be). Other positive anomalies on the overall depleted (La/Sm 0.26-0.33) PM normalized compositional spectra of melt inclusions are shown by B (B/K 2.4-5.4) and Cl (Cl/K 11-16). Compositions of melt inclusions, when corrected for Fe loss and recalculated in equilibrium with host olivine, have high MgO (15.4-16.4 wt%; Mg# of 74) and substantial H2O (0.4-0.6 wt%) contents. This together with the data on other 'enriched' elements argues for the presence of previously unknown volatile-enriched component in the parental melts of Gorgona Isl. komatiites. We discuss contamination of magmas by altered oceanic crust in the

  16. Content of Cu, Zn, As and other elements in some plants and soils on heaps and in areas of air pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasova, V; Hajduk, J

    1975-01-01

    The authors studied the content of Cu, Fe, Zn in the soils and plants on heaps after mining of copper at Slovinky (5 km south of Krompachy), and in some other areas in the west part of the Low Tatra Mts, and the content of As, Zn, Cu, S, Mg, Ca in the soil and the plants influenced by emissions from copper smelting works in Krompachy. 31 references.

  17. Trace elements in primitive meteorites—VII Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    2007-02-01

    We report RNAA results for Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Rb, Cs, Se, Ag, Te, Zn, In, Bi, Tl and Cd (in increasing order of metamorphic mobility) in 22 Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC). This brings to 38 the number of UOC for which data for highly volatile elements are known. For elements of lesser mobility (Co to Se, omitting Cs) overall variability in UOC are low, relative standard deviations (one sigma) being no more than a factor of two. For Ag, Te and Zn, relative standard deviations are 2-4×, while for Cs and the four most volatile elements, the variabilities are 8-110×. Elemental abundances do not vary with chemical type (H, L and LL) nor with UOC subtype (3.0-3.9). Contents of all elements reach levels up to, even exceeding, cosmic and all but Cd and the two alkalis, seem unaffected by post-accretionary processes. Contents of highly volatile elements are consistent with the idea that source regions producing contemporary falls and older Antarctic UOC differed in thermal histories. The presence or absence of carbide magnetite assemblages (CMA) generally accords with high or low Cd contents, respectively. This relationship accords with the prior suggestion that CMA formed by alteration of Fe-Ni metal by C-O-H-containing fluids at temperatures indicate that they were subsequently destroyed as metamorphic intensity increased. The high, often supercosmic, Rb and Cs levels in UOC may result from their high solubility in liquid water signalling their redistribution by C-O-H-containing fluid while in the liquid water field. Because of its uniquely high mobility, Cd could have been enriched by the C-O-H fluids and should have been lost from parent regions during later, higher temperature anhydrous metamorphism at temperatures in the 500-600 °C range.

  18. Exploring heterogeneous market hypothesis using realized volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.

  19. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marica Sorak-Pokrajac; Dermelj, M.; Zdenka Slejkovec; Eskinja, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extermely important. As one of the volatile elements is can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  20. Volatility of V15Cr5Ti fusion reactor alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    One potential hazard from the presence of activation products in fusion facilities is accidental oxidation-driven volatility of those activation products. Scoping experiments were conducted to investigate the oxidation and elemental volatility of candidate fusion reactor alloy V15Cr5Ti as a function of time, temperature, and test atmosphere. Experiments in air and in argon carrier gases containing 10 4 to 10 1 Pa (10 -1 to 10 -4 atm) oxygen were conducted to investigate the lower oxygen partial pressure limit for the formation of a low melting point (approximately 650 0 C), high volatility, oxide layer and its formation rate. Experiments to determine the elemental volatility of alloy constituents in air at temperatures of 700 0 C to greater than 1600 0 C. Some of these volatility experiments used V15Cr5Ti that was arc-remelted to incorporate small quantities (<0.1 wt. %) of Sc and Ca. Incorporation of Sc and Ca in test specimens permitted volatility measurement of radioactive constituents present only after activation of V15Cr5Ti

  1. Association of glass fragments by their trace elemental content using ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS in the analysis scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Montero, Shirly; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2002-08-01

    The importance of glass as evidence of association between a crime event and a suspect has been recognized for some time. Glass is a fragile material that is often found at the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, hit-and-run accidents and violent crime offenses. The physical and chemical properties of glass can be used to differentiate between possible sources and as evidence of association between two fragments of glass thought to originate from the same source. Refractive index (RI) comparisons have been used for this purpose but due to the improved control over glass manufacturing processes, RI values often cannot differentiate glasses, even if the glass originates from different sources. Elemental analysis methods such as NAA, XRF, ICP-AES, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) have also been used for the comparison of trace elemental compositions and these techniques have been shown to provide an improvement in the discrimination of glass fragments over RI comparisons alone. The multi-element capability and the sensitivity of ICP-MS combined with the simplified sample introduction of laser ablation prior to ion detection provides for an excellent and relatively non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The methodology for solution analysis (digestion procedure) and solid sample analysis (laser ablation) of glass is reported and the analytical results are compared. An isotope dilution method is also reported as a high precision technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The optimum sampling parameters for laser ablation, for semi-quantitative analysis and element ratio comparisons are also presented. Finally, the results of a case involving the breaking of 15 vehicle windows in an airport parking lot and the association of a suspect to the breakings by the glass fragments found on his person are also presented.

  2. Transient elevation of element contents as a result of neuronal death in mutant-mice cerebellum studied by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranda, K.; Kucera, J.; Baeurle, J.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of some metals, in particular iron or manganese, has long been considered to trigger or accentuate neurodegenerative processes in humans. The two most frequently cited examples are Parkinson's and Alzheimer diseases, where excitotoxic processes lead to neuronal death. However, these neuropathies are somewhat unsuitable for investigating the time course of the metal accumulation because the applied analytical methods such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) are invasive. Hence, only one measurement can be made after the patient's death. Animal models of Parkinson's type neurodegeneration, such as mice mutants, are more suitable as a larger number of animals can be investigated at various postnatal ages. In this study we used one type of mice mutants weaver, where primary neurodegeneration is principally confined to the cerebellum and centred in time around the postnatal age of six days. Elemental composition of brain segments with dry mass as low as 0.5 mg, which were isolated from weaver and wild type (normal) mice were investigated using a combination of INAA and RNAA. Elevated concentration of the following elements Fe, Zn, Cu, K, Na, Rb, and Br that were observed in the weaver's cerebella closely followed the time course of neurodegeneration documented for this type of mutant. The transient elevation of these elements never preceded the onset of neurodegeneration but closely mirrored its time course reaching its peak on the sixth day. The concentration of these elements in the weaver's cerebella declined afterwards to converge on the elemental time course observed in the wild type mice. In conclusion, metal and other elemental elevation observed in the cerebella of these mutants are an expression of neurodegenerative processes rather than its precondition. (author)

  3. Importance of nickel in Fabaceae. Pt. 1. Comparative studies on the content of nickel and certain other elements in vegetative parts and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1985-02-28

    Vegetative parts and seeds of 15 Fabaceae were analyzed with respect to concentrations of Ni as well as K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. The distribution pattern of the examined elements is different. For the macronutrients and iron mostly a significant higher concentration could be found in the shoot, whilst micronutrients frequently were accumulated in the seed. Nickel is that element, which is accumulated relatively highest in the seed. This is a criterion for a specific importance of nickel, which is a compound of urease and in this function could be involved in the mobilization of nitrogen storage substances of the seed.

  4. Comprehensive analysis for major, minor and trace element contents and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios in sediment reference materials, JSd-1 and MAG-1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Makishima, A.; Noordmann, J.; Tanaka, R.; Nakamura, E.

    (TFE) bomb at 245 degrees C for 96 hrs with Mg addition. The elemental concentration was measured by quadrupole type inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and sector field type ICP-MS (ICP-SFMS) using isotope dilution...

  5. A continuous in vitro method for estimation of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods : application to breads varying in phytic acid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.G.E.; Schreuder, H.A.W.; Heuvel, G. van den; Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous in vitro method for the estimation of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements is presented. This in vitro method is believed to be more representative of in vivo physiological conditions than in vitro methods based on equilibrium dialysis, because dialysable components are

  6. Are lower epiphytes really that better than higher plants for indicating airborne contaminants? An insight into the elemental contents of lichen thalli and tree bark by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Freitas, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Few dedicated attempts at comparing the monitoring performance of lower and higher plants have been carried out so far. As a contribution to such an issue, the relative magnitude of elemental signals from epiphytic lichens (Parmelia spp.) and olive tree (Olea europaea Linn.) bark, determined by INAA is studied. A representative set of 12 elements - As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, V, Zn - was used for an ab initio comparison between raw data and Rb-normalized data, using distribution-free statistics. Correlation analysis shows an overall improvement in the degree of association between bark and lichen signals when proceeding from raw data to relative enrichment. Apart from Cl, no element is enriched in lichens to a higher extent than in bark. Sign tests are quite conclusive: bark factors are either statistically greater than or equal to lichens'. These findings prompt a word of caution when dealing with biological monitoring data, without accounting for soil, rock or litter inputs into the biomonitors' elemental pools. (author)

  7. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  8. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  9. Effect of volatile and acid accumulation in dung digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, G; Pathak, B N

    1966-01-01

    In continuation of laboratory experiments on the anaerobic digestion of cow dung experiments were carried out to determine the limiting concentrations of volatile acids and to investigate methods of regenerating digestion after failure. Volatile acids were increased by adding acetic acid to digesting dung slurry; digestion failed completely when volatile-acid concentration was 6194 mg per litre, at pH 4.4. Attempts were made to regenerate digestion by adding lime, after dilution with water, but although over a period the volatile-acid content was reduced from 5650 to 3730 mg per litre, and the pH value rose on average from 4.5 to 6.3, gas production remained at a low value until additional digested slurry was introduced, leading to resumption of normal digestion.

  10. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  11. Technique for calculating temperature field of the vibropacked oxide fuel element taking into account redistribution of porosity and plutonium and oxygen contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maershin, A.A.; Grachev, V.D.; Shajkhiev, A.I.; Zarudnev, N.E.; Golubenko, I.S.; Udal'tsova, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Integro-interpolation technique is used for calculating temperature field and thermodiffusion, as well as fuel mass transfer and plutonium content in the fuel due to evaporation-condensation mechanism. The results obtained by numerical computing and other techniques are presented. 6 refs.; 8 figs

  12. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  13. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  14. A Method for Software Requirement Volatility Analysis Using QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarso Anang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes of software requirements are inevitable during the development life cycle. Rather than avoiding the circumstance, it is easier to just accept it and find a way to anticipate those changes. This paper proposes a method to analyze the volatility of requirement by using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method and the introduced degree of volatility. Customer requirements are deployed to software functions and subsequently to architectural design elements. And then, after determining the potential for changes of the design elements, the degree of volatility of the software requirements is calculated. In this paper the method is described using a flow diagram and illustrated using a simple example, and is evaluated using a case study.

  15. Rice flakes produced from commercial wild rice: Chemical compositions, vitamin B compounds, mineral and trace element contents and their dietary intake evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Koubová, Eva; Šenkárová, Lenka; Orsavová, Jana

    2018-10-30

    Non-traditional wild rice flakes were analysed for chemical composition, vitamin B compounds, α-tocopherol, mineral and trace elements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were evaluated using FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine regulations. Wild rice flakes proved to be significant contributors of pyridoxine, pantothenic and folic acids, niacin, thiamine, chromium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, molybdenum and iron to essential dietary intakes values. Toxic dietary intake values for aluminium, cadmium, tin and mercury were less than 33%, which complies the limits for adults set by FAO/WHO for toxic elements intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for females and 80 kg for males taking 100 g of flakes as a portion. However, concentrations of Hg reaching between 3.67 and 12.20 µg/100 g in flakes exceeded the average Hg value of 0.27-1.90 μg/100 g in cereals consumed in the EU. It has to be respected in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Volatility Mean Reversion and the Market Price of Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes sources of derivative pricing errors in a stochastic volatility model estimated on stock return data. It is shown that such pricing errors may reflect the existence of a market price of volatility risk, but also may be caused by estimation errors due to a slow mean reversion in

  17. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The persistent nature of equity volatility is investigated by means of a multi-factor stochastic volatility model with time varying parameters. The parameters are estimated by means of a sequential matching procedure which adopts as auxiliary model a time-varying generalization of the HAR model f...

  18. Composition of volatile aromatic compounds and minerals of tarhana enriched with cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Hasan; Tarakçı, Zekai

    2017-03-01

    Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC-MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples. The octanoic acid from acids, benzaldehyde (CAS) phenylmethanal from aldehydes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one from ketones, octadecane (CAS) n -octadecane form terpenes, ethyl caprylate from esters and benzenemethanol (CAS) benzyl alcohol from alcohols had the highest percentage of volatile aromatic compounds. Tarhana samples were rich source of Mn, Cu and Fe content.

  19. Implications for metal and volatile cycles from the pH of subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Matthieu E.; Connolly, James A. D.; Manning, Craig E.

    2016-11-01

    The chemistry of aqueous fluids controls the transport and exchange—the cycles—of metals and volatile elements on Earth. Subduction zones, where oceanic plates sink into the Earth’s interior, are the most important geodynamic setting for this fluid-mediated chemical exchange. Characterizing the ionic speciation and pH of fluids equilibrated with rocks at subduction zone conditions has long been a major challenge in Earth science. Here we report thermodynamic predictions of fluid-rock equilibria that tie together models of the thermal structure, mineralogy and fluid speciation of subduction zones. We find that the pH of fluids in subducted crustal lithologies is confined to a mildly alkaline range, modulated by rock volatile and chlorine contents. Cold subduction typical of the Phanerozoic eon favours the preservation of oxidized carbon in subducting slabs. In contrast, the pH of mantle wedge fluids is very sensitive to minor variations in rock composition. These variations may be caused by intramantle differentiation, or by infiltration of fluids enriched in alkali components extracted from the subducted crust. The sensitivity of pH to soluble elements in low abundance in the host rocks, such as carbon, alkali metals and halogens, illustrates a feedback between the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system and the speciation of subduction zone fluids via the composition of the seawater-altered oceanic lithosphere. Our findings provide a perspective on the controlling reactions that have coupled metal and volatile cycles in subduction zones for more than 3 billion years7.

  20. A preliminary study of the effect of phytoadditive carvacrol on the trace elements (Cu, Mn and Zn content in fish tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU YILMAZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoadditives have gained increasing interest as feed additives for fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether selected dietary phytoadditive can influence the bioavailability of several trace elements (Cu, Mn and Zn, which play an important role in the physiological processes. The experiments were carried out at a commercial trout farm. A total of 420 juvenile rainbow trout (mean weight ± SD = 10.79±0.57, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were randomly allocated into four different treatments with three replicates each. Fish were kept in raceways (3X0.8X0.4 m at 10±1°C with a natural photoperiod. Proper amount of carvacrol was sprayed on 1 kg of commercial trout diet to prepare four diets with 0 (Control, C0, 1 (C1, 3 (C3 and 5 (C5 carvacrol g/kg diet. Fish were fed to apparent satiation three times per day. The feeding trial lasted four weeks. Then, in different type of fish tissues (muscle, liver and pyloric caeca from fish fed with diets enriched in carvacrol, beneficial elements (Cu, Mn and Zn were analysed by atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the levels of Cu, Zn and Mn were especially significantly increase by C1 diet in all tissues (muscle, liver and pyloric caeca except muscle and pyloric caeca Zn. The results of this experiment indicate that the carvacrol had the ability to potentiate the trace element retention. Although bioaccumulations of Cu, Zn and Mn in the muscle, liver and pyloric caeca are well demonstrated, the exact mechanisms of phytoadditives are still only partially understood. More investigations are required to detail the mechanisms involved in phytoadditives this enhancement.