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Sample records for volatile constituents contained

  1. Combinatorial synthesis by nature: volatile organic sulfur-containing constituents of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Sina; Niclass, Yvan; van de Waal, Matthijs; Starkenmann, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Ongoing interest in discovering new natural fragrance and flavor ingredients prompted us to examine a solvent extract of sulfurous-sweaty smelling Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) plant material more closely. Twenty-one sulfur-containing constituents of similar structures were identified by GC/MS techniques. Amongst them, 14 have never been described to occur in nature. The compounds 1-18 belong to a family of natural flavor and fragrance molecules having a 1,3-positioned O,S moiety in common. The identities of the natural constituents were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference samples, and the organoleptic properties of the latter were studied. The relative and absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of 4-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (5) were established by stereoselective synthesis. The natural isomers consisted of a 65 : 35 mixture of (3R,4S)-5 and (3S,4S)-5.

  2. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA FROM NIGERIA. Gabriel Olatunji, Peter Weyerstahl, Stephen Oguntoye. Abstract. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR.

  3. Volatile constituents of Trichothecium roseum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelen, M; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R; Geeraerts, J

    1978-06-01

    In the course of investigation of Trichothecium roseum (Fungi Imperfecti) for its attractancy against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (cheese mite), the twenty following volatile compounds produced at a very low concentration by the microfungus were identified by gc, gc/ms, gc/c.i.ms and tlc: 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol, octa-1,5-dien-3 one, 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, octa-1,5-dien-3 ol, furfural, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpineol (alpha and beta) citronellyl acetate, nerol, citronellol, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol geranyl acetate, 1-phenyl ethanol and nerolidol. Octa-1,5-dien-3-ol and octa-1,5-dien-3-one have not been previously isolated from fungi; octa-1,5-dien-3-ol is the most potent attractant amount the volatile compounds detected by gc.

  4. Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... Key words: Samanae saman, Fabaceae, volatile oil, fatty acids, terpenoids, palmitic acid, 1,8-cineole. .... Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) ... this study, is an important constituent of most vegetable.

  5. VOLATILE LEAF OIL CONSTITUENTS OF OCIMUM AMERICANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum americanum L. growing in Western Kenya were analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 36 compounds, representing a total of 88.51% of the total oil, were identified. The oil was classified as terpinen-4-ol-type according to the terpinen-4-ol content (43.21%). To the best ...

  6. Mentha piperita micropropagation and volatil constituents evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ignacio Zapata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of in vitro plant tissue culture techniques for the propagation of aromatic and medicinal species, could play very promising role for the economy of small farmers, due to the high potential of industrialization of their essential oils. In this work is shown how the tissue culture technique has been used for the propagation of Mentha piperita, as its essential oil is widely used in the flavor and fragrance industry. Mints from different sources were studied, and evaluation of the yield and quality of the essential oil was carry out, before and after the micropropagation by plant tissue culture. Several basal mediums with different proportion of plant growth regulators and vitamins were tested in order to maximize the propagation results. The constituents of the essential oil were quantified by Gas Chromatography. Lin & Staba (1962 basal medium, supplemented with BAP, and some vitamins, was the best for mints species micropropagation. The yield and quality of essential oil produced by plant tissue culture and its mother plant were very similar.

  7. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Raut, Josna; Deo, Akash; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2013-01-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark) of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil) while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components) was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E)-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5%) and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3%) as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1%) and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%). The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL) along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL). The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL). The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  8. Volatile Constituents of Three Myrsine L. Species from Brazil

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    Arthur L. Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Myrsine rubra, Myrsine gardneriana and Myrsine parvifolia and the fruits of Myrsine parvifolia were elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the native M. parvifolia were caryophyllene oxide (14.4%, β-caryophyllene (12.6% and γ-Muurolene (7.9% of the leaves oil and β-caryophyllene (11.7%, δ-Cadinene (7.1% of the fruit oil. The volatile oil of the endemic M. rubra leaves was dominated by β-caryophyllene (17.2%, γ-Muurolene (11.1%, Germacrene B (10.0%. The essential oil of the native M. gardneriana leaves was characterized by β-caryophyllene (18.0%, γ-Muurolene (8.4%. These three Myrsine species are similar in the dominance of sesquiterpenes. By contrast, monoterpenes were found only in the volatile oil from the fruits of M. parvifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on the volatile constituents of M. rubra, M. gardneriana, M. parvifolia.

  9. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  10. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shong, E; Lui, R

    1997-10-01

    The chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave were analyzed by GC-MS-DS. 27 constituents were identified, alpha-pinene (70.65%) and caryophyllene (10.38%) of them are main components.

  11. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

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    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  12. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil.

  13. Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow) Sprengel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Sheyla Cristiane Xenofonte de; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes de; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were β-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%), β-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%), γ-muurolene (28.4%), α-humulene (26.0%), 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5%) and β-pinene (10.6%). Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with β-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS), and comparison with the literature. (author)

  14. Volatile constituents of Glechoma hirsute Waldst. & Kit. and G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of two Glechoma species from Serbia have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty eight and two hundred thirty eight constituents identified accounted for 90.6 and 86.6% of the total oils of G. hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. and G. hederacea L., respectively. In both oils the dominant constituent class was the ...

  15. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone-Land, Angelina; Takeoka, Gary R; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2014-04-15

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and pyridines. Odour unit values, calculated from concentration and odour threshold data, indicate that the following compounds are major contributors to black-ripe table olive aroma: β-damascenone, nonanal, (E)-dec-2-enal, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl benzoate, octanal, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylbutanal and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. Imported olives contained a variety of fermentation derived volatiles that were not detected in domestic olives. Constituents such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, oct-1-en-3-one, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate, benzyl acetate and 4-ethylphenol contributed to the odour of imported olives but were not detected in domestic olives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Volatile constituents of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of the volatile compounds of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light) Link and Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) J.A. Shultes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) led to the identification of 20 and 23 compounds, respectively. The presented essential oils were characterized by the abundance ...

  17. [Effects of Lime on Seedling Growth,Yield and Volatile Constituents of Atractylodes lancea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Miki, Sakurai; Chen, Mei-lan; Takeda, Xiuji; Zhao, Dong-yue; Kang, Li-ping; Guo, Lan-ping

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of different amounts of lime on yield and quality of Atractylodes lancea, and to provide reference for the herb growing site soil improvement and self-poisoning ease. Add different gradients of lime, and then measure their growth targets, yield and four kinds of volatile constituents content(hinesol, atractylone, β-eudesmol and atractylodin). Volatile constituents yield per plant was calculated. Adding 160 g/m2 lime had a significant role in promoting the growth and yield of herb; Adding 80 g/m2 lime was conducive to the volatile constituents production, and adding lime decreased the atractylone and atractylodin content, while increased the hinesol and β-eudesmol content; Adding 160 g/m2 lime promoted the volatile constituents yield per plant. Adding lime plays a role of neutralize soil pH, antibacteria and prevention incognita, and has a certain degree of ease autotoxicity and obstacle,and then promotes the yield and volatile constituents production of Atractylodes lancea.

  18. Chemical composition of volatile constituents from the leaves of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... very helpful enzymes, saponins, hormones and amino acids which can be absorbed into the human skin. One of the constituents of the Aloe pith is ... higher than green tea and grape seed extracts, respectively. It is also well ...

  19. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  20. Volatile constituents of the essential oil of Curcuma trichosantha Gagnep. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ky, P.T.; Ven, van de L.J.M.; Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile rhizome oil of Curcuma trichosantha Gagnep. from Vietnam was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were found to be curdione (47.4%), curcumol (7.0%) and germacrone (6.1%). The structure elucidation of curdione was confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectrometry

  1. Volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of Catimbium latilabre (Ridl.) Holtt. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of C. latilabre from Vietnam were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. More than 55 components were present in the seed oil, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (25.8%), camphor (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%),

  2. Multidimensional analysis of cannabis volatile constituents: identification of 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane as a volatile marker of hashish, the resin of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Marie; Charvoz, Céline; Dujourdy, Laurence; Baldovini, Nicolas; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2014-11-28

    The volatile constituents of drug samples derived from Cannabis sativa L. were investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography techniques (GC-MS, GC×GC-MS). Samples of cannabis herb and hashish showed clear differences in their volatile chemical profiles, mostly resulting from photo-oxidation processes occurring during the transformation of fresh cannabis herb into hashish. Most unexpectedly, we could demonstrate hashish samples as containing remarkable amounts of a rare and unusual monoterpene - 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane - among the volatile compounds detected in their headspaces. We gave evidence for the formation of this compound from the light induced rearrangement of β-myrcene during the manufacture of hashish. In view of its high abundance among volatile constituents of cannabis resin and its scarce occurrence in other natural volatile extracts, we propose to rename this specific monoterpene hashishene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils.

  5. The effect of repeated melting of zircaloy-4 to the distribution of volatile constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johneri, E.; Wijaksana; Badruzzaman, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of repeated fusion on the composition and distribution of zircaloy volatile elemental constituents (especially Sn) has been investigated. The results showed that the higher the number of repeated fusion is, the more evenly distributed the constituents are, but the composition decreased until reached constant values. This phenomenon occurred due to the relatively faster diffusion movement of one element compared to the others. Further investigation needs to be done to find other proofs of the phenomenon. Moreover, continued research is in demand in order to answer technological problems regarding the zircaloy production and metal alloy production in general. (author)

  6. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Yu Shenjing; Xiu Zhilong; Ren Chunsheng

    2012-01-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (σ bmax ) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  7. Chemical investigation of the volatile constituents of Cleome viscosa from Nigeria

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    Gabriel Olatunji

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots and some oxygenated derivatives (3% in leaves/stem; 1% in seeds/fruits and 1.5% in roots. The monoterpenes occurred frequently in the oils. Fatty acid esters especially ethyl palmitate which constituted a major constituent in the oil from the seeds/fruits was not detected in the oils from the roots.

  8. Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A

    2012-08-14

    The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and α-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-β-ocimene (44.1%) and α-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  9. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  10. New volatile constituents from leaves of Stemodia trifoliata (Link.) Reichb. (Schrophulariaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wildson Max B. da; Assuncao, Joao Carlos da C.; Araujo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The leaf essential oils of Stemodia trifoliata (Scrophulariaceae), collected at the same month of two different years (August 2005 and 2006), were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 22 volatile components represented by sesquiterpenes and diterpenes was identified. β-Caryophyllene (9.4-15.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.2-9.0%) were the major compounds identified in the sesquiterpene fraction, while the diterpenoids 6α-acetoxymanoyl oxide (13.9-23.2%) and 6α-hydroxymanoyl oxide (25.1-29.7%) were the main constituents of the diterpene fraction. The two novel manoyl oxide derivatives had their structures established by means of spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR. This work describes for the first time the chemical investigation on the volatile composition of S. trifoliata. (author)

  11. New volatile constituents from leaves of Stemodia trifoliata (Link.) Reichb. (Schrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wildson Max B. da; Assuncao, Joao Carlos da C.; Araujo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    The leaf essential oils of Stemodia trifoliata (Scrophulariaceae), collected at the same month of two different years (August 2005 and 2006), were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 22 volatile components represented by sesquiterpenes and diterpenes was identified. {beta}-Caryophyllene (9.4-15.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.2-9.0%) were the major compounds identified in the sesquiterpene fraction, while the diterpenoids 6{alpha}-acetoxymanoyl oxide (13.9-23.2%) and 6{alpha}-hydroxymanoyl oxide (25.1-29.7%) were the main constituents of the diterpene fraction. The two novel manoyl oxide derivatives had their structures established by means of spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR. This work describes for the first time the chemical investigation on the volatile composition of S. trifoliata. (author)

  12. Volatile constituents and biological activities of the leaf and root of Echinacea species from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nyalambisa

    2017-03-01

    It is concluded that root and leaf of this Echinacea species contain volatile oils which varied in their yield and chemical compositions. The essential root oil is non-toxic orally and it demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in laboratory animals.

  13. Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, L K; Agarwal, D; Rathore, S S; Malhotra, S K; Saxena, S N

    2016-06-01

    Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes have been analyzed. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by 33.9 % in GC 4 and 43.5 % in RZ 209. A significant increase (29.9 %) over normal grinding in oil percentage was also observed in genotype RZ 209. This increase was, however, less (15.4 %) in genotype GC 4. Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes. The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz., volatile oil and monoterpenes. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from 48.2 to 56.1 % in GC 4 on cryo grinding. Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ 209. Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed oleic acid as major FAME content of which increased from 88.1 to 94.9 % in RZ 209 and from 88.2 to 90.1 % in GC 4 on cryogenic grinding. Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices.

  14. GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in the Leaves of 14 Compositae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiguang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The green organs, especially the leaves, of many Compositae plants possess characteristic aromas. To exploit the utility value of these germplasm resources, the constituents, mainly volatile compounds, in the leaves of 14 scented plant materials were qualitatively and quantitatively compared via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 213 constituents were detected and tentatively identified in the leaf extracts, and terpenoids (especially monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives, accounting for 40.45–90.38% of the total compounds, were the main components. The quantitative results revealed diverse concentrations and compositions of the chemical constituents between species. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that different groups of these Compositae plants were characterized by main components of α-thujone, germacrene D, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene, and camphor, for example. On the other hand, cluster memberships corresponding to the molecular phylogenetic framework, were found by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA based on the terpenoid composition of the tested species. These results provide a phytochemical foundation for the use of these scented Compositae plants, and for the further study of the chemotaxonomy and differential metabolism of Compositae species.

  15. Exposure to Anacardiaceae Volatile Oils and Their Constituents Induces Lipid Peroxidation within Food-Borne Bacteria Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA. The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E-caryophyllene (31.0% and α-pinene (22.0%, and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E-caryophyllene (15.4% and germacrene-D (11.5%. Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E-β-ocimene (44.1% and α-terpinolene (15.2%, whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%. However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  16. "Volatile Constituents of Amedicinal Plant of Iran , Echium Amoenim Fisch. and C.A. Mey "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Ghassemi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Boraginaceae is an endemic Iranian plant, that its dry violet–blue petals has long been used in traditional medicine of Iran. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the dried petals of this plant which was isolated by steam distillation extraction with pentane (in yield of 0.05% was examined by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra and Kovats’ indices. The major components except aliphatic alkanes which belong to sesquiterpenes were: δ-cadinene (24.25%, viridiflorol (4.9%, α-muurolene (4.52%, ledene (3.8%, α-calacorene (3.04%, and γ-cadinene (2.9%.

  17. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  18. Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3–12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 °C), influence of the bag’s filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20–40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level. PMID:23323261

  19. Daucus aristidis Coss. essential oil: Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity in pre-flowering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebarka Lamamra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Daucus aristidis Coss. (Apiaceae (D. aristidis (synonym Ammiopsis aristidis Batt. collected in pre-flowering stage in East of Algeria. Methods: The aerial parts of D. aristidis Coss were collected. Essential oil (in pre-flowering stage obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated for the first time by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method at various dilutions of the oil. Results: The main components of D. aristidis oil in pre-flowering stage were α-pinene (20.13%, cedrol (20.11% and E-asarone (18.53%. D. aristidis oil exhibited an antibacterial activity against almost all the strains tested except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 K6 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452 which exhibited a resistance against the oil with all dilutions. Also, the oil of D. aristidis had no activity against all fungi tested. Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity of D. aristidis in pre-flowering stage. The studied essential oil possesses moderate antibacterial activity against almost all strains tested but no antifungal activity.

  20. HSCCC separation and enantiomeric distribution of key volatile constituents of Piper claussenianum (Miq.) C. DC. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, André M; Fingolo, Catharina E; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2017-11-01

    High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography (HSCCC) technique was used for the preparative isolation of the major leishmanicidal compounds from the essential oils of Piper claussenianum species in Brazil. The essential oils from inflorescences of P. claussenianum were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the P. claussenianum essential oils were determined using a Rt-DEXsm chiral capillary column by GC-FID analysis. It was found an enantiomeric excess of (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the leaves, and (+)-linalool and (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the inflorescences essential oil. The major volatile terpenes alcohols were isolated in preparative scale from inflorescences: linalool (320.0 mg) and nerolidol (95.0 mg) in high purity level. The HSCCC, a support-free liquid-liquid partition chromatographic technique, proved to be an effective and useful method for fast isolation and purification of hydrophobic and similarly structured bioactive components from essential oils of Piper species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  2. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  3. Analysis of the Volatile Constituents of Irradiated Apple Juice; Analyse des Constituants Volatils des Jus de Pommes Irradies; Mezhdunarodnyj proekt po oblucheniyu fruktov i fruktovykh sokov; Analisis de los Componentes Volatiles de los Zumos de Manzana Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P.; Zenz, H.; Stehlik, G.; Kaindl, K. [Agence Europeenne pour l' Energie Nucleaire, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1966-11-15

    The organoleptic studies and wholesomeness tests that are being carried out as part of the International Programme on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices (Seibersdorf Project) entail analysis of the aromatic substances present in irradiated and non-irradiated juice. The volatile substances present in irradiated fruit juices were analysed by gas chromatography, with direct injection of the emitted vapours at ambient temperature and at 60 Degree-Sign C (Weurman's Head Space Technique). The volatile constituents were identified by comparing the amounts retained in the column with those for pure substances and by removing certain constituents from the vapour with the help of chemical reagents. To simplify the analyses, the first tests were carried out on concentrated apple juice from which the volatile substances had been removed before irradiation. Irradiation gave rise to five aldehydes in the normal apple juice (acetaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, butyraldehyde, isovaldehyde and capronaldehyde), but only three in the concentrated juice (acetaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde and isovaleraldehyde). In addition, 2-butanone appeared in the concentrated juice; however, the peak corresponding to it on the chromatogram was completely masked by the ethanol peak in the case of non-concentrated juice. Furan was also detected, together with traces of two compounds that have not yet been identified. Similar results have been obtained by pasteurization, such as in bottling by heat. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet international de recherches sur la conservation des fruits et jus de fruits par irradiation (Seibersdorf), les etudes organoleptiques, de meme que les tests d'innocuite, rendent indispensable l'analyse des substances aromatiques des jus irradies et non irradies. Les substances volatiles des jus de pommes irradies ont ete analysees par chromatographie en phase gazeuse, par injection directe des vapeurs qu'ils emettent, soit a la temperature du laboratoire, soit a 60

  4. [Analysis of chemical constituents of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-long; Xiong, Tian-qin; Liao, Jia-yi; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Yu-min; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Cui-xian

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the chemical components of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang. The volatile oils were extracted by water steam distillation. The chemical components of essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS and quantitatively determined by a normalization method. 103 components were separated and 87 components were identified in the volatile oil of Zingiberis Rhizoma. 58 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Myristicae Semen. 49 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Amomi Rotundus Fructus. 89 components were separated and 63 components were identified in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Eucalyptol, β-phellandrene and other terpenes were the main compounds in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Changes in the kinds and content of volatile components can provide evidences for scientific and rational compatibility for Jia Ga Song Tang.

  5. The influence of low dose irradiation on volatile constituents of Imperial and Ellendale mandarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.F.; Mitchell, G.E.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    Volatile compounds were collected from Imperial (Citrus reticulata) and Ellendale (Citrus reticulata/Citrus sinensis hybrid) mandarins, green and degreened, irradiated at 0, 75, and 300 Gy. Thirty-three individual volatile components were isolated, limonene being the major volatile. Irradiation caused only minor changes in the concentrations of some volatiles and the changes were of no value as indicators of irradiation treatment. 18 refs., 3 tabs. 2 figs

  6. The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurso, Cettina; Verzera, Antonella; Romeo, Vincenza; Ziino, Marisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Ragusa, Salvatore

    2006-08-01

    The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) have been studied by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). Seventy components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards; the average composition (ppm) as single components and classes of substances is reported. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters, aromatic aldehydes, esters and ethers, furans, isothiocyanates and thiocyanates, sulfurated compounds, nitriles, terpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified. Leaf volatiles in Isatis tinctoria L. were characterized by a high amount of isothiocyanates which accounted for about 40 % of the total volatile fraction. Isothiocyanates are important and characteristic flavour compounds in Brassica vegetables and the cancer chemo-protective attributes are recently responsible for their growing interest.

  7. The predicted effects of selected Phebus FPT1 sump constituents on iodine volatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.C., E-mail: csfkge1504@bluewin.ch; Güntay, S., E-mail: salih.guentay@psi.ch; Jäckel, B., E-mail: bernd.jaeckel@psi.ch

    2014-06-01

    The analytical results of containment sump samples in the Phebus FP1Test show the presence of Cd, Sn, U, Ag, Re (destroyed thermocouples) as well as Ag at certain concentrations. An exploratory study was conducted at PSI to study the potential effect of these constituents by modelling different reactions and by conducting specific experimental programmes. Respective reactions are modelled in the PSI's iodine behaviour prediction code, PSIodine (Cripps et al., 2011a), by supplementing the aqueous phase iodine reactions of the code with reaction sets for Cd, Sn, U, Ag and Re. Their reaction rate constants with iodine species were either taken from the available literature or estimated using PSI's experimental data or made by ‘engineered guesses driven from similar reactions or diffusion controlled reactions. We show in four test cases, the effects of these measured FPT1 sump constituents on the fractional I{sub 2} yield released from the aqueous solution. They were studied in a comparative approach by including or excluding the reactions of iodine with these constituents. In Test Case 1 (without considering additional models but with the model for AgI dissolution and radiolytic decomposition), only 0.2% I{sub 2} is predicted to release. In Test Case 2 (which considers Case 1 reactions and silver species reactions). Excess and isolated Ag atoms have significantly increased I{sub 2} yields to 22% by shifting AgI and AgCl dissolution equilibria. In Test Case 3, considered are Case 2 reactions and reactions for Cd, Sn, UO{sub 2}{sup +} and ReO{sub 4}{sup −} in estimated speciation have further increased AgI oxidation to ∼70% I{sub 2}. Test Case 4 considered Case 3 reactions and reduction reactions of I{sub 2} and IO{sub 3}{sup −} with metal species. The additional reduction reactions of metal species and ReO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions with I{sub 2} have suppressed the I{sub 2} release to only 0.2%. PSI experiments have confirmed the model prediction that

  8. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  9. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %), β-caryophyllene (8.2 %), piperitione (6.7 %) and α-humulene (5.1 %), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %), with the remaining major...

  10. Effect of gamma radiation and storage time on the volatile constituents, pirerine, piperettine and sensory quality of pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, I; Ishak, S; Ayub, M K [National Univ. of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor

    1983-12-01

    The use of gamma radiation in prolonging the storage life of black and white peppers is promising. Doses up to 9 kGy and storage period up to 6 months did not significantly change (P<0.05) the volatile constituents of the peppers. Besides the increase in piperine content of unirradiated pepper there was no change in piperettine and piperine contents of both pepper with respect to increase in dose and storage time. No sensory change was detected for the treatments used (author).

  11. The effect of gamma radiation and storage time on the volatile constituents, pirerine, piperettine and sensory quality of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, I.; Ishak, S.; Ayub, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation in prolonging the storage life of black and white peppers is promising. Doses up to 9 kGy and storage period up to 6 months did not significantly change (P<0.05) the volatile constituents of the peppers. Besides the increase in piperine content of unirradiated pepper there was no change in piperettine and piperine contents of both pepper with respect to increase in dose and storage time. No sensory change was detected for the treatments used (author)

  12. A GC/MS Profile of the Volatile Constituents of the Aerial Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    suitable for treating allergic rhinitis and other upper airway disorders.5 It has been confirmed ... constituents.8 Although A. abrotanum is rich in essential oils, its .... diethyl ether in an ultrasonic bath (Bandelin Electronics, Berlin,. Germany) for 1 ...

  13. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    Full Text Available The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS, reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  14. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  15. Volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Vietnamese Polygonum odoratum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Le, Van Hac; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The volatile compds. isolated from the aerial parts of Vietnamese P. odoratum were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and HR-GC/MS. More than 50 compds. were detected, of which 28 were identified. The main compds. were b-caryophyllene (36.5%), dodecanal (11.4%) and caryophyllene oxide

  16. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  17. Volatile constituents of the peel and leaf oils of Citrus limon L. Burm. f. from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Mardarowicz, M.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The peel and leaf oils ofCitrus limon L. from Benin were analyzed by capillary GC on two columns of different polarity, and by GCIMS. In these oils 42 and 27 components were identified, representing over 99.7% ofthe oils. The main constituents of the lemon peel oil were limonene (70.4%), y-terpinene

  18. Volatile constituents of the fruit peel oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Sperkova, S.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruit peels of cultivated Citrus maxima (T. Burman) Merrill [syn. C. decumana Linn.; syn. C. grandts (1.) Osbeck] was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified accounting for 98.90/0 of the oil. The major constituent was

  19. Phytochemical screening of volatile constituents from aerial parts of murraya paniculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saied, S.

    2014-01-01

    The volatile components of the aerial parts of Murraya paniculata have been analyzed by GC and GC-MS, revealing the presence of forty eight compounds. Identifications were made by their respective characteristic mass fragmentation pattern, with the help of NIST mass spectral search program and GC-MS Library. These identities were further authenticated by comparison of their calculated Kovat's retention indices (RI) with those cited in literature. (author)

  20. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  1. Volatile constituents of Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae) of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Lorena; Ciccio, Jose F.; Chaverri, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition was determined of the essential oils extracted from twigs, bark and leaves of the tree Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae), which grows in wild form in Costa Rica. The analyses were effected by means of the technology of gas chromatography in capillary column, using detectors of ionization at flame (FID) and spectrometry of masses (GC/MS). Eighty eight (88) compounds were identified. The oils were found to be of nature terpenic. The major constituents of the twigs were β-caryophyllene (18,4%), viridiflorol (11,3%), caryophyllene oxide (8,7%), germacrene D (7,7%), camphene (4,5%), and α-pinene (4,4%). The main constituents from bark oil were germacrene D (14.8%), β- caryophyllene(10,5%), camphene (10,3%), α-pinene (10,1%), viridiflorol (8,7%), β-pinene (4,7%) and α-copaene (4,6%). The main constituents from leaf oil were germacrene D (30,6%), β- caryophyllene (30,1%) and viridiflorol (8,9%). (author) [es

  2. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC–MS

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Ling-Han; Liu, Yi; Li, Yu-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE) and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatographyâmass spectrometry (GCâMS) to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone) were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results sh...

  3. Characterization of volatile constituents from Origanum onites and their antifungal and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ayhan; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Tyihák, Erno; Ott, Peter G; Móricz, Agnes M; Mincsovics, Emil; Wedge, David E

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted HD (MWHD) of Origanum onites aerial parts were analyzed by GC and GCIMS. Thirty-one constituents representing 98.6% of the water-distilled oil and 52 constituents representing 99.6% of the microwave-distilled oil were identified. Carvacrol (76.8% HD and 79.2% MWHD) and thymol (4.7% HD and 4.4% MWHD) were characterized as major constituents in both essential oils. Separation of carvacrol and thymol was achieved by overpressured layer chromatography. HPTLC and TLC separations were also compared. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides using a direct overlay bioautography assay. Furthermore, main oil components carvacrol and thymol were then evaluated for antifungal activity; only carvacrol demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against the three Colletotrichum species. Thymol and carvacrol were subsequently evaluated in a 96-well microdilution broth assay against Phomopsis obscurans, Fusarium oxysporum, three Colletotrichum species, and Botrytis cinerea. No activity was observed against any of the three Colletotrichum species at or below 30 pM. However, thymol demonstrated antifungal activity and produced 31.7% growth inhibition of P. obscurans at 120 h and 0.3 pM, whereas carvacrol appeared inactive. Thymol and carvacrol at 30 pM showed 51.5 and 36.9% growth inhibition of B. cinerea at 72 h. The mechanism of antibacterial activity was studied in a bioautography-based BioArena system. Thymol and carvacrol showed similar inhibition/killing effect against Bacillus subtilis soil bacteria; the action could be enhanced by the formaldehyde generator and transporter copper (II) ions and could be decreased in the presence of L-arginine, a formaldehyde capturer. Results indicated that Origanum essential oils and its major components thymol and carvacrol

  4. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  5. STUDY OF MACROMOLECULAR CONSTITUENTS, VOLATILE EXTRACTIVES AND PHENOLICS FROM CANDEIA WOOD - Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina de Lima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main chemical components of Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC. (candeia or cambará wood were investigated. This wood is native in the Southern region of Minas Gerais - Brazil.  The chemical composition was:  47.5% of α-cellulose, 25.4% of A and B hemicelluloses, 24.0% of lignin, 73.2% of holocellulose, 3.82% of ethanol:cyclohexane  (1:1, v v-1 extractives, 3.21% of ethanol extractives and 4.04%  of hot water extractives.  The volatile composition was mainly: α-curcumene, α-dihydroturmerone, β-dihydroturmerone, cedranol, 1-cyclopentyl-3-[2,4-dimethylphenyl]propane. The total phenols analysis was carried out on methanol:water (MW and acetone:water (AW extracts. The last one presented better yield. The total phenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and the modified Prussian blue assays.  Folin-Ciocalteau yielded 0.93 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 1.56 for AW extract; modified Prussian blue yielded 2.74 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 4.42 for AW extract. Proanthocyanidins were determined by n-buthanol-acid and vanillin assays. The n-buthanol acid yielded 0.012 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.017 for AW extract; vanillin: 0.29 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.58 for AW extract. 3-deoxy-proanthocyanidins were not detected.

  6. Volatile and Nonvolatile Constituents and Antioxidant Capacity of Oleoresins in Three Taiwan Citrus Varieties as Determined by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hung Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As local varieties of citrus fruit in Taiwan, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco, Tankan (C. tankan Hayata, and Murcott (C. reticulate × C. sinensis face substantial competition on the market. In this study, we used carbon dioxide supercritical technology to extract oleoresin from the peels of the three citrus varieties, adding alcohol as a solvent assistant to enhance the extraction rate. The supercritical fluid extraction was fractionated with lower terpene compounds in order to improve the oxygenated amounts of the volatile resins. The contents of oleoresin from the three varieties of citrus peels were then analyzed with GC/MS in order to identify 33 volatile compounds. In addition, the analysis results indicated that the non-volatile oleoresin extracted from the samples contains polymethoxyflavones (86.2~259.5 mg/g, limonoids (111.7~406.2 mg/g, and phytosterols (686.1~1316.4 μg/g. The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging and inhibition of lipid oxidation, which test the oleoresin from the three kinds of citrus, exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. The component polymethoxyflavones contributed the greatest share of the overall antioxidant capacity, while the limonoid and phytosterol components effectively coordinated with its effects.

  7. Quantification of selected volatile constituents and anions in Mexican Agave spirits (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, Bacanora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sohnius, Eva-Maria; Attig, Rainer; López, Mercedes G

    2006-05-31

    A large collection (n = 95) of Mexican Agave spirits with protected appellations of origin (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, and Bacanora) was analyzed using ion and gas chromatography. Because of their production from oxalate-containing plant material, all Agave spirits contained significant concentrations of oxalate (0.1-9.7 mg/L). The two Tequila categories ("100% Agave" and "mixed") showed differences in the methanol, 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol concentrations with lower concentrations in the mixed category. Mezcal showed no significant differences in any of the evaluated parameters that would allow a classification. Sotol showed higher nitrate concentrations and lower 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations. Bacanora was characterized by exceptionally high acetaldehyde concentrations and a relatively low ethyl lactate content. The methanol content was the most problematic compound regarding the Mexican standards: two Tequilas (4%), five Sotols (31%), and six Bacanoras (46%) had levels above the maximum methanol content of 300 g/hL of alcohol. In conclusion, the composition of Mexican Agave spirits was found to vary over a relatively large range.

  8. Analysis of Non-Volatile Chemical Constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Menthae Haplocalycis herba, one kind of Chinese edible herbs, has been widely utilized for the clinical use in China for thousands of years. Over the last decades, studies on chemical constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis herba have been widely performed. However, less attention has been paid to non-volatile components which are also responsible for its medical efficacy than the volatile constituents. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method was developed for the comprehensive identification of the non-volatile constituents in Menthae Haplocalycis herba using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap. Separation was performed with Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm with 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Based on the accurate mass measurement (<5 ppm, MS/MS fragmentation patterns and different chromatographic behaviors, a total of 64 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, including 30 flavonoids, 20 phenolic acids, 12 terpenoids and two phenylpropanoids. Finally, target isolation of three compounds named Acacetin, Rosmarinic acid and Clemastanin A (first isolated from Menthae Haplocalycis herba were performed based on the obtained results, which further confirmed the deduction of fragmentation patterns and identified the compounds profile in Menthae Haplocalycis herba. Our research firstly systematically elucidated the non-volatile components of Menthae Haplocalycis herba, which laid the foundation for further pharmacological and metabolic studies. Meanwhile, our established method was useful and efficient to screen and identify targeted constituents from traditional Chinese medicine extracts.

  9. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Han Jia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results showed that USE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extracting the volatile components from safflower. It also could be found that the number of components in the TIC of ethyl acetate extract was more than that in the TIC of other solvent ones. Meanwhile, the volatile components of safflower from Xinjiang Autonomous Region and Henan Province of China were different in chemical components and relative contents. It could be concluded that both the extraction solvents and geographical origin of safflower are responsible for these differences. The experimental results also indicated that USE/GC–MS is a simple, rapid and effective method to analyze the volatile oil components of safflower. Keywords: Safflower, Ultrasonic solvent extraction, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS

  10. Comprehensive GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of Artemisia indica and Artemisia vestita essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the leaf volatile constituents of the essential oils of Artemisia indica Willd. and Artemisia vestita Wall were studied using a combination of capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infra-Red analytical techniques. The analysis led to the identification of 42 compounds in the essential oil of A. indica, representing 96.6% of the essential oil and the major components were found to be artemisia ketone (42.1%, germacrene D (8.6%, borneol (6.1% and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.8%. The essential oil was dominated by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes constituting 65.2% of the total oil composition followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 15.7% and 10.7%, respectively of the total oil composition. The essential oil composition of A. vestita was found to contain a total of 18 components representing 94.2% of the total oil composition. The principal components were found to be 1,8-cineole (46.8%, (E-citral (13.7%, limonene (9.8%, α-phellandrene (6.4%, camphor (5.0%, (Z and (E-thujones (3.0% each. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant group of terpenes in the essential oil constituting 73.1% of the total oil composition followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (17.3%. The results of the current study reveal remarkable differences in the essential oil compositions of these two Artemisia species already reported in the literature from other parts of the globe.

  11. Identification of oxygen containing volatiles in cephalic secretions of workers of Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francke Wittko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of cephalic secrections of 11 Brazilian social stingless bee species of the Tetragonisca - Tetragona line have been analysed. By gas chromatography/mass spectrometry 145 compounds could be identified which include 72 esters, 22 alcohols, 16 carboxylic acids, 13 terpenoids, 8 aldehydes, 7 ketones, 4 aromatic compounds, 2 lactones and 1 dihydropyran. Structural relations, origin, and distribution of these compounds are discussed. With respect to qualitative and quantitative composition, each species shows a specific odour pattern which is made up by less specific components. To a certain extent, closely related species show some similarities in the odour bouquets. The mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of typical wax type esters and DMDS derivatives of unsaturated esters are discussed in detail.

  12. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  13. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  14. Quali-quantitative characterization of the volatile constituents in Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil exploiting advanced chromatographic approaches and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Giuffrida, Daniele; Rotondo, Archimede; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Pantò, Sebastiano; Donato, Paola; Rodrigues-das-Dores, Rosana Goncalves; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-11-17

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae, Varronia curassavica Jacq. synonym) is a medicinal plant, native from Brazil, especially the leaves are used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to extend the characterization of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from this plant, by using GC-FID, GC-MS, and chiral GC. Moreover, to further clarify the composition of the volatile fraction, preparative multidimensional-GC (prep-MDGC) was used to collect unknown compounds, followed by NMR characterization. Specifically, the chemical characterization, both qualitative and quantitative, of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from Cordia verbenacea cultivated in the Minas Gerais area (central area of Brazil) was investigated for the first time. The principal components from a quantitative point of view were α-pinene (25.32%; 24.48g/100g) and α-santalene (17.90%; 17.30g/100g), belonging to the terpenes family. Chiral-GC data are reported for the enantiomeric distribution of 7 different components. Last, to obtain the complete characterization of the essential oil constituents, prep-MDGC analysis was used to attain the isolation of two compounds, not present in the principal MS databases, which were unambiguously identified by NMR investigation as (E)-α-santalal and (E)-α-bergamotenal, reported for the first time in Cordia verbenacea essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of volatile compounds released from containers commonly used in circulation of sports beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to identify and quantify important volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from sports beverage containers commonly used for storage and distribution, three brands of sports beverages with poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) and metal cans were analyzed through headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Out of 80 volatile compounds identified from all container types, I-limonene recorded the highest concentration (34.3-118 pmol mol(-1)) along with 12 other VOCs detected most frequently (more than 3 out of all 6 products) such as 2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadiene, alpha-terpineol, decanaldehyde, and p-isopropyltoluene. When each container was filled up with water and analyzed after a long-term storage (49 days), a total of 14 VOCs were detected. According to our analysis, all the VOCs detected from either beverage or container materials were below the safety limits prescribed previously by diverse agencies. However, an extension of these analyses may be necessary for other beverage types, as certain VOCs can be migrated from container materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  17. Identification of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Volatiles and Localization of Aroma-Active Constituents by GC-Olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xueli; Cao, Jianmin; Wang, Dabin; Qiu, Jun; Kong, Fanyu

    2017-05-24

    For the characterization of chemical components contributing to the aroma of ginger, which could benefit the development of deep-processed ginger products, volatile extracts were isolated by a combination of direct solvent extraction-solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and static headspace analysis. Aroma-impact components were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry, and the most potent odorants were further screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA). The AEDA results revealed that geranial, eucalyptol, β-linalool, and bornyl acetate were the most potent odorants, exhibiting the highest flavor dilution factor (FD factor) of 2187. SHDA indicated that the predominant headspace odorants were α-pinene and eucalyptol. In addition, odorants exhibiting a high FD factor in SHDA were estimated to be potent aroma contributors in AEDA. The predominant odorants were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, as along with their oxygenated derivatives, providing minty, lemon-like, herbal, and woody aromas. On the other hand, three highly volatile compounds detected by SHDA were not detected by AEDA, whereas 34 high-polarity, low-volatility compounds were identified only by AEDA, demonstrating the complementary natures of SHDA and AEDA and the necessity of utilizing both techniques to accurately characterize the aroma of ginger.

  18. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

  20. Utilization of ruthenium volatilization at heating of residue containing phosphates and nitrates for ruthenium separation and for its qualitative proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The volatility of ruthenium during the heating of a residue after evaporation of a solution containing ruthenium, phosphates and nitrates may be utilized for the separation of ruthenium from various substances. Sup(103,106) Ru may be rapidly, selectively, and quantitatively separated from fission products mixture. Ruthenium may be also separated in this way from various inorganic salts or from biological material. The volatility of ruthenium may be used also for its qualitative proof. (author)

  1. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  2. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  3. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  4. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham; Luisa T. M. Profeta; Timothy J. Johnson; Robert J. Yokelson; Alexander Laskin; Julia Laskin

    2011-01-01

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of...

  5. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Graham, Alexandra L; Profeta, Luisa T M; Johnson, Timothy J; Yokelson, Robert J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2011-02-15

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR-MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of elemental formulas. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba-containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal-containing species that were re-emitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, dispersion, and persistence of metal-containing aerosols, as well as their environmental effects, is needed.

  6. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...... of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending...

  7. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation in freight transport urgently requires preventive steps. In order to improve awareness and relevant knowledge there is a need for more comprehensive information on chemical hazards and a broader implementation of the already existing regulations and guidelines, such as those from ILO, IMO, and national authorities. It is also necessary to have regular controls by the authorities on a worldwide scale, which should be followed by sanctions in case of disregarding regulations

  8. Volatile and non-volatile radiolysis products in irradiated multilayer coextruded food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytiri, S; Goulas, A E; Badeka, A; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2005-12-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation (5-60 kGy) on radiolysis products and sensory changes of experimental five-layer food-packaging films were determined. Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) comprising 25-50% by weight (bw) of the multilayer structure. Respective films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the buried layer were used as controls. Under realistic polymer/food simulant contact conditions during irradiation, a large number of primary and secondary radiolysis products (hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids) were produced. These compounds were detected in the food simulant after contact with all films tested, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food preservation). The type and concentration of radiolysis products increased progressively with increasing dose. Generally, there were no significant differences in radiolysis products between samples containing a buried layer of recycled LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the good barrier properties of external virgin polymer layers. Volatile and non-volatile compounds produced during irradiation affected the sensory properties of potable water after contact with packaging films. Taste transfer to water was observed mainly at higher doses and was more noticeable for multilayer structures containing recycled LDPE, even though differences were slight.

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    spectra or Wiley library [18, 19]. Gas chromatography using flame ionization detection (GC–. FID) analysis was carried out under the same experimental conditions with the same column as described for the GC–MS. The relative percentage of the identified compounds was computed from the GC peak area without applying ...

  10. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  11. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  12. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  13. Choice of volatile component of fluoroplastics containing varnishes for the equipment of radiation protection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigorina, I.I.; Egorov, B.N.; Timofeeva, L.N.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of choosing the volatile part (v.p.) for varnishes on the basis of different flourocopolymers are considered. Ketones, esters, freons, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons have been used as solvents. The volatile component has been estimated by the quality of the varnish film obtained (transparency, bubbles), viscosity of the varnishes, completeness of solvent volatility, porosity degree. Besides, analyzed are such factors as kinetics of solvent evaporation, working life time of varnishes, and the degree of their inflammability. Optimum solvents and their mixtures have been found for different grades of fluorolones. The possibility of producing fluorolone lackuers with a reduced degree of inflammability and of incombustible fluorolone varnishes is shown. Fluorolone varnishes find ever increasing application for radiation-protective coating of the equipment

  14. Predictive calculations of volatilities of metals and oxides in steam-containing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1981-01-01

    Predictive methods are developed for estimating the bond energies and free energy functions of volatile species having the general formula MO/sub x/ (OH)/sub y/, in order to shed some light on the mechanisms and extent of steam accelerated volatilization processes. A specific example of applying the data is illustrated for the case of a proposed underground radioactive waste disposal process, where oxides of radionuclides are allowed to equilibrate with 100 atm steam and 10 -2 atm oxygen at 1000 to 2000K. Vapor species found to have high volatilities include Cs 2 (OH) 2 , CsOH, AmO 2 (OH) 2 , AmO(OH) 3 , UO 2 (OH) 2 , NbO(OH) 3 , PuO 2 (OH) 2 , CeO(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 , and Eu(OH) 3 . Thermodynamic data are tabulated for all possible monomeric species for this specific example

  15. Development of volatile compounds during storage at various conditions of different lipid containing lip balm products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Horn, A. F.; Hyldig, Grethe

    for their development of volatile compounds by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and peroxide value, and compared to samples stored at 2°C in the dark. In addition, sensory analyses were carried out to assess the off-odours developed in the samples. The result showed that addition of iron increased...

  16. Catalytic reforming of nitrogen-containing volatiles evolved through pyrolysis of composted pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesuk, Sirimirin; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Cao, Jing-Pei; Hoshino, Akihiro; Utsumi, Kazuhiko; Takarada, Takayuki

    2013-12-01

    The pyrolysis of pig compost was performed in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of decomposition temperatures and catalysts (i.e., transition-metal and non-transition-metal catalysts) on carbon and nitrogen conversions. The secondary decomposition was investigated at different temperatures from room temperature up to 750°C. Then the effects of various catalysts were investigated at 650°C. Approximately 60% of the carbon and 80% of the nitrogen in the pig compost were converted into volatiles during pyrolysis. Conversion of carbon and nitrogen species in tar into gas, and the evolution undesirable NH3 and HCN without catalyst increased with increasing decomposition temperature. Transition-metal catalysts showed excellent activity for conversion of condensable volatiles into gas and NH3 and HCN into N2. Although non-transition-metal catalysts had moderate activity for the conversion of volatiles into gas and negligible activity for the conversion of NH3 into N2, dolomite can provide liquid fuel with negligible amount of nitrogen species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uncertainty of Volatility Estimates from Heston Greeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pfante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a widely recognized measure of market risk. As volatility is not observed it has to be estimated from market prices, i.e., as the implied volatility from option prices. The volatility index VIX making volatility a tradeable asset in its own right is computed from near- and next-term put and call options on the S&P 500 with more than 23 days and less than 37 days to expiration and non-vanishing bid. In the present paper we quantify the information content of the constituents of the VIX about the volatility of the S&P 500 in terms of the Fisher information matrix. Assuming that observed option prices are centered on the theoretical price provided by Heston's model perturbed by additive Gaussian noise we relate their Fisher information matrix to the Greeks in the Heston model. We find that the prices of options contained in the VIX basket allow for reliable estimates of the volatility of the S&P 500 with negligible uncertainty as long as volatility is large enough. Interestingly, if volatility drops below a critical value of roughly 3%, inferences from option prices become imprecise because Vega, the derivative of a European option w.r.t. volatility, and thereby the Fisher information nearly vanishes.

  18. Adsorptive performance of chromium-containing ordered mesoporous silica on volatile organic compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are the primary poisonous emissions into the atmosphere in natural gas exploitation and disposing process. The adsorption method has been widely applied in actual production because of its good features such as low cost, low energy consumption, flexible devices needed, etc. The commonly used adsorbents like activated carbon, silicon molecular sieves and so on are not only susceptible to plugging or spontaneous combustion but difficult to be recycled. In view of this, a new adsorbent (CrSBA15 was made by the co-assembly method to synthesize the ordered mesoporous silica materials with different amounts of chromium to eliminate VOCs. This new adsorbent was characterized by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Its adsorption performance to eliminate VOCs (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate used as typical pollutants was also tested systematically. Research results indicate that this new adsorbent of CrSBA-15(30, with the silicon/chromium ration being 30, owns the maximum micropore volume, and shows a higher adsorption performance in eliminating toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate. Besides, it is cost-effective and much easier to be recycled than the activated carbon. In conclusion, CrSBA-15(30 is a good adsorbent to eliminate VOCs with broad application prospects. Keywords: Mesoporous materials, Silicon dioxide, Synthesis, Adsorption, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs, Recyclability, Energy saving

  19. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport

  20. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Assessment of antioxidant activity of cane brown sugars by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays: determination of their polyphenolic and volatile constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2005-12-28

    Seven cane brown sugars (four from La Réunion, two from Mauritius, and one from France) were investigated for their polyphenol content and volatile composition in relation to their free radical scavenging capacity determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. The thin layer coated on the sugar crystal was extracted by Soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane. The volatile compounds of brown sugars were studied by GC-MS, and 43 compounds were identified. The total phenolic content of brown sugars was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Phenolic compounds were quantified in the brown sugar extracts by LC-UV-ESI-MS. Brown sugar aqueous solutions exhibited weak free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay and higher antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay at relatively high concentration. The brown sugar extracts showed interesting free radical scavenging properties despite the low concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds. Sugar is a common foodstuff traditionally used for its sweetening properties, which might be accompanied by antioxidant properties arising from molecules (polyphenols, Maillard products) other than sucrose of the cane brown sugars.

  2. Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Tanabe, Kazunari; Takeshita, Toru; Yoneda, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Oshiro, Sueko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Hirofuji, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens.

  3. Some effects of pH on iodine volatility in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, C.B.; Gwyther, J.R.; Sims, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of iodine in containment in the event of an accident involving fission product release would be strongly dependent on pH. High pH leads to a lower rate of radiolytic oxidation and in alkaline conditions the thermally stable form is IO 3 - . Much of the work on effects of pH on radiolytic oxidation reported in the literature may be erroneous or misleading because of postirradiation reaction and in this report some new experiments are described which were designed to overcome these problems involving sparged irradiated solutions of CsI spiked with 131 I. The rate of radiolytic oxidation has been measured as a function of pH between pH 4.6 and pH 9 and iodide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -6 mol dm -3 . Also discussed in the paper are factors which can affect the pH of the sump water and the effects of high pH in sprays. It is concluded that high pH is beneficial and it is important not only to achieve high pH but to maintain it. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  4. Concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed a high-sulphur or a low-sulphur diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Canibe, Nuria; Finster, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Volatile sulphur-containing compounds (VSC) are formed in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) of pigs and upon excretion from the animal; these compounds are released from the faeces causing emission of foul odour. However, very little is known about the rate and extent of t...

  5. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2001-04-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.

  6. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments

  7. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  8. Hayabusa2 Sample Catcher and Container: Metal-Seal System for Vacuum Encapsulation of Returned Samples with Volatiles and Organic Compounds Recovered from C-Type Asteroid Ryugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Sawada, Hirotaka; Yamanouchi, Shinji; Tachibana, Shogo; Miura, Yayoi N.; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Abe, Masanao; Itoh, Shoichi; Yamada, Keita; Yabuta, Hikaru; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Noguchi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The spacecraft Hayabusa2 was launched on December 3, 2014, to collect and return samples from a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (provisional designation, 1999 JU3). It is expected that the samples collected contain organic matter and water-bearing minerals and have key information to elucidate the origin and history of the Solar System and the evolution of bio-related organics prior to delivery to the early Earth. In order to obtain samples with volatile species without terrestrial contamination, based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa mission, the sample catcher and container of Hayabusa2 were refined from those used in Hayabusa. The improvements include (1) a mirror finish of the inner wall surface of the sample catcher and the container, (2) adoption of an aluminum metal sealing system, and (3) addition of a gas-sampling interface for gas collection and evacuation. The former two improvements were made to limit contamination of the samples by terrestrial atmosphere below 1 Pa after the container is sealed. The gas-sampling interface will be used to promptly collect volatile species released from the samples in the sample container after sealing of the container. These improvements maintain the value of the returned samples.

  9. Volatile constituents and behavioral change induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... the pharmacological effects of the LEO were investigated in animal ... (LEO) induces hypotension due to a decrease in ... mass spectra were taken at 70 eV with scanning speed of 0.85 ... (1983), with modifications, where the acute toxicity of LEO was ... The reference drug, morphine (MOR, 3 mg/kg), was.

  10. Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. STOJANOVIĆ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract, atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively, orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract, vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract. Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes, orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata, methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata and b-sitosterol (P. sulcata.

  11. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GLECHOMA HIRSUTA WALDST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Additionally, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (16.9%) dominated the oil of G. hirsuta, while the reversed situation was noted for G. hederacea oil .... Percentage composition of the essential oils of Glechoma hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. (GH) and. Glechoma hederacea L. (GHE). No. Compound. RI §. Class GH GHE. 1 Pyridine. 769 O.

  12. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  13. Volatility of V15Cr5Ti fusion reactor alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    One potential hazard from the presence of activation products in fusion facilities is accidental oxidation-driven volatility of those activation products. Scoping experiments were conducted to investigate the oxidation and elemental volatility of candidate fusion reactor alloy V15Cr5Ti as a function of time, temperature, and test atmosphere. Experiments in air and in argon carrier gases containing 10 4 to 10 1 Pa (10 -1 to 10 -4 atm) oxygen were conducted to investigate the lower oxygen partial pressure limit for the formation of a low melting point (approximately 650 0 C), high volatility, oxide layer and its formation rate. Experiments to determine the elemental volatility of alloy constituents in air at temperatures of 700 0 C to greater than 1600 0 C. Some of these volatility experiments used V15Cr5Ti that was arc-remelted to incorporate small quantities (<0.1 wt. %) of Sc and Ca. Incorporation of Sc and Ca in test specimens permitted volatility measurement of radioactive constituents present only after activation of V15Cr5Ti

  14. Nonparametric methods for volatility density estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van Bert; Spreij, P.J.C.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic volatility modelling of financial processes has become increasingly popular. The proposed models usually contain a stationary volatility process. We will motivate and review several nonparametric methods for estimation of the density of the volatility process. Both models based on

  15. Volatile fatty acids production in the rumen of young heifers given diets containing a large proportion of concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshio, Shuichi; Tahata, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Haruo; Ami, Tsuyako

    1977-01-01

    The rate of production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen of animals on high concentrate feeding was studied with eighteen young heifers fitted with a permanent rumen fistula, using a single injection method of 14 C-acetate and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to get some basic informations of rumen fermentation on concentrate diets. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The pH value, total VFA concentration, and proportion of each acid on all-concentrate diets showed distinguished differences in comparison with those of the animals fed a large proportion of hay, but varied widely between days and heifers. 2) VFA proportions were significantly correlated with pH. At the pH value of about 5.2, acetic acid was minimum, and propionic acid and valeric acid were maximum in molar proportion. 3) It was suggested that, in the case of all-concentrate feeding for a long period, the VFA production in the rumen was depressed to 33.5-41% of digestible energy. In the animals fed hay and concentrate, the percentage was about 50%. (auth.)

  16. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  17. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  18. The behavior of volatile droplets in a controlled atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, Gerard

    1971-01-01

    A technique permitting constant temperature and atmospheric composition to be obtained in a few minutes in a closed container allowed the equilibrium, evaporation and growth of several types of droplets to be studied. A critical review is presented on the thermodynamics of equilibria and the kinetics of evaporation and growth in the different cases. Fair agreement was reached between theory and experiment. Coefficients of evaporation, condensation, and accommodation were calculated for water and water-ClNa droplets; the theory is extended to a few particular cases of droplets containing two volatile constituents. (author) [fr

  19. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  20. Chemical Compositions of Achillea sivasica: Different Plant Part Volatiles, Enantiomers and Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülmira Özek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Microsteam distillation - Solid phase microextraction (MSD-SPME and hydrodistillation (HD techniques were applied to obtain volatiles from Achillea sivasica, an endemic species from Turkey. GC-FID and GC/MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole (22.1% and a -pinene (9.3% were the main constituents of the hydrodistilled flower volatiles. (Z- b -Farnesene (23.9%, decanoic acid (10.1%, b- eudesmol (8.0%, tricosane (7.3% and hexadecanoic acid (7.2% were the main volatiles obtained from flowers by MSD-SPME. The leaf volatiles obtained by HD contained camphor (9.0%, b -pinene (6.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, a -pinene (6.7% and a -bisabolol (6.6% as the main constituents while the leaf volatiles obtained by MSD-SPME technique were rich in (E-geranyl acetone (10.5%, (E- b -ionone (10.3%, camphor (10.2%, 1,8-cineole (9.6%, longiverbenone (7.9%, b -eudesmol (7.5%, isopropyl myristate (6.7% and epi- a -bisabolol (6.4%. The root volatiles were rich in longiverbenone (14.1%, (E-geranyl acetone (9.3%, nonanol (12.1% and decanol (12.5%. The enantiomeric distribution of the major volatile constituents was analyzed by using different b -cyclodextrin chiral columns. (1R-(+- a -Pinene, (1S-(-- b -pinene, (4R-(+-limonene, (1R,3S,5R-(--trans-pinocarveol, (1S,2R,4S-(--borneol, (2S-(-- a -bisabolol were detected as dominant enantiomers. The lipids extracted from the flower and leaf with Folch method and methylated with BF 3 reagent contained common acids: linolenic, linoleic, hexadecanoic acids. Oleic and stearic acids were detected particularly in high amount in the flower lipids

  1. Volatiles in the Martian regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.C.; Baird, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of released volatiles on Mars has been derived based upon Viking measurements of atmospheric and surface chemical composition, and upon the inferred mineralogy of a ubiquitous regolith, assumed to average 200m in depth. This model is consistent with the relative abundances of volatiles (except for S) on the Earth's surface, but implies one-fifteenth of the volatile release of Earth if starting materials were comparable. All constituents are accommodated as chemical components of, or absorbed phases on, regolith materials--without the necessity of invoking unobservable deposits of carbonates, nitrates, or permafrost ice

  2. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  3. Detection of volatile organic compounds using an optical fiber sensor coated with a sol-gel silica layer containing immobilized Nile red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Lian, Xiaokang; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Han, Wei; Wei, Fangfang; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    A simple volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor based on a tapered small core singlemode fiber (SCSMF) structure is reported. The tapered SCSMF fiber structure with a waist diameter of 7.0 μm is fabricated using a customized microheater brushing technique. Silica based material containing immobilized Nile red was prepared by a sol-gel method and was used as a coating applied to the surface of the tapered fiber structure. Different coating thicknesses created by a 2-pass and 4-pass coating process are investigated. The experiments demonstrate that both sensors show a linear response at different gas concentrations to all three tested VOCs (methanol, ethanol and acetone). The sensor with a thicker coating shows better sensitivities but longer response and recovery times. The best measurement resolutions for the 4-pass coating sensor are estimated to be 2.3 ppm, 1.5 ppm and 3.1 ppm for methanol, ethanol and acetone, respectively. The fastest response and recovery time of 1 min and 5 min are demonstrated by the sensor in the case of methanol.

  4. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  5. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  6. Sulfur-containing constituents and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative from pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Ma, Jinyu; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chao, Jianfei; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-12-01

    Two sulfur-containing compounds, (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-carboxy-2-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)allylthio)ethyl-amino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (1) and (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-3-((E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)allylthio)-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (2), and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative, 6-(3-(1H-pyrrole-2-carbonyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid (3), together with eighteen known phenolic compounds, were isolated from the fruits of pineapple. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. Some of these compounds showed inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values of compounds 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 are lower than 1 mM. These compounds may contribute to the well-known anti-browning effect of pineapple juice and be potential skin whitening agents in cosmetic applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of chemical constituents in Cistanche species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2009-03-13

    Species of the genus of Cistanche (Rou Cong Rong in Chinese) are perennial parasite herbs, and are mainly distributed in arid lands and warm deserts. As a superior tonic for the treatment of kidney deficiency, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation, Cistanche herbs earned the honor of "Ginseng of the desert". Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Herba Cistanche for its remarkable bioactivities including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and anti-aging. The chemical constituents of Cistanche plants mainly include volatile oils and non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Pharmacological studies show that PhGs are the main active components for curing kidney deficiency, antioxidation and neuroprotection; galactitol and oligosaccharides are the representatives for the treatment of senile constipation, while polysaccharides are responsible for improving body immunity. In this paper, the advances on the chemical constituents of Cistanche plants and their corresponding analyses are reviewed.

  8. Volatile Composition of Some Cultivated and Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Mariann; Geosel, Andras; Amtmann, Maria; Korany, Kornel

    2017-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the fruiting bodies of 4 culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, and Hericium erinaceus) from Hungary were examined to review their aroma composition. Simultaneous distillation/extraction was applied to extract volatile compounds from fungi, and the values were measured with gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. Although the fragrances of fungi are not as characteristic as those of spices, several groups of volatile compounds have been found in mushrooms. The number of identified components ranged between 61 and 100, with a high ratio of 8-carbon volatiles generally occurring in fungi. Beyond common properties, individual attributes have been identified as well: an outstanding ratio of benzene compounds in champignons, numerous N-containing volatiles in boletes, carotenoid degradation products in chanterelles, and esters and fatty acids with a high carbon number in the lion's mane mushroom. The identification of these characteristic fragrance constituents can be very important in differentiating between species and confirming their presence in mushroom products.

  9. Chemical constituents variations of essential oils from rhizomes of four Zingiberaceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukari, M.A.; Mohd Sharif, N.W.; Yap, A.L.C.; Tang, S.W.; Rahmani, M.; Ee, G.C.L.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Yusof, U.K.

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted using the hydrodistillation method from four Zingiberaceae species; Zingiber officinale var.rubrum, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The major constituents of Zingiber officinale, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata were identified as E-citral (20.98%), zerumbone (40.70%), ethyl p -methoxycinnamate (58.47%) and camphor (57.97%), respectively. Kaempferia galanga and Zingiber amaricans were rich in sesquiterpenes whereas Boesenbergia pandurata and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum contained mostly monoterpenes. (author)

  10. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  11. Identification and comparison of the volatile constituents of fresh and dried leaves of Spondias mombin found in North-central Nigeria: in vitro evaluation of their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladimeji, Abdulkabir Oladele; Aliyu, Medinat Bola; Ogundajo, Akintayo Lanre; Babatunde, Oluwatoyin; Adeniran, Oluremi Ishola; Balogun, Olaoye Solomon

    2016-11-01

    Various studies have shown that the leaf extracts of Spondias mombin Linn (Anacardiaceae) possess pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and antiviral effects. However, no biological activity from its essential oil has been reported in literature. To analyse the chemical constituents, cytotoxic activity and antioxidant capability of the essential oils from fresh and dried leaves of S. mombin. Hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus was employed to obtain the essential oil. Oil analysis was performed using an HP 6890 Gas Chromatograph coupled with an HP 5973 Mass Selective Detector. The cytotoxicity bioassay was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality test (10,000-0.01 μg/mL). Additionally, the reactive oxygen species scavenging potential of the two S. mombin oils (1000-200 μg/mL) were investigated using a hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric iron reducing system. Chemical analysis of essential oils from S. mombin revealed the presence of 41 compounds, with predominance of monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and non-terpenoids derivatives. In both fractions, the principal component was β-caryophellene (27.9-30.9%), followed by γ-cadinene (9.7-12.3%). There was an increase in the oxygenated monoterpenoid contents and a concomitant decrease in the amounts of sesquiterpenoids hydrocarbons observed on drying the leaves. The oil obtained from the fresh leaves was more active than that obtained from dried leaves, with LC 50 values (from the brine shrimp lethality assay) of 0.01 and 4.78 μg/mL, respectively. The two oils (from fresh and dried leaves) at 1.0 mg/mL scavenged hydroxyl radical by 83% and 99.8%, respectively. Moreover, they reduced ferric ion significantly and compared favourably with vitamin C. Essential oil derived from the leaves of S. mombin could hold promise for future application in the treatment of cancer-related diseases.

  12. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  13. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi......The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  14. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  15. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  16. Stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces the concept of stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time and, hence, extends standard stochastic volatility (SV) models to allow for an additional source of randomness associated with greater variability in the data. We discuss how stochastic volatility...... of volatility can be defined both non-parametrically, where we link it to the quadratic variation of the stochastic variance process, and parametrically, where we propose two new SV models which allow for stochastic volatility of volatility. In addition, we show that volatility of volatility can be estimated...

  17. Composition of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolic and its phytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Lima, Carolina A; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Mayworm, Marco A S

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous material produced by honeybees, containing mainly beeswax and plant material. Despite the wide spectrum of biological activity of propolis, to our knowledge no studies have been carried out about phytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis and its constituents. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolis. Main constituents are the phenylpropanoid 3-prenylcinnamic acid allyl ester (26.3%) and the sesquiterpene spathulenol (23.4%). Several other sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, in addition to linalool and α-terpineol (monoterpenes), were also detected. The activity of solutions of the volatile fraction at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1% was tested on lettuce seeds and seedlings. The solution at 1% inhibited completely the seed germination and solutions at 0.1 and 0.5% reduced the germination rate index. The solution at 0.5% reduced the growth of the hypocotyl-radicle axis and the development of the cotyledon leaf. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of this Brazilian green propolis is different from those previously described, and these results may contribute to a better understanding about the chemical variations in propolis. The volatile fraction of Brazilian green propolis influences both germination of seed lettuce and the growth of its seedlings, showing an phytotoxic potential. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial constituents of Steganotaenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GC-MS analysis of the hexane and dichloromethane was carried out to determine their chemical constituents. Results revealed that both extracts contained similar compounds (including cumene, xylene, citronellol and long chain hydrocarbons). In addition the dichloromethane extract contains cadinanol, ar-curcumene and ...

  19. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elemental volatility of HT-9 fusion reactor alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henslee, S.P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of elemental constituents from HT-9, a ferritic steel, proposed for fusion reactor structures, was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 800 to 1200 0 C for durations of 1 to 20 h. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy; molybdenum, manganese, and nickel were the primary constituents volatilized. Comparisons with elemental volatilities observed for another candidate fusion reactor materials. Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA), an austenitic stainless steel, indicate significant differences between the volatilities of these steels that may impact fusion reactor safety analysis and alloy selection. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry were used to investigate the oxide layers formed on HT-9 and to measure elemental contents within these layers

  1. Selective adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons and gases in high surface area chalcogels containing [ES3]3- anions (E = As, Sb)

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We describe the sol-gel synthesis of the two new chalcogels KFeSbS3 and NaFeAsS3, which demonstrate excellent adsorption selectivity for volatile hydrocarbons and gases. These predominantly mesoporous materials have been synthesized by reacting Fe(OAc)2 with K3SbS3 or Na3AsS3 in a formamide/water mixture at room temperature. Aerogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 636 m2/g and 505 m2/g for KFeSbS3 and NaFeAsS3, respectively, with pore sizes in the micro- (below 2 nm), meso- (2-50 nm), and macro- (above 50 nm) regions.

  2. Selective adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons and gases in high surface area chalcogels containing [ES3]3- anions (E = As, Sb)

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-11-25

    We describe the sol-gel synthesis of the two new chalcogels KFeSbS3 and NaFeAsS3, which demonstrate excellent adsorption selectivity for volatile hydrocarbons and gases. These predominantly mesoporous materials have been synthesized by reacting Fe(OAc)2 with K3SbS3 or Na3AsS3 in a formamide/water mixture at room temperature. Aerogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 636 m2/g and 505 m2/g for KFeSbS3 and NaFeAsS3, respectively, with pore sizes in the micro- (below 2 nm), meso- (2-50 nm), and macro- (above 50 nm) regions.

  3. Advanced BorobondTM Shields for Nuclear Materials Containment and BorobondTM Immobilization of Volatile Fission Products - Final CRADA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Borobond is a company-proprietary material developed by the CRADA partner in collaboration with Argonne, and is based on Argonne's Ceramicrete technology. It is being used by DOE for nuclear materials safe storage, and Boron Products, LLC is the manufacturer and supplier of Borobond. The major objective of this project was to produce a more versatile composition of this material and find new applications. Major target applications were use for nuclear radiation shields, such as in dry storage casks; use in immobilization of most difficult waste streams, such as Hanford K-Basin waste; use for soluble and volatile fission products, such as Cs, Tc, Sr, and I; and use for corrosion and fire protection applications in nuclear facilities.

  4. Volatile constituents of ginger oil prepared according to Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation ...

  5. Resinous constituent extracting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, W F

    1947-10-07

    The method of recovering oily constituents from coal or oil shale comprising the saturation of coal or oil shale in a sealed vessel with an organic solution having a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of not exceeding 220/sup 0/C, elevating the temperature within the vessel to a temperature below the cracking temperature of the constituents and maintaining the pressure within the vessel below 51 pounds, to extract the oily material from the coal or oil shale and subsequently separating the solvent from the oily material.

  6. Nuclei with exotic constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1990-08-01

    We discuss various interesting features in the behavior of exotic constituents of nuclei such as hyperons and mesons, in particular, with emphases on the aspect of exotic halos which are formed in general by short-range repulsion and long-range attraction. Specifically, Λ and Σ hypernuclei and pionic nuclei are discussed. (author)

  7. Constituents of Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    A novel long chain fatty ester, pentyl hentriacontanoate 1 and an orange red pigment, caulerpin 2 have been isolated and characterised from a red alga Chondria armata. The pigment caulerpin hitherto known to be a constituent of green algae of genus...

  8. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl 4 and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies

  9. Distribution of volatile composition in 'marion' ( rubus species hyb) blackberry pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad; Qian, Michael C

    2010-02-10

    The distribution of volatile constituents in ancestral genotypes of 'Marion' blackberry's pedigree was investigated over two growing seasons. Each genotype in the pedigree had a specific volatile composition. Red raspberry was dominated by norisoprenoids, lactones, and acids. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' also had a norisoprenoid dominance but at much lower concentrations. The concentration of norisoprenoids in other blackberry genotypes was significantly lower. Terpenes and furanones were predominant in wild 'Himalaya' blackberry, whereas terpenes were the major volatiles in 'Santiam'. 'Marion', a selection from 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie', contained almost all of the volatile compounds in its pedigree at moderate amount. The chiral isomeric ratios of 11 pairs of compounds were also studied. Strong chiral isomeric preference was observed for most of the chiral compounds, and each cultivar had its unique chiral isomeric distribution. An inherent pattern was observed for some volatile compounds in the 'Marion' pedigree. Raspberry and 'Logan' had a very high concentration of beta-ionone, but was reduced by half in 'Olallie' and by another half in 'Marion' as the crossing proceeded. A high content of linalool in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate content of linalool in their progeny 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol in 'Marion' was higher than in its parents. A high content of (S)-linalool in 'Olallie' and a racemic content of (S)-,(R)-linalool in 'Chehalem' resulted in a preference for the (S)-form in 'Marion'.

  10. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Can Internet search queries help to predict stock market volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Dimpfl, Thomas; Jank, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of stock market volatility and retail investor attention measured by internet search queries. We find a strong co-movement of stock market indices’ realized volatility and the search queries for their names. Furthermore, Granger causality is bi-directional: high searches follow high volatility, and high volatility follows high searches. Using the latter feedback effect to predict volatility we find that search queries contain additional information about market...

  12. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  13. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given. PMID:22228964

  14. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. Objective. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most u...

  15. [Advance in chemical constituents of genus Clematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yang, Depo

    2009-10-01

    Progresses in the studies on chemical constituents of Clematis L. (belonging to the family Ranunculaceae) were systematiically reviewed in this article. The plants in this genus have a wide spectrum of constituents as follows: triterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, volatile oils, steroids, organic acids, macrocyclic compounds and phenols, etc., among which triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids and lignans are the main components. The triterpenoid saponins are mainly oleanolic type and hederagenin type, most of which are bidesmosidic saponins, substituted with oligosaccharide chains at both C-3 and C-28, and some are substituted with acetyl, caffeoyl, isoferuloyl, p-methoxy cinnamyl and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamyl groups in the oligosaccharide chains. The flavonoids from Clematis species are mainly flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, xanthones and their glucosides (sugar moieties are connected to the aglycone through either the oxygen or the carbon atoms), the aglycones of which are mainly apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin. The lignans from Clematis are mainly eupomatene lignans, cyclolignans, monoepoxylignans, bisepoxylignans and lignanolides. Clematis spp. are rich in resources, however, studies on their chemical constituents have only been carried out on twenty or so spp. As a result, it is necessary to expand our study on other spp. from this genus for better utilization of medicinal resources.

  16. Hydrodynamical model with massless constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Wang, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Within the constituent hydrodynamical model, it is shown that the total number of constituents is conserved, if these constituents are massless and satisfy the Fermi-Dirac distribution. A simple scheme for the transition from the constituent-phase to the hadron-phase is suggested, and the hadron inclusive momentum spectra are presented for this case. This phase transition scheme predicts the average transverse momentum of meson resonances which is compatible with the data. (U.S.)

  17. The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q C; Wu, A Z; Pika, J

    2010-09-01

    Increasing pH solution from 7.5 to 8.0 was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of green tea extract for methanethiol removal in vitro. Green tea extract was also found to remove hydrogen sulfide and its effectiveness was greatly improved under alkaline conditions. It was found that with green tea extract, maximum H₂S removal was achieved when the pH was between 8.1 and 8.4 at 37 °C for 5 min. Further increases in pH resulted in decrease of the extract effectiveness. Vegetable acetone powders which contain polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases were found to further enhance the effectiveness for the removal of thiols when used in combination with green tea extracts at body temperature under alkaline conditions. Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs.

  18. 40 CFR 227.7 - Limits established for specific wastes or waste constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shellfish and wildlife by: (1) Extending the range of biological pests, viruses, pathogenic microorganisms... containing biodegradable constituents, or constituents which consume oxygen in any fashion, may be dumped in...

  19. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  20. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the following...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE FRUITS ... alkaloids, phenols, steroids, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids while tannin ..... Harveer, K.; Jasmeen, S. Synthesis, characterization and radical scavenging ...

  2. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  3. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles in fluid and gas inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrawes, F.; Holzer, G.; Roedder, E.; Gibson, E.K.; Oro, John

    1984-01-01

    Most geological samples and some synthetic materials contain fluid inclusions. These inclusions preserve for us tiny samples of the liquid and/or the gas phase that was present during formation, although in some cases they may have undergone significant changes from the original material. Studies of the current composition of the inclusions provide data on both the original composition and the change since trapping.These inclusions are seldom larger than 1 millimeter in diameter. The composition varies from a single major compound (e.g., water) in a single phase to a very complex mixture in one or more phases. The concentration of some of the compounds present may be at trace levels.We present here some analyses of inclusions in a variety of geological samples, including diamonds. We used a sample crusher and a gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC—MS) system to analyze for organic and inorganic volatiles present as major to trace constituents in inclusions. The crusher is a hardened stainless-steel piston cylinder apparatus with tungsten carbide crusing surfaces, and is operated in a pure helium atmosphere at a controlled temperature.Samples ranging from 1 mg to 1 g were crushed and the released volatiles were analyzed using multi-chromatographic columns and detectors, including the sensitive helium ionization detector. Identification of the GC peaks was carried out by GC—MS. This combination of procedures has been shown to provide geochemically useful information on the process involved in the history of the samples analyzed.

  4. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  5. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  6. Realized Beta GARCH: A Multivariate GARCH Model with Realized Measures of Volatility and CoVolatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri

    We introduce a multivariate GARCH model that utilizes and models realized measures of volatility and covolatility. The realized measures extract information contained in high-frequency data that is particularly beneficial during periods with variation in volatility and covolatility. Applying the ...

  7. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  8. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  9. Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive.

  10. Studies of volatile secondary molasses constituents with inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation. Pt. 1. Determination of molasses and yeast components by GC and HPLC; Untersuchungen ueber fluechtige Nebenbestandteile der Melasse mit inhibitorischer Wirkung auf die Hefegaerung. T. 1. Bestimmung von Melasse- und Hefeinhaltsstoffen mittels GC und HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattohi, N.

    1994-07-20

    Beet molasses, the principal raw material of molasses distilleries and yeast factories, have in recent times with increasing frequency shown negative effects on the fermentation and quality of baking yeast. Based on the fact that with many ``problem molasses`` the inhibitory effect on fermentation can be substantially reduced and often even totally eliminated by prior aeration of the hot acidic molasses solution, the chemical-analytical and biological investigations presented here focused on the components of such problem molasses volatilizable in water vapour. The water vapour distillates contain, in particular, low carbon acids (C1-C10), and alkanols (C6-C7), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (m.i.c.) of which for yeast fermentation were established. This showed very high m.i.c. levels for an inhibitory effect on fermentation, which in practice are not reached by the individual carbon acid and alkanol constituents of the problem molasses. However, these acids and alcohols exhibit marked synergic effects which were confirmed by determining the m.i.c. values of mixtures. The inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation is due above all to the presence in problem molasses of butyric acid + caprilic acid + hexanol and heptanol. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ruebenmelasse, der Hauptrohstoff fuer die Melassebrennereien und Hefefabriken, zeigt in letzter Zeit immer haeufiger nachteilige Wirkungen bei der Vergaerung sowie der Qualitaet des Produkts Backhefe. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass sich bei vielen ``Problemmelassen`` der Gaerhemmeffekt durch vorangehende Belueftung der heiss-sauren Melasseloesung deutlich vermindern, haeufig sogar gaenzlich eliminieren laesst, wurde der Schwerpunkt der vorliegenden chemisch-analytischen und biologischen Untersuchungen auf die wasserdampffluechtigen Komponenten solcher Problemmelassen gelegt. Die Wasserdampfdestillate enthalten insbesondere niedere Carbonsaeuren (C1-C10) und Alkanole (C6-C7). Ihre minimalen Hemmkonzentrationen (MHK) bei der

  11. BE (fuel element)/ZL (interim storage facility) module. Constituents of the fuel BE data base for BE documentation with respect to the disposal planning and the support of the BE container storage administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, V.; Deutsch, S.; Busch, V.; Braun, A.

    2012-01-01

    The securing of spent fuel element disposal from German nuclear power plants is the main task of GNS. This includes the container supply and the disposal analysis and planning. Therefore GNS operates a data base comprising all in Germany implemented fuel elements and all fuel element containers in interim storage facilities. With specific program modules the data base serves an optimized repository planning for all spent fuel elements from German NPPS and the supply of required data for future final disposal. The data base has two functional models: the BE (fuel element) and the ZL (interim storage) module. The contribution presents the data structure of the modules and details of the data base operation.

  12. Constituency Orientation in Irish Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The constituency orientation of Irish politicians is a recurring topic in Irish political science. Its analysis has predominantly focused on TDs. This article uses a content analysis of candidate video statements in the general election 2016 in order to assess the strength of constituency...... this pattern, indicated by the weak constituency orientation in Dublin and Cork constituencies. Results also indicate differences between parties and some political statuses, while the gender of the candidates is of no relevance. Although the material does not permit a clear distinction between effects...... of political culture and short-term considerations, taken together the results indicate that localism in Irish politics matters, but in more complicated ways than usually depicted....

  13. Synthesis of the O-linked hexasaccharide containing b-D-Galp-(1→2)- D-Galf in Trypanosoma cruzi mucins. Differences on sialylation by trans-sialidase of the two constituent hexasaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Agusti, Rosalia; Giorgi, María Eugenia; Mendoza, Veronica Maria; Kashiwagi, Gustavo Adolfo; Muchnik, Rosa; Gallo, Carola

    2017-01-01

    The hexasaccharide b-D-Galp-(1?2)-[b-D-Galp-(1?3)]-b-D-Galp-(1?6)-[b-D-Galp(1?2)-b-D-Galf(1?4)]- D-GlcNAc (10) and its b-D-Galf-(1?2)-b-D-Galf containing isomer (7) are the largest carbohydrates in mucins of some strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. The terminal b-D-Galp units are sites of sialylation by the parasite trans-sialidase. Hexasaccharide 10 was chemically synthesized for the first time by a [3+3] nitrilium based convergent approach, using the trichloroacetimidate method of glycosylation. ...

  14. Radiation damage to DNA constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergene, R.

    1977-01-01

    The molecular changes of the DNA molecule, in various systems exposed to inoizing radiation, have been the subject of a great number of studies. In the present work electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) has been applied to irradiated crystalline systems, in particular single crystals of DNA subunits and their derivatives. The main conclusions about the molecular damage are based on this technique in combination with molecular orbital calculations. It should be emphasized that the ESR technique is restricted to damage containing unpaired electrons. These unstable intermediates called free radicals seem, however, to be involved in all molecular models describing the action of radiation on DNA. One of the premises for a detailed theory of the radiation induced reactions at the physico-chemical level seems to involve exact knowledge of the induced free radicals as well as the modes of their formation and fate. For DNA, as such, it is hardly possible to arrive at such a level of knowledge since the molecular complexity prevents selective studies of the many different radiation induced products. One possible approach is to study the free radicals formed in the constituents of DNA. In the present work three lines of approach should be mentioned. The first is based on the observation that radical formation in general causes only minor structural alterations to the molecule in question. The use of isotopes with different spin and magnetic moment (in particular deuterium) may also serve a source of information. Deuteration leads to a number of protons, mainly NH - and OH, becoming substituted, and if any of these are involved in interactions with unpaired protons the resonance pattern is influeneed. The third source of information is molecular orbital calculation. The electron spin density distribution is a function in the three dimensional space based on the system's electronic wave functions. This constitutes the basis for the idea that ESR data can be correlated with

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  16. Volatility from copper and tungsten alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, G.R.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Piet, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accident scenarios for fusion power plants present the potential for release and transport of activated constituents volatilized from first wall and structural materials. The extent of possible mobilization and transport of these activated species, many of which are ''oxidation driven'', is being addressed by the Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report presents experimental measurements of volatilization from a copper alloy in air and steam and from a tungsten alloy in air. The major elements released included zinc from the copper alloy and rhenium and tungsten from the tungsten alloy. Volatilization rates of several constituents of these alloys over temperatures ranging from 400 to 1200 degree C are presented. These values represent release rates recommended for use in accident assessment calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Distribution of radioactive constituents in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Elejalde, C.; Legarda, F.; Romero, F.

    1994-01-01

    For a research project on the distribution and evaluation of natural and artificial radioactive constituents in ecological segments of Biscay (northeast spain), the amounts of nuclides present in the main river waters were measured. Radioactive procedures include i) total alpha and beta indexes with a gas flow detector, dry residues near to 2 and 10 mg/ cm sup 2, respectively and counting periods of 1000 mn, ii) gamma emitters with a low level gamma spectrometer (Ge-HP detector + 8000 channels analyser) using the dry residue from 8 litres and a counting period of 4 days and iii) statistical treatment of data at 95% confidence.In this paper, ten water samples from the nervion river basin are included. Physical and chemical parameters of samples were also determined by standard procedures, because there is a sharp change in the composition of this river in the first part of the course. Radioactive constituents were identified as follows: a sample has a detectable alpha index, all samples contains beta emitters with a high variability, natural nuclides from uranium and thorium families were detected in some cases. A parallel behaviour is found between samples where K-40 and Cs-137 were found. The paper tries at last to find relations among chemical and radioactive constituents by the application of multivariate statistical methods, specially for the case of Cs-137, the only artificial nuclide identified in this work. 1 tab., 2 figs., 5 refs. (author)

  18. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2012-05-01

    The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most useful as screening agents. These comprised 76 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 6% in petrolatum and 29 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 5% pet., all of whom were tested with constituents of the respective mixes. The majority of patients tested positive to parthenolide or parthenolide-containing extracts, followed by German chamomile, yarrow, and arnica. As German chamomile is a weak sensitizer, the results suggest cross-reactions or reactions to unknown allergens. No one was positive to Roman chamomile. Even though parthenolide seems to be a suitable supplement to the baseline series, the results emphasize that it is important to patch test with extracts of native or locally grown plants, not only because of the geographical variation, but also because of the potential unknown allergens contained in short ether preparations and the variability in the individual patient's exposure and cross-reaction patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  20. [Chemical constituents in Buddleja albiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liang; Huang, Jincheng; Zhao, Yanping; Li, Chong

    2009-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as luteolin (1), quercetin (2), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), apigenin (4), apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside (6), acacetin-7-O-beta-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), cranioside A (8), acetylmartynoside B (9), 4"-O-acetylmartynoside (10), isomartynoside (11). All these compounds were obtained from B. albiflora for the first time and compound 8 was obtained from the genus Buddleja for the first time.

  1. Release of volatile mercury from vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.; Puerner, N. J.; Speitel, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Volatile, organic solvent soluble mercury has been found in leaves and seeds of several angiosperms. Leaves of garlic vine, avocado, and haole-koa release mercury in volatile form rapidly at room temperature. In garlic vine, the most active release is temperature dependent, but does not parallel the vapor-pressure temperature relationship for mercury. Mercury can be trapped in nitric-perchloric acid digestion fluid, or n-hexane, but is lost from the hexane unless the acid mixture is present. Seeds of haole-koa also contain extractable mercury but volatility declines in the series n-hexane (90%), methanol (50%), water (10%). This suggests that reduced volatility may accompany solvolysis in the more polar media.

  2. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  3. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  4. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  5. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized

  6. Identification of the Chemical Constituents in Simiao Wan and Rat Plasma after Oral Administration by GC-MS and LC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunshuang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simiao Wan (SMW, an important multiherbal formula used in traditional Chinese medicine, is extensively used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, the knowledge of the bioactive components of SMW remains unclear. Thus, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS were used to analyze the chemical constituents of volatile and nonvolatile extracts of SMW, as well as its absorbed components in rat plasma after oral SMW administration. Identification of several compounds was enabled by comparison of retention times, MS spectra, and MS/MS spectral data with the standard substance and reference materials reported in the literature. In the volatile extracts, GC-MS identified 26 compounds in vitro, three of which observed in blood by GC-MS. In the nonvolatile extracts, LC-MS identified 49 compounds in SMW; 18 compounds containing 7 prototype compounds, 5 metabolites, and 6 unknown compounds were absorbed by blood. The proposed GC-MS and LC-MS method was appropriate not only for the rapid screening and identification of multiple components of an SMW extract but also for screening its bioactive constituents in vivo. The proposed method could be a promising tool for the quality control of other Chinese herbal medicines.

  7. The volatility of HOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of HOI has been measured using a mass spectrometer to analyze the gas phase above an aqueous solution. The HOI in solution was generated continuously in a flow reactor that combined I/sup -/ and OCl/sup -/ solutions. The analysis has resulted in a lower limit of 6X10/sup 3/ mol . dm/sup -3/ . atm/sup -1/ for the equilibrium constant for the reaction HOI(g)/equilibrium/HOI(aq). This value is a factor 30 greater than the best previous estimate. This new limit for HOI volatility results in higher total iodine partition coefficients, particularly for solutions with pH>8. The upper limit for the equilibrium constant is consistent with essentially zero volatility for HOI. The effect of HOI volatility on total iodine volatility is briefly discussed as a function of solution chemistry and kinetics

  8. 75 FR 74044 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Gasoline Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...; Gasoline Volatility AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance... entities: Entities potentially affected by this action are those who produce or import gasoline containing... Additives: Gasoline Volatility, Reporting Requirements for Parties Which Produce of Import Gasoline...

  9. Antifungal constituents of Melicope borbonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Adsersen, Anne; Bremner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    -methoxycoumarin, cedrelopsin and psoralen], two sesquiterpenes (alpha-curcumene and 3,6-epidioxy-1,10-bisaboladiene), eugenol, methyleugenol and a lignan (sesamin) were isolated. None of the isolated constituents exhibited antiin fl ammatory activity in vitro. No alkaloids were detected....

  10. Study on off-odor volatiles of irradiated packaged raw pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Geng Shengrong; Liu Yangmin

    2008-01-01

    Analysing the compositions of off-odor volatiles in irradiated refrigerated vacuum-packaged pork and research on its origin. First, the off-odor volatiles were collected by a cooled via in liquid nitrogen, then the main composition of off-odor volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main composition of off-odor volatiles are dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, methanethiol and S-methyl thioacetate. The off-odor volatiles come from irradiated cystine, methionine and VB1. The main composition of off-odor volatiles are S-containing compounds from irradiated S-containing amino acid and VB1

  11. Assessment of waste management of volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, P.M.; Barbier, M.; Lord, N.; Nainan, D.

    1979-05-01

    This document presents a review of the Technologies for Waste Management of the Volatile Radionuclides of iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium, and carbon-14. The report presents an estimate of the quantities of these volatile radionuclides as are produced in the nuclear power industry. The various technologies as may be used, or which are under investigation, to immobilize these nuclides and to contain them during storage and in disposal are discussed. Also, the alternative disposal options as may be applied to isolate these radioactive wastes from the human environment are presented. The report contains information which was available through approximately January 1978

  12. Constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure.......Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure....

  13. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  14. Transformation of iron containing constituent intermetallic particles during hydrothermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgaonkar, Shruti; Din, Rameez Ud; Kasama, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    in the alloys. Furthermore, electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis revealed that the during the steam treatment, the Fe enriched areas of the Al (Fe-Si) Mn type intermetallic particles were transformed into Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 phases, while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line profile measurements...... by scanning transmission electron microscope showed that Mn and Si were leached out and incorporated into the surrounding oxide layer. Further, the part of intermetallic phase was transformed into polycrystalline material....

  15. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  16. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M., E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)

    2011-11-15

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: > Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. > Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. > Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. > Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. > No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B.B.; Khaleel, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: → Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. → Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. → Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. → Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. → No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  19. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  20. Volatilization of iodine from soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1985-04-01

    Elevated levels of 129 I, a long-lived fission product, are present in the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing and fuel reprocessing. To aid in understanding the anomalous behavior of this element, relative to natural I ( 127 I), in the vicinity of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, preliminary laboratory-growth chamber studies were undertaken to examine the possible formation of volatile inorganic and organic I species in soil and plant systems. Inorganic 129 I added to soil was volatilized from both the soil and plant during plant growth, at average ratios of 2 x 10 -3 %/day soil and 9 x 10 -3 %/day foliage, respectively. Volatilization rates from soil were an order of magnitude less in the absence of growing roots. Less than 2% of soil or plant volatiles was subsequently retained by plant canopies. Volatile I, chemically characterized by selective sorption methods, consisted principally of alkyl iodides formed by both soil and plant processes. However, plants and soils containing actively growing roots produced a larger fraction of volatile inorganic I than soil alone. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    during spring and autumn 2008. Results from the aerosol mass spectrometry indicate that the non-volatile residual consists of nitrate and organic compounds, especially during autumn. These compounds may be low-volatile organic nitrates or salts. During winter and spring the non-volatile core (black carbon removed) correlated markedly with carbon monoxide, which is a tracer of anthropogenic emissions. Due to this, the non-volatile residual may also contain other pollutants in addition to black carbon. Thus, it seems that the amount of different compounds in submicron aerosol particles varies with season and as a result the chemical composition of the non-volatile residual changes within a year. This work was supported by University of Helsinki three-year research grant No 490082 and Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation grant No 2010143. Aalto et al., (2001). Physical characterization of aerosol particles during nucleation events. Tellus B, 53, 344-358. Jayne, et al., (2000). Development of an aerosol mass spectrometer for size and composition analysis of submicron particles. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 33(1-2), 49-70. Kalberer et al., (2004). Identification of Polymers as Major Components of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols. Science, 303, 1659-1662. Smith et al., (2010). Observations of aminium salts in atmospheric nanoparticles and possible climatic implications. P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 107(15). Vesala et al., (1998). Long-term field measurements of atmosphere-surface interactions in boreal forest combining forest ecology, micrometeorology, aerosol physics and atmospheric chemistry. Trends Heat, Mass Mom. Trans., 4, 17-35. Wehner et al., (2002). Design and calibration of a thermodenuder with an improved heating unit to measure the size-dependent volatile fraction of aerosol particles. J. Aerosol Sci., 33, 1087-1093.

  2. Variation in the essential oil constituents of Pteronia incana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of Pteronia incana was collected and was investigated on a monthly basis using GCMS. The oil volume and its constituents vary greatly with different time of sampling and distillation. The oil contains a high percentage of myrcene a-pinene, b-pinene with sabinene, a-terpinene, 1.8 cineole and limonene.

  3. The chemical constituents of calabash ( Crescentia cujete ) | Ejelonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virtually, all parts of the calabash (Crescentia cujete) tree have been found to be useful; the wood for tool handles, ribs in boat building, cattle yokes, and the gourd is used for cups, containers and musical instruments. The calabash (C. cujete) fruit was studied for its chemical constituents- proximate and mineral composition ...

  4. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  5. Uropygial gland volatiles may code for olfactory information about sex, individual, and species in Bengalese finches Lonchura striata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xu ZHANG et al.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Over-shadowed by eye-catching vocal and visual signals, chemical communication has long been overlooked in birds. This study aimed at exploring whether volatile composition of the uropygial gland secretion (UGS of birds was associated with the information about sex, individual and species. By using dichloromethane extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, we analyzed the UGS volatiles of domesticated Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata, Estrildiea which is also known as white-rumped munias. We characterized 16 volatile molecules from the UGS, including eight n-alkanols, five diesters, an ester, an aldehyde and a fatty acid, and quantified them in terms of GC peak area percentages (relative abundances. Among these compounds, hexadecanol and octadecanol were major components in both sexes. The former was richer in males than females and the latter richer in females than males, suggesting that they might be male and female pheromone candidates, respectively. The high inter-individual variations, in relative abundance, of the UGS volatiles implied that they might carry information about individuality. The similarity between GC profiles of the UGS and wing feather from same individuals indicates that the birds might preen the secretion to their feathers to transmit chemical cues. Additionally, by comparing with three sympatric passerine species,i.e., zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, yellow-bowed buntings Emberiza chrysophrys and rooks Corvus frugilegus, we found that the composition of C13-C18 alkanols in the UGS might contain information about species. Our study also show that quantitative differences (degree of same UGS volatiles might be the key for the Bengalese finch to code for information about sex and individuality whereas both the kind and degree of UGS constituents could be utilized to code for information about species [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  6. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  7. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. L. Knobel; B. J. Tucker; B. V. Twining (USGS)

    2000-06-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997-98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A total of 91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen quality-assurance samples were also collected and analyzed; seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  8. Constituintes químicos fixos e voláteis dos talos e frutos de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. e das raízes de P. hispidum H. B. K. Fixed and volatile chemical constituents from stems and fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq. and from roots of P. hispidum H. B. K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Alves Facundo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais dos frutos e talos finos de Piper tuberculatum e das raízes de P. hispidum, coletados no estado de Rondônia, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por GC e GC-MS. Foram identificados como constituintes majoritários, nos óleos dos frutos e talos finos de P. tuberculatum, o óxido de cariofileno (32,1% e (26,6% e o (E-cariofileno (17,7% e (12,3%, respectivamente. No óleo essencial das raízes de P. hispidum, foram identificados, como constituintes majoritários, o dilapiol (57,5%, a elemicina (24,5% e o apiol (10,2%. Do extrato etanólico dos frutos de P. tuberculatum, foram isolados os esteróides β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, as amidas piplartina e dihidropiplartina e um derivado do ácido cinâmico, o ácido 3,4,5-trimetoxi-dihidrocinâmico.The essential oils of the fruits and fine stems of Piper tuberculatum and of the roots of P. hispidum, collected in the state of Rondônia, had been gotten by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Caryophyllene oxide - 32,1% in fruits and 26,6% in fine stem, and (E-caryophyllene - 17,7% in fruits and 12,3% in fine stems, were identified as the major constituents in such parts of P. tuberculatum. In the essential oil of the roots of P. hispidum, dillapiol (57,5%, elemicine (24,5% and apiole (10,2% were identified as the most abundant constituents. From the ethanolic extract of the fruits of P. tuberculatum, the steroids β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, the amides piplartine and dihidropiplartine and the derivative of the cinâmico acid 3,4,5-trimethoxy-dihidrocinâmic acid were isolated.

  9. Sol-gel-based SPME fiber as a reliable sampling technique for studying biogenic volatile organic compounds released from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghader, Masoud; Shokoufi, Nader; Es-Haghi, Ali; Kargosha, Kazem

    2017-11-01

    A novel and efficient headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed to study volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emerging from microorganisms. Two homemade SPME fibers, a semi-polar poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber, and a polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) fiber, along with two commercial fibers (PDMS and PDMS/DVB) were used to collect VOCs emerging from Clostridium tetani which was cultured in different media. The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed and identified, in vitro, using GC-MS. The adsorption efficiency was improved by optimizing the time duration of adsorption and desorption. About 50 components were identified by the proposed method. The main detected compounds appeared to be sulfur containing compounds such as butanethioic acid S-methyl ester, dimethyl trisulfide, and dimethyl tetrasulfide. These volatile sulfur containing compounds are derived from amino acids containing the sulfur element, which probably coexist in the mentioned bacterium or are added to the culture media. The developed HS-SPME-GC-MS method allowed the determination of the chemical fingerprint of Clostridium tetani volatile constituents, and thus provides a new, simple, and reliable tool for studying the growth of microorganisms. Graphical abstract Investigation of biogenic VOCs released from Clostridium tetani using SPME-GC-MS.

  10. Volatiles of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljković, Sanja Ćavar; Šolić, Marija Edita; Maksimović, Milka

    2015-01-01

    Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don is a flowering plant of the family Asteraceae. It is rich in oil that is used for different medicinal purposes and in fragrance industry. Volatile profile of four populations of H. italicum, collected from natural habitat in Dalmatia (Croatia), was analysed by capillary GC-MS. Sample from BraČ Island had α-trans-bergamotene (10.2%) and β-acoradiene (10.1%) as the majors, whereas sample collected on Biokovo Mt. was rich in neryl acetate (8.1%). β-Acoradiene was also the main constituent of sample collected near Tijarica, whereas rosifoliol (8.5%) was the most abundant constituent in sample collected near Makarska. Presented results show the influence of environmental conditions on chemical differentiation of the volatiles of H. italicum from Croatia.

  11. Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

  12. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  13. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. J. Wong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  14. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren C J; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen) in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few) by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  15. An evaluation of electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols for harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) typically derived from combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl A; Flora, Jason W; Melvin, Matt S; Avery, Karen C; Ballentine, Regina M; Brown, Anthony P; McKinney, Willie J

    2018-06-01

    U.S. FDA draft guidance recommends reporting quantities of designated harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in e-cigarette e-liquids and aerosols. The HPHC list comprises potential matrix-related compounds, flavors, nicotine, tobacco-related impurities, leachables, thermal degradation products, and combustion-related compounds. E-cigarettes contain trace levels of many of these constituents due to tobacco-derived nicotine and thermal degradation. However, combustion-related HPHCs are not likely to be found due to the relatively low operating temperatures of most e-cigarettes. The purpose of this work was to use highly sensitive, selective, and validated analytical methods to determine if these combustion-related HPHCs (three aromatic amines, five volatile organic compounds, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene) are detectable in commercial refill e-liquids, reference e-cigarette e-liquids, and aerosols generated from rechargeable e-cigarettes with disposable cartridges (often referred to as "cig-a-likes"). In addition, the transfer efficiency of these constituents from e-liquid to aerosol was evaluated when these HPHCs were added to the e-liquids prior to aerosol formation. This work demonstrates that combustion-related HPHCs are not present at measurable levels in the commercial and reference e-liquids or e-cigarette aerosols tested. Additionally, when combustion-related HPHCs are added to the e-liquids, they transfer to the aerosol with transfer efficiencies ranging from 49% to 99%. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  17. Volatiles Profile of Red Apple from Marche Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fraternale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile composition of different parts (whole fruit, peel and flesh of a rare wild red apple named “Mela Rossa Val Metauro” was established by SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction sampling, followed by GC-MS analysis. The most prominent constituent in all the three parts was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene. The presence of the ester ethyl hexanoate particularly in the flesh (39.8% gives a special exotic flavor to the fruit.

  18. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  19. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  20. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 hours. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples

  1. 40 CFR 227.6 - Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... trace contaminants. 227.6 Section 227.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.6 Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants. (a) Subject to the..., of materials containing the following constituents as other than trace contaminants will not be...

  2. [Chemical constituents of Aconitum tanguticum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun; Wang, Zhimin; Guo, Wubao

    2012-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents isolated from the whole plant of Aconitum tanguticum. Chemical constituents were isolated and purified from the title plant by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS. Seven compounds were isolated from this plant and their structures were identified as kaempferol-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyrano-side (1), kaempferol-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), kaempferol 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), gentiopieroside (4), vomifoliol-9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), dihydrovomifoliol-9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl alcohol-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). All the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  3. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  5. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  6. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: an application to quantification of mushroom volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-04-03

    Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033-0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111-0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3-108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Kücklich

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113, with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52. The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35, of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55, but very few volatiles (N = 10. Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%. Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor.

  8. Volatile oils from the plant and hairy root cultures of Ageratum conyzoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Mohamed Salaheldin A; Lockwood, George B

    2011-05-01

    Two lines of hairy root culture of Ageratum conyzoides L. induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 were established under either complete darkness or 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod conditions. The volatile oil yields from aerial parts and roots of the parent plant, the hairy root culture photoperiod line and the hairy root culture dark line were 0.2%, 0.08%, 0.03% and 0.02%, (w/w), respectively. The compositions of the volatiles from the hairy roots, plant roots and aerial parts were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the volatiles from the hairy root cultures were β-farnesene, precocene I and β-caryophyllene, in different amounts, depending on light conditions and also on the age of cultures. Precocene I, β-farnesene, precocene II and β-caryophyllene were the main constituents of the volatile oils from the parent plant roots, whereas precocene I, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene and precocene II were the main constituents of the aerial parts of the parent plant. Growth and time-course studies of volatile constituents of the two hairy root lines were compared. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the volatile oils from the roots of the parent plant and those from the hairy roots.

  9. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  10. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  11. The Origin and Time Dependence of the Amount and Composition of Non-Constituent Gases Present in Crystal Growth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, Witold

    1998-01-01

    Presence of different, non-constituent gases may be a critical factor in crystal growth systems. In Physical Vapor Transport processes the cras(es) can be used intentionally (to prevent excessively high, unstable growth conditions), or can evolve unintentionally during the course of the process (which may lead to undesired reduction in the -rowth rate). In melt growth, particularly under low gravity conditions (reduced hydrostatic pressure) the gas present in the system may contribute to formation of voids in the growing crystals and even to a separation of the crystal and the liquid phase [1]. On the other hand, some amount of gas may facilitate 'contactless' crystal growth particularly under reduced gravity conditions [2 - 6]. Different non-constituent gases may be present in growth ampoules, and their amount and composition may change during the crystallization process. Some gases can appear even in empty ampoules sealed originally under high vacuum: they may diffuse in from the outside, and/or desorb from the ampoule walls. Residual gases can also be generated by the source materials: even very high purity commercial elements and compounds may contain trace amounts of impurities, particularly oxides. The oxides may have low volatilities themselves but their reaction with other species, particularly carbon and hydrogen, may produce volatile compounds like water or carbon oxides. The non-constituent gases, either added initially to the system or evolved during the material processing, may diffuse out of the ampoule during the course of the experiment. Gases present outside (e.g. as a protective atmosphere or thermal conductor) may diffuse into the ampoule. In either case the growth conditions and the quality of the crystals may be affected. The problem is of a particular importance in sealed systems where the amount of the gases cannot be directly controlled. Therefore a reasonable knowledge and understanding of the origin, composition, magnitude, and change with

  12. [Chemical constituents from Vaccinium bracteatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jing; Chen, Xia; Niu, Chang-Shan; Yu, Shi-Shan

    2014-02-01

    The chemical constituents of Vaccinium bracteatum were studied by means of macroporous resin, ODS column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Eleven compounds were isolated from this plant. By using ESI-MS and NMR, the structures of the eleven compounds were determined as 10-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-6alpha-hydroxyl-dihydromonotropein (1), 10-O-cis-p-coumaroyl -6alpha-hydroxyl-dihydromonotropein (2), vaccinoside (3), 10-O-cis-p-coumaroyl monotropein (4), isolariciresinol-9-O-beta-D-xyloside (5), tectoridin (6), vicenin-3 (7), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (10), and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (11), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 are new, and compounds 4, 6 and 7 are isolated from the genus Vaccinium for the first time.

  13. [Chemical constituents of Rauvolfia verticillata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Chun-Jie

    2012-06-01

    The study on the Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., which belongs to Apocynaceae, was carried out to look for its chemical constituents and pharmacological activity. The isolation and purification were performed by chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS (octadecyl silane) open column. The structures of obtained compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Three indole alkaloids and one acridone alkaloid were isolated from chloroform layer extract and identified as ajmalicine B (1), sandwicine (2), raunescine (3) and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (4) separately. Ajmalicine B (1) is a new compound belonging to indole alkaloid. Compound 4 as an acridone alkaloid was a new type compound isolated from Rauvolfia genus for the first time. We also did some biological activity research on the new type compound (4) to explore other pharmacological activities in addition to antihypertensive activity.

  14. [Chemical constituents of Swertia macrosperma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongling; Geng, Changan; Zhang, Xuemei; Ma, Yunbao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Swertia macrosperma. The air-dried whole plants of Swertia macrosperma were extracted with boiling water. The extract was concentrated to a small amount of volume and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the EtOAc fraction, and identified based on spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). Thirteen compounds were isolated from S. macrosperma, and were characterized as norbellidifolin (1), 1-hydroxy-3,7, 8-trimethoxy-xanthone (2), norswertianolin (3), swertianolin (4), 1,3,7,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), swertiamatin (6), decentapicrin (7), coniferl aldehyde (8), sinapaldehyde (9), balanophonin (10), together with beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, and oleanolic acid . Compounds 2, 4-10 were obtained from Swertia macrosperma for the first time.

  15. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  16. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  17. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  18. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  19. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  20. "My First Thought was Croutons": Perceptions of Cigarettes and Cigarette Smoke Constituents Among Adult Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, Kathryn E; Morgan, Jennifer C; Mendel, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Hall, Marissa G; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-07-01

    Understanding what people think about harmful and potentially harmful constituents in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has new urgency given legislation requiring US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to disclose constituent information. Our study sought to obtain qualitative information on what people think about these constituents and the language they use to talk about them. We conducted six focus groups in 2014 with 40 adults in North Carolina. Open-ended questions focused on cigarette and cigarette smoke constituents in general and on the 18 constituents on the FDA's abbreviated list. We coded the transcripts for emergent themes, and all four coders discussed themes until we reached consensus. Participants knew that cigarette smoke contains chemicals but did not know how many chemicals nor what those chemicals are, beyond tar and nicotine. Dangers of constituents mentioned included "chemicals," physical disease, and addiction. Participants incorrectly believed harmful constituents came primarily from tobacco companies' additives. For unfamiliar constituents, people tried to make associations based on similar-sounding words. Recognizable constituents that participants associated with health harms most discouraged them from wanting to smoke. Most participants wanted to know health harms associated with constituents and what else the chemicals were in. Participants showed enthusiasm for learning more information about constituents, and also showed substantial misunderstandings about the source of harmful constituents. Our findings contribute to the limited body of research on adults' knowledge and perceptions of cigarette smoke constituents and can aid the FDA as it plans to disclose constituent information to the public. Our study provides information about adults' understanding of cigarette smoke constituents and what adults would like to know about these constituents. This information can help communication campaigns describe cigarette smoke constituents in a

  1. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the Megacity of Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciga, A.; Karnezi, E.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Psichoudaki, M.; Engelhart, G. J.; Lee, B.-H.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-08-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 μg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs and ELVOCs, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the O : C ratio and volatility distributions of the various factors, we incorporated our results into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS). Our results show that the factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average O : C of the OA components. Agreement between our findings and previous publications is encouraging for our understanding of the

  2. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrot, Adrien; Xie, Wan-Ying; Xue, Ximei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  3. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  4. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  5. Essays on nonparametric econometrics of stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Volatility is a concept that describes the variation of financial returns. Measuring and modelling volatility dynamics is an important aspect of financial econometrics. This thesis is concerned with nonparametric approaches to volatility measurement and volatility model validation.

  6. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-06-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  7. [Chemical constituents of Swertia angustifolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kang; Cao, Tuan-wu; Wang, Hong-ling; Geng, Chang-an; Zhang, Xue-mei; Chen, Ji-jun

    2015-09-01

    This present work is to study the chemical constituents of Swertia angustifolia. The whole plants of air-dried Swertia angustifolia was extracted with 90% EtOH. The water extract was suspended in H2O and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and nBuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the EtOAc fraction, and identified based on spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). Fourteen compounds were isolated and characterized as 1, 8-dihydroxy-3, 7-dimethoxyxanthone (1), 1, 8-dihydroxy-3, 5, 7-trimethoxyxanthone (2), 7-hydroxy-3, 8-dimethoxyxanthone-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 8-0-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6) -β-D-glucopyranosyl] -1, 7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (4), (+) -syringaresinol (5), ferulic acid (6), trans-coniferyl aldehyde (7), sinapaldehyde (8), trans-coniferyl alcohol (9), 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (11), isophthalic acid (12), 2-furoic acid (13), and 2-methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone(14). Compounds 2-14 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  8. [Chemical constituents of Halenia elliptica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongling; Chen, Hao; Geng, Chang'an; Zhang, Xuemei; Ma, Yunbao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jijun

    2011-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Halenia elliptica. The air-dried whole plants of Halenia elliptica were extracted with 90% EtOH. The EtOH extract was condensed to a small amount of volume and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the EtOAc fraction, and identified based on spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). 12 compounds were isolated from H. elliptica, and characterized as 8-hydroxy-2-methylchromone (1), 5-methoxy-2-methylchromone (2), 7-epi-vogeloside (3), coniferl aldehyde (4), sinapaldehyde (5), norbellidifolin (6), 1-hydroxyl-2,3,4,6-tetramethoxyxanthone (7), 1-hydroxyl-2,3,4,7-tetramethoxyxanthone (8), 1-hydroxyl-2,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone (9), together with azelaic acid, beta-sitosterol, and oleanolic acid. Compounds 1, 2 were new natural compounds and compounds 3-6, 10 were obtained from H. elliptica for the first time and compound 6 showed inhibitory activities against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 value of 0.77 and < 0.62 mmol x L(-1), respectively.

  9. Volatile-mediated interactions between phylogenetically different soil bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolina eGarbeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that organic volatiles play an important role in interactions between micro-organisms in the porous soil matrix. Here we report that volatile compounds emitted by different soil bacteria can affect the growth, antibiotic production and gene expression of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. We applied a novel cultivation approach that mimics the natural nutritional heterogeneity in soil in which P. fluorescens grown on nutrient-limited agar was exposed to volatiles produced by 4 phylogenetically different bacterial isolates (Collimonas pratensis, Serratia plymuthica, Paenibacillus sp. and Pedobacter sp. growing in sand containing artificial root exudates. Contrary to our expectation, the produced volatiles stimulated rather than inhibited the growth of P. fluorescens. A genome-wide, microarray-based analysis revealed that volatiles of all 4 bacterial strains affected gene expression of P. fluorescens, but with a different pattern of gene expression for each strain. Based on the annotation of the differently expressed genes, bacterial volatiles appear to induce a chemotactic motility response in P. fluorescens, but also an oxidative stress response. A more detailed study revealed that volatiles produced by C. pratensis triggered, antimicrobial secondary metabolite production in P. fluorescens. Our results indicate that bacterial volatiles can have an important role in communication, trophic - and antagonistic interactions within the soil bacterial community.

  10. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection...... and identified or characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 120 VOCs were characterized by retention index and mass spectra. Fifty-three compounds were characterized as terpenoid compounds, among which 18 could be identified. Among the VOCs were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, esters, ketones....... The relationship between the excretion of geosmin and the production of spores was examined for one isolate. A good correlation between headspace geosmin and the number of spores was observed, suggesting that VOCs could be used to indicate the activity of these microorganisms in heterogeneous substrates....

  11. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  12. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  13. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  14. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  15. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  16. WORKSHOP REPORT - CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LEACHING TEST METHODS FOR SEMI- AND NON-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a summary of the information exchange at a workshop on the potential for release of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where sub-surface treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. The...

  17. Volatilization of Po by microorganisms at laboratory culture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Ishida, A.; Yoshinaga, C.; Fukuda, A.

    2005-01-01

    The previous experiments proved the volatility of polonium form culture medium in which microorganisms were propagated from seed of seawater, river water or pond water, therefore we did not know what kind of species are responsible to Po volatility. To search microorganisms, which concerned with Po emission we carried out culture experiments using known microorganisms. Three microorganisms were examined; Escherichia coli K-12, Bacillus subtilis and Chromobacterium violaceum. The microorganisms were pre-cultured in LB medium at 30 degree C and a small portion of the pre-cultured was transferred to a culture bottle in which LB medium and 208 Po tracer were contained. The culture was done at 30 degree C with shaking the culture bottle and air passed through a filter was introduced. The Po volatilized was transferred into the trap vials in which scintillator for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was contained. The Po activity was measured by LSC. All of the microorganisms examined volatilized Po but their ability was quite different each other. Highest ability was observed on Chromobacterium violaceum and then Escherichia coli K-12 followed by Bacillus subtilis, the relative magnitude of the ability was 10 2 , 10, 1, respectively. Chromobacterium violaceum and Escherichia coli K-12 showed high volatility for the first 24 h but Escherichia coli K-12 showed a decrease thereafter. However high volatility was continued on Chromobacterium violaceum during the culture. The low culture temperature suppressed Po volatility, supporting biologically mediated Po emission from the culture.

  18. Goldstone-Boson Dynamics for Constituent Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, W.

    2003-07-01

    We address some essential features of the Goldstone-boson-exchange constituent quark model. Starting from its background we discuss the motivation for its construction and show its performance in light and strange baryon spectroscopy. Then we quote results from first applications of this type of constituent quark model in covariant calculations of electroweak nucleon form factors.

  19. Preliminary Investigation on the Phytochemical Constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demand for honey consumption nowadays is continuously increasing worldwide due to its multiple importance from food to medicine. The medicinal value of honey lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce health benefits to man. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the two honey samples ...

  20. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  1. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  2. Electromagnetic splitting for mesons and baryons using dressed constituent quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Brau, Fabian; Semay, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic splittings for mesons and baryons are calculated in a formalism where the constituent quarks are considered as dressed quasiparticles. The electromagnetic interaction, which contains coulomb, contact and hyperfine terms, is folded with the quark electrical density. Two different types of strong potentials are considered. Numerical treatment is done very carefully and several approximations are discussed in detail. Our model contains only one free parameter and the agreement with experimental data is reasonable although it seems very difficult to obtain a perfect description in any case

  3. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  4. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 h. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilizized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples. (orig.)

  5. Expression of Terpenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Accumulation of Chemical Constituents in Valeriana fauriei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ji Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana fauriei (V. fauriei, which emits a characteristic and unpleasant odor, is important in traditional medicine. In this study, the expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes was investigated in different organs that were also screened for volatile compounds including valerenic acid and its derivatives. Specific expression patterns from different parts of V. fauriei were observed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The highest transcript levels of biosynthetic genes involved in mevalonic acid (MVA and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP production were found in the stem. Although the amounts of volatile compounds were varied by organ, most of the volatile terpenoids were accumulated in the root. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis identified 128 volatile compounds, which represented 65.33% to 95.66% of total volatiles. Certain compounds were only found in specific organs. For example, isovalerenic acid and valerenic acid and its derivatives were restricted to the root. Organs with high transcript levels did not necessarily have high levels of the corresponding chemical constituents. According to these results, we hypothesize that translocation may occur between different organs in V. fauriei.

  6. Immobilization of radwastes in glass containers and products formed thereby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, P.B.; Litovitz, T.A.; Simmons, C.J.; Simmons, J.H.; Lagakos, N.; Tran, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of glass packing and radioactive or other toxic material is placed in a solid glass container, and the container is heated to drive off volatile components and collapse and seal the container

  7. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    KAUST Repository

    Ilg, Andrea; Bruno, Mark; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-. trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    KAUST Repository

    Ilg, Andrea

    2014-06-25

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-. trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. © 2014 The Authors.

  10. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ilg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B, which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents.

  11. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  12. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  13. Chemical constituents of Bauhinia aurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao-Ya; Li, Shuai; Wang, Su-Juan; Yang, Yong-Chun; Shi, Jian-Gong

    2012-01-01

    A new dihydroflavonol glycoside dimer 6,6-bisastilbin (1) and a new nitrile-containing metabolite (Z)-5α,6β-dihydroxy-4β-methoxy-2-cyclohexene-Δ(1,α)-acetonitrile (2), together with three known analogs, bauhinin, bauhinilide, and dehydrodicatechin A, have been isolated from an ethanol extract of Bauhinia aurea. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  14. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  15. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  16. The intensely sweet herb, Lippia dulcis Trev.: historical uses, field inquiries, and constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compadre, C M; Robbins, E F; Kinghorn, A D

    1986-01-01

    Lippia dulcis Trev. (Verbenaceae) is the source of hernandulcin, the first known intensely sweet sesquiterpenoid, a compound which is a volatile oil constituent. The literature on the uses of this species, dating back to early colonial times in Mexico, has been examined. This plant began to be used as an official drug in the late 19th century for the treatment of coughs and bronchitis, and at that time preliminary phytochemical investigations were undertaken. Field work carried out in Mexico in 1981 and 1982 has indicated that there is still an active trade involving L. dulcis, which is sold primarily in market places for its alleged abortifacient activity. We have obtained no evidence, either from the literature or from field inquiries, that L. dulcis has ever been used for sweetening foods or beverages. Fourteen L. dulcis volatile oil constituents, mainly mono- and sesquiterpenoids, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The toxic compound, camphor, was found to constitute 53% w/w of the volatile oil of this species. The potential use of L. dulcis for the extraction of hernandulcin is discussed.

  17. Volatility Mean Reversion and the Market Price of Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes sources of derivative pricing errors in a stochastic volatility model estimated on stock return data. It is shown that such pricing errors may reflect the existence of a market price of volatility risk, but also may be caused by estimation errors due to a slow mean reversion in

  18. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The persistent nature of equity volatility is investigated by means of a multi-factor stochastic volatility model with time varying parameters. The parameters are estimated by means of a sequential matching procedure which adopts as auxiliary model a time-varying generalization of the HAR model f...

  19. FOCUS AND CONSTITUENT QUESTION FORMATION IN DAGBANI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issah

    Key words: SpecFoc, focus marker, clause initial, constituent interrogatives, information ... 1Throughout this work, I use the phrase interrogative words in a general way to refer to the ...... Wh-Questions and extraction asymmetries in Malagasy.

  20. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for RCRA Constituent Analysis of Solidified Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents distributes test samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and metals in solid matrices. Each distribution of test samples is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department. The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the RCRA PDP. Participating laboratories demonstrate acceptable performance by successfully analyzing single-blind performance evaluation samples (subsequently referred to as PDP samples) according to the criteria established in this plan. PDP samples are used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). The concentrations of analytes in the PDP samples address levels of regulatory concern and encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in waste characterization samples. The WIPP requires analyses of homogeneous solid wastes to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples. Participating laboratories must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for WIPP samples.

  1. The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jonathan D; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N

    2017-06-29

    Background: Common sage ( Salvia officinalis ) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2-27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9-26.9%), and camphor (12.8-21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the "typical", α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities.

  2. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  3. GC/MS for profiling volatile constituents of red wine and their changes during radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present study was therefore to investigate the effect of radiation processing of grape berries on the quality of Shiraz wines. In order to obtain this objective, wines prepared from control and irradiated grapes were analyzed for total antioxidant potential, total phenolic contents and aroma analysis by HS-SPME and GC/MS

  4. Volatile constituents of the essential oils of two Polygonum species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Van, le H.; Moi, La Dinh; Cu, Lu'u Dam; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Polygonum species grown in many places in Vietnam, esp. on the rice-field. It is used in the traditional medicine. After Pham Hoang Ho until now in Vietnam, 40 Polygonum species have been found. From the polygonum genus (Family Polygonaceae) the essential oils of 2 species are reported: Polygonum

  5. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM Securidaca longepedunculata Fers. GROWING IN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique C.K. Sohounhloue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of roots bark of Securidacaca longepedunculata Fers. (Polygalaceae growing in Savalou, Biguinan and Gbegrou (Benin were analyzed using capillary GC and GC/MS. Seven compounds representing (99.5%; 99.1%; 99.3% respectively of the oils were identified. The major compound was found to be methyl salicylate respectively (98.0%; 98.6%; 98.7%. The antimicrobial activity of these oils was found to be high, and medium antiradical activity was observed.

  6. Volatiles from roasted byproducts of the poultry-processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettasinghe, M; Vasanthan, T; Temelli, F; Swallow, K

    2000-08-01

    Volatiles of roasted chicken breast muscle and byproducts, such as backbones, breastbones, spent bones, and skin, were investigated. Total volatile concentrations ranged from 2030 ppb in the roasted backbones to 4049 ppb in the roasted skin. The major classes of volatile compounds detected in roasted samples were aldehydes (648-1532 ppb) and alcohols (336-1006 ppb). Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing compounds were also detected in appreciable quantities (161-706 ppb) in all samples. For all samples, hexanal and 2-methyl-2-buten-1-ol were dominant among the aldehydes and alcohols, respectively. Among the nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, Maillard reaction products, such as tetrahydropyridazines, piperidines, and thiazoles, were the major contributors to the total volatile content in all samples. The composition of volatiles observed in roasted byproducts was markedly different from that of the roasted breast muscle. Therefore, the blending of the byproducts in appropriate proportions or blending of volatile flavor extracts from different byproducts may be necessary to obtain an aroma that mimics roasted chicken aroma.

  7. Streptopyridines, volatile pyridine alkaloids produced by Streptomyces sp. FORM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Groenhagen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. FORM5 is a bacterium that is known to produce the antibiotic streptazolin and related compounds. We investigated the strain for the production of volatiles using the CLSA (closed-loop stripping analysis method. Liquid and agar plate cultures revealed the formation of new 2-alkylpyridines (streptopyridines, structurally closely related to the already known 2-pentadienylpiperidines. The structures of the streptopyridines A to E were confirmed by total synthesis. The analysis of the liquid phase by solvent extraction or extraction with an Oasis adsorbent showed that streptazolin and 2-pentadienylpiperidine are the major compounds, while the streptopyridines are only minor components. In the gas phase, only the streptopyridines could be detected. Therefore, an orthogonal set of analysis is needed to assess the metabolic profile of bacteria, because volatile compounds are obviously overlooked by traditional analytical methods. The streptopyridines are strain specific volatiles that are accompanied by a broad range of headspace constituents that occur in many actinomycetes. Volatiles might be of ecological importance for the producing organism, and, as biosynthetic intermediates or shunt products, they can be useful as indicators of antibiotic production in a bacterium.

  8. Development of dry barriers for containment and remediation at waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Morris, C.E.; Ankeny, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a concept in which dry air is injected into an unsaturated formation to reduce the soil moisture content, referred to here as a dry (or sometimes tensiometric) barrier. The objective is to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated media to the point where liquid phase transport becomes negligible, thereby achieving containment. The concept could be applied in subsurface formations to provide containment from a leaking facility, or it could be incorporated into a cover design to provide redundancy for a capillary barrier. The air injection process could in principle be coupled with a vacuum extraction system to recover soil vapors, which would then provide a remediation process that would be appropriate if volatile organic compounds were present. Work to date has consisted of a combined theoretical, laboratory, and field research investigation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the dry barrier concept by identifying the parameters which determine its effectiveness. Based on the results obtained for the experimental and theoretical studies, feasibility analyses were prepared for as a modification for a landfill cover design to prevent infiltration from atmospheric precipitation and for potential application of dry barriers to achieve subsurface containment and removal of volatile constituents. These analyses considered the technical as well as the economic aspects of the dry barrier concept

  9. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  10. Fundamental volatility is regime specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; MacDonald, R.; Vries, de C.G.

    2006-01-01

    A widely held notion holds that freely floating exchange rates are excessively volatile when judged against fundamentals and when moving from fixed to floating exchange rates. We re-examine the data and conclude that the disparity between the fundamentals and exchange rate volatility is more

  11. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  12. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  13. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  14. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  15. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  16. The use of stable isotopes to trace oil sands constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, A.J.; Nero, V.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biological effects of oil sands mining operations on aquatic ecosystems. The study focused on the Athabasca oil sand deposit, the largest of 4 deposits in northern Alberta. In particular, the study examined the cycling of oil sand constituents in Benthic invertebrates collected from test pits at Syncrude Canada Ltd.. The invertebrates were similar in size, but different in the quantity of process-affected water or mature fine tailings containing residual bitumen. Dragonflies and damselflies in particular, showed trends of depletion for the carbon 13 isotope and enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope in pits where levels of process affected water was high. The depletion of carbon 13 isotope suggests that oil sand constituents assimilate into the benthic food chain. The greatest carbon 13 depletion, which was approximately 27 per cent, was found to be in test pits with high turbidity. This implies that oil sands constituents degrade microbially instead of by photosynthetic production. All benthic invertebrate group demonstrated an incremental enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope from the control pit to the pit with greatest levels of mature fine tailings

  17. GC-MS analysis of off-odor volatiles from irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Geng Shengrong; Zhang Jinmu; Chen Yuxia; Liu Yangmin; Wang Liping; Wang Hong; Xu Ying; Yao Side

    2007-01-01

    The main compounds of off-odor volatiles from irradiated refrigerated vacuum-packaged pork were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the main compounds of off-odor volatiles were dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, S-methyl thioacetate, and methanethiol. It was proved that the off-odor volatile came from irradiated S-containing amino acid and thiamin. (authors)

  18. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Briere, Marie; Burgues, Alexandre; Signori, Ombretta

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of incorporating strategic exposure to equity volatility into the investment-opportunity set of a long-term equity investor. We consider two standard volatility investments: implied volatility and volatility risk premium strategies. To calibrate and assess the risk/return profile of the portfolio, we present an analytical framework offering pragmatic solutions for long-term investors seeking exposure to volatility. The benefit of volatility exposure for a co...

  20. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  1. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  2. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of many constituents of pepper at the same time. And a extraction method of ultraviolet absorbing constituents from pepper was developed for the HPLC analysis. The Ultraviolet absorbing constituents were extracted by precooled Automatic Air-Hammer from frozen pepper with 20% acetonitrile in water. The process of extraction was achieved under cooling by liquid nitrogen from start to end. The extracted constituents were separated on a reversed phase C 8 (LiChrospher 300 RP - 8 10 μm 0.4 I.D. x 0.4 cm and LiChrosorb RP - 8 SelectB 0.4 I. D. x 25 cm) column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes. The eluted constituents were detected 210 nm and 280 nm. The present method permits the detection of about 50 peaks by 280 nm. (author)

  3. A recent review on phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of kesum (Polygonum minus Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritala Vikram

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and herbal preparations are gaining renowned interest in scientific communities nowadays due to their reliable pharmacological actions and affordability to common people which makes them effective in control of various diseases. Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae locally known as kesum is an aromatic plant commonly used in Malay delicacies. The plant is having potential applications due to its high volatile oil constituents in perfumes and powerful antioxidant activity. It has been used traditionally to treat various ailments including dandruff. The research has been carried out by various researchers using different in vitro and in vivo models for biological evaluations to support these claims. This review paper may help upcoming research activities on Polygonum minus by giving up to date information on the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of kesum to a possible extent with relevant data.

  4. Acoustic constituents of prosodic typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masahiko

    Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The

  5. Parallel Prediction of Stock Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Jenq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a measurement of the risk of financial products. A stock will hit new highs and lows over time and if these highs and lows fluctuate wildly, then it is considered a high volatile stock. Such a stock is considered riskier than a stock whose volatility is low. Although highly volatile stocks are riskier, the returns that they generate for investors can be quite high. Of course, with a riskier stock also comes the chance of losing money and yielding negative returns. In this project, we will use historic stock data to help us forecast volatility. Since the financial industry usually uses S&P 500 as the indicator of the market, we will use S&P 500 as a benchmark to compute the risk. We will also use artificial neural networks as a tool to predict volatilities for a specific time frame that will be set when we configure this neural network. There have been reports that neural networks with different numbers of layers and different numbers of hidden nodes may generate varying results. In fact, we may be able to find the best configuration of a neural network to compute volatilities. We will implement this system using the parallel approach. The system can be used as a tool for investors to allocating and hedging assets.

  6. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented.

  7. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented

  8. Sensitivity of Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Systems to Potable Water Constituents, Contaminants and Air Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis A.; Fritts, Sharon; Tsioulos, Gus

    2008-01-01

    The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is the baseline heat rejection technology selected for development for the Constellation lunar suit. The first SWME prototype, designed, built, and tested at Johnson Space Center in 1999 used a Teflon hydrophobic porous membrane sheet shaped into an annulus to provide cooling to the coolant loop through water evaporation to the vacuum of space. This present study describes the test methodology and planning and compares the test performance of three commercially available hollow fiber materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME, in particular, a porous hydrophobic polypropylene, and two variants that employ ion exchange through non-porous hydrophilic modified Nafion. Contamination tests will be performed to probe for sensitivities of the candidate SWME elements to ordinary constituents that are expected to be found in the potable water provided by the vehicle, the target feedwater source. Some of the impurities in potable water are volatile, such as the organics, while others, such as the metals and inorganic ions are nonvolatile. The non-volatile constituents will concentrate in the SWME as evaporated water from the loop is replaced by the feedwater. At some point in the SWME mission lifecycle as the concentrations of the non-volatiles increase, the solubility limits of one or more of the constituents may be reached. The resulting presence of precipitate in the coolant water may begin to plug pores and tube channels and affect the SWME performance. Sensitivity to macroparticles, lunar dust simulant, and air bubbles will also be investigated.

  9. Gamma Radiation Impact on the Survival Microflora and Biochemical Constituents of Stored Anise Seeds (Pimpenella anisum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, G.A.; Botros, H.W.; Ahmed, B.M.; Abo-El-Seoud, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Anise seeds (Pimpenella anisum L.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 KGy). Irradiated and un-irradiated anise seeds were stored for 3, 6 and 12 months and tested for their microbial population . In addition, the chemical constituents (volatile oils, fatty acids, lipids and sugars) were evaluated. The predominant microorganisms contaminated anise seeds include different fungal species identified as Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus , Penicillium funiculosum , P. italicum , Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride. Different bacterial species as Bacillus circulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. brevis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. oleourans and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius were recorded. The imposed irradiation doses showed a promising effect to decontaminate the microbial load , which in turn showed prolong the storage periods. Volatile oil content was relatively declined during storage. In addition, some alternations were happened regarding the essential oils constituents. However, the applied irradiation doses maintained the volatile oil content and retained its constituents near to the normal control. Total lipids content were not influenced by either the applied storage periods or the used gamma irradiation doses. However, the fatty acids methyl ester showed some changes due to the imposed treatments. Sugars content were increased in the stored and un-irradiated seeds, however, the exposure to gamma radiation reduced this increase and retained sugars content near to the normal level of the control seeds.

  10. Analysis of constituents of earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.; Grau, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of an earth formation is investigated by repetitively irradiating the formation with bursts of neutrons from a source and measuring an energy spectrum of the scattering gamma rays resulting from such irradiation e.g. by photomultiplier or solid state detector. The measured spectrum is thereafter analyzed by comparing it with a composite spectrum, made up of standard spectra, measured in a controlled environment, of constituents postulated to comprise the formation. As a result of such analysis, the proportions of the postulated constituents in the formation are determined. Since the measured spectrum is subject to degradation due to changes in the resolution of the detector, a filtering arrangement effects modification of the standard spectra in a manner which compensates for the changes in the detector and thereby provides for a more accurate determination of the constituents of the formation. Temperature is measured by sensor to compensate for temperature dependence of detector resolution. (author)

  11. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  12. Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers

    OpenAIRE

    Dündaröz, Ruşen; Ceylan, Süleyman; Denli, Metin; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Balım, Elvan; Özışık, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1999 Eylül; 6(3) Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers Ruşen Dündaröz, Süleyman Ceylan, Metin Denli, Cengiz Han Açıkel, Elvan Balım, Tahir Özışık Abstract Glue sniffing is a frequent problem among teenagers. Various chemical substances, especially toluene and benzene, contained in the glues kave been reported to be hematotoxic. The hematological parameters of 44 healthy teenagers ~...

  13. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  14. De novo biosynthesis of volatiles induced by insect herbivory in cotton plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pare, P.W.; Tumlinson, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In response to insect feeding on the leaves, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants release elevated levels of volatiles, which can serve as a chemical signal that attracts natural enemies of the herbivore to the damaged plant. Pulse-labeling experiments with [13C]CO2 demonstrated that many of the volatiles released, including the acyclic terpenes (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, (E)-beta-farnesene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool,(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetrane, as well as the shikimate pathway product indole, are biosynthesized de novo following insect damage. However, other volatile constituents, including several cyclic terpenes, butyrates, and green leaf volatiles of the lipoxygenase pathway are released from storage or synthesized from stored intermediates. Analysis of volatiles from artificially damaged plants, with and without beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hubner) oral secretions exogenously applied to the leaves, as well as volatiles from beet armyworm-damaged and -undamaged control plants, demonstrated that the application of caterpillar oral secretions increased both the production and release of several volatiles that are synthesized de novo in response to insect feeding. These results establish that the plant plays an active and dynamic role in mediating the interaction between herbivores and natural enemies of herbivores

  15. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable....

  16. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.mierczynska-vasilev@awri.com.au; Smith, Paul A., E-mail: paul.smith@awri.com.au

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO{sub 3}H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH{sub 2} and NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR{sub 3} and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO{sub 3}H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH{sub 2} and −NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR{sub 3} and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  17. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO_3H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH_2 and NR_3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR_3 and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO_3H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH_2 and −NR_3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR_3 and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  18. A whiff of death: fatal volatile solvent inhalation abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Davis, G J; Nicol, K K

    1996-09-01

    Inhalation abuse of volatile solvents, previously known generically as "glue sniffing," is typically pursued by adolescents. A wide range of legal, easily obtained products containing volatile substances are available for abuse. We report two illustrative cases of fatal volatile substance abuse: gasoline sniffing in a 20-year-old man and aerosol propellant gas inhalation (aerosol air freshener) in a 16-year-old girl with underlying reactive airway disease. Although the ratio of deaths to nonfatal inhalation escapades is extremely low, volatile solvent abuse carries the risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrest after a dysrhythmia or vasovagal event, central nervous system respiratory depression, hypoxia and hypercapnia due to the techniques of inhalation, and other mechanisms. Investigation of the patient's substance abuse history, examination of the scene of death, and special toxicologic analyses are critical to identifying volatile substance inhalation abuse as the cause of death because anatomic autopsy findings will typically be nonspecific. Above all, physicians must suspect the diagnosis of volatile substance inhalation abuse, especially in any case of sudden death involving an otherwise healthy young person.

  19. Constituent gluon interpretation of glueballs and gluelumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, N.; Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.; Semay, C.

    2008-01-01

    Arguments are given that support the interpretation of the lattice QCD glueball and gluelump spectra in terms of bound states of massless constituent gluons with helicity 1. In this scheme, we show that the mass hierarchy of the currently known gluelumps and glueballs is mainly due to the number of constituent gluons and can be understood within a simple flux tube model. It is also argued that the lattice QCD 0 +- glueball should be seen as a four-gluon bound state. We finally predict the mass of the 0 - state, not yet computed in lattice QCD. (orig.)

  20. Isolation and characterization of total volatile components from leaves of citrus limon linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadambari Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steam distillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by means of Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatile components were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification was done by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RI values and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standard available literature.

  1. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  2. The Effects of Federal Funds Target Rate Changes on S&P100 Stock Returns, Volatilities, and Correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chulia-Soler (Helena); M.P.E. Martens (Martin); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe study the impact of FOMC announcements of Federal funds target rate decisions on individual stock prices at the intraday level. We find that the returns, volatilities and correlations of the S&P100 index constituents only respond to the surprise component in the announcement, as

  3. Influence of commercial (Fluka) naphthenic acids on acid volatile sulfide (AVS) production and divalent metal precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Andrew D; Kinley, Ciera M; Rodgers, John H; Friesen, Vanessa; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Haakensen, Monique C

    2016-12-01

    Energy-derived waters containing naphthenic acids (NAs) are complex mixtures often comprising a suite of potentially problematic constituents (e.g. organics, metals, and metalloids) that need treatment prior to beneficial use, including release to receiving aquatic systems. It has previously been suggested that NAs can have biostatic or biocidal properties that could inhibit microbially driven processes (e.g. dissimilatory sulfate reduction) used to transfer or transform metals in passive treatment systems (i.e. constructed wetlands). The overall objective of this study was to measure the effects of a commercially available (Fluka) NA on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), production of sulfides (as acid-volatile sulfides [AVS]), and precipitation of divalent metals (i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn). These endpoints were assessed following 21-d aqueous exposures of NAs using bench-scale reactors. After 21-days, AVS molar concentrations were not statistically different (pAVS production was sufficient in all NA treatments to achieve ∑SEM:AVS AVS) could be used to treat metals occurring in NAs affected waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutations of Electrons as Constituents of Hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, R. B.

    1997-04-01

    Conjecture (C) 1: Coulomb-charged constituents of electron (e) are attracted to its barycentre by lepto-strong force F=K/r^2+f; f is stably perturbative for r Non-fiction Library, Urbana, 1986); R.M. Santilli, Hadronic Mechanics (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1995 and 1996), 3 volumes.)

  5. The fragrance mix and its constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1995-01-01

    Results from 14 years of patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents are reviewed. From 1979-1992, 8215 consecutive patients were patch tested with the fragrance mix and 449 (5.5%) had a positive reaction. An increase in the frequency of reactions to fragrance mix was seen from the ...

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Constituents in Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous Determination of Seven Constituents in Herbal Prescription Jaeumganghwa-Tang Using HPLC-PDA. CS Seo, JH Kim, HK Shin. Abstract. A simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the quantitative analysis of seven components of the traditional herbal prescription ...

  7. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude methanol extracts obtained from the stem, roots and leaves of Anthocleista djalonensis and three natural plant constituents (djalonenol 1, sweroside 3 and djalonensone 9 respectively) isolated from these extracts were evaluated invitro against ST-57 brain tumor transformed fibroblasts. In addition, six semisynthetic ...

  8. Volatile elements in Allende inclusions. [Mn, Na and Cl relation to meteorite evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, L.; Ganapathy, R.

    1975-01-01

    New data are presented on the relatively volatile elements (Mn, Na, and Cl) in coarse- and fine-grained Ca/Al-rich inclusions of different textures and mineralogy in the Allende meteorite. It is shown that the coarse-grained inclusions condensed from the solar nebula at high temperature and contained vanishingly small quantities of volatile elements at that time. Later, volatiles were added to these during the metamorphism of the Allende parent body. The fine-grained inclusions were also affected by the addition of volatiles during this metamorphism but, unlike the coarse-grained ones, they incorporated large amounts of volatiles when they condensed from the solar nebula, accounting for their higher volatile element contents.

  9. Chiral bag model with constituent quarks: topological and nontopological decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, I.Yu.; Sveshnikov, K.A.; Fedorov, S.M.; Khalili, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The three-phase modification of the hybrid chiral bag containing along with asymptotic freedom and hadronization phases and also intermediate phase of the constituent quarks is considered. The self-consistent solutions of the equations of the model in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case are determined with an account of the fermion vacuum polarization effects. The bag renormalized complete energy is studied as a function of the parameters characterizing the bag geometry and its topological (baryon) charge. It is shown that for nonzero topological charge there exists the whole series of configurations representing the local minima of the bag complete energy and containing all three phases, whereas the bag energy minimum in the nontopological case corresponds to zero dimensions of the area corresponding to asymptotic freedom phase [ru

  10. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  11. Method of removing sodium deposited to constituent element of LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuta, Susumu; Nakagawa, Tamotsu.

    1989-01-01

    Spent reactor core constituent elements deposited with sodium are vertically embedded in an inactive powder contained in a container. Then, a blower for a gas circulation circuit disposed through the inactive powder from below is driven to supply inactive gases by way of a dispersion plate from blow the container. The inactive gases and/or mechanical vibrations fluidize the inactive powder and keep the inside of the container to 300 - 600degC. Then, sodium deposited to the reactor core constituent elements is deposited to the inactive powdery particles and evaporated. The inactive gases accompanying sodium vapors discharged from the container are cooled and sodium is separated by condensation and recovered. This can outstandingly reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and deposited sodium can be removed efficiently irrespective of the amount of heat generated. (T.M.)

  12. Volatility Properties of Polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    2002-06-01

    Thermodynamical constants to describe evaporation processes of polonium are summarized and critically discussed. Additionally, systematic changes of the properties of the chalcogenes are analyzed, empirical correlations are proofed and cyclic processes are balanced. Accordingly, the existing values of entropies for polonium are acceptable. Questionable, however, are those values of enthalpies, which have been deduced from results of the experimental investigations of the vapor pressure temperature dependency, of the melting point, and of the boiling temperatures. Technical difficulties and possible error sources of the measurements resulting from the radioactive decay properties of 210 Po are discussed. Using extrapolative standard enthalpies and entropies as well as their temperature dependency, the equilibrium partial pressure of the monomeric and dimeric polonium above the pure condensed phase and the equilibrium constant of the dimerization reaction in the gas phase are calculated: log p/pa Po (g) = (11.797 ± 0.024) -(9883.4 ± 9.5)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (10.661 ± 0.057) - (9328.4 ± 4.9)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log p/pa Po 2 (g) = (13.698 ± 0.049) - (8592.3 ± 19.6)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (11.424 ± 0.124) - (7584.1 ± 98.1)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log K (dim) = (-4.895 ± 0.012) + (11071 ± 6)/T. According to these calculations and in contrast to other works, polonium evaporates in the entire temperature range between 298 and 1300 K in the dimeric state. Hence, 'latent heats' of the volatilization processes are clearly larger compared to literature data. Especially in the temperature range of the solid polonium the calculated vapor pressure curve shifts significantly to lower values, whereas the boiling point was almost reproduced by the calculation. The results of the extrapolation for the standard enthalpy of the gaseous monomeric polonium and the dimerization enthalpy ΔH 0 298 Po (g) = 188.9 kJ/mol and ΔH 0 298 (form) Po 2 (g) = 211.5 kJ/mol are

  13. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry leas used for quantifying 28 volatile organic compounds at eight stages during tree storage period. Through principal component analysis, three important storage parameters could be identified. Principal components 1, 2 and 3 reflected storage tinge, conditions of light...

  14. Light-Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosol Constituents from Combustion of Indonesian Peat and Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Riva, Matthieu; Williams, Michael; Chen, Jing; Itoh, Masayuki; Surratt, Jason D; Kuwata, Mikinori

    2017-04-18

    Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultraviolet (UV) and visible light and thus impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in (i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and (ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography instrument interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer operated in the negative ion mode. In the laboratory-generated aerosols, we identified 41 compounds that can potentially absorb near-UV and visible wavelengths, such as oxygenated-conjugated compounds, nitroaromatics, and S-containing compounds. The sum of BrC constituents in peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal burning aerosols are 16%, 35%, and 28% of the OA mass, respectively, giving an average contribution of 24%. On average, the BrC constituents account for 0.4% of the ambient OA mass; however, large uncertainties in mass closure remain because of the lack of authentic standards. This study highlights the potential of light-absorbing BrC OA constituents from peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal burning and their importance in the atmosphere.

  15. Effect of coal soluble constituents on caking property of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Mingdong Zheng; Zhicai Wang; Xunming Li [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Anhui Educational Department

    2007-07-15

    Three cokemaking bituminous coals were extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvents with different content of NMP, and the effect of the amount and the component of coal soluble constituents on the caking property of the extracted residues of coals were investigated in this study. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was found to give the maximal extraction yields for the three coals, and the fat coal gave the highest extraction yield of 78.6% (daf) corresponding to its highest caking index of 101. It was found that for coking coal, when the extraction yield got to the maximum of 25.3% in the 1:1 by volume of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent, the residue extracted still had caking property with the caking index of 19. This means parts of the caking constituents of coal are un-extractible because of covalent bonding or strong associative cross-links. The soluble components extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent and their effects on the caking indexes of the residues at a similar extraction yield quite differed depending on the NMP content in the mixed solvent. The coal solubles extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP less than 50% contained less light constituents with less of oxygen groups. This may lead to the decrease in the caking indexes for the residues obtained at the similar extraction yields compared to those of the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP more than 50%. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogerson, Kirsten; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Barupal, Dinesh K; Fiehn, Oliver

    2011-08-04

    Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase) is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity) from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species). Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http://vocbinbase.fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu). The Bin

  17. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barupal Dinesh K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. Description The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species. Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http

  18. [Chemical constituents from stems of Ilex pubescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xian-dong; Zhang, Qian; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wen-yuan

    2012-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Am. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various column chromatographic methods with diatomite, silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on physical properties and spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated and determined as luteolin(1), quercetin(2), hyperoside(3), rutin(4), 1, 5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(5),3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid-1-O-beta-D-glucoside(6), hexadecanoic acid(7), stearic acid(8), n-tetratriacontanol(9), respectively. All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 5 and 6 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  19. Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions

  20. [Chemical constituents from rhizomes of Illicium henryi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Xuemei; Shi, Yao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yunbao; Chen, Jijun

    2010-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Illicium henryi. Column chromatographic techniques using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, Rp-8 and Rp-18 as packing materials were applied to isolate constituents. The structures of isolates were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Twelve compounds were isolated from the rhizomes of I. henryi, which were characterized as balanophonin (1), aviculin (2), rubriflosides A (3), 1,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol (4), jasopyran (5), kaempferol (6), quercetin (7), (2R, 3R)-3, 5, 7, 3', 5'- pentahydroxyflavan (8), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), coniferyl aldehyde (11), sinapaldehyde (12), respectively. All the isolates were obtained for the first time from this plant.

  1. Inferring the origin of rare fruit distillates from compositional data using multivariate statistical analyses and the identification of new flavour constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Denić, Marija S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stankov-Jovanović, Vesna P; Mitić, Violeta D; Stojanović, Gordana S; Radulović, Niko S

    2015-04-01

    In Serbia, delicatessen fruit alcoholic drinks are produced from autochthonous fruit-bearing species such as cornelian cherry, blackberry, elderberry, wild strawberry, European wild apple, European blueberry and blackthorn fruits. There are no chemical data on many of these and herein we analysed volatile minor constituents of these rare fruit distillates. Our second goal was to determine possible chemical markers of these distillates through a statistical/multivariate treatment of the herein obtained and previously reported data. Detailed chemical analyses revealed a complex volatile profile of all studied fruit distillates with 371 identified compounds. A number of constituents were recognised as marker compounds for a particular distillate. Moreover, 33 of them represent newly detected flavour constituents in alcoholic beverages or, in general, in foodstuffs. With the aid of multivariate analyses, these volatile profiles were successfully exploited to infer the origin of raw materials used in the production of these spirits. It was also shown that all fruit distillates possessed weak antimicrobial properties. It seems that the aroma of these highly esteemed wild-fruit spirits depends on the subtle balance of various minor volatile compounds, whereby some of them are specific to a certain type of fruit distillate and enable their mutual distinction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparative study of volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of pecan cultivars growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hawary, Seham S; Zaghloul, Soumaya S; El Halawany, Ali M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H

    2013-11-01

    The volatile oils obtained from the leaves of four pecan cultivars growing in Egypt were evaluated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. The selected cultivars (cv.) were Carya illinoinensis (Wangneh.) K. Koch. cv. Wichita, C. illinoinensis cv. Western Schley, C. illinoinensis cv. Cherokee, and C. illinoinensis cv. Sioux. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the volatile oils from samples of the different cultivars differ in composition and percentage of their components. β-Curcumene was found as the major constituent of the cv. Wichita oil, whereas germacrene D was the major component of cv. Sioux, cv. Cherokee, and cv. Western Schley. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer Method by measuring the zone of inhibition of growth. All volatile oils displayed an antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial strains. On the other hand, only the volatile oil of cv. Wichita showed an antifungal effect on Aspergillus flavus. This work has identified candidates of volatile oils for future in vivo studies to develop antibiotic substitutes for the diminution of human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the variations of the volatile oil components and antimicrobial potencies of the different studied cultivars, necessitate identifying the cultivars used in future studies.

  3. Identification of octanal as plant growth inhibitory volatile compound released from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishyna, Maryia; Laman, Nikolai; Prokhorov, Valery; Maninang, John Solomon; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden of the Apiaceae family is a malignant invasive plant in Eastern Europe, Belarus and Russia. The species is known for its prolific seed production, which has been linked to the plant's invasive success. The fruit also has a strong aroma, but the contribution of the fruit's volatile constituent to out-compete neighboring plants has not been fully established. In this study, fruit volatiles of H. sosnowskyi and conspecifics (i.e. H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum, H. hirtum) were identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Octyl acetate, octanol, octanal, hexyl isobutyrate, and hexyl-2-methyl butyrate were found to be the principal volatiles. Using authentic standards, the growth-inhibitory property of the individual compounds was assayed by the novel Cotton swab method. Assay results with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showed that octanal strongly inhibited seed germination and radicle elongation of seedlings. The results suggest that octanal may be the main contributor to the allelopathic activity of H. sosnowksyi fruits. Furthermore, the mixture of fruit volatiles from the invasive H. sosnowskyi more strongly delayed lettuce seedling elongation than the volatiles from fruits of the non-invasive H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum and H. hirtum. Thus, the present study is the first to demonstrate the possible involvement of fruit volatiles of Heracleum species in plant-plant interaction.

  4. Vast Volatility Matrix Estimation using High Frequency Data for Portfolio Selection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Li, Yingying; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio allocation with gross-exposure constraint is an effective method to increase the efficiency and stability of portfolios selection among a vast pool of assets, as demonstrated in Fan et al. (2011). The required high-dimensional volatility matrix can be estimated by using high frequency financial data. This enables us to better adapt to the local volatilities and local correlations among vast number of assets and to increase significantly the sample size for estimating the volatility matrix. This paper studies the volatility matrix estimation using high-dimensional high-frequency data from the perspective of portfolio selection. Specifically, we propose the use of “pairwise-refresh time” and “all-refresh time” methods based on the concept of “refresh time” proposed by Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2008) for estimation of vast covariance matrix and compare their merits in the portfolio selection. We establish the concentration inequalities of the estimates, which guarantee desirable properties of the estimated volatility matrix in vast asset allocation with gross exposure constraints. Extensive numerical studies are made via carefully designed simulations. Comparing with the methods based on low frequency daily data, our methods can capture the most recent trend of the time varying volatility and correlation, hence provide more accurate guidance for the portfolio allocation in the next time period. The advantage of using high-frequency data is significant in our simulation and empirical studies, which consist of 50 simulated assets and 30 constituent stocks of Dow Jones Industrial Average index. PMID:23264708

  5. Vast Volatility Matrix Estimation using High Frequency Data for Portfolio Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Li, Yingying; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio allocation with gross-exposure constraint is an effective method to increase the efficiency and stability of portfolios selection among a vast pool of assets, as demonstrated in Fan et al. (2011). The required high-dimensional volatility matrix can be estimated by using high frequency financial data. This enables us to better adapt to the local volatilities and local correlations among vast number of assets and to increase significantly the sample size for estimating the volatility matrix. This paper studies the volatility matrix estimation using high-dimensional high-frequency data from the perspective of portfolio selection. Specifically, we propose the use of "pairwise-refresh time" and "all-refresh time" methods based on the concept of "refresh time" proposed by Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2008) for estimation of vast covariance matrix and compare their merits in the portfolio selection. We establish the concentration inequalities of the estimates, which guarantee desirable properties of the estimated volatility matrix in vast asset allocation with gross exposure constraints. Extensive numerical studies are made via carefully designed simulations. Comparing with the methods based on low frequency daily data, our methods can capture the most recent trend of the time varying volatility and correlation, hence provide more accurate guidance for the portfolio allocation in the next time period. The advantage of using high-frequency data is significant in our simulation and empirical studies, which consist of 50 simulated assets and 30 constituent stocks of Dow Jones Industrial Average index.

  6. Testing for Volatility Co-movement in Bivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jinghui; Kobayashi, Masahito; McAleer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper considers the problem of volatility co-movement, namely as to whether two financial returns have perfectly correlated common volatility process, in the framework of multivariate stochastic volatility models and proposes a test which checks the volatility co-movement. The proposed test is a stochastic volatility version of the co-movement test proposed by Engle and Susmel (1993), who investigated whether international equity markets have volatility co-movement using t...

  7. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Separation of the constituents of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betrand, M F

    1938-12-06

    A process is disclosed of separating, by means of dense aqueous solutions, the constituents of coal, isolated by preliminary crushing from each other and/or from barren and carbonaceous shales, comprising the addition to the washing water before treatment or during any stage of the preparation of the coal before separation, or to the dense separating solution of agents improving the wetting of the coal by water.

  9. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  10. Chemical Investigations of Volatile Oil of Salvia yosgadensis Freyn et Bornm

    OpenAIRE

    ŞARER, Engin

    1988-01-01

    There are 44 endemic species of the Salvia genera growing in Anatolia. In this research, the physical properties and the chemical composition of the volatile oil of S. yosgadensis Freyn. et Bornm. as an endemic species have been investigated. The flowers and leaves of the plant contain 0.30 per cent volatile oil. In this oil 14 monoterpene hydrocarbons and 15 oxygen-containing compounds and sesquiter

  11. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, frozen green pepper and real pink pepper (kept in vinegar) were analyzed by reversed phase IIPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile - 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. The different constituents were observed clearly on chromatogram between black pepper and white pepper. The different constituents were observed between different producing white peppers, and as the result that the analyzed pepper was distinguished its producing district by HPLC chromatogram. In order to investigate of effect of lyophilization on white pepper extracts, lyophilized extraction was analyzed by this HPLC method. Some peaks were decreased by lyophilization. The effect of heat on white pepper constituents was examined. White pepper was heated by electronic oven and thermostat. When the former method was used, decreased peak number (peak height was lower than without heat treatment) was more than latter method. These subtle change was able to be recognized by these HPLC chromatograms. (author)

  12. Constituents of the leaf oil of Vietnamese Clausena excavata Burm.f

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Thin, N.N.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed analvsis of the essential oil of Clausena excavata Burm.f. has been carried out by capillary dc and GC/MS. The oil contains more than 50 components, of which 40 have been identified. The main constituents found were beta-caryophyllene (25.3%), germacrene B (11.8%) !Uld beta-phellandrene

  13. Estimation of inorganic constituents in the seeds of blue and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of inorganic constituents in the seeds of blue and white flowering capitulum of Silybum marianum. FA Khan, MUR Khattak, M Zahoor. Abstract. Silybum Marianum commonly known as milk thistle contains flavonolignans, collectively known as silymarin. The main components of silymarin are silybine, isosilybine, ...

  14. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  15. Multiscaling and clustering of volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Michele; Serva, Maurizio

    1999-07-01

    The dynamics of prices in stock markets has been studied intensively both experimentally (data analysis) and theoretically (models). Nevertheless, while the distribution of returns of the most important indices is known to be a truncated Lévy, the behaviour of volatility correlations is still poorly understood. What is well known is that absolute returns have memory on a long time range, this phenomenon is known in financial literature as clustering of volatility. In this paper we show that volatility correlations are power laws with a non-unique scaling exponent. This kind of multiscale phenomenology is known to be relevant in fully developed turbulence and in disordered systems and it is pointed out here for the first time for a financial series. In our study we consider the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) daily index, from January 1966 to June 1998, for a total of 8180 working days.

  16. Measurement of volatiles, semi-volatiles and heavy metals in an oil burn test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.; Caron, T.; Landriault, M.; Pare, J.R.J.; Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    Tests involving meso-scale burning of Louisiana crude oil were conducted, and during each burn, extensive samples were taken from the oil, residue, and the smoke plume. The detailed analytical work employed to obtain and analyze the burn samples is outlined and discussed. The analytical parameters included volatiles and semi-volatiles of environmental interests as well as heavy metals typically contained in the starting crude oil. Because the smoke plume did not always impinge on the samplers, the ground samplers did not collect sufficient samples for a definitive analysis. Crude/residue analyses showed the burn resulted in a significant reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the original oil. Most of the reduction was thought to be simply evaporation or destruction from combustion. The residue did not have the degree of enrichment of the higher molecular weight PAHs as was the case in bench-scale burn experiments. Volatile organic compound and dioxin/furan measurements likewise did not show high levels of contamination from the burn itself. Most of the elevated levels of contaminants could probably be due to evaporation of the oil itself. Insufficient sampling was conducted to investigate the background levels from the weathering process. A novel means of sampling using a small remote controlled helicopter was attempted and sufficiently interesting results were obtained to indicate the potential of this passive sampling device for future work. 5 refs., 4 figs

  17. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-07-28

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  18. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  19. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  20. Detection of mastitis pathogens by analysis of volatile bacterial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, K A; van Valenberg, H J F; Lam, T J G M; van Hooijdonk, A C M

    2008-10-01

    The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In addition, samples from cows without clinical mastitis and with low somatic cell count (SCC) were collected for comparison. All mastitis samples were examined by using classical microbiological methods, followed by headspace analysis for volatile metabolites. Milk from culture-negative samples contained a lower number and amount of volatile components compared with cows with clinical mastitis. Because of variability between samples within a group, comparisons between pathogens were not sufficient for classification of the samples by univariate statistics. Therefore, an artificial neural network was trained to classify the pathogen in the milk samples based on the bacterial metabolites. The trained network differentiated milk from uninfected and infected quarters very well. When comparing pathogens, Staph. aureus produced a very different pattern of volatile metabolites compared with the other samples. Samples with coagulase-negative staphylococci and E. coli had enough dissimilarity with the other pathogens, making it possible to separate these 2 pathogens from each other and from the other samples. The 2 streptococcus species did not show significant differences between each other but could be identified as a different group from the other pathogens. Five groups can thus be identified based on the volatile bacterial metabolites: Staph. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci (Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae as one group), E. coli, and uninfected quarters.

  1. Major phenolic and volatile compounds and their influence on sensorial aspects in stem-contact fermentation winemaking of Primitivo red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, S; Alba, V; Di Gennaro, D; Basile, T; Tamborra, M; Tarricone, L

    2016-08-01

    In red winemaking de-stemming is crucial since the stems contain polymeric phenolic compounds responsible for the astringency of wine. Wine such as Primitivo has low phenolic constituents and tannins and stems affect aroma, taste body and olfactory characteristics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of presence of stems during fermentation on polyphenolic, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of wine. Primitivo grapes vinified in presence of different percentage of stems: 100 % de-stemmed (D100), 75 % de-stemmed (D75) and 50 % de-stemmed (D50). Results confirmed that the wines vinified in presence of stems were higher in tannins, flavans, to vanillin and proanthocyanidins, colour intensity with lower anthocyanins. The presence of stems during fermentation conferred more structure and flavour to wines. They facilitated must aeration thus promoting synthesis of higher alcohols and ethyl esters by yeast. In particular, a higher content of hexan-1-ol, hex-3-en-1-ol and 2-phenyl ethanol in D50 and D75 gave the wines that suggest green grass, herb and floral. Wine from D75 seemed to be better than D50 in terms of volatile compounds as well as fruity, floral and balsamic components preserved, without any unpleasant taste of long chain fatty acids found in D50.

  2. Chemical constituents and anti-ulcerogenic potential of the scales of Cynara scolymus (artichoke) heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mahmoud I; Mohamed, Tahia K; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Abdel Lateef, Azza M; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H

    2013-08-15

    Cynara scolymus L. (Asteraseae) (artichoke) is commonly eaten as a vegetable; its leaves are frequently used in folk medicine in the treatment of hepatitis, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and dyspeptic disorders. The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of the volatile oil and alcoholic extract of artichoke head scales. In addition, the role of the methanol extract as an anti-ulcer agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was evaluated. Six flavonoids and one phenolic acid were obtained from the methanol extract. Also, 37 compounds were identified in the volatile oil, the majority including mono- and sesquiterpenes. The artichoke extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) significantly (P artichoke induced an increase in gastric mucus production, and a reduction of the depth and severity of mucosal lesions. Artichoke dose-dependently reduced the elevated ethanol gastric malonylaldehyde, and reduced glutathione levels and catalase activity. These results suggest that the head scales of artichoke possess potential anti-ulcer activity. The present paper describes the identification of volatile oil for the first time along with the isolation and identification of the constituents of the methanol extract. Moreover, the high anti-ulcerogenic potential of scales of C. scolymus heads was established here for the first time. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Analysis of Organic Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fermented Stinky Tofu Using SPME with Different Fiber Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  4. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  5. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bastelberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas–particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4 is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities < 10−14 cm2 s−1 at temperatures < 15 °C. The temperature dependence is strong, suggesting a diffusion activation energy of about 300 kJ mol−1. We conclude that atmospheric volatile organic compounds can be subject to severe diffusion limitations in viscous organic aerosol particles. This may enable an important long-range transport mechanism for organic material, including pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs.

  6. Evaluation of allergenicity of constituents of myoga using the murine local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q J; Wei, C N; Harada, K; Minamoto, K; Okamoto, Y; Otsuka, M; Ueda, A

    2010-01-01

    Myoga (Zingiber Myoga Roscoe) is a perennial plant with a pungent smell from its flower buds. It is native to East Asia and has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study is to assess the allergenicity of myoga related to its major chemical components, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, limonene oxide and beta-phellandrene, which are supposed to be the causative agents of contact dermatitis among myoga cultivators. We performed a toxicity study of the volatile constituents of myoga using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), in which limonene, limonene oxide and beta-phellandrene had positive responses and the EC3 was 35.8%, 8.22%, and 0.54%, respectively. EC3 for both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene was over 100%. Both chemicals failed to induce positive responses in the LLNA. While the maximization rating of limonene, limonene oxide and phellandrene were evaluated as moderate, extreme, and extreme respectively, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were evaluated as weak in the previously reported GPMT. The usage of LLNA was also confirmed by comparing with previously reported GPMT results to detect the allergenicity of myoga constituents. The actual risk of humans developing an allergy to myoga constituents depends on many factors. The concentration of the compounds, the frequency and duration of exposure and the condition of the skin are supposed to be important factors.

  7. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  8. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2002-06-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  9. Identification of a volatile phytotoxin from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelli, J. S.; Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives were to develop a trap system for isolating fractions of volatile algal phytotoxin and to characterize the major components of the isolated phytotoxin fractions. A bioassay using Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings was developed to aid in investigating the properties of the phytotoxin produced by cultures of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris and Chlorella vulgaris. Two traps were found, 1.0 M hydrochloric acid and 0 C, which removed the phytotoxin from the algal effluent and which could be treated to release that phytotoxin as judged with the bioassay procedure. It was also determined that pretraps of 1.0 M sodium hydroxide and 1.0 M potassium biocarbonate could be used without lowering the phytotoxin effect. Ammonia was identified in trap solutions by ninhydrin reaction, indophenol reaction and derivatization with dansyl chloride and phenylisothiocyanate. Ammonia at the gaseous concentrations detected was found to have the same effects in the bioassay system as the volatile phytotoxin. It is possible that other basic, nitrogen containing compounds which augment the effects of ammonia were present at lower concentrations in the algal effluent.

  10. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  11. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical

  12. Removal of uranium from simulated fly ash by chloride volatilization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuaki, Sato; Yoshikatsu, Tochigi; Toshiki, Fukui; Takeo, Fujino

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash is generated from LWR nuclear power plant as a low-level waste, which is contaminated with a small amount of radioactive materials, composed mainly of uranium oxide. The constituents of the fly ash are similar to those of the ore; the major components of the ash are oxides of silicon, aluminum, sodium, magnesium, zinc, iron sodium and uranium. In this study, removal of uranium from the simulated fly ash, of which composition was U 3 O 8 : 10, CaO:25, SiO 2 : 25, Al 2 O 3 : 20, MgO: 10, ZnO:5, Fe 2 O 3 : 3 and Na 2 CO 3 : 2 wt%, by chloride volatilization method was examined. The simulated fly ash was chlorinated by the same manner as the dry way processing for the ore; namely, the ash was heated in a flow of chlorine in the presence of carbon at high temperatures. In the case of volatilization of uranium from U 3 O 8 and a simulated fly ash by chlorination using chlorine and carbon, it was seen that uranium of both samples showed similar volatilization behaviour: The volatilization ratio of uranium (VU) increased with increasing temperature from 800 to 1100 C. The VU value attained 99.9% at 1100 C. Iron, silicon and zinc showed similar behaviour to uranium, namely, they vaporized completely. The volatilization ratio of aluminum, magnesium and sodium were still high in a range 80-90%. The volatilization ratio of calcium was ∼40% under the same chlorination condition, though it changed to chloride. For recovery of uranium from fly ash by chlorination using chlorine in the presence of carbon, high volatilization ratio of uranium can be achieved at high temperatures. Volatilization ratio of other components also increases, which decreases the amount of decontaminated residue resulting in the reducing of decontamination effect. Selection of heating condition is important. (author)

  13. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  14. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...

  15. Cross-Sectional Distribution of GARCH Coefficients across S&P 500 Constituents: Time-Variation over the Period 2000-2012

    OpenAIRE

    David Ardia; Lennart F. Hoogerheide

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the time-variation of the cross-sectional distribution of asymmetric GARCH model parameters over the S&P 500 constituents for the period 2000-2012. We find the following results. First, the unconditional variances in the GARCH model obviously show major time-variation, with a high level after the dot-com bubble and the highest peak in the latest financial crisis. Second, in these more volatile periods it is especially the persistence of deviations of volatility from is uncondit...

  16. The content of active constituents of stored sliced and powdered preparations of turmeric rhizomes and zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The stability of active constituents (curcuminoids and volatile oil in turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. rhizomes and zedoary [Curcuma zedoaria (Berg. Roscoe] bulb and finger rhizomes during storage have been investigated. They were prepared as sliced and powdered and separately packed, either in black polyethylene bags or in paper bags, and stored at room temperature (28-31oC. Samples at initial and three monthly intervals were examined over 12-15 months storage to determine the contents of curcuminoids, volatile oil and moisture. The results showed that storage of rhizomes in black polyethylene bags could prevent samples from taking up moisture better than those stored in paper bags. The sliced and powderedturmeric rhizomes exhibited no decrease in curcuminoids content after 15 months of storage irrespective of the nature of the packing material. However, the slices of zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes lost curcuminoids to a lesser extent than powdered rhizomes during storage period. Volatile oil content of turmeric rhizomes, zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes decreased slower when stored as slices rather than as powders. The result from the present study suggested that in order to maintain the quality of turmeric and zedoary rhizomes as raw material for food and medicinal uses, they should be prepared in sliced form and stored in black polyethylene bags in order to maintain their content of active constituents during storage period.

  17. Effects of time pressure and accountability to constituents on negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosterd, I.; Rutte, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory experiment examined the effects of time pressure (high versus low) and accountability to constituents (not-accountable-to-constituents versus accountable-to-constituents) on the competitiveness of negotiators' interaction and on the outcome (i.e., agreement or impasse) of the

  18. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  19. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  20. A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of

  1. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    We present and test a model relating a firm's idiosyncratic cost, its exporting status, and the volatilities of its domestic and export sales. In prior models of trade, supply costs for domestic and exports were linear and thus additively separable. We introduce a nonlinear cost function in order...... to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...... has several testable predictions. First, larger firms have lower total and domestic sales volatilities. Second, foreign market volatility increases domestic sales volatilities for exporters. Third, exporters allocate output across both markets in order to reduce total sales volatility. We find...

  2. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  3. Development of tensiometric barriers for containment and remediation at waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C.; Morris, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a concept in which dry air is injected into an unsaturated formation to reduce the soil moisture content, referred to here as a tensiometric (or sometimes dry) barrier. The objective is to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated media to the point where liquid phase transport becomes negligible, thereby achieving containment. The concept could be applied in subsurface formations to provide containment from a leaking facility, or it could be incorporated into a cover design to provide redundancy for a capillary barrier. The air injection process could in principle be coupled with a vacuum extraction system to recover soil vapors, which would then provide a remediation process that would be appropriate if volatile organic compounds were present. Work to date has consisted of a combined theoretical, laboratory, and field research investigation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the tensiometric barrier concept by identifying the parameters which determine its effectiveness. Based on the results obtained for the experimental and theoretical studies, feasibility analyses were prepared as a modification for a landfill cover design to prevent infiltration from atmospheric precipitation and for potential application of tensiometric barriers to achieve subsurface containment of mobile pollutants and removal of volatile constituents. These analyses considered the technical as well as the economic aspects of the tensiometric barrier concept, and found that a properly designed and operated tensiometric barrier is competitive with conventional containment methods. In addition, they benefit from being able to recover from failure by circulating additional dry air through the formation to re-establish the barrier phenomena. (author) 10 figs., 4 tabs., 17 refs

  4. [Influence of liquid or solid culture conditions on the volatile components of mycelia of Isariacateinannulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ruili; Li, Kangle; Hu, Fenglin

    2011-12-01

    To determine the volatile components of mycelia of Isaria cateinannulata cultured under different culture conditions, and to analyze the relationships between the culture conditions and volatile metabolites. Mycelia were cultured in solid plates with SDAY medium and liquid shake flasks with SDY medium. The culture conditions were at 25 degrees C and 8 days. Volatile components in the mycelia of I. cateinannulata were extracted with simultaneous distillation extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Alkenes, alkanes, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were existed abundantly both in the mycelia of liquid and solid cultures, but the kinds and relative concentrations of the volatile components in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were very different. Forty-one compounds were identified from the mycelia of solid culture and 32 compounds were identified from the mycelia of liquid culture. Esters, quinones and oximes were only found in solid cultured mycelia whereas carboxylic acids were only discovered in the mycelia of liquid culture. At the same time, mycelia of liquid culture contained much more phenols. The most abundant compounds in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were hydrocarbons. The volatile extracts of solid cultured mycelia contained 57.6% alkenes and 9.19% alkanes. The volatile extracts of liquid cultured mycelia contained 7.85% alkenes and 22.4% alkanes. Liquid or solid culture conditions influenced the volatile components of mycelia of I. cateinannulata.

  5. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  6. The origin of volatiles in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier-Majumder, Saswata; Hirschmann, Marc M.

    2017-08-01

    The Earth's deep interior contains significant reservoirs of volatiles such as H, C, and N. Due to the incompatible nature of these volatile species, it has been difficult to reconcile their storage in the residual mantle immediately following crystallization of the terrestrial magma ocean (MO). As the magma ocean freezes, it is commonly assumed that very small amounts of melt are retained in the residual mantle, limiting the trapped volatile concentration in the primordial mantle. In this article, we show that inefficient melt drainage out of the freezing front can retain large amounts of volatiles hosted in the trapped melt in the residual mantle while creating a thick early atmosphere. Using a two-phase flow model, we demonstrate that compaction within the moving freezing front is inefficient over time scales characteristic of magma ocean solidification. We employ a scaling relation between the trapped melt fraction, the rate of compaction, and the rate of freezing in our magma ocean evolution model. For cosmochemically plausible fractions of volatiles delivered during the later stages of accretion, our calculations suggest that up to 77% of total H2O and 12% of CO2 could have been trapped in the mantle during magma ocean crystallization. The assumption of a constant trapped melt fraction underestimates the mass of volatiles in the residual mantle by more than an order of magnitude.Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's deep interior contains substantial amounts of volatile elements like C, H, and N. How these elements got sequestered in the Earth's interior has long been a topic of debate. It is generally assumed that most of these elements escaped the interior of the Earth during the first few hundred thousand years to create a primitive atmosphere, leaving the mantle reservoir nearly empty. In this work, we show that the key to this paradox involves the very early stages of crystallization of the mantle from a global magma ocean. Using numerical models, we show

  7. Two new constituents from Erigeron breviscapus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, De-Quan

    2013-09-01

    Two novel constituents, named erigeronones A (1) and B (2), together with apigenin-7-O-β-galacturonide (3), quercetin-7-O-β-glucuronide (4), quercetin-3-O-β-galacturonide (5), and eriodictyol-7-O-β-glucuronide (6), were isolated from the whole grass of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand.-Mazz (Compositae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analyses and comparison with the literature data. Both new compounds 1 and 2 possess a γ-pyrone moiety that is rare in nature. Compound 1 showed significant protective effect on H2O2-injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  8. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto

    2010-01-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3β-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3β-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16α-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through 1 H and 13 C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  9. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2010-07-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  10. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienir Pains Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3β-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3β-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16α-hydroxyfriedelane (15 were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY and herein reported for the first time.

  11. Immunomodulatory constituents from an ascomycete, Microascus tardifaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, H; Fujimaki, T; Okuyama, E; Yamazaki, M

    1999-10-01

    Fractionation guided by the immunosuppressive activity of the defatted AcOEt extract of an Ascomycete, Microascus tardifaciens, afforded eight constituents, questin (emodin 8-O-methylether) (1), rubrocristin (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylphthalide (3), cladosporin (asperentin) (4), cladosporin 8-O-methylether (5), tradioxopiperazine A [cyclo-L-alanyl-5-isopentenyl-2-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-L-tryptophan] (6), tradioxopiperazine B [cyclo-L-alanyl-7-isopentenyl-2-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-L-tryptophan] (7), and asperflavin (8), among which 6 and 7 were new compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 showed considerably high immunosuppressive activity, 6 was moderate and, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 showed low activity.

  12. Sivers function in constituent quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Scopetta, S.; Fratini, F.; Vento, V.

    2008-01-01

    A formalism to evaluate the Sivers function, developed for calculations in constituent quark models, is applied to the Isgur-Karl model. A non-vanishing Sivers asymmetry, with opposite signs for the u and d flavor, is found; the Burkardt sum rule is fulfilled up to 2 %. Nuclear effects in the extraction of neutron single spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off 3He are also evaluated. In the kinematics of JLab, it is found that the nuclear effects described by an Impulse Approximation approach are under control.

  13. A nonparametric approach to forecasting realized volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Clements; Ralf Becker

    2009-01-01

    A well developed literature exists in relation to modeling and forecasting asset return volatility. Much of this relate to the development of time series models of volatility. This paper proposes an alternative method for forecasting volatility that does not involve such a model. Under this approach a forecast is a weighted average of historical volatility. The greatest weight is given to periods that exhibit the most similar market conditions to the time at which the forecast is being formed...

  14. Testing for Volatility Co-movement in Bivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Chen (Jinghui); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper considers the problem of volatility co-movement, namely as to whether two financial returns have perfectly correlated common volatility process, in the framework of multivariate stochastic volatility models and proposes a test which checks the volatility co-movement. The

  15. Synthesis and structural characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing phenol formaldehyde resites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirkecioglu, O.; Andresen, J.M.; McRae, C.; Snape, C.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-10-24

    Nonsoftening phenol-formaldehyde (PF) co-resites can be used to probe the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the carbonization, gasification, and liquefaction of coals and other solids fuels as they facilitate the incorporation of individual PAHs into a highly crosslinked matrix. A series of PAH and diphenylalkane-containing phenolic co-resites were prepared using phenol, with, as the second component, 2-naphthol, 4-hydroxy 9-diphenylmethane, 4, 4`-dihydroxydiphenylethane, 1-4(4-hydroxybenzyl)naphthalene, 9-(4-hydroxybenzyl) anthracene, and 9-(4-hydroxybenzyl) phenanthrene. A mole ratio of 3:1 (phenol:second phenolic constituent) was used. The virtually complete elimination of ether and methyl functions from the resoles by curing at 200{degree}C was monitored by solid-state {sup 13}C-NMR. The resites were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The volatile-matter contents of the PAH-containing resites were all higher than that of the normal resite. The carbonization of the 9-(4-hydroxybenzyl) anthracene-containing resite in a fluidized-bed reactor is used to illustrate the potential applications of the PAH-containing resites in fuel science.

  16. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  17. Dynamic Factor Models for the Volatility Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Michel; Ozturk, Sait R.; Dijk, Dick van

    The implied volatility surface is the collection of volatilities implied by option contracts for different strike prices and time-to-maturity. We study factor models to capture the dynamics of this three-dimensional implied volatility surface. Three model types are considered to examine desirable...

  18. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Toshihiro.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma irradiated peppers (10 krad, 100 krad, 1 Mrad) were analyzed by HPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. It is difficult to compare with irradiated and unirradiated pepper constituents by their peak height or area. And the method of multi variant statistically analysis was introduced. The 'peak n area/peak n + 1 area' ratio was calculated by computer. Each peak area was accounted by integrator. The value of these ratio were called 'parameter'. Each chromatogram has 741 parameters calculated with 39 chromatographic peaks. And these parameters were abopted to the multi variant statiscally analysis. Comparison of constituents between irradiated pepper and unirradiated pepper was done by 741 parameters. The correlation of parameters between irradiated and unirradiated was investigated by use of computer. Some parameters of irradiated case were selected as which had no correlation with unirradiated case. That is to say these parameters were thought to be changed with gamma spectrum irradiation. By this method, Coumarin was identified as a changed component with gamma irradiation. (author)

  19. Quark solitons as constituents of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Frishman, Y.; Hanany, A.; Karlinev, M.

    1992-01-01

    We exhibit static solutions of multi-flavour QCD in two dimensions that have the quantum numbers of baryons and mesons, constructed out of quark and anti-quark solitons. In isolation the latter solitons have infinite energy, corresponding to the presence of a string carrying the non-singlet colour flux off to spatial infinity. When N c solitons of this type are combined, a static, finite-energy, colour singlet solution is formed, corresponding to a baryon. Similarly, static meson solutions are formed out of a soliton and an anti-soliton of different flavours. The stability of the mesons against annihilation is ensured by flavour conservation. The static solutions exist only when the fundamental fields of the bosonized lagrangian belong to U(N c xN f ) rather than to SU(N c )xU(N f ). Discussion of flavour-symmetry breaking requires a careful treatment of the normal-ordering ambiguity. Our results can be viewed as a derivation of the constituent quark model in QCD 2 , allowing a detailed study of constituent mass generation and of the heavy-quark symmetry. (orig.)

  20. Support structure for reactor core constituent element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aida, Yasuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    A connection pipe having an entrance nozzle inserted therein as a reactor core constituent element is protruded above the upper surface of a reactor core support plate. A through hole is disposed to the protruding portion of the connection pipe. The through hole and a through hole disposed to the reactor core support plate are connected by a communication pipe. A shear rod is disposed in a horizontal portion at the inside of the communication pipe and is supported by a spring horizontally movably. Further, a groove is disposed at a position of the entrance nozzle opposing to the shear rod. The shear rod is urged out of the communication pipe by the pressure of the high pressure plenum and the top end portion of the shear rod is inserted to the groove of the entrance nozzle during operation. Accordingly, the shear rod is positioned in a state where it is extended from the through hole of the communication pipe to the groove of the entrance nozzle. This can mechanically constrain the rising of the reactor core constituent elements by the shear rod upon occurrence of earthquakes. (I.N.)

  1. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Wintertime hygroscopicity and volatility of ambient urban aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Mikkilä, Jyri; Németh, Zoltán; Kulmala, Markku; Salma, Imre

    2018-04-01

    Hygroscopic and volatile properties of atmospheric aerosol particles with dry diameters of (20), 50, 75, 110 and 145 nm were determined in situ by using a volatility-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA) system with a relative humidity of 90 % and denuding temperature of 270 °C in central Budapest during 2 months in winter 2014-2015. The probability density function of the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) showed a distinct bimodal distribution. One of the modes was characterised by an overall mean HGF of approximately 1.07 (this corresponds to a hygroscopicity parameter κ of 0.033) independently of the particle size and was assigned to nearly hydrophobic (NH) particles. Its mean particle number fraction was large, and it decreased monotonically from 69 to 41 % with particle diameter. The other mode showed a mean HGF increasing slightly from 1.31 to 1.38 (κ values from 0.186 to 0.196) with particle diameter, and it was attributed to less hygroscopic (LH) particles. The mode with more hygroscopic particles was not identified. The probability density function of the volatility GF (VGF) also exhibited a distinct bimodal distribution with an overall mean VGF of approximately 0.96 independently of the particle size, and with another mean VGF increasing from 0.49 to 0.55 with particle diameter. The two modes were associated with less volatile (LV) and volatile (V) particles. The mean particle number fraction for the LV mode decreased from 34 to 21 % with particle diameter. The bimodal distributions indicated that the urban atmospheric aerosol contained an external mixture of particles with a diverse chemical composition. Particles corresponding to the NH and LV modes were assigned mainly to freshly emitted combustion particles, more specifically to vehicle emissions consisting of large mass fractions of soot likely coated with or containing some water-insoluble organic compounds such as non-hygroscopic hydrocarbon-like organics. The hygroscopic

  3. Testing the Lag Structure of Assets’ Realized Volatility Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Audrino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A (conservative test is applied to investigate the optimal lag structure for modelingrealized volatility dynamics. The testing procedure relies on the recent theoretical results that showthe ability of the adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (adaptive lasso to combinee cient parameter estimation, variable selection, and valid inference for time series processes. In anapplication to several constituents of the S&P 500 index it is shown that (i the optimal significantlag structure is time-varying and subject to drastic regime shifts that seem to happen across assetssimultaneously; (ii in many cases the relevant information for prediction is included in the first 22lags, corroborating previous results concerning the accuracy and the diffculty of outperforming outof-sample the heterogeneous autoregressive (HAR model; and (iii some common features of theoptimal lag structure can be identified across assets belonging to the same market segment or showinga similar beta with respect to the market index.

  4. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references

  5. Money growth volatility and the demand for money in Germany: Friedman's volatility hypothesis revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Imke; Nautz, Dieter

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Bundesbank claimed that monetary targeting has become considerably more diffcult by the increased volatility of short-term money growth. The present paper investigates the impact of German money growth volatility on income velocity and money demand in view of Friedman's money growth volatility hypothesis. Granger-causality tests provide some evidence for a velocity-volatility linkage. However the estimation of volatility-augmented money demand functions reveals that - in contras...

  6. The effect of ginger and garlic addition during cooking on the volatile profile of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Lin; Tu, Zong-Cai; Zhang, Lu; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Hui; Pang, Juan-Juan; Tang, Ping-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ginger and garlic have long been used in Asian countries to enhance the flavor and to neutralize any unpleasant odors present in fish soup. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in the amount of volatile components present in fish soup compared to boiled water solutions of ginger and garlic. The fish soup was prepared by boiling oil-fried grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) with or without ginger and/or garlic. Generally, boiling garlic and ginger in water led to a decrease in the amount of the principal volatile constituents of these spices, together with the formation of some new volatiles such as pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal. The results showed that 16 terpenes present in raw ginger, predominantly camphene, β -phellandrene, β -citral, α -zingiberene, and ( E )-neral, were detected in fish soup with added ginger and thus remained in the solution even after boiling. Similarly, 2-propen-1-ol and three sulfur compounds (allyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide) present in raw garlic, were present in trace amounts in the boiled garlic solution, but were present in considerably larger amounts in the boiled fish solution with garlic or garlic plus ginger. In conclusion, the effect of adding spices on the volatile profile of grass carp soup can be attributed to the dissolution of flavor volatiles mainly derived from raw spices into the solution, with few additional volatiles being formed during boiling. In addition, boiling previously fried grass carp with spices led to enhanced volatile levels compared to boiled spice solutions.

  7. Impact of microorganism on polonium volatilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Ishida, A.; Fukuda, A.; Yoshinaga, C.

    2007-01-01

    Volatilization of polonium by microorganisms, Chromobacterium violaceum, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was examined for pure cultures in LB medium at 30 deg C, showing relative Po emission intensity 100, 10 and 1, respectively. Chromobacterium violaceum pre-cultured in LB medium without Po and suspended in water with Po showed high Po volatilization in spite of poor nutriment condition. Antibiotics inhibit volatilization of Po and cultivation at low temperature greatly reduced volatilization. The results strongly support the biological effects on Po volatilization. (author)

  8. The Volatile Composition of Portuguese Propolis Towards its Origin Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia I. Falcão

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatiles from thirty six propolis samples collected from six different geographical locations in Portugal (mainland, Azores archipelago and Madeira Island were evaluated. Populus x canadensis Moenchen leaf-buds and Cistus ladanifer L. branches essential oils were comparatively analysed. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on propolis samples volatiles chemical composition defined three main clusters, not related to sample site collection. Cluster I grouped 28 samples with high relative amounts of oxygen-containing sesquiterpenes (20-77%, while cluster II grouped 7 samples rich in oxygen-containing monoterpenes (9-65% and the only sample from cluster III was monoterpene hydrocarbons rich (26%. Although Populus x canadensis and Cistus ladanifer were associated as resin sources of Portuguese propolis, other Populus species as well as plants like Juniperus genus may contribute to the resin in specific geographical locations.

  9. Biological activity and phytochemical composition of the volatile oils from basilicum polystachyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, H.X.; Cheng, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon, and measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were separated and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using the 8 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. The free radicals scavenging activity of its volatile oil for the IC/sub 50/ were investigated by using Trolox as the comparison and cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethal bioassay. The results show that 64 constituents of oils isolated respectively from Basilicum polystachyon were identified. The appraised components take up 99.75% of the total peak area. The main composition of the volatile oil is sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The results exhibit that the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon has very strong bioactivity of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity. These results provided the reference for further understanding the chemical components and its bioactivity of this aromatic plant as well as its further development. (author)

  10. Aroma profile and volatiles odor activity along gold cultivar pineapple flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical attributes, aroma profile, and odor contribution of pineapple flesh were studied for the top, middle, and bottom cross-sections cut along the central axis of Gold cultivar pineapple. Relationships between volatile and nonvolatile compounds were also studied. Aroma profile constituents were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 30 °C, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 20 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, esters were the major components which accounted for 90% of total extracted aroma. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the 3 most abundant components representing 74% of total volatiles in pineapple samples. Most odor active contributors were methyl and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and 2,5-dimethyl 4-methoxy 3(2H)-furanone (mesifuran). Aroma profile components did not vary along the fruit, but volatile compounds content significantly varied (P fresh-cut pineapple trays, compromising consumer perception and acceptance of the product. Such finding highlighted the need to include volatiles content and SSC/TA ratio and their variability along the fruit as selection criteria for pineapples to be processed and quality assessment of the fresh-cut fruit. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Chemical Diversity in Volatiles of Helichrysum plicatum DC. Subspecies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintuğ Öztürk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work three subspecies of Helichrysum plicatum DC. (Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum, Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. polyphillum (Ledeb P.H.Davis & Kupicha and Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. isauricum Parolly were investigated for the essential oil chemical compositions. The volatiles were obtained by conventional hydrodistillation of aerial parts and microdistillation of inflorescences. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS revealed chemical diversity in compositions of the volatiles analyzed. A total of 199 compounds were identified representing 73.9-98.3% of the volatiles compositions. High abundance of fatty acids and their esters (24.9-70.8% was detected in the herb volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum and H. plicatum subsp. isauricum. The inflorescences of Helichrysum subspecies were found to be rich in monoterpenes (15.0-93.1%, fatty acids (0.1-36.3% and sesquiterpenes (1.1-25.5%. The inflorescence volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. isauricum were distinguished by predomination of monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.1% with fenchene (88.3% as the major constituent

  12. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  13. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  14. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  15. Analysis of volatile components from Melipona beecheii geopropolis from Southeast Mexico by headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Ahira; López-Rivera, Paulina; Duarte-Lisci, Georgina; López-Ramírez, Ángel; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

    2016-01-01

    A head space solid-phase microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and optimised to extract and analyse volatile compounds of Melipona beecheii geopropolis. Seventy-three constituents were identified using this technique in the sample of geopropolis collected. The main compounds detected include β-fenchene (14.53-15.45%), styrene (8.72-9.98%), benzaldehyde (7.44-7.82%) and the most relevant volatile components presents at high level in the geopropolis were terpenoids (58.17%).

  16. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  17. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  18. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  19. Volatile organic pollutants in iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, D.; Dorina, S.; Popescu, L.; Stoian, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is a well known fact that iron and steel units generate about 25% from total gaseous emissions, and a significant part of these are diffuse emissions, which appear during technological stages. so that, apart from other types of pollutants, appear volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contain a considerable number of diverse and complex substances that, even in small amounts, affect all environmental factors: air, water, soil. (Author)

  20. Forecasting volatility for options valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaifa, M.; Morimune, K.

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector plays a neuralgic role in the basement of world economies, and market actors (producers, intermediates, as well as consumers) are continuously subjected to the dynamics of unstable oil market. Huge amounts are being invested along the production chain to make one barrel of crude oil available to the end user. Adding to that are the effect of geopolitical dynamics as well as geological risks as expressed in terms of low chances of successful discoveries. In addition, fiscal regimes and regulations, technology and environmental concerns are also among some of the major factors that contribute to the substantial risk in the oil industry and render the market structure vulnerable to crises. The management of these vulnerabilities require modern tools to reduce risk to a certain level, which unfortunately is a non-zero value. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to provide a modern technique to capture the oil price stochastic volatility that can be implemented to value the exposure of an investor, a company, a corporate or a Government. The paper first analyses the regional dependence on oil prices, through a historical perspective and then looks at the evolution of pricing environment since the large price jumps of the 1970s. The main causes of oil prices volatility are treated in the third part of the paper. The rest of the article deals with volatility models and forecasts used in risk management, with an implication for pricing derivatives. (author)

  1. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  2. Volatilization of gasoline from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthus, P.

    1993-05-01

    Gasoline contaminated soil threatens water resources and air quality. The extent of the threat depends on gasoline behavior in soil, which is affected by various mechanisms such as volatilization. To quantify volatilization, gasoline spills were simulated in the laboratory using a synthetic gasoline and three dry soils. Total gasoline and individual gasoline compound concentrations in soil were monitored as a function of depth and time. The time to reduce overall gasoline concentration in coarse sand, sandy loam, and silt loam to 40% of initial concentration, averaged between surface and a 200-mm depth, ranged from 0.25 d to 10 d. A wicking phenomenon which contributed to gasoline flux toward the atmosphere was indicated by behavior of a low-volatility gasoline compound. Based on separate wicking experiments, this bulk immiscible movement was estimated at an upward velocity of 0.09 m/d for Delhi sandy loam and 0.05 m/d for Elora silt loam. 70 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs

  3. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. A risk assessment approach to identifying constituents in oilfield produced water for treatment prior to beneficial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer E; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2011-05-01

    A risk assessment approach incorporating exposure pathways and calculated risk quotients was applied to identifying constituents requiring treatment prior to beneficial use of oilfield produced water (OPW). In this study, risk quotients are ratios of constituent concentrations in soil or water to guideline concentrations for no adverse effects to receptors. The risk assessment approach is illustrated by an example of an oilfield water produced from non-marine geologic strata of a rift basin in sub-Saharan Africa. The OPW studied has the following characteristics: 704-1370 mg L(-1) total dissolved solids (TDS), 45-48 mg L(-1) chloride, and 103.8 mg L(-1) oil and grease. Exposure pathways of constituents in OPW used for irrigation include: ingestion of plant tissue, ingestion and direct contact of irrigated soil by livestock, inhalation of aerosols or volatilized constituents, and ingestion of OPW directly by livestock. Applying risk quotient methods for constituents in soil and water, constituents of concern (COCs) identified for irrigation and livestock watering using the OPW studied include: iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and oil and grease. Approximately 165,000 barrels d(-1) (26,233 m(3) d(-1)) of OPW from the study site are available for use. Identification of COCs and consideration of water quantity allows for development of reliable treatment design criteria to ensure effective and consistent treatment is achieved to meet guideline levels required for irrigation, livestock watering, or other uses. This study illustrates the utility of risk assessment for identifying the COCs in OPW for treatment, the level of treatment required, and viable options for use of the treated water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  6. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  7. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  8. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  9. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, B.O.

    2007-11-01

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R f values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  10. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burham, B O [Atomic Energy Researches Coordination Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-11-15

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R{sub f} values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  11. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  12. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds from Logwood Combustion: Emissions and Transformation under Dark and Photochemical Aging Conditions in a Smog Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Anni; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Tiitta, Petri; Leskinen, Ari; Kortelainen, Miika; Orasche, Jürgen; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli

    2018-04-17

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) emits high amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into ambient air, leading to formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and various health and climate effects. In this study, the emission factors of VOCs from a logwood-fired modern masonry heater were measured using a Proton-Transfer-Reactor Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Next, the VOCs were aged in a 29 m 3 Teflon chamber equipped with UV black lights, where dark and photochemical atmospheric conditions were simulated. The main constituents of the VOC emissions were carbonyls and aromatic compounds, which accounted for 50%-52% and 30%-46% of the detected VOC emission, respectively. Emissions were highly susceptible to different combustion conditions, which caused a 2.4-fold variation in emission factors. The overall VOC concentrations declined considerably during both dark and photochemical aging, with simultaneous increase in particulate organic aerosol mass. Especially furanoic and phenolic compounds decreased, and they are suggested to be the major precursors of RWC-originated SOA in all aging conditions. On the other hand, dark aging produced relatively high amounts of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in both gas and particulate phase, while photochemical aging increased especially the concentrations of certain gaseous carbonyls, particularly acid anhydrides.

  14. Characterization and synthesis of volatile compounds from the defensive secretions of some "daddy longlets" (Arachnida: Opiliones: Leiobunum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T H; Meinwald, J; Hicks, K; Eisner, T

    1977-02-01

    Analyses of the chief volatile constituents of the defensive secretions of three oplionids were carried out. Leiobunum nigripalpi produces three closely related C7 compounds: E-4-methyl-4-hexen-3-one(I), 4-methylhexan-3-one(II), and 4-methylhexan-3-ol(III), along with E-4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one(IV), E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dienal(IX), and a minor, unidentified component. L. leiopenis secretion contains E-4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one(IV), 4-methylheptan-3-one(V), E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dien-1-ol(VII), and E,E-2,4-dimethylhepta-2,4-dien-1-ol(VIII). L. calcar yields chiefly E-4,6-dimethyl-6-octen-3-one(VI) and E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dien-1-ol(VII). Six of these compounds are new natural products. The structures of these compounds, which can be regarded either as polyketide-derived or as modified isoprenoids, raise interesting biosynthetic questions.

  15. Effect of curing methods, packages and gamma irradiation on the quality of volatile garlic oil during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; El-Abbassi, F.; Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.

    1988-01-01

    The values of V.R.S. as a measurement of pungency, were decreased gradually during storage especially in un-irradiated cloves treatments. Chinese garlic had higher values than Egyptian cultivar after 3,6 months. But after 9 months the pungency of Egyptian was higher than that of Chinese garlic. Irradiation decreased the V.R.S. after 3 and 6 months, but after 9 months the irradiated samples contained more V.R.S. than the unirradiated ones. No effect was observed for type of packages or curing methods. Gas chromatographic profiles, at harvest, proved that 35, 32 peaks were found in the volatile oil of Egyptian and Chinese cultivars, respectively. The identified compounds were dimethyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide, methyl allyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide. These compounds were found in either Egyptian or Chinese garlic. Besides, the dimethyl sulphide was detected in Chinese garlic. All tested treatments, i.e. cultivar, irradiation, curing methods and storage period, affected the percent and number of the identified constituents or unidentified compounds. Dimethyl sulphide and allyl sulphide were absent in the Egyptian Cultivar at harvest, but they were found during storage. Allyl sulphide was found in Chinese garlic only at end of storage period

  16. Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Sánchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

    2011-11-01

    Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00 h and over 3-35 days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test.

  17. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  18. Constituintes químicos de Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae Chemical constituents from Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The first chemical study of non-volatile constituents from the bark and stem of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae led to the isolation and identification of 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid (1 and five pentacyclic triterpenes: 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 2, 3beta-hydroxylup-20(29-en-27,28-dioic acid (melaleucic acid, 3, betulinic acid (4, betuline (5, 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6, a mixture of fatty acids and esters, and several hydrocarbons. For 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2 and 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6 a first detailed assignment of ¹H NMR is presented.

  19. Constituents of essential oil from the dried fruits and stems of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Jyunichi; Kameda, Munekazu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2007-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oil from AKEBIAE FRUCTUS and AKEBIAE CAULIS, the dried fruits and stems of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE. (Lardizabalaceae), have been investigated by GC and GC/MS. As a result, the fruits oil was revealed the presence of 86 components, representing 98.4% of the total oil. The major compounds of the fruits oil were limonene, eugenol, octanal and p-cymene. The monoterpenoids and saturated short-chain aldehyde (C6 approximately C10) were main volatile fractions of the oil. Ninety components accounting for 90.5% of constituents of stems oil were identified, and the main compounds of the oil were hexanoic acid, palmitic acid, (2E, 4E)-decadienal and hexanol. The oil had high content of saturated fatty acids (C6 approximately C16), and unsaturated short-chain aldehyde (C6 approximately C10).

  20. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patch test preparations of volatile substances may evaporate during storage, thereby giving rise to reduced patch test concentrations. Objectives. To investigate the stability of selected acrylates/methacrylates and fragrance allergens in three different test chambers under different...... both storage conditions, whereas MMA and 2-HPA required cool storage for maintenance of the limit. Conclusion. The Van der Bend® transport container was the best device for storage of samples of volatile contact allergens....

  1. Rapid identification and simultaneous analysis of multiple constituents from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang-Liang; Guo, Tao; Xu, Xu-Dong; Yang, Jun-Shan

    2017-07-01

    Rhubarb contains biologically active compounds such as anthraquinones, anthrones, stilbenes and tannins. A rapid and efficient UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS method was developed and applied towards identifying the constituents of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. for the first time. Chemical constituents were separated and investigated by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS in the negative ion mode. The ESI-MS 2 fragmentation pathways of four types of compounds were interpreted, providing a very useful guidance for the characterisation of different types of compounds. Based on the exact mass information, fragmentation characteristic and LC retention time of 7 reference standards, 30 constituents were tentatively identified from the methanol extract of R. tanguticum. Among them, seven compounds were described for the first time from R. tanguticum and two from the genus Rheum were described for the first time. The analytical tool used here is valuable for the rapid separation and identification of multiple and minor constituents in methanol extracts of R. tanguticum.

  2. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  3. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  4. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, Alex [Merrill Lynch, Mlfc Main, 2 King Edward Street, London EC1A 1HQ (United Kingdom); Sepp, Artur [Merrill Lynch, 4 World Financial Center, New York, NY 10080 (United States)], E-mail: Alex_Lipton@ml.com, E-mail: Artur_Sepp@ml.com

    2008-08-29

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.

  5. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-08-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.

  6. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-01-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics

  7. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  8. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  9. Renewable alkenes from the hydrothermal treatment of polyhydroxyalkanoates-containing sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torri, Cristian; Detert Oude Weme, Tom; Samorì, Chiara; Kiwan, Alisar; Brilman, Derk W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a key constituent of excess sludge produced by Aerobic Sewage Sludge Treatment plants. The accumulation of significant amount of PHA inside aerobic microbial cells occurs when a surplus of an easily degradable carbon source (e.g., volatile fatty acids, VFA) is found

  10. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  11. Wintertime hygroscopicity and volatility of ambient urban aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enroth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic and volatile properties of atmospheric aerosol particles with dry diameters of (20, 50, 75, 110 and 145 nm were determined in situ by using a volatility–hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA system with a relative humidity of 90 % and denuding temperature of 270 °C in central Budapest during 2 months in winter 2014–2015. The probability density function of the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF showed a distinct bimodal distribution. One of the modes was characterised by an overall mean HGF of approximately 1.07 (this corresponds to a hygroscopicity parameter κ of 0.033 independently of the particle size and was assigned to nearly hydrophobic (NH particles. Its mean particle number fraction was large, and it decreased monotonically from 69 to 41 % with particle diameter. The other mode showed a mean HGF increasing slightly from 1.31 to 1.38 (κ values from 0.186 to 0.196 with particle diameter, and it was attributed to less hygroscopic (LH particles. The mode with more hygroscopic particles was not identified. The probability density function of the volatility GF (VGF also exhibited a distinct bimodal distribution with an overall mean VGF of approximately 0.96 independently of the particle size, and with another mean VGF increasing from 0.49 to 0.55 with particle diameter. The two modes were associated with less volatile (LV and volatile (V particles. The mean particle number fraction for the LV mode decreased from 34 to 21 % with particle diameter. The bimodal distributions indicated that the urban atmospheric aerosol contained an external mixture of particles with a diverse chemical composition. Particles corresponding to the NH and LV modes were assigned mainly to freshly emitted combustion particles, more specifically to vehicle emissions consisting of large mass fractions of soot likely coated with or containing some water-insoluble organic compounds such as non

  12. Evaluation of Volatile Species in Green Monopropellant Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA is interested in green monopropellants to replace hydrazine in reaction control systems (RCSs). Some current NASA programs require reduced vapor pressure and low toxicity monopropellant (green) and superior performance (specific impulse and density) formulations. Earlier vapor phase studies of a candidate green monopropellant at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) showed the presence of a volatile species that warranted further investigation. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the volatile species and to evaluate it. The evaluation was with respect to whether the volatile species was an impurity or how it is formed, and to use that information to examine whether its presence as an impurity can be eliminated during formulation. The evaluation also considered whether formation of the volatile impurity could be prevented while not compromising the propellant. To reduce variables associated with evaluation of the propellant formulation as a whole, a precursor to one of the individual components in the propellant formulation was subjected to a NASA Standard 6001B Flammability, Off-gassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures "Determination of Off-gassed Products (Test 7)". Testing took place in the NASA WSTF Molecular Desorption and Analysis Laboratory. One gram of the precursor was placed in a flask within a specimen container. After thermal conditioning for 72 +/- 1 h at 50 +/- 3 deg C (122 +/- 5 deg F), the atmosphere inside the specimen container was analyzed for off-gassed compounds by cryotrap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and fixed sample loop GC-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The specimen container used was glass to minimize potential catalytic surfaces. The identification of compounds was difficult due to the complexity of the vapor phase concentrations and overlapping chromatographic peaks and mass spectra. However, eleven compounds were specifically identified and five compounds or classes of

  13. 21 CFR 610.15 - Constituent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containers shall contain a preservative, except that a preservative need not be added to Yellow Fever Vaccine... by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or the Director, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2 of this chapter). (b) Extraneous protein; cell...

  14. Nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles attract the generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Cabezas-Guerrero, Milton F.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants ( Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer ( Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar ( Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey. Additionally, we examined whether the earwig preferred odors emitted from short- or long-term damaged maize. We first determined the earwig diel foraging rhythm and confirmed that D. luteipes is a nocturnal predator. Olfactometer assays showed that during the day, although the earwigs were walking actively, they did not discriminate the volatiles of undamaged maize plants from those of herbivore damaged maize plants. In contrast, at night, earwigs preferred volatiles emitted by maize plants attacked by D. saccharalis or S. frugiperda over undamaged plants and short- over long-term damaged maize. Our GC-MS analysis revealed that short-term damaged nocturnal plant volatile blends were comprised mainly of fatty acid derivatives (i.e., green leaf volatiles), while the long-term damaged plant volatile blend contained mostly terpenoids. We also observed distinct volatile blend composition emitted by maize damaged by the different caterpillars. Our results showed that D. luteipes innately uses nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey. Moreover, the attraction of the earwig to short-term damaged plants is likely mediated by fatty acid derivatives.

  15. Inflation Volatility and the Inflation-Growth Tradeoff in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha; Varsha S. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    This paper amends the New Keynesian Phillips curve model to include inflation volatility and tests the determinants of such volatility for India. It provides results on the determinants of inflation volatility and expected inflation volatility for OLS and ARDL (1,1) models and for change in inflation volatility and change in expected inflation volatility using ECM models. Output gap affects change in expected inflation volatility along (in the ECM model) and not in the other models. Major det...

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  17. Volatile communication in plant-aphid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Volatile communication plays an important role in mediating the interactions between plants, aphids, and other organisms in the environment. In response to aphid infestation, many plants initiate indirect defenses through the release of volatiles that attract ladybugs, parasitoid wasps, and other aphid-consuming predators. Aphid-induced volatile release in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the jasmonate signaling pathway. Volatile release is also induced by infection with aphid-transmitted viruses. Consistent with mathematical models of optimal transmission, viruses that are acquired rapidly by aphids induce volatile release to attract migratory aphids, but discourage long-term aphid feeding. Although the ecology of these interactions is well-studied, further research is needed to identify the molecular basis of aphid-induced and virus-induced changes in plant volatile release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shami, S. M.; El-Mallah, M. H.; Mohamed, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable a...

  19. Establishing a Proper Model of Tobacco Dependence: Influence of Age and Tobacco Smoke Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Gellner, Candice Ann

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Of those who smoke, 9 out of 10 report trying their first cigarette before the age of 18. Although most people who initiate tobacco use are teenagers, animal models for studying tobacco dependence have traditionally focused on how adult animals initiate, withdrawal from and relapse to cigarette smoking. Furthermore, cigarette smoke contains more than 7,000 constituents, including nicotine, yet pre-clinical resea...

  20. Hot char-catalytic reforming of volatiles from MSW pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Dezhen; Arena, Umberto; He, Pinjing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatile from MSW pyrolysis is reformed with hot char from the same pyrolysis process. • The yields of syngas increase evidently with H 2 being the main contributor and the major component of the syngas. • Pyrolysis oil becomes light and its composition distribution is narrowed. • The HHV, volatile elements and alkali metals contents in the char decrease. • The emissions including SO 2 , NO, NO 2 and HCN changed after reforming process. - Abstract: Volatile products obtained from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW), including syngas and pyrolysis oil, were forced to contact the hot char from the same pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a fixed bed reactor to be reformed. The yields and properties of syngas, char and pyrolysis liquid were investigated; and the energy re-distribution among the products due to char reforming was quantified. The preliminary investigation at lab scale showed that hot char-catalytic reforming of the volatiles leads to an increase in the dry syngas yield from 0.25 to 0.37 N m 3 kg −1 MSW at 550 °C. Accordingly, the carbon conversion ratio into syngas increases from 29.6% to 35.0%; and the MSW chemical energy transferred into syngas increased from 41.8% to 47.4%. The yield of pyrolysis liquid products, including pyrolysis oil and water, decreased from 27.3 to 16.5 wt%, and the molecular weight of the oil becoming lighter. Approximately 60% of the water vapour contained in the volatiles converted into syngas. After reforming, the concentrations of SO 2 and HCN in the syngas decreases, while those of NO and NO 2 increase. The char concentrations of N, H, C and alkali metal species decreased and its higher heating value decreased too.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy of Parent Volatiles in Comets: Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Current cometary orbits provide information on their recent dynamical history. However, determining a given comet's formation region from its current dynamical state alone is complicated by radial migration in the proto-planetary disk and by dynamical interactions with the growing giant planets. Because comets reside for long periods of time in the outer Solar System, the ices contained in their nuclei (native ices) retain a relatively well-preserved footprint of when and where they formed, and this in turn can provide clues to conditions in the formation epoch. As a comet approaches the Sun, sublimation of its native ices releases parent volatiles into the coma where they can be measured spectroscopically. The past to - 15 years have seen the advent of infrared spectrometers with high sensitivity between about 2.8 and 5.0 micron, enabling a taxonomy among comets based on abundances of parent volatiles (e.g., H2O, CO, CH4, C2H6, HCN, CH30H, H2CO, NH3). Such molecules are of keen interest to Astrobiology, as they include important pre-biotic species that likely were required for the emergence of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere. Approximately 20 comets have thus far been characterized, beginning with C/1996 82 (Hyakutake) in 1996. Molecular production rates are established through comparison of observed emission line intensities with those predicted by quantum mechanical fluorescence models. Abundances of parent volatiles (relative to H2O) vary among even the relatively small number of comets sampled, with the most volatile species (CO and CH4) displaying the largest variations. Techniques developed for measuring parent volatile abundances in comets will be discussed, as will possible implications for their formation.

  2. Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman V.; Rancière, Romain; Servén, Luis; Ventura, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction Norman V. Loayza, Romain Ranciere, Luis Serven, ` and Jaume Ventura Macroeconomic volatility, both a source and a reflection of underdevelopment, is a fundamental concern for developing countries. This article provides a brief overview of the recent literature on macroeconomic volatility in developing countries, highlighting its causes, consequences, and possible remedies. to reduce domestic policy-induced macroecon...

  3. Identify and Manage the Software Requirements Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Khloud Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholeif

    2016-01-01

    Management of software requirements volatility through development of life cycle is a very important stage. It helps the team to control significant impact all over the project (cost, time and effort), and also it keeps the project on track, to finally satisfy the user which is the main success criteria for the software project. In this research paper, we have analysed the root causes of requirements volatility through a proposed framework presenting the requirements volatility causes and how...

  4. Labour Demand and Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Broll; Sabine Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess under what conditions exchange rate volatility exerts a positive effect on a firm's labour demand. As the exchange rate volatility increases, so does the value of the export option provided the firm under study is flexible. Flexibility is important because it gives the firm option value. Higher volatility increases the potential gains from trade and may increase the demand for labour. This may explain part of the mixed empirical findings regarding the ef...

  5. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  6. Plants and chemical constituents with giardicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M.M. Amaral

    Full Text Available Intestinal infection caused by Giardia lamblia represents a serious public health problem, with increased rates of prevalence in numerous countries. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side-effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Natural products, especially of plant origin, represent excellent starting point for research. The objective of this study is to review the literature on plant extracts, fractions and chemical constituents whose giardicidal activity has been investigated in vitro. The review describes 153 (one hundred and fifty-three plant species from 69 (sixty-nine families that were evaluated for their giardicidal activity. The geographical distribution of the plant species, the part used, preparation, strain of Giardia lamblia tested and the results obtained by the authors are also given. One hundred and one compounds isolated from plant species, classified by chemical class, are presented. Recent aspects of research on natural products of plant origin employed in the treatment of giardiasis are also discussed.

  7. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. [Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480.

  9. Antioxidant Constituents of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid H. Brantner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd. and the identification of antioxidant active constituents of this plant. C. melanocarpus Lodd. is a shrub indigenous to Mongolia and used in Traditional Mongolian Medicine as a styptic. Before extraction, the plant material was separated into three parts: young sterile shoots, older stems and leaves. All these parts were extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane, successively. The methanolic extract of the sterile shoots showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (IC50 30.91 ± 2.97 µg/mL. This active extract was further analyzed with chromatographic methods. TLC fingerprinting and HPLC indicated the presence of the flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin, ursolic acid as well as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid. The findings were substantiated with LC-MS. All identified compounds have antioxidant properties and therefore contribute to the radical scavenging activity of the whole plant.

  10. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Wagner, William R; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices.

  11. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices.

  12. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  13. 40 CFR 59.103 - Container labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.103... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.103 Container... automobile refinish coating or coating component container or package, the day, month, and year on which the...

  14. 40 CFR 59.405 - Container labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.405... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.405 Container... section on the coating container in which the coating is sold or distributed. (1) The date the coating was...

  15. Production Function of Outgassed Volatiles on Mercury: Implications for Polar Volatiles on Mercury and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, A. N.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    We are interested in the flux of volatiles delivered to the polar regions of Mercury and the Moon through time. We integrate the production functions for volatile delivery from impacts, solar wind, and volcanism, which we focus on initially.

  16. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  17. [Chemical components of Vetiveria zizanioides volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghua; Li, Huashou; Yang, Jun; Chen, Yufen; Liu, Yinghu; Li, Ning; Nie, Chengrong

    2004-01-01

    The chemical components of the volatiles from Vetiveria zizanioides were analyzed by SPME and GC-MS. In the roots, the main component was valencene (30.36%), while in the shoots and leaves, they were 9-octadecenamide (33.50%), 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (27.46%), and 1,2-benzendicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester(18.29%). The results showed that there were many terpenoids in the volatils. In shoot volatiles, there existed 3 monoterpenes, 2 sequiterpenes and 1 triterpene. Most of the volatiles in roots were sesquiterpenes.

  18. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  19. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  20. Sharps container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  1. Volatilization of selenium from agricultural evaporation pond sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, U; Frankenberger, W T

    1990-03-01

    Microbial volatilization of Se was evaluated as a means of detoxifying Se-contaminated sediments. Sediment samples containing 60.7 (Kesterson Reservoir) and 9.0 mg Se kg-1 (Peck ponds) were incubated for 273 days in closed systems located in the greenhouse. Volatile Se was collected from a continuous air-exchange stream using activated carbon. Various economical and readily available organic and inorganic amendments were tested for their capacity to enhance the microbial process, including Citrus (orange) peel, Vitis (grape) pomace, feedlot manure, barley straw, chitin, pectin, ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4, and an inoculum of Acremonium falciforme (an active Se methylating fungus). With the Kesterson sediment, the highest Se removal (44.0%) resulted from the combined application of citrus peel and ZnSO4, followed by citrus peal alone (39.6%), and citrus peel combined with ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4 and A. falciforme (30.1%). Manure (19.5%), pectin (16.4%), chitin (9.8%) and straw plus N (8.8%) had less pronounced effects. Without the amendments, cumulative Se volatilization was 6.1% of the initial inventory. Grape pomace (3.0%) inhibited the process. With the Peck sediment, the highest amount of Se removed was observed with chitin (28.6%), manure (28.5%), and citrus peel alone (27.3%). Without amendments, 14.0% of the native Se was volatilized in 273 days. Cumulative Se volatilization was 24.7% with citrus plus Zn and N, 17.2% with citrus plus Zn, and 18.8% with citrus plus Zn, N and A. falciforme. Pectin (15.2%), straw plus N (16.4%), and grape pomace (7.3%) were among the less effective amendments for the Peck sediment. The differences in the effectiveness of each treatment between the two seleniferous soils may be a result of the residual N content of the sediments. With the Kesterson sediment, which was high in organic C and N, added N inhibited volatilization of Se, while with Peck sediments (low in organic C and N) N-rich materials tended to accelerate Se volatilization

  2. A combined model of heat and mass transfer for the in situ extraction of volatile water from lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, P.

    2018-05-01

    Chemical analysis of lunar soil samples often involves thermal processing to extract their volatile constituents, such as loosely adsorbed water. For the characterization of volatiles and their bonding mechanisms it is important to determine their desorption temperature. However, due to the low thermal diffusivity of lunar regolith, it might be difficult to reach a uniform heat distribution in a sample that is larger than only a few particles. Furthermore, the mass transport through such a sample is restricted, which might lead to a significant delay between actual desorption and measurable outgassing of volatiles from the sample. The entire volatiles extraction process depends on the dynamically changing heat and mass transfer within the sample, and is influenced by physical parameters such as porosity, tortuosity, gas density, temperature and pressure. To correctly interpret measurements of the extracted volatiles, it is important to understand the interaction between heat transfer, sorption, and gas transfer through the sample. The present paper discusses the molecular kinetics and mechanisms that are involved in the thermal extraction process and presents a combined parametrical computation model to simulate this process. The influence of water content on the gas diffusivity and thermal diffusivity is discussed and the issue of possible resorption of desorbed molecules within the sample is addressed. Based on the multi-physical computation model, a case study for the ProSPA instrument for in situ analysis of lunar volatiles is presented, which predicts relevant dynamic process parameters, such as gas pressure and process duration.

  3. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  4. Bound volatile precursors in genotypes in the pedigree of 'Marion' blackberry (Rubus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad E; Qian, Michael C

    2010-03-24

    Glycosidically bound volatiles and precursors in genotypes representing the pedigree for 'Marion' blackberry were investigated over two growing seasons. The volatile precursors were isolated using a C18 solid-phase extraction column. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the released volatiles were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct microvial insert thermal desorption GC-MS. The most abundant volatile precursors in the genotypes were alcohols, followed by shikimic acid derivatives. High amounts of furanone glycosides were also detected, while norisoprenoids only existed in a small amount in blackberries. The volatile precursor composition in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree was very similar to their free volatile distribution. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' predominantly had bound norisoprenoids. Wild 'Himalaya' predominated with terpene alcohol and furaneol glycosides, whereas 'Santiam' and 'Chehalem' contained a high level of terpene alcohol glycosides. A similar inheritance pattern was also observed for some volatile precursors in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree. A high content of linalool, hydroxylinalool, and alpha-ionol glycosides in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate level in their offspring 'Marion', while a low content of (E)-linalool oxide precursor in 'Olallie' and a high content in 'Chehalem' also resulted in a moderate level in 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol glycosides in 'Marion' exceeded that of its two parents.

  5. Comparison between Serum and Saliva Biochemical Constituents in Dairy Cows during Lactation and Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period in dairy cows. Also, the present study evaluated for the first time the salivary biochemical constituents in dairy cows. The study was carried out using 45 healthy multiparous Holstein cows maintained in dairy farms located in Morioka city (Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cows were classified into groups based on the month of lactation. Serum, saliva and milk samples were collected and analyzed. Data were statistically analyzed and the variation in serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period were discussed. From the present study, it could be concluded that the 1st month of lactation has the highest levels for serum free fatty acids (FFA, β- Hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and aceto Acetic acid (ACAC. The dry period has the highest serum glucose level and the lowest serum FFA, BHBA and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Both serum and salivary FFA showed the highest value during the 1st month of lactation. Saliva contains a high level of gamma glutamyl transferase. The level of ammonia in saliva is higher than its serum level during all months of lactation and dry period. Most of the biochemical constituents in saliva change in different way from serum during lactation and dry period. Milk protein/fat ratio of 0.7 may be not indicative for subclinical ketosis.

  6. Screening and identification of potential bioactive constituents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of lung cancer, liver cancer and digestive cancer. Materials and Methods: In this study, the potential bioactive constituents of SCP were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The immunomodulatory and DPPH radical scavenging activities of the constituents were also evaluated in vitro.

  7. [Study on the chemical constituent from Buddleja purdomii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Xu, Yourui; Tao, Baoquan

    2004-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents from Buddleja purdomii W. W. Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were identified as vanillin (I), vanillic acid (II), acteoside (III), acteoside isomer (IV). All these compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  8. [Study on the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Tao, Baoquan

    2005-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii W. W Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were obtained as cryptomeridiol (I), aucubin (II), galactilol (III), daucosterol (IV). All these compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  9. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required by... organic constituents in the waste and on their concentration or mass in the waste feed, considering the... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE...

  10. Use of Monte Carlo analysis in a risk-based prioritization of toxic constituents in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary L; Belleggia, Giuliana

    2017-12-01

    Many chemicals have been detected in house dust with exposures to the general public and particularly young children of potential health concern. House dust is also an indicator of chemicals present in consumer products and the built environment that may constitute a health risk. The current analysis compiles a database of recent house dust concentrations from the United States and Canada, focusing upon semi-volatile constituents. Seven constituents from the phthalate and flame retardant categories were selected for risk-based screening and prioritization: diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a pentabrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-99), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Monte Carlo analysis was used to represent the variability in house dust concentration as well as the uncertainty in the toxicology database in the estimation of children's exposure and risk. Constituents were prioritized based upon the percentage of the distribution of risk results for cancer and non-cancer endpoints that exceeded a hazard quotient (HQ) of 1. The greatest percent HQ exceedances were for DEHP (cancer and non-cancer), BDE-99 (non-cancer) and TDCIPP (cancer). Current uses and the potential for reducing levels of these constituents in house dust are discussed. Exposure and risk for other phthalates and flame retardants in house dust may increase if they are used to substitute for these prioritized constituents. Therefore, alternative assessment and green chemistry solutions are important elements in decreasing children's exposure to chemicals of concern in the indoor environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of drying and irradiation on the composition of volatile compounds of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venskutonis, R.; Poll, L.; Larsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of air-drying, freeze-drying, γ- and β-irradiation and storage for up to 10 months on the composition of volatile compounds in thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris L.) is presented. Altogether, 70 constituents were identified (53 positively and 17 tentatively), including those considered most important for thyme flavour. Quantitative results did not reveal significant differences in the composition of irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and the reduction of the amount of some volatile compounds after drying was comparable for air-dried and freeze-dried herb. The largest changes in flavour composition were observed during storage, especially the reduction in the concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons

  12. Volatile components of the enzyme-ripened sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soy bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Yin-Soon; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, sufu, a soft cheese-like oriental fermented food, was prepared by ripening the salted-tofu cubes in Aspergillus oryzae-fermented soybean-rice koji at 37°C for 16 days (16-day sufu). Sufu was further held at room temperature for another 30 days (46-day sufu). The volatile components of the non-fermented tofu cubes and the sufu products were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. A total of 70 volatile compounds including 20 aldehydes, 18 alcohols, 16 esters, 5 ketones, 5 acids and 6 other compounds were identified. Sufu products contained more volatile compounds than non-fermented tofu cubes qualitatively and quantitatively. After 16-days of ripening, fatty acid, aldehyde and ester were noted to be the dominant volatile fractions. In contrast, the 46-day sufu contained ester, and alcohol as the major volatile fractions. They comprise approximately 63.9% of the total volatile components. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leachability of radioactive constituents from uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, T.W.

    1987-04-01

    A series of long-term studies were conducted both to examine the leachability of major constituents (acidity, TDS) and radioisotopes from uranium mining/milling tailings and settling pond sludges, and to assess the effect of two treatment methods (solidification and vegetation) on leachate characteristics. Four bench-scale experiments were conducted to examine the leachability of: 1) old tailings and those containing a large portion of (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges; 2) untreated and solidified (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges located at the bottom of settling ponds; 3) new tailings that had been vegetated or solidified; and 4) new tailings subject to varying flow rates. A fifth study was conducted to examine the microbiology of Experiments 2 and 3. In addition, the lysimeter solids remaining in the old tailings at the end of Experiment 1 were characterized through chemical and radionuclide analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope-X-ray Emission and Mossbauer Spectroscopy techniques. This report provides an extensive database of temporal variations in leachate characteristics under both normal and accelerated water application rates. It also presents hypotheses of possible leaching mechanisms in the wastes that could explain the observed data, and conceptual model of tailings leaching processes which integrates the results of all the tailings experiments

  14. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  15. Lipophilic Constituents of Rumex vesicarius L. and Rumex dentatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abou Elfotoh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumex dentatus L. and Rumex vesicarius L., of the family Polygonaceae, are edible herbs growing wild in Egypt. Their lipoid constituents were examined by both liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Their essential oil compositions consisted mainly of thujene, limonene, fenchon, estragole, and anethole but at largely different concentration. Fatty acid compositions were similar among the two species and consisting of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, with R. vesicarius containing much higher level of omega-3-fatty acids. Both of the crude lipid extracts of the two species showed strong antioxidant activity as a radical quenching agent against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH systems. Antioxidant activities were mostly associated with the polar lipid fractions. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, both in the normal and reversed phase,as well as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS in the positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI, showed unique chemical profile for each species that can be useful for species identification and quality control of herbal drug formulations. R. vesicarius was characterized by abundances of flavonoids and R. dentatus was abundant in anthraquinones and chromones.

  16. Antioxidant activities of ginger extract and its constituents toward lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Chen, Yan Ping; Zhang, Jianhao; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Chung, Hau Yin

    2018-01-15

    Lipid oxidation-a major cause of food product deterioration-necessitates the use of food additives to inhibit food oxidation. Ginger extract (GE) has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. However, components isolated from ginger have been rarely reported to inhibit fat oxidation. Herein, antioxidant properties of GE and four pure components derived from it (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol) were examined and their properties were compared to those of butylated hydroxytoluene. GE and the constituent components exhibited antioxidant properties that might be attributed to their hydroxyl groups and suitable solubilizing side chains. 6-Shogaol and 10-gingerol exhibited higher activity at 60°C than 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol. Low antioxidant activity was detected at high temperatures (120/180°C). Overall, GE displayed the strongest dose-dependent antioxidant properties, especially at high temperatures, thereby demonstrating that GE can be employed as a natural antioxidant in lipid-containing processed foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  18. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and cleanup criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-09-01

    Soil cleanup criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals, this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria that include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semivolatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:861-869. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Sayama, Kayo; Yamada, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the generation of volatiles from food contact polyethylene and polypropylene were investigated using head space (HS)/GC/MS. All samples generated volatiles such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethylpropionic acid, acetone, 2-butanone, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, hydrocarbons, etc., due to the gamma irradiation. Especially, acetic acid and acetone were formed in greatest amounts. Since these volatiles did not exist before irradiation and their amounts increased with increasing irradiation dose, they should be degradation products from the polymer or additives by irradiation. Polypropylene generated more kinds and larger amounts of volatiles than polyethylene, which showed that polypropylene is more sensitive to irradiation. Polystyrene contained styrene and ethylbenzene as monomers before irradiation and their amounts decreased after irradiation. Polystyrene generated few degradation products during the irradiation. (author)

  20. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOTAL VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM LEAVES OF CITRUS LIMON LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steamdistillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by meansof Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled GasChromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatilecomponents were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing theirretention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification wasdone by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RIvalues and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standardavailable literature.