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Sample records for voided urine specimens

  1. Bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by analysis of first-void-urine specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datcu, Raluca; Gesink, Dionne; Mulvad, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is traditionally diagnosed using vaginal samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BV can be diagnosed from first-void urine (FVU). Self-collected vaginal smears, vaginal swabs, and FVU were obtained from 176 women. BV was diagnosed by Nugent's criteria....... The FVU and vaginal swabs were analyzed by quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) for selected vaginal bacteria (Atopobium vaginae, Prevotella spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 2, Eggerthella-like bacterium, "Leptotrichia amnionii," Megasphaera type 1), and all had an area under...

  2. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  3. Estimating the population distribution of usual 24-hour sodium excretion from timed urine void specimens using a statistical approach accounting for correlated measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    High US sodium intake and national reduction efforts necessitate developing a feasible and valid monitoring method across the distribution of low-to-high sodium intake. We examined a statistical approach using timed urine voids to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. A sample of 407 adults, aged 18-39 y (54% female, 48% black), collected each void in a separate container for 24 h; 133 repeated the procedure 4-11 d later. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. We developed gender-specific equations to calibrate total sodium excreted in each of the one-void (e.g., morning) and combined two-void (e.g., morning + afternoon) urines to 24-h sodium excretion. The calibrated sodium excretions were used to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Participants were then randomly assigned to modeling (n = 160) or validation (n = 247) groups to examine the bias in estimated population percentiles. Median bias in predicting selected percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th) of usual 24-h sodium excretion with one-void urines ranged from -367 to 284 mg (-7.7 to 12.2% of the observed usual excretions) for men and -604 to 486 mg (-14.6 to 23.7%) for women, and with two-void urines from -338 to 263 mg (-6.9 to 10.4%) and -166 to 153 mg (-4.1 to 8.1%), respectively. Four of the 6 two-void urine combinations produced no significant bias in predicting selected percentiles. Our approach to estimate the population usual 24-h sodium excretion, which uses calibrated timed-void sodium to account for day-to-day variation and covariance between measurement errors, produced percentile estimates with relatively low biases across low-to-high sodium excretions. This may provide a low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-h collections in monitoring population sodium intake among healthy young adults and merits further investigation in other population subgroups. © 2015 American

  4. The first report: An analysis of bacterial flora of the first voided urine specimens of patients with male urethritis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chunlin; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Hachisuga, Toru; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the bacterial flora of urine from patients with male urethritis using the clone library method. Urine specimens from patients with urethritis were used. The bacterial flora was analysed according to the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method. In addition, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Ureaplasma parvum were detected by the conventional PCR methods (TMA or real-time PCR) and data from the clone library and conventional PCR methods were compared. Among 58 urine specimens, 38 were successfully analysed using the clone library method. From the specimens, 2427 clones were evaluated and 95 bacterial phylotypes were detected. N. gonorrhoeae was detected from 6 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 5 specimens. M. genitalium was detected from 5 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 3 specimens. C. trachomatis was detected from 15 specimens using the TMA method, but was detected from only 1 specimen using the clone library method. U. parvum was detected from only 2 specimens using the clone library method. In addition, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis were also detected in 8 and 1 specimens, respectively. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is a potential pathogen for bacterial vaginitis in women, was detected in 10 specimens. The clone library method can detect the occupancy rate of each bacteria species among the bacterial flora and may be a new method for bacterial analyses in male urethritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sough...

  6. Clean-voided urine culture in surveying populations for urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzer, S

    1959-07-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiologic survey of A Bomb survivors being conducted by the ABCC in Hiroshima, the feasibility of male and female subjects collecting their own clean-voided specimens was tested. Clean-voided, midstream urine specimens were obtained from 441 ambulant, non-hospital subjects and examined by means of the Gram-stain and quantitative culture technique. Collection was performed by the subjects themselves after appropriate instruction, and this yielded specimens satisfactory for quantitative study. The gram-stain of the urinary sediment proved efficient in presaging true bacilluria. The presence of abundant Gram-negative organisms in a fresh urine sediment may be considered presumptive evidence of a urinary tract infection. Utilizing pre-poured, selective media, it was found that counts exceeding 50,000 to 100,000 col./ml. indicate true bacteriuria and will be confirmed by repeated studies. 9 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  7. First-void urine: A potential biomarker source for triage of high-risk human papillomavirus infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Severien; Pattyn, Jade; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Ieven, Margareta; Van Damme, Pierre; Vorsters, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Great interest has been directed towards the use of first-void urine as a liquid biopsy for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing. Despite the high correlations established between urinary and cervical infections, human papillomavirus testing is unable to distinguish between productive and transforming high-risk infections that have the tendency to progress to cervical cancer. Thus far, investigations have been primarily confined to the identification of biomarkers for triage of high-risk human papillomavirus-positive women in cervicovaginal specimens and tissue biopsies. This paper reviews urinary biomarkers for cervical cancer and triage of high-risk human papillomavirus infections and elaborates on the opportunities and challenges that have emerged regarding the use of first-void urine as a liquid biopsy for the analysis of both morphological- (conventional cytology and novel immunohistochemical techniques) and molecular-based (HPV16/18 genotyping, host/viral gene methylation, RNA, and proteins) biomarkers. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science for studies investigating the use of urine as a biomarker source for cervical cancer screening. Five studies were identified reporting on biomarkers that are still in preclinical exploratory or clinical assay development phases and on assessments of non-invasive (urine) samples. Although large-scale validation studies are still needed, we conclude that methylation of both host and viral genes in urine has been proven feasible for use as a molecular cervical cancer triage and screening biomarker in phase two studies. This is especially promising and underscores our hypothesis that human papillomavirus DNA and candidate human and viral biomarkers are washed away with the initial, first-void urine, together with exfoliated cells, debris and impurities that line the urethra opening. Similar to the limitations of self-collected cervicovaginal samples, first-void urine will likely not fulfil the

  8. Primary health care providers surveyed commonly misinterpret 'first void urine' for chlamydia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M Josephine; Uddin, Ruby; Ferson, Mark; Rawlinson, William; Konecny, Pam

    2009-03-01

    An open question survey of general practitioners (GP) and hospital emergency department (ED) doctors revealed that the term 'FVU' (first void urine) used for urine chlamydia testing, is ambiguous, potentially leading to incorrect urine sample collection and barriers to effective screening. The results of this survey indicate that only 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-14.5%) of GP and 6.9% (95% CI 0.9-22.8%) of ED doctors respectively, correctly interpreted the meaning of FVU. The majority of clinicians surveyed misunderstood 'FVU' to require the first urine void of the day, accounting for 68.1% (95% CI 52.9-80.9%) of GP responses and 37.9% (95% CI 20.7-57.7%) of ED doctors responses. This highlights the need for clarification and standardisation of terminology used in urine chlamydia screening for health care providers, in order to optimise strategies for diagnosis and control of the ongoing chlamydia epidemic.

  9. Chemical differences between voided and bladder urine in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis): implications for olfactory communication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Harelimana, Innocent H; Goodwin, Thomas E; Drea, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    Urine serves a communicative function in many mammalian species. In some species, the signaling function of urine can be enhanced by the addition of chemical compounds from glands along the distal portion of the urogenital tract. Although urine marking is the main mode of chemical communication in many primate species, there has been no study of the contribution of urogenital secretions to the chemical complexity of primate urine. Here, we compared the chemical composition of bladder urine versus voided urine in the aye-aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis, a strepsirrhine primate that relies on urine in intraspecific communication. Both types of urine, collected from each of 11 aye-ayes representing both sexes of varying adult ages, underwent headspace analysis via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Although the average number of compounds was similar in bladder and voided urine, 17% of the compounds detected occurred exclusively in voided urine (but only in a subset of individuals). An overall measure of chemical complexity (using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis) showed that both types of urine were chemically different at the individual level. There was no apparent sex or age differences in the chemical components found in aye-aye urine. Nonetheless, the individual dissimilarities between bladder urine and voided urine indicate chemical contributions from structures along the urogenital tract and offer further support for the relevance of urinary communication in the aye-aye. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Voided urine versus bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: which is better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2017-08-01

    Cytology is recommended as part of the follow-up of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, currently there are no solid guideline recommendations regarding the use of voided urine versus bladder washing for cytology as part of the diagnosis or follow-up of NMIBC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytological outcome was equal regarding the two techniques. The authors reviewed all outpatient flexible cystoscopies carried out in their department in 2013. Patient records in the registry of pathology were examined and those with simultaneous urine and bladder washing cytology were included. Previous urothelial disease and positive histology within 3 months after the cystoscopy were registered. A total of 1458 patients had both voided urine and bladder washing cytology and were included in the study, of whom 643 (44%) had a history of urothelial disease. An equal outcome of urine and bladder washing cytology was found in 1447 patients (99.2%). For the remaining 11 patients, only four patients underwent further examinations based on cytology findings in addition to what had already been planned after cystoscopy. Of the included patients, 100 (6.9%) had a positive histological outcome within 3 months. In most patients, no relevant difference between voided urine and bladder washing cytology was observed. Therefore, if cytology is indicated, it is recommended to use the test that is most readily available locally. The additional gain in using both urine and bladder wash is minimal, and can therefore be discarded.

  11. Urine specimen detection of zolpidem use in patients with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lindsey M; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M; Morello, Candis M; Ma, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined zolpidem and concurrent opioid, benzodiazepine, other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and alcohol use. Urine specimens were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Specimens were tested for zolpidem (n = 71,919) and separated into a provider-reported medication list documenting (n = 5,257) or not documenting zolpidem use (n = 66,662). Zolpidem-positive specimens were further separated into reported and unreported use cohorts. The total number of zolpidem-positive specimens in the reported and unreported use cohorts was 3,391 and 3,190, respectively. Non-informed prescribers were 4.4% (3,190/71,919) among the general population and 48.5% (3,190/6,581) when only zolpidem users were considered. In the zolpidem user population, the most common concurrent opioids in both cohorts were hydrocodone and oxycodone. Alprazolam and clonazepam were higher in the unreported use cohort (P ≤ 0.05). The unreported use cohort also had a higher detection of zolpidem plus a benzodiazepine (49.7 vs. 46%; P ≤ 0.05), zolpidem plus an opioid and a benzodiazepine (40.8% vs. 37.4%; P ≤ 0.05) and zolpidem plus an opioid, a benzodiazepine, and an other CNS depressant (12.9 vs. 10.9%; P ≤ 0.05). Concurrent use of zolpidem, an opioid, a benzodiazepine and an other CNS depressant is prevalent in a pain patient population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Analysis of the percentage voids of test and field specimens using computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braz, D.; Lopes, R.T.; Motta, L.M.G. da

    1999-01-01

    Computerized tomography has been an excellent tool of analysis of asphaltics mixtures, because it allows comparison of the quality and integrity of test and field specimens. It was required to detect and follow the evolution of cracks, when these mixtures were submitted to fatigue tests, and also helping to interpret the distribution of tensions and deformations which occur in the several types of solicitations imposed to the mixtures. Comparing the medium values of percentage voids obtained from tomographic images with the project's values, it can be observed that the values of test and field specimens for the wearing course are closer to the ones of the project than the ones of the binder. It can be verified that the wearing course specimens always present a distribution of the aggregate, and voids quite homogeneously in the whole profile of the sample, while the binder specimens show an accentuated differentiation of the same factors in the several heights of the sample. Therefore, when choosing a slice for tomography, these considerations should be taken into account

  13. Urine specimen validity test for drug abuse testing in workplace and court settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yu; Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, urine drug testing in the workplace has become common in many countries in the world. There have been several studies concerning the use of the urine specimen validity test (SVT) for drug abuse testing administered in the workplace. However, very little data exists concerning the urine SVT on drug abuse tests from court specimens, including dilute, substituted, adulterated, and invalid tests. We investigated 21,696 submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from workplace and court settings in southern Taiwan over 5 years. All immunoassay screen-positive urine specimen drug tests were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We found that the mean 5-year prevalence of tampering (dilute, substituted, or invalid tests) in urine specimens from the workplace and court settings were 1.09% and 3.81%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the workplace were 89.2%, 6.8%, and 4.1%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the court were 94.8%, 1.4%, and 3.8%, respectively. No adulterated cases were found among the workplace or court samples. The most common drug identified from the workplace specimens was amphetamine, followed by opiates. The most common drug identified from the court specimens was ketamine, followed by amphetamine. We suggest that all urine specimens taken for drug testing from both the workplace and court settings need to be tested for validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Agreement of pesticide biomarkers between morning void and 24-h urine samples from farmers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Deanna P; Alexander, Bruce H; Adgate, John L; Eberly, Lynn E; Mandel, Jack S; Acquavella, John F; Bartels, Michael J; Brzak, Kathy A

    2007-07-01

    In pesticide biomonitoring studies, researchers typically collect either single voids or daily (24-h) urine samples. Collection of 24-h urine samples is considered the "gold-standard", but this method places a high burden on study volunteers, requires greater resources, and may result in misclassification of exposure or underestimation of dose due to noncompliance with urine collection protocols. To evaluate the potential measurement error introduced by single void samples, we present an analysis of exposure and dose for two commonly used pesticides based on single morning void (MV) and 24-h urine collections in farmers and farm children. The agreement between the MV concentration and its corresponding 24-h concentration was analyzed using simple graphical and statistical techniques and risk assessment methodology. A consistent bias towards overprediction of pesticide concentration was found among the MVs, likely in large part due to the pharmacokinetic time course of the analytes in urine. These results suggest that the use of single voids can either over- or under-estimate daily exposure if recent pesticide applications have occurred. This held true for both farmers as well as farm children, who were not directly exposed to the applications. As a result, single void samples influenced the number of children exposed to chlorpyrifos whose daily dose estimates were above levels of toxicologic significance. In populations where fluctuations in pesticide exposure are expected (e.g., farm families), the pharmacokinetics of the pesticide and the timing of exposure events and urine collection must be understood when relying on single voids as a surrogate for longer time-frames of exposure.

  15. Urinary retention and post-void residual urine in men: separating truth from tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Steven A; Wein, Alan J; Staskin, David R; Roehrborn, Claus G; Steers, William D

    2008-07-01

    The definitions of acute and chronic urinary retention remain empirical and subject to wide interpretation. Standardized criteria have not been established and many questions remain unanswered. Moreover, the definition of significant post-void residual urine is unclear. We reviewed several aspects of urinary retention that require clarification with the objective of stimulating discussion among urologists to establish an accurate and coherent definition of urinary retention and significant post-void residual urine, and clarify risk factors. A MEDLINE search for articles written in English and published before April 2007 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention. Articles not directly relevant to urinary retention or post-void residual urine were excluded. The term urinary retention lacks precise clinical or urodynamic meaning. Use of this term to describe a symptom, a sign, and a condition further complicates the issue. Many factors can contribute to the development of retention, including bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor underactivity, and neurogenic bladder conditions. Community based studies and clinical trials in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and/or lower urinary tract symptoms yield different estimates of the incidence of retention and only provide information on the epidemiology of acute urinary retention. However, age, previous retention episodes, lower urinary tract symptoms, chronic inflammation, serum prostate specific antigen level, prostate size, and urodynamic variables appear to be predictors of acute urinary retention. Alpha-receptor antagonists and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors may be useful in preventing urinary retention episodes and progressive benign prostatic enlargement. Clinical trials on the short-term use of antimuscarinics have not provided evidence that these agents increase the risk of retention; data on longer term administration are needed. Clinicians are adopting less invasive approaches (eg

  16. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  17. Timing of specimen collection is crucial in urine screening of drug dependent mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, A C; Godolphin, W; Lockitch, G; Segal, S

    1988-01-01

    We compared results of urine drug analysis with clinical data and history to test the usefulness of peripartum drug screening and to establish guidelines for optimal testing. Urine from 28 mothers and 52 babies was analysed. Drugs not suspected by history were found in 10 mothers and six babies. Results assisted in the management of neonatal withdrawal in three babies. Drugs suspected by history were not found in 11/22 mothers and 23/35 babies. About half of these results were associated with delayed urine collection. In 12/28 mothers, drugs administered in hospital could have confused interpretation of screen results. We conclude that urine drug screening without strict protocols for specimen collection is of limited usefulness for management of drug abuse in pregnancy and neonatal drug withdrawal. We favour testing of maternal urine obtained before drugs are administered in hospital. Neonatal urine, if used, should be collected in the first day of life.

  18. Void coalescence and fracture behavior of notched and un-notched tensile tested specimens in fine grain dual phase steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafizadeh, F.; Niroumand, B. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Forouzan, M.R.; Mohseni mofidi, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barlat, F. [Materials Mechanics Laboratory (MML), Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT), Pohang University of Science and Technology POSTECH, San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-17

    Due to growing global concern about the environmental issues, steel developers have been forced by automobile makers to produce more efficient steel grades with high strength to weight ratios along with high crashworthiness performance. In order to find deficiencies of the existing steels and develop superior steel products, detailed understanding of deformation and damage behavior in the existing steels is needed. In the present research, deformation and damage evolution during room temperature uniaxial tensile test of a modern high strength Dual Phase Steel, i.e. DP780, were studied. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the microstructures of notched and un-notched tensile fractured specimens revealed that in notched specimen, plastic deformation was concentrated more within the notched region. Therefore, much higher reduction in thickness with a high reduction gradient occurred in this region, In the un-notched specimen, however, plastic deformation was more uniformly distributed in larger parts of the gauge length, and therefore, thickness reduction happened with a lower gradient. Although geometric notch on the specimen did not change the void nucleation and growth mechanisms, the kinetics of these phenomena was influenced. On the other hand, voids linkage mechanism tended to change from void coalescence in the un-notched specimen to void sheeting in the notched specimen. Moreover, three different models developed by Brown & Embury (BM), Thomason and Pardoen were employed to predict the final fracture strain. It was revealed that, BM model showed much more accurate predictions for the studied DP steel in comparison with those of Thomason and Pardoens’ models.

  19. Void coalescence and fracture behavior of notched and un-notched tensile tested specimens in fine grain dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeidi, N.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Niroumand, B.; Forouzan, M.R.; Mohseni mofidi, S.; Barlat, F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to growing global concern about the environmental issues, steel developers have been forced by automobile makers to produce more efficient steel grades with high strength to weight ratios along with high crashworthiness performance. In order to find deficiencies of the existing steels and develop superior steel products, detailed understanding of deformation and damage behavior in the existing steels is needed. In the present research, deformation and damage evolution during room temperature uniaxial tensile test of a modern high strength Dual Phase Steel, i.e. DP780, were studied. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the microstructures of notched and un-notched tensile fractured specimens revealed that in notched specimen, plastic deformation was concentrated more within the notched region. Therefore, much higher reduction in thickness with a high reduction gradient occurred in this region, In the un-notched specimen, however, plastic deformation was more uniformly distributed in larger parts of the gauge length, and therefore, thickness reduction happened with a lower gradient. Although geometric notch on the specimen did not change the void nucleation and growth mechanisms, the kinetics of these phenomena was influenced. On the other hand, voids linkage mechanism tended to change from void coalescence in the un-notched specimen to void sheeting in the notched specimen. Moreover, three different models developed by Brown & Embury (BM), Thomason and Pardoen were employed to predict the final fracture strain. It was revealed that, BM model showed much more accurate predictions for the studied DP steel in comparison with those of Thomason and Pardoens’ models

  20. A casting and imaging technique for determining void geometry and relative permeability behavior of a single fracture specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.L.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1990-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for making translucent replicas of the void space of natural rock fractures. Attenuation of light shined through the cast combined with digital image analysis provides a pointwise definition of fracture apertures. The technique has been applied to a fracture specimen from Dixie Valley, Nevada, and the measured void space geometry has been used to develop theoretical predictions of two-phase relative permeability. A strong anisotropy in relative permeabilities has been found, which is caused by highly anisotropic spatial correlations among fracture apertures. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  1. A 3-plex methylation assay combined with the FGFR3 mutation assay sensitively detects recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandimalla, Raju; Masius, Roy; Beukers, Willemien

    2013-01-01

    is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a urine assay for the diagnosis of recurrences in patients with a previous primary NMIBC G1/G2 by using cystoscopy as the reference standard. Experimental Design: We selected eight CpG islands (CGI) methylated in bladder cancer from our earlier genome-wide study......Purpose: DNA methylation is associated with bladder cancer and these modifications could serve as useful biomarkers. FGFR3 mutations are present in 60% to 70% of non–muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Low-grade bladder cancer recurs in more than 50% of patients. The aim of this study......, and nonmalignant urines (n = 130). Results: The 3-plex assay identified recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine with a sensitivity of 74% in the validation set. In combination with the FGFR3 mutation assay, a sensitivity of 79% was reached (specificity of 77%). Sensitivity of FGFR3 and cytology was 52% and 57...

  2. Comparative evaluation of three commercial systems for nucleic acid extraction from urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Sefers, Susan E; Li, Haijing; Kohn, Debra J; Procop, Gary W

    2005-09-01

    A nucleic acid extraction system that can handle small numbers of specimens with a short test turnaround time and short hands-on time is desirable for emergent testing. We performed a comparative validation on three systems: the MagNA Pure compact system (Compact), the NucliSens miniMAG extraction instrument (miniMAG), and the BioRobot EZ1 system (EZ1). A total of 75 urine specimens submitted for polyomavirus BK virus detection were used. The human beta-actin gene was detected on 75 (100%), 75 (100%), and 72 (96%) nucleic acid extracts prepared by the miniMAG, EZ1, and Compact, respectively. The miniMAG produced the highest quantity of nucleic acids and the best precision among the three systems. The agreement rate was 100% for BKV detection on nucleic acid extracts prepared by the three extraction systems. When a full panel of specimens was run, the hands-on time and test turnaround time were 105.7 and 121.1 min for miniMAG, 6.1 and 22.6 min for EZ1, and 7.4 and 33.7 min for Compact, respectively. The EZ1 and Compact systems processed automatic nucleic acid extraction properly, providing a good solution to the need for sporadic but emergent specimen detection. The miniMAG yielded the highest quantity of nucleic acids, suggesting that this system would be the best for specimens containing a low number of microorganisms of interest.

  3. Post-voiding residual urine and capacity increase in orthotopic urinary diversion: Standard vs modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bančević Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ever since the time when the first orthotopic urinary diversion (pouch was performed there has been a constant improvement and modification of surgical techniques. The aim has been to create a urinary reservoir similar to normal bladder, to decrease incidence of postoperative complications and provide an improved life quality. The aim of this study was to compare postvoiding residual urine (PVR and capacity of the pouch constructed by standard or modified technique. Methods. In this prospective and partially retrospective clinical study we included 79 patients. In the group of 41 patients (group ST pouch was constructed using 50-70 cm of the ileum (standard technique. In the group of 38 patients (group MT pouch was constructed using 25-35 cm of the ileum (modified technique. Postoperatively, PVR and pouch capacity were measured using ultrasound in a 3-, 6- and 12-month period. Results. Postoperatively, an increase in PVR and pouch capacity was noticed in both groups. Twelve months postoperatively, PVR was significantly smaller in the group MT than in the group ST [23 (0-90 mL vs 109 (0-570 mL, p < 0,001]. In the same period the pouch capacity was significantly smaller in the MT group than in the ST group [460 (290-710 mL vs 892 (480-2 050 mL, p < 0.001]. Conclusion. Postoperatively, an increase in PVR and pouch capacity was noticed during a 12-month period. A year following the operation the pouch created from a shorter ileal segment reached capacity of the 'normal' bladder with small PVR. The pouch created by standard technique developed an unnecessary large PVR and capacity.

  4. Prediction of the persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium after antimicrobial chemotherapy by quantification of leukocytes in first-void urine from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Mizutani, Kohsuke; Seike, Kensaku; Sugawara, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is regarded as another pathogen of male non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Failure to eradicate this mycoplasma is associated with persistent or recurrent NGU, but this mycoplasma is not routinely examined in clinical practice. In cases of M. genitalium-positive NGU, therefore, some criteria are needed to assess the success or failure of antimicrobial chemotherapy other than microbiological outcomes. We enrolled 49 men with M. genitalium-positive non-chlamydial NGU. At successive visits after treatment, we inquired about their symptoms, observed their urethral meatus for urethral discharge, and examined their first-void urine (FVU) for quantification of leukocytes and for the persistence of M. genitalium. M. genitalium was eradicated in 34 patients after treatment, whereas the mycoplasma persisted in 15. Urethritis symptoms and urethral discharges were not found to be predictors of the persistence of M. genitalium up to the 25th day after the start of treatment. Leukocyte counts in FVU from the patients with persistence of M. genitalium were significantly higher than those from the patients with eradication of the mycoplasma. Leukocyte counts of 10 leukocytes/μl or more between the 18th and 24th day after the start of treatment were most significantly associated with the persistence of M. genitalium. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU would appear to be crucial to judge the outcome of treatment in patients with non-chlamydial NGU and could be helpful to predict the persistence of M. genitalium after treatment when M. genitalium is not routinely examined in clinical specimens in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of First Voided Urine Samples For Detection of Ureaplasma Uriealyticum and Mycoplasma Hominis in Urinary Tracts of Men and Women Suffering from Nongonococcal and Nonspecific Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ureaplasma uriealyticum is one of the most important causes of Nongonococcal and Nonspecific urethritis (NGU & NSU in men. Mycoplasma hominis too has a causal role in NGU & NSU. This study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to detect Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma uriealyticum in first voided urine samples in men suffering from NGU & NSU without complaints of urethral secretions and in women with clinical symptoms despite negative vaginal secretion culture test results. Methods: First voided urine samples were taken from 150 patients (21 women & 129 men suffering from NGU & NSU who referred to the Division of Bacteriology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004-2005. Samples were examined by culture method. Results: Cultures were positive for Mycoplasma and Ureoplasma in 49 (32.6 % of the 150 samples. Of the 21 samples taken from women, 5 samples were positive for Mycoplasma & Ureoplasma (2 samples Mycoplasma, 3 samples Ureaplasma. Samples from 44 men were positive for Ureoplasma & Mycoplasma(17 samples Mycoplasma, 4 samples Ureaplasma and 23 samples were positive for both. Ureoplasma urealyticum was detected in 30 samples (20% and Mycoplasma hominis, was detected in 42 samples (28%. Conclusion: The results of this study provides evidence that culture tests can be done using voided urine in order to detect Mycoplasma hominis and ureaplasma urealyticum in patients suffering from Nongonococcal urethris; men who do not have urethral secretions and women with clinical symptoms despite negative vaginal secretion culture test results.

  6. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and quantification of predominant metabolites of synthetic cannabinoid MAB-CHMINACA in an authentic human urine specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koutaro; Minakata, Kayoko; Gonmori, Kunio; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    An autopsy case in which the cause of death was judged as drug poisoning by two synthetic cannabinoids, including MAB-CHMINACA, was investigated. Although unchanged MAB-CHMINACA could be detected from solid tissues, blood and stomach contents in the case, the compound could not be detected from a urine specimen. We obtained six kinds of reference standards of MAB-CHMINACA metabolites from a commercial source. The MAB-CHMINACA metabolites from the urine specimen of the abuser were extracted using a QuEChERS method including dispersive solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with or without hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase. Among the six MAB-CHMINACA metabolites tested, two predominant metabolites could be identified and quantified in the urine specimen of the deceased. After hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase, an increase of the two metabolites was not observed. The metabolites detected were a 4-monohydroxycyclohexylmethyl metabolite M1 (N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-((4-hydroxycyclohexyl)methyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) and a dihydroxyl (4-hydroxycyclohexylmethyl and tert-butylhydroxyl) metabolite M11 (N-(1-amino-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-((4-hydroxycyclohexyl)methyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide). Their concentrations were 2.17 ± 0.15 and 10.2 ± 0.3 ng/mL (n = 3, each) for M1 and M11, respectively. Although there is one previous in vitro study showing the estimation of metabolism of MAB-CHMINACA using human hepatocytes, this is the first report dealing with in vivo identification and quantification of MAB-CHMINACA metabolites in an authentic human urine specimen. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Collection and storage of urine specimens for measurement of urolithiasis risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Dong; Tiselius, Hans-Goran; Ou, Lili; Mai, Zanlin; Chen, Kang; Zhu, Hanliang; Xu, Shaohong; Zhao, Zhijian; Zeng, Guohua

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate how different methods for storage and preservation of urine samples affected the outcome of analysis of risk factors for stone formation. Spot urine samples were collected from 21 healthy volunteers. Each fresh urine sample was divided into ten 10-mL aliquots: 2 without preservative, 2 with thymol, 2 with toluene, 2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl), and 2 with sodium azide. One sample of each pair was stored at 4 °C and the other at room temperature. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphate, urate, oxalate, citrate, and pH in each urine sample were analyzed immediately after collection (0 hour) and after 24 and 48 hours. There were no significant differences in calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium, urate or pH (without acidification) between samples with different preservation methods (P >.05). Urinary citrate, however, was significantly lower in the urine collected with HCl than when other preservatives were used, both at room temperature and at 4 °C. Urine pH was significantly higher after 48 hours than after 24 hours, whether the samples were stored at room temperature or at 4 °C. Antibacterial preservatives (eg, thymol or toluene) can be recommended as preservatives for 24-hour urine collections. Ideally, the samples should be stored at 4 °C. When HCl is used as a preservative, it seems essential to neutralize the samples before analysis. This is particularly obvious with the chromatographic method used for analysis of citrate that was used in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the ARCHITECT urine NGAL assay: Assay performance, specimen handling requirements and biological variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenier, F.C.; Ali, S.; Syed, H.; Workman, R.; Martens, F.; Liao, M.; Wang, Y.; Wong, P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin) has emerged as a new biomarker for the identification of acute kidney injury. Reliable clinical evaluations require a simple, robust test method for NGAL, and knowledge of specimen handling and specimen stability characteristics. We

  10. Protoporphyrin IX induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid in bladder cancer cells in voided urine can be extracorporeally quantified using a spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Anai, Satoshi; Onishi, Sayuri; Masaomi, Kuwada; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Makito; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer by spectrophotometric analysis of voided urine samples after extracorporeal treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Sixty-one patients with bladder cancer, confirmed histologically after the transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, were recruited as the bladder cancer group, and 50 outpatients without history of urothelial carcinoma or cancer-related findings were recruited as the control group. Half of the voided urine sample was incubated with ALA (ALA-treated sample), and the rest was incubated without treatment (ALA-untreated sample). For detecting cellular protoporphyrin IX levels, intensity of the samples at the excitation wavelength of 405 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer. The difference between the intensity of the ALA-treated and ALA-untreated samples at 635 nm was calculated. The differences in the bladder cancer group were significantly greater than those in the control group (p spectrophotometer in patients with bladder cancer. Therefore, this cancer detection system has a potential for clinical use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fimch antiserum inhibits the adherence of Escherichia coli to cells collected by voided urine specimens of diabetic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, Ruby; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Langermann, Solomon; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Coenjaerts, Frank E. J.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: With the increasing problem of resistance in pathogenic microorganisms the development of nonantimicrobial therapies is important. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract infections. The majority of Escherichia coli strains, which is the most

  12. Reliability of concentrations of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in serial urine specimens from pregnancy in the Generation R study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Suzanne; Pronk, Anjoeka; Koch, Holger M.; Jusko, Todd A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Tiemeier, Henning M.; Hofman, Albert; Pierik, Frank H.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has resulted in ubiquitous exposure in humans, primarily through their diet. Exposure to OP pesticides may have adverse health effects, including neurobehavioral deficits in children. The optimal design of new studies requires data on the reliability of urinary measures of exposure. In the present study, urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, the main urinary metabolites of OP pesticides, were determined in 120 pregnant women participating in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) across serial urine specimens taken at 25 weeks of pregnancy were determined to assess reliability. Geometric mean total DAP metabolite concentrations were 229 (GSD 2.2), 240 (GSD 2.1), and 224 (GSD 2.2) nmol/g creatinine across the three periods of gestation. Metabolite concentrations from the serial urine specimens in general correlated moderately. The ICCs for the six DAP metabolites ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 (0.30 for total DAPs), indicating weak to moderate reliability. Although the DAP metabolite levels observed in this study are slightly higher and slightly more correlated than in previous studies, the low to moderate reliability indicates a high degree of within-person variability, which presents challenges for designing well-powered epidemiologic studies. PMID:25515376

  13. Comparison among performances of a ligase chain reaction-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from men with nongonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T; Yasuda, M; Uno, M; Tada, K; Iwata, H; Komeda, H; Maeda, S; Latila, V; Saito, I; Kawada, Y

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the performances of a ligase chain reaction (LCR)-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays (Chlamydiazyme and IDEIA) in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens. We compared the results of testing urine specimens by these assays with those of urethral swab culture by examining samples from 131 men with nongonococcal urethritis. Discrepant results were analyzed by testing urethral swab specimens for C. trachomatis by a PCR-based assay. After the resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity of urethral swab culture was 85.3%, whereas those of the LCR assay, Chlamydiazyme, and IDEIA with urine specimens were 94.1, 82.4, and 94.1%, respectively. The LCR assay and IDEIA were more sensitive than was urethral swab culture. In addition, the LCR assay, with a sensitivity equal to that of IDEIA, was more specific. Overall, the LCR assay proved to be superior to the enzyme immunoassays in detecting C. trachomatis in urine specimens. Testing urine specimens by LCR assay should be a helpful alternative method for diagnosing C. trachomatis urethral infection in men with nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:8784574

  14. Distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes in bladder cancer from different Chinese sub-populations and its implication in cancer detection using voided urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Joanna HM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the incidence is particularly high in southwestern Taiwan. Previous studies have identified several tumor-related genes that are hypermethylated in bladder cancer; however the DNA methylation profile of bladder cancer in Taiwan is not fully understood. Methods In this study, we compared the DNA methylation profile of multiple tumor suppressor genes (APC, DAPK, E-cadherin, hMLH1, IRF8, p14, p15, RASSF1A, SFRP1 and SOCS-1 in bladder cancer patients from different Chinese sub-populations including Taiwan (104 cases, Hong Kong (82 cases and China (24 cases by MSP. Two normal human urothelium were also included as control. To investigate the diagnostic potential of using DNA methylation in non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, degree of methylation of DAPK, IRF8, p14, RASSF1A and SFRP1 was also accessed by quantitative MSP in urine samples from thirty bladder cancer patients and nineteen non-cancer controls. Results There were distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes among the different sub-populations. Further, samples from Taiwan and China demonstrated a bimodal distribution suggesting that CpG island methylator phentotype (CIMP is presented in bladder cancer. Moreover, the number of methylated genes in samples from Taiwan and Hong Kong were significantly correlated with histological grade (P SFRP1, IRF8, APC and RASSF1A were significantly associated with increased tumor grade, stage. Methylation of RASSF1A was associated with tumor recurrence. Patients with methylation of APC or RASSF1A were also significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival. For methylation detection in voided urine samples of cancer patients, the sensitivity and specificity of using any of the methylated genes (IRF8, p14 or sFRP1 by qMSP was 86.7% and 94.7%. Conclusions Our results indicate that there are distinct methylation epigenotypes among different Chinese sub

  15. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  16. cExternal beam radiation results in minimal changes in post void residual urine volumes during the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orio, Peter F III; Merrick, Gregory S; Allen, Zachariah A; Butler, Wayne M; Wallner, Kent E; Kurko, Brian S; Galbreath, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of external beam radiation therapy (XRT) on weekly ultrasound determined post-void residual (PVR) urine volumes in patients with prostate cancer. 125 patients received XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer. XRT was delivered to the prostate only (n = 66) or if the risk of lymph node involvement was greater than 10% to the whole pelvis followed by a prostate boost (n = 59). All patients were irradiated in the prone position in a custom hip-fix mobilization device with an empty bladder and rectum. PVR was obtained at baseline and weekly. Multiple clinical and treatment parameters were evaluated as predictors for weekly PVR changes. The mean patient age was 73.9 years with a mean pre-treatment prostate volume of 53.3 cc, a mean IPSS of 11.3 and a mean baseline PVR of 57.6 cc. During treatment, PVR decreased from baseline in both cohorts with the absolute difference within the limits of accuracy of the bladder scanner. Alpha-blockers did not predict for a lower PVR during treatment. There was no significant difference in mean PVR urine volumes or differences from baseline in either the prostate only or pelvic radiation groups (p = 0.664 and p = 0.458, respectively). Patients with a larger baseline PVR (>40 cc) had a greater reduction in PVR, although the greatest reduction was seen between weeks one and three. Patients with a small PVR (<40 cc) had no demonstrable change throughout treatment. Prostate XRT results in clinically insignificant changes in weekly PVR volumes, suggesting that radiation induced bladder irritation does not substantially influence bladder residual urine volumes

  17. cExternal beam radiation results in minimal changes in post void residual urine volumes during the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallner Kent E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the impact of external beam radiation therapy (XRT on weekly ultrasound determined post-void residual (PVR urine volumes in patients with prostate cancer. Methods 125 patients received XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer. XRT was delivered to the prostate only (n = 66 or if the risk of lymph node involvement was greater than 10% to the whole pelvis followed by a prostate boost (n = 59. All patients were irradiated in the prone position in a custom hip-fix mobilization device with an empty bladder and rectum. PVR was obtained at baseline and weekly. Multiple clinical and treatment parameters were evaluated as predictors for weekly PVR changes. Results The mean patient age was 73.9 years with a mean pre-treatment prostate volume of 53.3 cc, a mean IPSS of 11.3 and a mean baseline PVR of 57.6 cc. During treatment, PVR decreased from baseline in both cohorts with the absolute difference within the limits of accuracy of the bladder scanner. Alpha-blockers did not predict for a lower PVR during treatment. There was no significant difference in mean PVR urine volumes or differences from baseline in either the prostate only or pelvic radiation groups (p = 0.664 and p = 0.458, respectively. Patients with a larger baseline PVR (>40 cc had a greater reduction in PVR, although the greatest reduction was seen between weeks one and three. Patients with a small PVR ( Conclusion Prostate XRT results in clinically insignificant changes in weekly PVR volumes, suggesting that radiation induced bladder irritation does not substantially influence bladder residual urine volumes.

  18. A new concept and a comprehensive evaluation of SYSMEX UF-1000i  flow cytometer to identify culture-negative urine specimens in patients with UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, T; Ryden, P

    2017-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in men and urine culture is gold standard for diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of culture-negative specimens, any method that identifies such specimens is of interest. The aim was to evaluate a new screening concept for flow cytometry analysis (FCA). The outcomes were evaluated against urine culture, uropathogen species and three conventional screening methods. A prospective, consecutive study examined 1,312 urine specimens, collected during January and February 2012. The specimens were analyzed using the Sysmex UF1000i FCA. Based on the FCA data culture negative specimens were identified in a new model by use of linear discriminant analysis (FCA-LDA). In total 1,312 patients were included. In- and outpatients represented 19.6% and 79.4%, respectively; 68.3% of the specimens originated from women. Of the 610 culture-positive specimens, Escherichia coli represented 64%, enterococci 8% and Klebsiella spp. 7%. Screening with FCA-LDA at 95% sensitivity identified 42% (552/1312) as culture negative specimens when UTI was defined according to European guidelines. The proposed screening method was either superior or similar in comparison to the three conventional screening methods. In conclusion, the proposed/suggested and new FCA-LDA screening method was superior or similar to three conventional screening methods. We recommend the proposed screening method to be used in clinic to exclude culture negative specimens, to reduce workload, costs and the turnaround time. In addition, the FCA data may add information that enhance handling and support diagnosis of patients with suspected UTI pending urine culture [corrected].

  19. For reliable urine cultures in the detection of complicated urinary tract infection, do we use urine specimens obtained with urethral catheter or a nephrostomy tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Gülay; Deveci, Özcan; Dede, Onur; Utanğac, Mazhar; Dağgulli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Hatipoğlu, Namık Kemal

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of urine cultures obtained either from urethral, and percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters. This study included 328 consecutive patients that underwent PCN at our institution with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) between July 2010 and April 2015. Results of urine cultures obtained from the urethral and nephrostomy catheters were compared. This study included 152 male and 176 female patients. Mean age of the patients was 46.2±24.3 years. The main indications were obstructive uropathy due to urolithiasis complicated with pyonephrosis 145 (44%), malignant disease (n=87; 26%), pregnancy (n=26; 8%), and anatomical abnormality (n=23; 7%). One hundred and twenty three patients had diabetes mellitus. The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Blood cultures showed the same results for the PCN and bladder urine cultures. The bladder urine culture was positive in 304 patients, while the PCN urine culture in 314 patients. PCN is an important treatment for the management of pyonephrosis. Cultures from the PCN yield valuable information that is not available from urethral urine cultures, and is a guiding tool for antibiotic therapy selection.

  20. An investigation of normal urine with a creatinine concentration under the cutoff of 20 mg/dL for specimen validity testing in a toxicology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Brad; Guice, Erica A

    2014-05-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories, one commonly used method for urine specimen validity testing is creatinine concentration. In this study, workplace guidelines are examined to determine their relevance to forensic and clinical toxicology samples. Specifically, it investigates the occurrence of urine creatinine concentrations under 20 mg/dL and notes potential issues with factors influencing creatinine concentration by utilizing a simple, novel method consisting of cation-paring high-pressure liquid chromatography in tandem with ultraviolet detection to determine the creatinine concentration in 3019 donors. Of the 4227 sample population in this study, 209 (4.94%) were below the cutoff value of 20 mg/dL for dilute urine. Because there are many factors that can influence the urinary creatinine concentration, samples that have creatinine under the 20 mg/dL cutoff do not always implicate sample adulteration. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Nine Hallucinogenic 25-NBOMe Designer Drugs in Urine Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin L.; Clay, Deborah J.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS-MS) method for the identification and quantification of nine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogenic substances from a new class of N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of methoxyphenylethylamine (NBOMe) designer drugs in human urine: 25H-NBOMe, 2CC-NBOMe, 25I-NBF, 25D-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 2CT-NBOMe, 25I-NBMD, 25G-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe. This assay was developed for the Virginia Commonwealth University Clinical and Forensic Toxicology laboratory to screen emergency department specimens in response to an outbreak of N-benzyl-phenethylamine derivative abuse and overdose cases in Virginia. The NBOMe derivatives were rapidly extracted from the urine specimens by use of FASt™ solid-phase extraction columns. Assay performance was determined as recommended for validation by the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) for linearity, lower limit of quantification, lower limit of detection, accuracy/bias, precision, dilution integrity, carryover, selectivity, absolute recovery, ion suppression and stability. Linearity was verified to be from 1 to 100 ng/mL for each of the nine analytes. The bias determined for the NBOMe derivatives was 86–116% with a <14% coefficient of variation over the linear range of the assay. Four different NBOMe derivatives were detected using the presented method in patient urine specimens. PMID:24535338

  2. Detection of metabolites of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human urine specimens: 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, a prevalent metabolite of LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, G K; Klette, K L; Hallare, D A; Manglicmot, M G; Czarny, R J; McWhorter, L K; Anderson, C J

    1999-03-05

    Seventy-four urine specimens previously found to contain lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were analyzed by a new procedure for the LSD metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD) using a Finnigan LC-MS-MS system. This procedure proved to be less complex, shorter to perform and provides cleaner chromatographic characteristics than the method currently utilized by the Navy Drug Screening Laboratories for the extraction of LSD from urine by GC-MS. All of the specimens used in the study screened positive for LSD by radioimmunoassay (Roche Abuscreen). Analysis by GC-MS revealed detectable amounts of LSD in all of the specimens. In addition, isolysergic diethylamide (iso-LSD), a byproduct of LSD synthesis, was quantitated in 64 of the specimens. Utilizing the new LC-MS-MS method, low levels of N-desmethyl-LSD (nor-LSD), another identified LSD metabolite, were detected in some of the specimens. However, all 74 specimens contained O-H-LSD at significantly higher concentrations than LSD, iso-LSD, or nor-LSD alone. The O-H-LSD concentration ranged from 732 to 112 831 pg/ml (mean, 16340 pg/ml) by quantification with an internal standard. The ratio of O-H-LSD to LSD ranged from 1.1 to 778.1 (mean, 42.9). The presence of O-H-LSD at substantially higher concentrations than LSD suggests that the analysis for O-H-LSD as the target analyte by employing LC-MS-MS will provide a much longer window of detection for the use of LSD than the analysis of the parent compound, LSD.

  3. Void lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.; Wohlenberg, T.

    1976-01-01

    Void lattices in metals apparently owe their stability to elastically anisotropic interactions. An ordered array of voids on the anion sublattice in fluorite does not fit so neatly into this scheme of things. Crowdions may play a part in the formation of the void lattice, and stability may derive from other sources. (Auth.)

  4. Automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 6-acetylmorphine in human urine specimens: application for a high-throughput urine analysis laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robandt, P V; Bui, H M; Scancella, J M; Klette, K L

    2010-10-01

    An automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method using the Spark Holland Symbiosis Pharma SPE-LC coupled to a Waters Quattro Micro MS-MS was developed for the analysis of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in human urine specimens. The method was linear (R² = 0.9983) to 100 ng/mL, with no carryover at 200 ng/mL. Limits of quantification and detection were found to be 2 ng/mL. Interrun precision calculated as percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and evaluated by analyzing five specimens at 10 ng/mL over nine batches (n = 45) was 3.6%. Intrarun precision evaluated from 0 to 100 ng/mL ranged from 1.0 to 4.4%CV. Other opioids (codeine, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and norcodeine) did not interfere in the detection, quantification, or chromatography of 6-AM or the deuterated internal standard. The quantified values for 41 authentic human urine specimens previously found to contain 6-AM by a validated gas chromatography (GC)-MS method were compared to those obtained by the SPE-LC-MS-MS method. The SPE-LC-MS-MS procedure eliminates the human factors of specimen handling, extraction, and derivatization, thereby reducing labor costs and rework resulting from human error or technique issues. The time required for extraction and analysis was reduced by approximately 50% when compared to a validated 6-AM procedure using manual SPE and GC-MS analysis.

  5. Utility of pooled urine specimens for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men attending public sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai, India, by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindan, Christina; Mathur, Meenakshi; Kumta, Sameer; Jerajani, Hermangi; Gogate, Alka; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne

    2005-04-01

    Pooling urogenital specimens for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by nucleic acid amplification tests is an attractive alternative to individual testing. As pooling can reduce the costs of testing as well as labor, it has been advocated for use in resource-poor settings. However, it has neither been widely adopted nor evaluated for use in developing countries. We evaluated the practical use of pooling first-catch urine (FCU) specimens for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae from 690 men in Mumbai, India, by PCR. FCU, urethral smears, and swabs were collected from men seen at two sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. All laboratory testing was done at the Lokmanya Tilak General Hospital. Gram stain smears and culture isolation for N. gonorrhoeae were performed. Each FCU was tested individually and in pools using the Roche Amplicor PCR for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae with an internal control for inhibition. Specimen pools consisted of aliquots from five consecutively processed FCUs combined into an amplification tube. An optical density reading of > or =0.20 indicated a pool for which subsequent testing of individual samples was required. Prevalence by PCR on single specimens was 2.2% (15/690) for C. trachomatis and 5.4% (37/690) for N. gonorrhoeae. Compared to individual FCU results, pooling for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae had an overall sensitivity of 96.1% (50/52). Specificity was 96.5% (83/86) in that three pools required single testing that failed to identify a positive specimen. Pooling missed two positive specimens, decreased the inhibition rate, and saved 50.3% of reagent costs. In this resource-limited setting, the use of pooling to detect C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by PCR proved to be a simple, accurate, and cost-effective procedure compared to individual testing.

  6. Chromogenic culture media or rapid immunochromatographic test: Which is better for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce OXA-48 and can they be used in blood and urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ozlem; Aksu, Evrim

    2018-05-01

    Our goal was to compare a rapid test (OXA-48K-SeT) and four different chromogenic media (CHROMagar KPC, CHROMagar mSuperCARBA, ChromID Carba and ChromID OXA-48) for the detection of OXA-48 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and spiked urine/blood samples with these bacteria. In total 100 K.pneumoniae isolates, including 60 OXA-48 positive, 15 other carbapenemase producing, 15 Extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) positive and 10 carbapenem sensitive K.pneumoniae were included in the study. After all samples were inoculated into all chromogenic media, temocillin discs were placed onto the media. OXA-48K-SeT was studied according to the manufacturer's instructions and the lower detection limit was determined. Sensitivities and specificities of all chromogenic media and rapid test were detected as 100%. All of the OXA-48 producers were found resistant to temocillin on all chromogenic media. The lower detection limit of the rapid assay was determined as 10 6 in both direct bacterial samples and in spiked urine/blood samples. As a result, four chromogenic culture media and OXA-48 K-SeT can be used safely for detection of OXA-48 positive K.pneumoniae isolates. Although direct clinical specimens were not used, our study suggests that this media and OXA-48 K-SeT may be used in patient samples like blood and urine. Further studies are needed to assess this suggestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perpetua A. Ekwealor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%, E. coli (24.6%, and S. saprophyticus (20%. The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice.

  8. Rapid colorimetric detection of Zika virus from serum and urine specimens by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Calvert

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has emerged as a major global public health concern in the last two years due to its link as a causative agent of human birth defects. Its rapid expansion into the Western Hemisphere as well as the ability to be transmitted from mother to fetus, through sexual transmission and possibly through blood transfusions has increased the need for a rapid and expansive public health response to this unprecedented epidemic. A non-invasive and rapid ZIKV diagnostic screening assay that can be performed in a clinical setting throughout pregnancy is vital for prenatal care of women living in areas of the world where exposure to the virus is possible. To meet this need we have developed a sensitive and specific reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay to detect ZIKV RNA in urine and serum with a simple visual detection. RT-LAMP results were shown to have a limit of detection 10-fold higher than qRT-PCR. As little as 1.2 RNA copies/μl was detected by RT-LAMP from a panel of 178 diagnostic specimens. The assay was shown to be highly specific for ZIKV RNA when tested with diagnostic specimens positive for dengue virus (DENV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. The assay described here illustrates the potential for a fast, reliable, sensitive and specific assay for the detection of ZIKV from urine or serum that can be performed in a clinical or field setting with minimal equipment and technological expertise.

  9. Daily intake and hazard index of parabens based upon 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1.1 μg/kg bw/day for iso-butyl paraben and 47.5 μg/kg bw/day for methyl paraben. The calculated DIs were compared with acceptable levels of exposure to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) that indicate that acceptable exposure is exceeded for values of >1. Approximately 5% of our study population exceeded this threshold for individual paraben exposure. The hazard index (HI) that takes into account the cumulative risk of adverse estrogenic effects was 1.3 at the 95th percentile and 4.4 at maximum intakes, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben exposure. HI values of >1 indicate some level of concern. However, we have to point out that we applied most conservative assumptions in the HQ/HI calculations. Also, major exposure reduction measures were enacted in the European Union after 2012.

  10. The Consequence of Delayed Fixation on Subsequent Preservation of Urine Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain G. Ahmed,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Degenerative changes caused by delays in urine preservation contribute to false-negative and false-positive interpretation of urothelial disease in cytology. The aim of this study is to assess whether the delay of fixation of urine samples makes any significant difference to urine cytology and morphology, and the limit of acceptability of delay for routine use in the hospital laboratory.Methods: Three cell collection fluids were evaluated by analyzing the preservation and degeneration of cells in urine samples. In this study, 50 voided urine specimens were taken at random from females complaining of vaginal discharge. Each specimen was divided into three sterile containers. The first was immediately centrifugated and the deposit was smeared onto a cleaned micro slide and immediately fixed into 95�0ethyl alcohol for 15 minutes. The remaining two were prepared in the same manner, however, the second after two hours of collection and the third after four hours of collection. The degree of degeneration and thus the preservation were assessed by a table of chosen criteria, then ranked and analyzed using Friedman's nonparametric test, atp=0.05.Results: The results showed a significant difference between the preservation and the delay in urine fixation, p<0.0001.Conclusion: Any delay in fixation of urine specimen for cytology affects the preservation of cells, which may result in miss diagnosis. It is recommended that urine samples for cytology should be fixed immediately after collection.

  11. Evaluation of the Coat-A-Count sup 125 I fentanyl RIA: Comparison of sup 12 5I RIA and GC/MS-SIM for quantification of fentanyl in case urine specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, V.W.; Caplan, Y.H. (Mesa Police Crime Laboratory, AZ (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The Coat-A-Count solid phase {sup 125}I Fentanyl Radioimmunoassay was evaluated with respect to linearity and precision using equine urine fortified with fentanyl and then compared with a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method for quantification of fentanyl in urine. The RIA assay was found to be linear over the urine fentanyl concentration range of 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL and precise with coefficients of variation (CV) ranging from 9.6 to 19.3%. The RIA calibrators, ranging in fentanyl concentrations from 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL, and controls, at mean fentanyl concentrations of 0.46 and 1.32 ng/mL, were compared by both the RIA and GC/MS methods. The cross-reactivity with the {sup 125}I RIA test was determined for the fentanyl metabolites, norfentanyl and hydroxyfentanyl, and found to be 5% and 35%, respectively. The illicit fentanyl analogs were found to show significant cross-reactivity, ranging from 20 to 100%. The {sup 125}I RIA was compared to GC/MS quantifications of fentanyl in 35 positive and 20 negative case urine specimens.

  12. Evaluation of the Coat-A-Count 125I fentanyl RIA: Comparison of 125I RIA and GC/MS-SIM for quantification of fentanyl in case urine specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, V.W.; Caplan, Y.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Coat-A-Count solid phase 125 I Fentanyl Radioimmunoassay was evaluated with respect to linearity and precision using equine urine fortified with fentanyl and then compared with a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method for quantification of fentanyl in urine. The RIA assay was found to be linear over the urine fentanyl concentration range of 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL and precise with coefficients of variation (CV) ranging from 9.6 to 19.3%. The RIA calibrators, ranging in fentanyl concentrations from 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL, and controls, at mean fentanyl concentrations of 0.46 and 1.32 ng/mL, were compared by both the RIA and GC/MS methods. The cross-reactivity with the 125 I RIA test was determined for the fentanyl metabolites, norfentanyl and hydroxyfentanyl, and found to be 5% and 35%, respectively. The illicit fentanyl analogs were found to show significant cross-reactivity, ranging from 20 to 100%. The 125 I RIA was compared to GC/MS quantifications of fentanyl in 35 positive and 20 negative case urine specimens

  13. Improved diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR using vaginal swabs and urine specimens compared to diagnosis by wet mount microscopy, culture, and fluorescent staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Schee (Cindy); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L. Zwijgers (Lisette); E. van der Brugge; E.L. O'Neill; A. Luijendijk (Ad); T. van Rijsoort-Vos; W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); J.F. Sluiters (Hans); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFour vaginal cotton swab specimens were obtained from each of 804 women visiting the outpatient sexually transmitted disease clinic of the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for validation of various forms of Trichomonas

  14. Partial discharges in spheroidal voids: Void orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Partial discharge transients can be described in terms of the charge induced on the detecting electrode. The influence of the void parameters upon the induced charge is examined and discussed for spheroidal voids. It is shown that a quantitative interpretation of the induced charge requires...

  15. Pediatric Voiding Cystourethrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scan for mobile link. Children's (Pediatric) Voiding Cystourethrogram A children’s (pediatric) voiding cystourethrogram uses fluoroscopy – a form of real-time x-ray – to examine a child’s bladder ...

  16. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  17. Cosmic void clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Ruiz, A. N.; Ceccarelli, L.; Paz, D.

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are of great interest given their relation to the large scale distribution of mass and the way they trace cosmic flows shaping the cosmic web. Here we show that the distribution of voids has, in consonance with the distribution of mass, a characteristic scale at which void pairs are preferentially located. We identify clumps of voids with similar environments and use them to define second order underdensities. Also, we characterize its properties and analyze its impact on the cosmic microwave background.

  18. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    of different material length parameters in a multi-parameter theory is studied, and it is shown that the important length parameter is the same as under purely hydrostatic loading. It is quantified how micron scale voids grow less rapidly than larger voids, and the implications of this in the overall strength...... of the material is emphasized. The size effect on the onset of coalescence is studied, and results for the void volume fraction and the strain at the onset of coalescence are presented. It is concluded that for cracked specimens not only the void volume fraction, but also the typical void size is of importance...... to the fracture strength of ductile materials....

  19. Bilirubin - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  20. Dislocation and void segregation in copper during neutron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Horsewell, Andy

    1986-01-01

    ); the irradiation experiments were carried out at 250 degree C. The irradiated specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. At both doses, the irradiation-induced structure was found to be highly segregated; the dislocation loops and segments were present in the form of irregular walls and the voids...... density, the void swelling rate was very high (approximately 2. 5% per dpa). The implications of the segregated distribution of sinks for void formation and growth are briefly discussed....

  1. Positive urine cultures: A major cause of inappropriate antimicrobial use in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; Baillie, Laura; Simor, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Urine specimens are among the most common samples submitted for culture to microbiology laboratories. The objectives of the present study were to describe the indications for obtaining urine cultures in a cohort of hospitalized patients, and to determine the appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in response to urine culture results. The study was performed at a teaching hospital with an adjoining long-term care facility from June 1 to July 31, 2006. The medical records of nonpregnant adult patients with and without bacteriuria were reviewed. A symptomatic urinary tract infection was defined as the presence of bacteriuria in a patient with fever or urinary symptoms; asymptomatic bacteriuria was defined as bacteriuria without urinary symptoms and no infection evident at another site. Medical records of 335 eligible patients (64% male; mean age 68 years) were reviewed, including all 137 with bacteriuria, and 198 with negative urine cultures. In total, 51% of the urine specimens were obtained from an indwelling urinary catheter, and 28% were voided urine samples. Confusion (57%) and fever (36%) were the most common indications noted for obtaining the urine cultures. Only 34 patients (25% of those with positive urine cultures) met the criteria for a symptomatic urinary tract infection; 67 (49%) had asymptomatic bacteriuria and 36 (26%) had infection at a nonurinary site. Of those with asymptomatic bacteriuria, 64% received antimicrobial therapy for a total of 347 days. Confused patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were more likely to be treated than were bacteriuric patients without altered mental status (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.1; P=0.03). Urine cultures are frequently obtained from hospitalizedpatients,evenintheabsenceofurinarysymptoms.Asymptomatic bacteriuria is often treated in these patients, and accounts for a substantial burden of inappropriate antimicrobial use in hospitals. Effective strategies to improve urine culture ordering and antimicrobial

  2. On void nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Nucleation of viable voids in irradiated materials is considered. The mechanism of evaporation and absorption of interstitials and vacancies disregarding the possibility of void merging is laid down into the basis of the discussion. The effect of irradiated material structure on void nucleation is separated from the effect of the properties of supersaturated solutions of vacancies and interstitials. An analytical expression for the nucleation rate is obtained and analyzed in different cases. The interstitials are concluded to effect severely the nucleation rate of viable voids

  3. Void nucleation in spheroidized steels during tensile deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.R. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various mechanical and material parameters on void formation at cementite particles in axisymmetric tensile specimens of spheroidized plain carbon steels. Desired microstructures for each of three steel types were obtained. Observations of void morphology with respect to various microstructural features were made using optical and scanning electron microscopy

  4. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  5. Temperature controlled 'void' formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Sharma, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of voids in structural materials during high temperature deformation or irradiation is essentially dependent upon the existence of 'vacancy supersaturation'. The role of temperature dependent diffusion processes in 'void' formation under varying conditions, and the mechanical property changes associated with this microstructure are briefly reviewed. (author)

  6. Void nucleation at heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyyedi, S.A.; Hadji-Mirzai, M.; Russell, K.C.

    The energetics and kinetics of void nucleation at dislocations and interfaces are analyzed. These are potential void nucleation sites only when they are not point defect sinks. Both kinds of site are found to be excellent catalysts in the presence of inert gas

  7. Void hierarchy and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Ravi Sheth

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of two processes, the void-in-void process and the void-in-cloud process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a two-barrier excursion problem leads to a self-similarly evolving peaked void size distribution

  8. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  9. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    of different material length parameters in a multi-parameter theory is studied, and it is shown that the important length parameter is the same as under purely hydrostatic loading. It is quantified how micron scale voids grow less rapidly than larger voids, and the implications of this in the overall strength...... of the material is emphasized. It is concluded that for cracked specimens not only the void volume fraction, but also the typical void size is of importance to the fracture strength of ductile materials....

  10. Void shrinkage in stainless steel during high energy electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Foreman, A.J.E.

    1976-03-01

    During irradiation of thin foils of an austenitic stainless steel in a high voltage electron microscope, steadily growing voids have been observed to suddenly shrink and disappear at the irradiation temperature of 650 0 Cthe phenomenon has been observed in specimens both with and withoutimplanted helium. Possible mechanisms for void shrinkage during irradiation are considered. It is suggested that the dislocation-pipe-diffusion of vacancies from or of self-interstitial atoms to the voids can explain the shrinkage behaviour of voids observed during our experiments. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of Preanalytic Practices on Contamination and Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Cultures: a Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Jacob; Leibach, Elizabeth K.; Weissfeld, Alice S.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Sautter, Robert L.; Baselski, Vickie; Rodahl, Debra; Peterson, Edward J.; Cornish, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    , time factor, timing, urine specimen collection, catheters, indwelling, urinary reservoirs, continent, urinary catheterization, intermittent urethral catheterization, clean voided, midstream, Foley, suprapubic, bacteriological techniques, and microbiological techniques. Main results. Both boric acid and refrigeration adequately preserved urine specimens prior to their processing for up to 24 h. Urine held at room temperature for more than 4 h showed overgrowth of both clinically significant and contaminating microorganisms. The overall strength of this body of evidence, however, was rated as low. For urine specimens collected from women, there was no difference in rates of contamination for midstream urine specimens collected with or without cleansing. The overall strength of this evidence was rated as high. The levels of diagnostic accuracy of midstream urine collection with or without cleansing were similar, although the overall strength of this evidence was rated as low. For urine specimens collected from men, there was a reduction in contamination in favor of midstream clean-catch over first-void specimen collection. The strength of this evidence was rated as high. Only one study compared midstream collection with cleansing to midstream collection without cleansing. Results showed no difference in contamination between the two methods of collection. However, imprecision was due largely to the small event size. The diagnostic accuracy of midstream urine collection from men compared to straight catheterization or suprapubic aspiration was high. However, the overall strength of this body of evidence was rated as low. For urine specimens collected from children and infants, the evidence comparing contamination rates for midstream urine collection with cleansing, midstream collection without cleansing, sterile urine bag collection, and diaper collection pointed to larger reductions in the odds of contamination in favor of midstream collection with cleansing over the

  12. Air void clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been identified as a potential source of : low strengths in concrete mixes by several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research was : carried out to (1) develop a quantitati...

  13. Is abdominal wall contraction important for normal voiding in the female rat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boone Timothy B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal voiding behavior in urethane-anesthetized rats includes contraction of the abdominal wall striated muscle, similar to the visceromotor response (VMR to noxious bladder distension. Normal rat voiding requires pulsatile release of urine from a pressurized bladder. The abdominal wall contraction accompanying urine flow may provide a necessary pressure increment for normal efficient pulsatile voiding. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and necessity of the voiding-associated abdominal wall activity in urethane-anesthetized female rats Methods A free-voiding model was designed to allow assessment of abdominal wall activity during voiding resulting from physiologic bladder filling, in the absence of bladder or urethral instrumentation. Physiologic diuresis was promoted by rapid intravascular hydration. Intercontraction interval (ICI, voided volumes and EMG activity of the rectus abdominis were quantified. The contribution of abdominal wall contraction to voiding was eliminated in a second group of rats by injecting botulinum-A (BTX, 5 U into each rectus abdominis to induce local paralysis. Uroflow parameters were compared between intact free-voiding and BTX-prepared animals. Results Abdominal wall response is present in free voiding. BTX preparation eliminated the voiding-associated EMG activity. Average per-void volume decreased from 1.8 ml to 1.1 ml (p Conclusion The voiding-associated abdominal wall response is a necessary component of normal voiding in urethane anesthetized female rats. As the proximal urethra may be the origin of the afferent signaling which results in the abdominal wall response, the importance of the bladder pressure increment due to this response may be in maintaining a normal duration intermittent pulsatile high frequency oscillatory (IPHFO/flow phase and thus efficient voiding. We propose the term Voiding-associated Abdominal Response (VAR for the physiologic voiding-associated EMG

  14. Positive void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)

  15. Void effects on BWR Doppler and void reactivity feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang-Shou Cheng; Diamond, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of steam voids and control rods on the Doppler feedback in a gadolinia shimmed BWR is demonstrated. The importance of bypass voids when determining void feedback is also shown. Calculations were done using a point model, i.e., feedback was expressed in terms of reactivity coefficients which were determined for individual four-bundle configurations and then appropriately combined to yield reactor results. For overpower transients the inclusion of the void effect of control rods is to reduce Doppler feedback. For overpressurization transients the inclusion of the effect of bypass void wil increase the reactivity due to void collapse. (author)

  16. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  17. Vesicoureteral reflux in children: comparison of contrast - enhanced voiding ultrasonography with radiographic voiding cystourethrography - preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Goo, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hungy; Lee, Jung Joo; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan; Kim, Ki Soo; Park, Young Seo; Pi, Soo Young [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    To compared the usefullness of contrst-enhanced voiding ultrasonogrphy (US) with that of radiogrphic voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Ninety-five kidney-ureter units of 47 patients referred for investigation of VUR underwent contrast -enhanced voiding US followed by radiographic VCUG. After baseline US examination of the urinaru tract, residual urine in the bladder was drained through an inserted Foley catheter and the bladder was gravityfilled at a height of 1 m with normal saline. A galactose-based, microbubble-containning echo-enhancing agent (Lvovist; Dchering, Berlin, Germany) was then administered. The amount of this was approximately 10% of bldder capacity, and VUR was diagnosed when microbubbles appeared in the ureter or pelvocalyceal system. Using radiographic VCUG as a reference point, the accuracy with which contrst-enhanced voiding US detected VUR was calcilated. In 87 of 95 kidney-ureter units (91.6%), the two methods showed similiar results regarding the diagnosis or exclusion of VUR, which was detected by both in 12 units, but by neither in 75. VUR was shown to occcur in a total of 20 units, but in eight of these by one method only. In two units, VUR detected by contrast-enhanced voiding US was was not demostarted by radiographic VCUG; in six units, the resverse was true. In the detection of VUR, contrast-enhanced voiding us showed a sensitivity of 66.7%, a sprcificity of 97.4%, a positive predictive value of 85.7%, and a negative predictive value of 92.6%. Contrst-enhanced voiding US is highly specific and has high positive and nagative predictive values; its sensitivity, however, is not sufficiently high. The modality appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of VUR without exposure to ionizing radiation, though to be certain of its value, more experience of its use its first required.

  18. Vesicoureteral reflux in children: comparison of contrast - enhanced voiding ultrasonography with radiographic voiding cystourethrography - preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Goo, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hungy; Lee, Jung Joo; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan; Kim, Ki Soo; Park, Young Seo; Pi, Soo Young

    2001-01-01

    To compared the usefullness of contrst-enhanced voiding ultrasonogrphy (US) with that of radiogrphic voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Ninety-five kidney-ureter units of 47 patients referred for investigation of VUR underwent contrast -enhanced voiding US followed by radiographic VCUG. After baseline US examination of the urinaru tract, residual urine in the bladder was drained through an inserted Foley catheter and the bladder was gravityfilled at a height of 1 m with normal saline. A galactose-based, microbubble-containning echo-enhancing agent (Lvovist; Dchering, Berlin, Germany) was then administered. The amount of this was approximately 10% of bldder capacity, and VUR was diagnosed when microbubbles appeared in the ureter or pelvocalyceal system. Using radiographic VCUG as a reference point, the accuracy with which contrst-enhanced voiding US detected VUR was calcilated. In 87 of 95 kidney-ureter units (91.6%), the two methods showed similiar results regarding the diagnosis or exclusion of VUR, which was detected by both in 12 units, but by neither in 75. VUR was shown to occcur in a total of 20 units, but in eight of these by one method only. In two units, VUR detected by contrast-enhanced voiding US was was not demostarted by radiographic VCUG; in six units, the resverse was true. In the detection of VUR, contrast-enhanced voiding us showed a sensitivity of 66.7%, a sprcificity of 97.4%, a positive predictive value of 85.7%, and a negative predictive value of 92.6%. Contrst-enhanced voiding US is highly specific and has high positive and nagative predictive values; its sensitivity, however, is not sufficiently high. The modality appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of VUR without exposure to ionizing radiation, though to be certain of its value, more experience of its use its first required

  19. Determination of the void nucleation rate from void size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A method of estimating the void nucleation rate from one void size distribution and from observation of the maximum void radius at prior times is proposed. Implicit in the method are the assumptions that both variations in the critical radius with dose and vacancy thermal emission processes during post-nucleation quasi-steady-state growth may be neglected. (Auth.)

  20. Void shape effects and voids starting from cracked inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    Numerical, axisymmetric cell model analyses are used to study the growth of voids in ductile metals, until the mechanism of coalescence with neighbouring voids sets in. A special feature of the present analyses is that extremely small values of the initial void volume fraction are considered, dow...

  1. Methodologic problems in the radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin E2 and Fsub(2α) in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciabattoni, G.; Pugliese, F.; Cinotti, G.A.; Patrono, C.

    1979-01-01

    Validation of RIA measurement of urinary prostaglandins cannot rely upon classical criteria of specificity, such as dilution studies, since different antisera meeting such requirement may recognize a variable proportion of different compounds accompanying PGE 2 through extraction purification procedures. Validation should therefore be sought by comparison with an independent method of analysis (GC/MS) and/or characterization of the TLC behaviour of PG-LI. Storage of urine before extraction may variably affect PG concentration, as a function of temperature and time. In order to avoid variable losses, urine should be frozen immediately after voiding and kept at -20 0 C until extraction. Urinary PG excretion rate is highly variable during human menstrual cycle, with no apparent pattern. A higher degree of reproducibility was found when 2-h specimens were collected under standard conditions of hydration and immediately frozen. 2-h collections may represent a convenient method to investigate physiological and pharmacological factors controlling urinary PG excretion in healthy subjects. (Auth.)

  2. Archaeology of Void Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Cory

    The overall goal of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of pXRF for the identification of ancient activity areas at Pre-Columbian sites in Antigua that range across time periods, geographic regions, site types with a variety of features, and various states of preservation. These findings have important implications for identifying and reconstructing places full of human activity but void of material remains. A synthesis for an archaeology of void spaces requires the construction of new ways of testing anthrosols, and identifying elemental patterns that can be used to connect people with their places and objects. This research begins with an exploration of rich middens in order to study void spaces. Midden archaeology has been a central focus in Caribbean research, and consists of an accumulation of discarded remnants from past human activities that can be tested against anthrosols. The archaeological collections visited for this research project involved creating new databases to generate a comprehensive inventory of sites, materials excavated, and assemblages available for study. Of the more than 129 Pre-Columbian sites documented in Antigua, few sites have been thoroughly surveyed or excavated. Twelve Pre-Columbian sites, consisting of thirty-six excavated units were selected for study; all of which contained complete assemblages for comparison and soil samples for testing. These excavations consisted almost entirely of midden excavations, requiring new archaeological investigations to be carried out in spaces primarily void of material remains but within the village context. Over the course of three seasons excavations, shovel test pits, and soil augers were used to obtain a variety of anthrosols and archaeological assemblages in order to generate new datasets to study Pre-Columbian activity areas. The selection of two primary case study sites were used for comparison: Indian Creek and Doigs. Findings from this research indicate that accounting for the

  3. Urine Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor. Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  4. Abnormal urinalysis results are common, regardless of specimen collection technique, in women without urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Bradley W; Enriquez, Kayla; Ng, Valerie; Alter, Harrison

    2015-06-01

    Voided urinalysis to test for urinary tract infection (UTI) is prone to false-positive results for a number of reasons. Specimens are often collected at triage from women with any abdominal complaint, creating a low UTI prevalence population. Improper collection technique by the patient may affect the result. At least four indices, if positive, can indicate UTI. We examine the impact of voided specimen collection technique on urinalysis indicators of UTI and on urine culture contamination in disease-free women. In this crossover design, 40 menstrual-age female emergency department staff without UTI symptoms collected urine two ways: directly in a cup ("non-clean") and midstream clean catch ("ideal"). Samples underwent standard automated urinalysis and culture. Urinalysis indices and culture contamination were compared. The proportion of abnormal results from samples collected by "non-clean" vs. "ideal" technique, respectively, were: leukocyte esterase (>trace) 50%, 35% (95% confidence interval for difference -6% to 36%); nitrites (any) 2.5%, 2.5% (difference -2.5 to 2.5%); white blood cells (>5/high-powered field [HPF]) 50%, 27.5% (difference 4 to 41%); bacteria (any/HPF) 77.5%, 62.5%, (difference -7 to 37%); epithelial cells (>few) 65%, 30% (difference 13 to 56%); culture contamination (>1000 colony-forming units of commensal or >2 species) 77%, 63% (difference -5 to 35%). No urinalysis index was positively correlated with culture contamination. Contemporary automated urinalysis indices were often abnormal in a disease-free population of women, even using ideal collection technique. In clinical practice, such false-positive results could lead to false-positive UTI diagnosis. Only urine nitrite showed a high specificity. Culture contamination was common regardless of collection technique and was not predicted by urinalysis results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing Urine Processing Protocols for Protein and Metabolite Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nazema Y; DuBois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Will, Thompson J; Grenier, Carole; Burke, Emily; Fraser, Matthew O; Amundsen, Cindy L; Murphy, Susan K

    In urine, factors such as timing of voids, and duration at room temperature (RT) may affect the quality of recovered protein and metabolite data. Additives may aid with detection, but can add more complexity in sample collection or analysis. We aimed to identify the optimal urine processing protocol for clinically-obtained urine samples that allows for the highest protein and metabolite yields with minimal degradation. Healthy women provided multiple urine samples during the same day. Women collected their first morning (1 st AM) void and another "random void". Random voids were aliquotted with: 1) no additive; 2) boric acid (BA); 3) protease inhibitor (PI); or 4) both BA + PI. Of these aliquots, some were immediately stored at 4°C, and some were left at RT for 4 hours. Proteins and individual metabolites were quantified, normalized to creatinine concentrations, and compared across processing conditions. Sample pools corresponding to each processing condition were analyzed using mass spectrometry to assess protein degradation. Ten Caucasian women between 35-65 years of age provided paired 1 st morning and random voided urine samples. Normalized protein concentrations were slightly higher in 1 st AM compared to random "spot" voids. The addition of BA did not significantly change proteins, while PI significantly improved normalized protein concentrations, regardless of whether samples were immediately cooled or left at RT for 4 hours. In pooled samples, there were minimal differences in protein degradation under the various conditions we tested. In metabolite analyses, there were significant differences in individual amino acids based on the timing of the void. For comparative translational research using urine, information about void timing should be collected and standardized. For urine samples processed in the same day, BA does not appear to be necessary while the addition of PI enhances protein yields, regardless of 4°C or RT storage temperature.

  6. Displacive stability of a void in a void lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the stability of the void-lattice structure in irradiated metals may be attributed to the effect of the overlapping of the point-defect diffusion fields associated with each void. It is shown here, however, that the effect is much too weak. When one void is displaced from its lattice site, the displacement is shown to relax to zero as proposed, but a conservative estimate indicates that the characteristic time is equivalent to an irradiation dose of the order of 300 displacements per atom which is generally much greater than the dose necessary for void-lattice formation

  7. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:402-408; DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090152)...

  8. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  9. Urine chemokines indicate pathogenic association of obesity with BPH/LUTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Motley, Saundra S; Kashyap, Mahendra; Pore, Subrata; Gingrich, Jeffrey; Wang, Zhou; Yoshimura, Naoki; Fowke, Jay H

    2015-07-01

    High prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consistent with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is associated with obesity and prostatic inflammation. Here, we investigated whether chemokines associated with obesity and prostatic inflammation can be measured in normally voided urine of BPH/LUTS patients to demonstrate the mechanistic association between obesity and BPH/LUTS. Frozen urine specimens of BPH/LUTS patients enrolled in the Nashville Men's Health Study were sent for blinded analysis to University of Pittsburgh. Thirty patients were blocked by their AUA-SI (>7 or ≤7) and prostatic enlargement (60 cc). Clinical parameters including age, prostate size, and medications were derived from chart review. CXC chemokines (CXCL-1, CXCL-8, and CXCL-10), CC chemokines (CCL2 and CCL3), and sIL-1ra were measured in thawed urine using Luminex™ xMAP(®) technology and ELISA for NGF. Urinary CCL2 levels were several fold higher compared with the other six proteins, of which CCL3 was detectable in less than one-fourth of patients. Urine levels of sIL-1ra and CXCL-8 were significantly associated with increasing BMI and waist circumference in BPH patients. CXCL-8 showed a marginal association with overall AUA-SI scores, as well as obstructive (p = 0.08) symptom subscores. Prostate volume was inversely and marginally associated with urinary CXCL-10 (p = 0.09). Urine levels of CXCL-8, CXCL-10, and sIL-1ra were associated with varying degrees with LUTS severity, prostate size, and obesity, respectively. These findings in urine are consistent with past studies of chemokine levels from expressed prostatic secretions and demonstrate the potential of noninvasively measured chemokine in urine to objectively classify BPH/LUTS patients.

  10. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  11. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  12. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  13. Urine Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs can darken urine, including the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, the antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin ( ... Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the ...

  14. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from an infant, you may need extra collection bags. How the Test will Feel The test involves ... urine, it normally consists of mainly albumin. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  15. Video Voiding Device for Diagnosing Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoueinejad, Mehdi; Alkashgari, Rayan; Mosli, Hisham A; Alothmany, Nazeeh; Levin, Jacob M; Webster, John G

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel diagnostic Visual Voiding Device (VVD), which has the ability to visually document urinary voiding events and calculate key voiding parameters such as instantaneous flow rate. The observation of the urinary voiding process along with the instantaneous flow rate can be used to diagnose symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction (LUTD) and improve evaluation of LUTD treatments by providing subsequent follow-up documentations of voiding events after treatments. The VVD enables a patient to have a urinary voiding event in privacy while a urologist monitors, processes, and documents the event from a distance. The VVD consists of two orthogonal cameras which are used to visualize urine leakage from the urethral meatus, urine stream trajectory, and its break-up into droplets. A third, lower back camera monitors a funnel topped cylinder where urine accumulates that contains a floater for accurate readings regardless of the urine color. Software then processes the change in level of accumulating urine in the cylinder and the visual flow properties to calculate urological parameters. Video playback allows for reexamination of the voiding process. The proposed device was tested by integrating a mass flowmeter into the setup and simultaneously measuring the instantaneous flow rate of a predetermined voided volume in order to verify the accuracy of VVD compared to the mass flowmeter. The VVD and mass flowmeter were found to have an accuracy of ±2 and ±3% relative to full scale, respectively. A VVD clinical trial was conducted on 16 healthy male volunteers ages 23-65.

  16. A comparative study of voiding in rat and guinea pig: simultaneous measurement of flow rate and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asselt (Els); J.M. Groen (Jan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, the voiding phase of the micturition cycle in the anesthetized rat and guinea pig is analyzed. In both animals, voiding is characterized by an increase in intravesical pressure and then a decrease, which is accompanied by flow through the urethra and emission of urine. An

  17. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  20. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  1. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  2. LC-mS analysis of human urine specimens for 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD: method validation for potential interferants and stability study of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD under various storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klette, Kevin L; Horn, Carl K; Stout, Peter R; Anderson, Cynthia J

    2002-01-01

    2-Oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD), a major LSD metabolite, has previously been demonstrated to be a superior marker for identifying LSD use compared with the parent drug, LSD. Specifically, O-H-LSD analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been reported to be present in urine at concentrations 16 to 43 times greater than LSD. To further support forensic application of this procedure, the specificity of the assay was assessed using compounds that have structural and chemical properties similar to O-H-LSD, common over-the-counter products, prescription drugs and some of their metabolites, and other drugs of abuse. Of the wide range of compounds studied, none were found to interfere with the detection of O-H-LSD or the internal standard 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid methyl propylamide. The stability of O-H-LSD was investigated from 0 to 9 days at various temperatures, pH conditions, and exposures to fluorescent light. Additionally, the effect of long-term frozen storage and pH was investigated from 0 to 60 days. There was no significant loss of O-H-LSD under both refrigerated and frozen conditions within the normal human physiological pH range of urine (4.6-8.4). However, significant loss of O-H-LSD was observed in samples prepared at pH 4.6-8.4 and stored at room temperature or higher (24-50 degrees C).

  3. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  4. Air void clustering : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been : identified as a potential source of low strengths in concrete mixes by : several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research : was carried out to (1) develop a quantita...

  5. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  6. Alignment of voids in the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large-scale matter distribution of a Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel watershed void finder (WVF) technique. The identified voids are quite non-spherical and slightly

  7. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  8. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Reischies, Frederike M. J.; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with...

  9. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urine isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.M.; Khan, H.U.; Mashud, I.U.; Ashiq, B.; Shah, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Screening women for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on the first antenatal visit is a part of standard obstetric care. Treating women with ASB decreases the chances of maternal and foetal complications. This study was conducted to find out the spectrum of urine pathogens and their drug susceptibility pattern for ASB during pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from September 2001 to March 2002. Two hundred and ninety women, apparently normal with confirmed pregnancy, were registered. A voided midstream urine specimen was collected and cultured. A significant growth i.e. >105 organisms/ml was identified with Analytical Profile Index 20 tests for identification of Enterobacteriaceae (API-20-E) and for Gram positive cocci by other standard methods. The prevalence of ASB was found 6.2%. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion Kirby Bauyer method after matching the turbidity with 0.5 McFarland's standard. Most of the recommended drugs were found to have encouraging results, however, Escherichia coli showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. Enterobacters showed 100% resistance to ampicillins, cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin. Staphylococcus saprophyticus showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. It was concluded that detection of ASB during pregnancy and appropriate use of antimicrobials is only possible after culture of urine. Empirical anti-microbial therapy cannot be relied upon because of possible risk of resistance. (author)

  10. Critical Void Volume Fraction fc at Void Coalescence for S235JR Steel at Low Initial Stress Triaxiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorz Kossakowski, Paweł; Wciślik, Wiktor

    2017-10-01

    The paper is concerned with the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microdefects in the form of voids in S235JR steel. The material is known to be one of the basic steel grades commonly used in the construction industry. The theory and methods of damage mechanics were applied to determine and describe the failure mechanisms that occur when the material undergoes deformation. Until now, engineers have generally employed the Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman model. This material model based on damage mechanics is well suited to define and analyze failure processes taking place in the microstructure of S235JR steel. It is particularly important to determine the critical void volume fraction fc , which is one of the basic parameters of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman material model. As the critical void volume fraction fc refers to the failure stage, it is determined from the data collected for the void coalescence phase. A case of multi-axial stresses is considered taking into account the effects of spatial stress state. In this study, the parameter of stress triaxiality η was used to describe the failure phenomena. Cylindrical tensile specimens with a circumferential notch were analysed to obtain low values of initial stress triaxiality (η = 0.556 of the range) in order to determine the critical void volume fraction fc . It is essential to emphasize how unique the method applied is and how different it is from the other more common methods involving parameter calibration, i.e. curve-fitting methods. The critical void volume fraction fc at void coalescence was established through digital image analysis of surfaces of S235JR steel, which involved studying real, physical results obtained directly from the material tested.

  11. Severe Embrittlement of Neutron Irradiated Austenitic Steels Arising from High Void Swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neustroev, V.S.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Data are presented from BOR-60 irradiations showing that significant radiation-induced swelling causes severe embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, reducing the service life of structural components. Similar loss of ductility is expected when swelling arises in fusion and light water reactor environments. Above 7-16% swelling there is complete loss of ductility, with the onset of ductility loss beginning at lower swelling in ring-pull tensile tests than for flat tensile specimens. For steels that develop extensive precipitation during irradiation, the critical swelling level is even lower. A model is presented to demonstrate the effect of voids acting alone to produce the embrittlement. Although voids are not very effective hardeners, they are very effective to generate stress concentrations between voids. The stress concentration ratio increases strongly when the void diameter exceeds ∼40% of the void-to-void separation distance. When the volume fraction of voids is rather high (about 16 % and higher), a geometric situation develops where it is possible to create an intense field of deformation glide planes residing at an angle of 45 deg. to the void-to-void axis. Significant localized flow then proceeds on these planes for specimen stress levels that are significantly lower than the yield stress. Voids also segregate nickel to their surfaces such that flow localization occurs in the low-nickel inter-void regions to produce strain-induced martensite, which is further accelerated by stress concentrations at the advancing crack tip, leading to catastrophic failure. (authors)

  12. Post Operative Voiding Efficacy after Anterior Colporrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoosh Miladpoor

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the most effective and suitable time to remove the urinary catheter (Foley after anterior and posterior colporrhaphy surgery. Patients who experience anterior Colporrhaphy operation for genuine stress incontinency or pelvic organ prolapsed will have post operative voiding dysfunction. These patients need postoperative drainage. One of the methods preferred for this purpose is to apply Foley Catheter, but there is no particular regimen available for the exact time of catheter removal in these patients. We have tried to find out the best time to remove Foley catheter after which the repeated Foley catheter is not required or minimized. One hundred and eighty nine patients who have been undergone Colporrhaphy have been selected randomly and divided into three groups' as 1, 2 and 4 days of catheter removal. The number of patients in each group was 62, 63 and 64 respectively. In all three groups, before removing urinary catheter, it was clamped every 4 hrs, for 3 times. After removing of Foley, the patients were guided for urination; the voiding and residual volume was measured. In the patients with an increase of residual volume, the  repeated Foley requirement was increased. However,  5.6 % of the patients with residual volume of ≤ 33 percent and 23.9% of the patients with residual volume between 33 to 68 percent, and finally  64.8% of the patients with residual volume of ≥ 68% had repeated Foley insertion. When considering the number of days, 85, 65 and 35.7 percent of the patients needed repeated Foley after 1, 2, and 4 days of catheter removal respectively. Interestingly, in the third group ( 4 days of the catheter removal with residual volume of ≤ 33% the repeated Foley requirement was nil, with no increase risk of urinary infection. We suggest that the best time to remove the urinary Foley catheter after anterior and posterior Colporrhaphy is the day four.

  13. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H.; Angerer, Jürgen; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hoppin, Jane A.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 μg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 μg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 μg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrfios-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates). PMID:19394271

  14. Urine culture doubtful in determining etiology of diffuse symptoms among elderly individuals: a cross-sectional study of 32 nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulleryd Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of bacteriuria in elderly individuals makes it difficult to know if a new symptom is related to bacteria in the urine. There are different views concerning this relationship and bacteriuria often leads to antibiotic treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacteria in the urine and new or increased restlessness, fatigue, confusion, aggressiveness, not being herself/himself, dysuria, urgency and fever in individuals at nursing homes for elderly when statistically considering the high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in this population. Methods In this cross-sectional study symptoms were registered and voided urine specimens were collected for urinary cultures from 651 elderly individuals. Logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the statistical correlation between bacteriuria and presence of a symptom at group level. To estimate the clinical relevance of statistical correlations at group level positive and negative etiological predictive values (EPV were calculated. Results Logistic regression indicated some correlations at group level. Aside from Escherichia coli in the urine and not being herself/himself existing at least one month, but less than three months, EPV indicated no clinically useful correlation between any symptoms in this study and findings of bacteriuria. Conclusions Urinary cultures provide little or no useful information when evaluating diffuse symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes. Either common urinary tract pathogens are irrelevant, or urine culture is an inappropriate test.

  15. The quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) in human urine specimens, a metabolite of LSD: comparative analysis using liquid chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, G K; Klette, K L; Anderson, C

    2000-04-01

    This paper compares the potential forensic application of two sensitive and rapid procedures (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry) for the detection and quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) a major LSD metabolite. O-H-LSD calibration curves for both procedures were linear over the concentration range 0-8,000 pg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.99. The observed limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for O-H-LSD in both procedures was 400 pg/mL. Sixty-eight human urine specimens that had previously been found to contain LSD by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were reanalyzed by both procedures for LSD and O-H-LSD. These specimens contained a mean concentration of O-H-LSD approximately 16 times higher than the LSD concentration. Because both LC methods produce similar results, either procedure can be readily adapted to O-H-LSD analysis for use in high-volume drug-testing laboratories. In addition, the possibility of significantly increasing the LSD detection time window by targeting this major LSD metabolite for analysis may influence other drug-free workplace programs to test for LSD.

  16. Quantifying the distribution of paste-void spacing of hardened cement paste using X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Sup, E-mail: taesup@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Yeom, E-mail: kimky@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 283 Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang, 411-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jinhyun, E-mail: jinhyun@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kang, Dong Hun, E-mail: timeriver@naver.com [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The distribution of paste-void spacing in cement-based materials is an important feature related to the freeze-thaw durability of these materials, but its reliable estimation remains an unresolved problem. Herein, we evaluate the capability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for reliable quantification of the distribution of paste-void spacing. Using X-ray CT images of three mortar specimens having different air-entrainment characteristics, we calculate the distributions of paste-void spacing of the specimens by applying previously suggested methods for deriving the exact spacing of air-void systems. This methodology is assessed by comparing the 95th percentile of the cumulative distribution function of the paste-void spacing with spacing factors computed by applying the linear-traverse method to 3D air-void system and reconstructing equivalent air-void distribution in 3D. Results show that the distributions of equivalent void diameter and paste-void spacing follow lognormal and normal distributions, respectively, and the ratios between the 95th percentile paste-void spacing value and the spacing factors reside within the ranges reported by previous numerical studies. This experimental finding indicates that the distribution of paste-void spacing quantified using X-ray CT has the potential to be the basis for a statistical assessment of the freeze-thaw durability of cement-based materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paste-void spacing in 3D can be quantified by X-ray CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of the paste-void spacing follows normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spacing factor and 95th percentile of CDF of paste-void spacing are correlated.

  17. M-CHOLINOLYTICS IN RHEABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH VOIDING DISFUNCTION AND URNARY BLADDER HYPERACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kazanskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction is a common problem in pediatrics. Hyperactive urinary bladder is the most frequent cause of voiding dysfunction. Macholinolytic drugs are the first choice treatment for urinary bladder hyperactivity. The «urination pathology» center has investigated the efficacy of an macholinolytic, oxybutynin. The study included 25 children (aged 6–14 with different causes of voiding dysfunction and bladder hyperactivity. Oxybutynin was administered with a dosage of 5 mg twice a day, the follow up period was 8 weeks. The control evaluation of urodynamics (voiding rhythm, uroflowmetry, residual urine volume was performed at 4–8 weeks. Symptoms of bladder hyperactivity have been eliminated in 50% of patients, the bladder capacity has increased in 70% of cases, the frequency of night and day incontinence has diminished. The report demonstrates that oxybutynin has been most effective in patients with urinary bladder volume between 80 and 100 ml. the side effects, as dryness of mucous membranes and voiding difficulties, have been rarely observed. These side effects could be avoided by individual dose titration.Key words: voiding dysfunction, urinary bladder hyperactivity, oxybutynin, children.

  18. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    ). This observation is interesting as the parameter of total surface area of air voids normally is not included in air void analysis. The following reason for the finding is suggested: In the air voids conditions are favourable for ice nucleation. When a capillary pore is connected to an air void, ice formation...... on that capillary pores are connected to air voids. The chance that a capillary pore is connected to an air void depends on the total surface area of air voids in the system, not the spacing factor.......This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test...

  19. Finding Brazing Voids by Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, R.

    1986-01-01

    Vibration-induced interference fringes reveal locations of defects. Holographic apparatus used to view object while vibrated ultrasonically. Interference fringes in hologram reveal brazing defects. Holographic technique locates small voids in large brazed joints. Identifies unbrazed regions 1 in. to second power (6 cm to the second power) or less in area.

  20. Idiopathic detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in neurologically normal patients with voiding abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T M; Djurhuus, J C; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    Symptomatology and clinical manifestations of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia are described in 23 patients without neurological disease. Their cardinal symptoms were recurrent cystitis, enuresis, frequent voiding, back pain during voiding and anal discomfort. The major objective finding was vesico......Symptomatology and clinical manifestations of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia are described in 23 patients without neurological disease. Their cardinal symptoms were recurrent cystitis, enuresis, frequent voiding, back pain during voiding and anal discomfort. The major objective finding...... was vesicoureteral reflux in 11 cases with kidney scarring in 10. Bladder trabeculation was found in 13 patients, bladder hyperreflexia in 8, and significant residual urine in 16 patients. The etiology of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in non-neurological patients is discussed. By means of exclusion it is most...

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  2. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  3. Analysis on void reactivity of DCA lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Noh, K. H.; Choi, H. B.; Yang, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    In case of loss of coolant accident, the void reactivity of CANDU fuel provides the positive reactivity and increases the reactor power rapidly. Therefore, it is required to secure credibility of the void reactivity for the design and analysis of reactor, which motivated a study to assess the measurement data of void reactivity. The assessment of lattice code was performed with the experimental data of void reactivity at 30, 70, 87 and 100% of void fractions. The infinite multiplication factors increased in four types of fuels as the void fractions of them grow. The infinite multiplication factors of uranium fuels are almost within 1%, but those of Pu fuels are over 10% by the results of WIMS-AECL and MCNP-4B codes. Moreover, coolant void reactivity of the core loaded with plutonium fuel is more negative compared with that with uranium fuel because of spectrum hardening resulting from large void fraction

  4. Void migration in fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron irradiation in a fusion power plant will cause helium bubbles and voids to form in the armour and blanket structural materials. If sufficiently large densities of such defects accumulate on the grain boundaries of the materials, the strength and the lifetimes of the metals will be reduced by helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure. This Letter discusses void migration in metals, both by random Brownian motion and by biassed flow in temperature gradients. In the assumed five-year blanket replacement time of a fusion power plant, approximate calculations show that the metals most resilient to failure are tungsten and molybdenum, and marginally vanadium. Helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure is expected to be more severe in steel and beryllium

  5. Void migration in fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, G. A.

    2002-04-01

    Neutron irradiation in a fusion power plant will cause helium bubbles and voids to form in the armour and blanket structural materials. If sufficiently large densities of such defects accumulate on the grain boundaries of the materials, the strength and the lifetimes of the metals will be reduced by helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure. This Letter discusses void migration in metals, both by random Brownian motion and by biassed flow in temperature gradients. In the assumed five-year blanket replacement time of a fusion power plant, approximate calculations show that the metals most resilient to failure are tungsten and molybdenum, and marginally vanadium. Helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure is expected to be more severe in steel and beryllium.

  6. Computer simulation of void formation in residual gas atom free metals by dual beam irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Nishiguchi, R.; La Rubia, T.D. de; Guinan, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In our recent experiments (1), we found that voids nucleate at vacancy clusters which trap gas atoms such as hydrogen and helium in ion- and neutron-irradiated copper. A molecular dynamics computer simulation, which implements an empirical embedded atom method to calculate forces that act on atoms in metals, suggests that a void nucleation occurs in pure copper at six and seven vacancy clusters. The structure of six and seven vacancy clusters in copper fluctuates between a stacking fault tetrahedron and a void. When a hydrogen is trapped at voids of six and seven vacancy, a void can keep their structure for appreciably long time; that is, the void do not relax to a stacking fault tetrahedron and grows to a large void. In order to explore the detailed atomics of void formation, it is emphasized that dual-beam irradiation experiments that utilize beams of gas atoms and self-ions should be carried out with residual gas atom free metal specimens. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced segregation and void formation in C+ ion-irradiated vanadium-carbon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, T.; Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H.; Sato, Y.; Mochizuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the effect of interstitial elements on radiation-induced segregation and void formation in V and V-C alloys irradiated by 200 keV C + ions to a dose of 48 dpa at 973 K, the microstructural observation and the measurement of C segregation to the surfaces were carried out by TEM and XPS. Voids, dislocations and precipitates were produced in all of the specimens during irradiation. The addition of C in V led to a reduction of void size and to increase in void number density, consequently the void swelling was suppressed strongly. Radiation-induced segregation of C was observed clearly on and near the irradiated surfaces of V-C alloys and as a result of the enrichment of C atoms, carbides precipitated on the surfaces. It is the first evidence of the radiation-induced segregation of interstitial elements on the surfaces. Also, quasi-carbides were observed on the (210) habit plaints near large voids and dislocations in V. The phenomena show that C atoms, which was insolved and/or implanted, interact strongly with vacancies rather than self-interstitial atoms and migrate with vacancies toward defect sinks, such as surfaces, voids, and dislocations. The segregated zones of C reduced the sink efficiency of the defects, and showed the effect of the suppression on void in V-C alloys. (author)

  8. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  9. Size-Effects in Void Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2005-01-01

    The size-effect on ductile void growth in metals is investigated. The analysis is based on unit cell models both of arrays of cylindrical voids under plane strain deformation, as well as arrays of spherical voids using an axisymmetric model. A recent finite strain generalization of two higher order...... strain gradient plasticity models is implemented in a finite element program, which is used to study void growth numerically. The results based on the two models are compared. It is shown how gradient effects suppress void growth on the micron scale when compared to predictions based on conventional...... models. This increased resistance to void growth, due to gradient hardening, is accompanied by an increase in the overall strength for the material. Furthermore, for increasing initial void volume fraction, it is shown that the effect of gradients becomes more important to the overall response but less...

  10. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  11. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  12. Nocturia: The circadian voiding disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wook Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturia is a prevalent condition of waking to void during the night. The concept of nocturia has evolved from being a symptomatic aspect of disease associated with the prostate or bladder to a form of lower urinary tract disorder. However, recent advances in circadian biology and sleep science suggest that it might be important to consider nocturia as a form of circadian dysfunction. In the current review, nocturia is reexamined with an introduction to sleep disorders and recent findings in circadian biology in an attempt to highlight the importance of rediscovering nocturia as a problem of chronobiology.

  13. Bacteriology of Urine Specimens Obtained from Men with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in the aging male ... A reduction in the concentration of zinc‑associated antimicrobial factor and increasing alkalinity .... the prostate‑specific antigen value, was recorded for all patients.

  14. The dark matter of galaxy voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Weinberg, David H.; Warren, Michael S.

    2014-03-01

    How do observed voids relate to the underlying dark matter distribution? To examine the spatial distribution of dark matter contained within voids identified in galaxy surveys, we apply Halo Occupation Distribution models representing sparsely and densely sampled galaxy surveys to a high-resolution N-body simulation. We compare these galaxy voids to voids found in the halo distribution, low-resolution dark matter and high-resolution dark matter. We find that voids at all scales in densely sampled surveys - and medium- to large-scale voids in sparse surveys - trace the same underdensities as dark matter, but they are larger in radius by ˜20 per cent, they have somewhat shallower density profiles and they have centres offset by ˜ 0.4Rv rms. However, in void-to-void comparison we find that shape estimators are less robust to sampling, and the largest voids in sparsely sampled surveys suffer fragmentation at their edges. We find that voids in galaxy surveys always correspond to underdensities in the dark matter, though the centres may be offset. When this offset is taken into account, we recover almost identical radial density profiles between galaxies and dark matter. All mock catalogues used in this work are available at http://www.cosmicvoids.net.

  15. The Beckoning Void in Moravagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Bellstrom

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chapter «Mascha,» lying at the heart of Cendrars's Moravagine , contains within it a variety of images and themes suggestive of emptiness. The philosophy of nihilism is exemplified in the motivations and actions of the group of terrorists seeking to plunge Russia into revolutionary chaos. Mascha's anatomical orifice, symbolizing both a biological and a psychological fault, and the abortion of her child, paralleled by the abortion of the revolutionary ideal among her comrades, are also emblematic of the chapter's central void. Moreover, Cendrars builds the theme of hollowness by describing Moravagine with images of omission, such as «empan» (space or span, «absent,» and «étranger.» Moravagine's presence, in fact, characteristically causes an undercurrent of doubt and uncertainty about the nature of reality to become overt. It is this parodoxical presence which seems to cause the narrator (and consequently the narrative to «lose» a day at the most critical moment of the story. By plunging the reader into the narrator's lapsus memoriae , Cendrars aims at creating a feeling of the kind of mental and cosmic disorder for which Moravagine is the strategist and apologist. This technique of insufficiency is an active technique, even though it relies on the passive idea of removing explanation and connecting details. The reader is invited, or lured, into the central void of the novel and, faced with unresolvable dilemmas, becomes involved in the same disorder that was initially produced.

  16. Voiding dysfunction after abdominal radical hysterectomy. Comparison between patients with and without adjuvant irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Tamio; Kageyama, Susumu; Tsuzuki, Masahiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Yonese, Junji; Kawai, Tsuneo

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated 59 patients with voiding dysfunction after abdominal radical hysterectomy for uterine cancer. Of 59 patients, 45 underwent the surgery alone, and the other 14 underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Irradiation (mean dose, 60 Gy) was performed in bilateral commoni iliac regions excluding the bladder. In principle, the indwelling urethral catheter was removed 4 days after operation. All patients were followed up at the gynecologocal department until the onset of the voiding dysfunction. The mean interval between operation and the onset of voiding dysfunction was significantly longer (P<0.01) in the group treated by surgery alone (7.9 years) than in the group treated by surgery in combination with radiotherapy (3.8 year). Voiding dysfunction developed earlier as the age at the time of operation was higher. No differences were observed in the volume of residual urine, the detrusor function, or the incidence of urinary tract infection between the two groups. These results suggest that aged patients develop voiding dysfunction earlier after radical hysterectomy than young patients, and postoperative radiotherapy shortens the interval between operation and the onset of postoperative voiding dysfunction. (author)

  17. Estimation of air void and aggregate spatial distributions in concrete under uniaxial compression using computer tomography scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, R.C.K.; Chau, K.T.

    2005-01-01

    Normal- and high-strength concrete cylinders (designed compressive strengths of 30 and 90 MPa at 28 days) were loaded uniaxially. Computer tomography (CT) scanning technique was used to examine the evolution of air voids inside the specimens at various loading states up to 85% of the ultimate compressive strength. The normal-strength concrete yielded a very different behaviour in changes of internal microstructure as compared to the high-strength concrete. There were significant instances of nucleation and growth in air voids in the normal-strength concrete specimen, while the increase in air voids in the high-strength concrete specimen was insignificant. In addition, CT images were used for mapping the aggregate spatial distributions within the specimens. No intrinsic anisotropy was detected from the fabric analysis

  18. Elastic wave scattering from multiple voids (porosity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.O.; Rose, J.H.; Thompson, R.B.; Wormley, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic backscatter measurement technique which provides a convenient way to determine certain characteristics of a distribution of voids (porosity) in materials. A typical ultrasonic sample prepared by placing the ''frit'' in a crucible in an RF induction heater is shown. The results of the measurements were Fourier transformed into an amplitude-frequency description, and were then deconvolved with the transducer response function. Several properties needed to characterize a void distribution are obtained from the experimental results, including average void size, the spatial extent of the voids region, the average void separation, and the volume fraction of material contained in the void distribution. A detailed comparison of values obtained from the ultrasonic measurements with visually determined results is also given

  19. Cosmology with void-galaxy correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Warren, Michael S

    2014-01-31

    Galaxy bias, the unknown relationship between the clustering of galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field is a major hurdle for cosmological inference from large-scale structure. While traditional analyses focus on the absolute clustering amplitude of high-density regions mapped out by galaxy surveys, we propose a relative measurement that compares those to the underdense regions, cosmic voids. On the basis of realistic mock catalogs we demonstrate that cross correlating galaxies and voids opens up the possibility to calibrate galaxy bias and to define a static ruler thanks to the observable geometric nature of voids. We illustrate how the clustering of voids is related to mass compensation and show that volume-exclusion significantly reduces the degree of stochasticity in their spatial distribution. Extracting the spherically averaged distribution of galaxies inside voids from their cross correlations reveals a remarkable concordance with the mass-density profile of voids.

  20. Development of the impedance void meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  1. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  3. Maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000373.htm Maple syrup urine disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder in ...

  4. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  5. Positive Urine Cultures: A Major Cause of Inappropriate Antimicrobial Use in Hospitals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Silver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urine specimens are among the most common samples submitted for culture to microbiology laboratories. The objectives of the present study were to describe the indications for obtaining urine cultures in a cohort of hospitalized patients, and to determine the appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in response to urine culture results.

  6. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urine sample. In certain situations, a sterile bag can be placed around a baby’s diaper area to collect a urine sample. If you have any questions about urine tests, talk with your doctor. Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD ...

  7. Studies of void formation in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Glowinski, L.; Risbet, A.; Regnier, P.; Flament, J.L.; Levy, V.; Adda, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effect of gases on the final configuration of vacancy clustering (void or loop), and on the local effects at dislocations are described. The contribution of this data to a general knowledge of void formation will be discussed, and Monte Carlo calculations of swelling induced by irradiation with different particles presented [fr

  8. Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O ampersand MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document

  9. Studies of void formation in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Glowinski, L.; Risbet, A.; Regnier, P.; Flament, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effect of gases on the final configuration of vacancy clustering (void or loop), and on the local effects at dislocations are described. The contribution of this data to our general knowledge of void formation will be discussed, and Monte Carlo calculations of swelling induced by irradiation with different particles presented

  10. Statistics and geometry of cosmic voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaite, José

    2009-01-01

    We introduce new statistical methods for the study of cosmic voids, focusing on the statistics of largest size voids. We distinguish three different types of distributions of voids, namely, Poisson-like, lognormal-like and Pareto-like distributions. The last two distributions are connected with two types of fractal geometry of the matter distribution. Scaling voids with Pareto distribution appear in fractal distributions with box-counting dimension smaller than three (its maximum value), whereas the lognormal void distribution corresponds to multifractals with box-counting dimension equal to three. Moreover, voids of the former type persist in the continuum limit, namely, as the number density of observable objects grows, giving rise to lacunar fractals, whereas voids of the latter type disappear in the continuum limit, giving rise to non-lacunar (multi)fractals. We propose both lacunar and non-lacunar multifractal models of the cosmic web structure of the Universe. A non-lacunar multifractal model is supported by current galaxy surveys as well as cosmological N-body simulations. This model suggests, in particular, that small dark matter halos and, arguably, faint galaxies are present in cosmic voids

  11. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  12. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  13. Void Measurement by the ({gamma}, n) Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, S Zia

    1962-09-15

    It is proposed to use the ({gamma}, n) reaction for the measurement of the integrated void volume fraction in two phase flow of D{sub 2}O inside a duct. This method is applicable to different channel geometries, and it is shown to be insensitive to the pattern of void distribution over the cross-sectional area of the channels The method has been tested on mock-ups of voids in a round duct of 6 mm inside diameter. About 40 m.c. {sup 24}Na was used as a source of gamma-rays. The test results show that the maximum measured error in this arrangement is less than 2.5 % (net void) for a range of 2.7 % to 44.44 % actual void volume fractions.

  14. Void Measurement by the (γ, n) Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1962-09-01

    It is proposed to use the (γ, n) reaction for the measurement of the integrated void volume fraction in two phase flow of D 2 O inside a duct. This method is applicable to different channel geometries, and it is shown to be insensitive to the pattern of void distribution over the cross-sectional area of the channels The method has been tested on mock-ups of voids in a round duct of 6 mm inside diameter. About 40 m.c. 24 Na was used as a source of gamma-rays. The test results show that the maximum measured error in this arrangement is less than 2.5 % (net void) for a range of 2.7 % to 44.44 % actual void volume fractions

  15. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus’ theory. PMID:22984299

  16. Diversity of the midstream urine microbiome in adults with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Holly; Kuffel, Gina; Thomas-White, Krystal; Wolfe, Alan J; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David J; Bansal, Vinod K; Brubaker, Linda; Flanigan, Robert; Koval, Julia; Wadhwa, Anuradha; Zilliox, Michael J

    2018-06-01

    To examine the characteristics of the midstream urine microbiome in adults with stage 3-5 non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] diversity was assessed with the inverse Simpson, Chao and Shannon indices. The diversity measures were further examined by demographic characteristics and by comorbidities. The cohort of 41 women and 36 men with detectable bacterial DNA in their urine samples had a mean age of 71.5 years (standard deviation [SD] 7.9) years (range 60-91 years). The majority were white (68.0%) and a substantial minority were African-American (29.3%) The mean eGFR was 27.2 (SD 13.6) ml/min/1.73 m 2 . Most men (72.2%) were circumcised and 16.6% reported a remote history of prostate cancer. Many midstream voided urine specimens were dominated (> 50% reads) by the genera Corynebacterium (n = 11), Staphylococcus (n = 9), Streptococcus (n = 7), Lactobacillus (n = 7), Gardnerella (n = 7), Prevotella (n = 4), Escherichia_Shigella (n = 3), and Enterobacteriaceae (n = 2); the rest lacked a dominant genus. The samples had high levels of diversity, as measured by the inverse Simpson [7.24 (95% CI 6.76, 7.81)], Chao [558.24 (95% CI 381.70, 879.35)], and Shannon indices [2.60 (95% CI 2.51, 2.69)]. Diversity measures were generally higher in participants with urgency urinary incontinence and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). After controlling for demographics and diabetes status, microbiome diversity was significantly associated with estimated eGFR (P diverse. Greater microbiome diversity is associated with higher eGFR.

  17. On the abundance of extreme voids II: a survey of void mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongchitnan, Siri; Hunt, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of cosmic voids can be described by an analogue of halo mass functions for galaxy clusters. In this work, we explore a number of void mass functions: from those based on excursion-set theory to new mass functions obtained by modifying halo mass functions. We show how different void mass functions vary in their predictions for the largest void expected in an observational volume, and compare those predictions to observational data. Our extreme-value formalism is shown to be a new practical tool for testing void theories against simulation and observation.

  18. The urodynamic evaluation of neuromodulation in patients with voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, K; Plancke, H; Lefevere, F; Oosterlinck, W

    1997-05-01

    To determine which patients with voiding dysfunction might be suitable for treatment with neuromodulation, using urodynamics to obtain an objective measure of improvement and to illustrate the effect of neuromodulation on voiding dysfunction. Patients were selected for implantation of a neuroprosthesis using a urodynamic evaluation before and during subchronic stimulation; 27 such patients (four men and 23 women, mean age 33 years, SD 15) were evaluated. Of the 27 patients, the 17 who responded well to neuromodulation all had hypocontractile detrusors and sphincter hypertonicity; sphincter relaxation during micturition was impaired. The urodynamic evaluation showed that these patients were not obstructed. Of 10 patients with spastic pelvic floor syndrome, nine responded well to the treatment. Those not responding to neuromodulation had mainly acontractile detrusors. The ideal candidates for neuromodulation are those patients with a spastic pelvic floor syndrome or with a hypocontractile detrusor, in combination with sphincter instability, and impaired sphincter relaxation. An increase of bladder contractility, enhancement of sphincter relaxation and decrease in bladder capacity and residual urine are the most important features of the response.

  19. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tubes compared with nonpreservative urine samples stored at 4°C and room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Stephen W; Schwartz, Matthew; Dam, Lisa; Riedel, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The stability of urine specimens submitted for culture remains a challenge for many laboratories because of delays in specimen transport. We evaluated the usefulness of BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube in ensuring specimen stability. Clinical urine specimens collected in sterile collection cups (n = 110) were plated onto sheep blood and MacConkey agar following standard laboratory procedures guidelines. Thereafter, specimens were divided into 3 storage conditions: nonpreservative, refrigerated; nonpreservative, room temperature (RT); BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube, RT. For each sample type, additional cultures were set up at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours. Initially, 18 specimens had no growth, 32 showed mixed skin flora, and 60 yielded at least 1 uropathogen. Increased colony counts of uropathogens were observed for nonpreserved urine samples stored at RT; these changes were statistically significant. Minor differences between refrigerated urine samples and BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube samples were seen but were not statistically significant. The use of preservative-containing collection tubes is desirable to ensure specimen stability when prompt processing or refrigeration is not feasible.

  20. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  1. VIDE: The Void IDentification and Examination toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, G.; Hamaus, N.; Pisani, A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Warren, M.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Zivick, P.; Mao, Q.; Thompson, B. B.

    2015-03-01

    We present VIDE, the Void IDentification and Examination toolkit, an open-source Python/C++ code for finding cosmic voids in galaxy redshift surveys and N-body simulations, characterizing their properties, and providing a platform for more detailed analysis. At its core, VIDE uses a substantially enhanced version of ZOBOV (Neyinck 2008) to calculate a Voronoi tessellation for estimating the density field and performing a watershed transform to construct voids. Additionally, VIDE provides significant functionality for both pre- and post-processing: for example, VIDE can work with volume- or magnitude-limited galaxy samples with arbitrary survey geometries, or dark matter particles or halo catalogs in a variety of common formats. It can also randomly subsample inputs and includes a Halo Occupation Distribution model for constructing mock galaxy populations. VIDE uses the watershed levels to place voids in a hierarchical tree, outputs a summary of void properties in plain ASCII, and provides a Python API to perform many analysis tasks, such as loading and manipulating void catalogs and particle members, filtering, plotting, computing clustering statistics, stacking, comparing catalogs, and fitting density profiles. While centered around ZOBOV, the toolkit is designed to be as modular as possible and accommodate other void finders. VIDE has been in development for several years and has already been used to produce a wealth of results, which we summarize in this work to highlight the capabilities of the toolkit. VIDE is publicly available at http://bitbucket.org/cosmicvoids/vide_public and http://www.cosmicvoids.net.

  2. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischies, Frederike M J; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with hematological malignancies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Optimization of HPV DNA detection in urine by improving collection, storage, and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsters, A; Van den Bergh, J; Micalessi, I; Biesmans, S; Bogers, J; Hens, A; De Coster, I; Ieven, M; Van Damme, P

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of using urine for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA have been evaluated in disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and screening for cervical cancers in specific subgroups. HPV DNA testing in urine is being considered for important purposes, notably the monitoring of HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and young women who do not wish to have a vaginal examination. The need to optimize and standardize sampling, storage, and processing has been reported.In this paper, we examined the impact of a DNA-conservation buffer, the extraction method, and urine sampling on the detection of HPV DNA and human DNA in urine provided by 44 women with a cytologically normal but HPV DNA-positive cervical sample. Ten women provided first-void and midstream urine samples. DNA analysis was performed using real-time PCR to allow quantification of HPV and human DNA.The results showed that an optimized method for HPV DNA detection in urine should (a) prevent DNA degradation during extraction and storage, (b) recover cell-free HPV DNA in addition to cell-associated DNA, (c) process a sufficient volume of urine, and (d) use a first-void sample.In addition, we found that detectable human DNA in urine may not be a good internal control for sample validity. HPV prevalence data that are based on urine samples collected, stored, and/or processed under suboptimal conditions may underestimate infection rates.

  4. The sink strengths of voids and the expected swelling for both random and ordered void distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, T.M.; Murphy, S.M.; Bullough, R.; Wood, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    The sink strength of a void has been obtained when the void is a member of a random or ordered distribution of voids. The former sink strength derivation has employed the embedding model and the latter the cellular model. In each case the spatially varying size-effect interaction between the intrinsic point defects and the voids has been included together with the presence of other sink types in addition to the voids. The results are compared with previously published sink strengths that have made use of an approximate representation for the size-effect interactions, and indicate the importance of using the exact form of the interaction. In particular the bias for interstitials compared with vacancies of small voids is now much reduced and contamination of the surfaces of such voids no longer appears essential to facilitate the nucleation and growth of the voids. These new sink strengths have been used, in conjunction with recently published dislocation sink strengths, to calculate the expected swelling of materials containing network dislocations and voids. Results are presented for both the random and the void lattice situations. (author)

  5. Georeferencing Animal Specimen Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, M.G.J.; Hensel, R.; Ceolin, D.; van der Meij, M.

    2014-01-01

    For biodiversity research, the field of study that is concerned with the richness of species of our planet, it is of the utmost importance that the location of an animal specimen find is known with high precision. Due to specimens often having been collected over the course of many years, their

  6. Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2016-11-01

    Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration. Retrospective cross-sectional study of infants aged UTI in the emergency department with paired urinalysis and urine culture. UTI was defined as ≥50 000 colony-forming units/mL from catheterized specimens. Test characteristics were calculated across a range of WBC and leukocyte esterase (LE) cut-points, dichotomized into specific gravity groups (dilute UTI prevalence was 7.8%. Optimal WBC cut-points were 3 WBC/high-power field (HPF) in dilute urine (likelihood ratio positive [LR+] 9.9, likelihood ratio negative [LR‒] 0.15) and 6 WBC/HPF (LR+ 10.1, LR‒ 0.17) in concentrated urine. For dipstick analysis, positive LE has excellent test characteristics regardless of urine concentration (LR+ 22.1, LR‒ 0.12 in dilute urine; LR+ 31.6, LR‒ 0.22 in concentrated urine). Urine concentration should be incorporated into the interpretation of automated microscopic urinalysis in young infants. Pyuria thresholds of 3 WBC/HPF in dilute urine and 6 WBC/HPF in concentrated urine are recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of UTI. Without correction of specific gravity, positive LE by automated dipstick is a reliably strong indicator of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Analysis of nocturia with 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration: concept for effective treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Yukihiro; Nakao, Masahiro; Honjo, Hisashi; Ukimura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2011-03-01

    • To determine the relationship between the number of nocturia and 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration as well as to assess the significance of these factors with respect to eliminating nocturnal voidings in individual patients with nocturia. • Among 532 participants who completed a 3-day bladder diary between April 2005 and December 2006, the diaries of 450 participants without 24-h polyuria were analyzed. • Clinical variables such as the number of daytime and night-time voids, 24-h urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, daytime and night-time maximum voided volumes (MVV), night/day MVV ratio, sleep duration and proportion of night/day urine production rates were obtained from each diary. • Participants were classified into eight groups according to values of three factors: nocturnal MVV, proportion of night/day urine production rates and length of sleep duration. • Each group was divided into three subgroups: non-nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is zero), mild nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is one) and severe nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is two or more). • The data from non-nocturics with three normal factors were regarded as the normal control and compared with the variables of the other subgroups using Dunnett's method. • Variables that form the basis of classifying participants into eight groups and corresponding to abnormal factors of each group were statistically significant in all the subgroups of each group. • Furthermore, a significantly increased 24-h urine volume was found in severe nocturics of the group with three normal factors. • A significantly decreased 24-h urine volume was found in non-nocturics of groups with nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity and both long sleep duration and nocturnal polyuria. • A significantly increased nocturnal MVV and night/day MVV ratio were shown in non-nocturics and mild nocturics of the groups

  8. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  9. Evaluation of the Air Void Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    concrete using image analysis: Petrography of cementitious materials. ASTM STP 1215. S.M. DeHayes and D. Stark, eds. Philadelphia, PA: American...Administration (FHWA). 2006. Priority, market -ready technologies and innovations: Air Void Analyzer. Washington D.C. PDF file. Germann Instruments (GI). 2011...tests and properties of concrete and concrete-making materials. STP 169D. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Magura, D.D. 1996. Air void

  10. Using voids to unscreen modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Bridget; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Cautun, Marius

    2018-04-01

    The Vainshtein mechanism, present in many models of gravity, is very effective at screening dark matter haloes such that the fifth force is negligible and general relativity is recovered within their Vainshtein radii. Vainshtein screening is independent of halo mass and environment, in contrast to e.g. chameleon screening, making it difficult to test. However, our previous studies have found that the dark matter particles in filaments, walls, and voids are not screened by the Vainshtein mechanism. We therefore investigate whether cosmic voids, identified as local density minima using a watershed technique, can be used to test models of gravity that exhibit Vainshtein screening. We measure density, velocity, and screening profiles of stacked voids in cosmological N-body simulations using both dark matter particles and dark matter haloes as tracers of the density field. We find that the voids are completely unscreened, and the tangential velocity and velocity dispersion profiles of stacked voids show a clear deviation from Λ cold dark matter at all radii. Voids have the potential to provide a powerful test of gravity on cosmological scales.

  11. Simulation of dust voids in complex plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedheer, W. J.; Land, V.

    2008-12-01

    In dusty radio-frequency (RF) discharges under micro-gravity conditions often a void is observed, a dust free region in the discharge center. This void is generated by the drag of the positive ions pulled out of the discharge by the electric field. We have developed a hydrodynamic model for dusty RF discharges in argon to study the behaviour of the void and the interaction between the dust and the plasma background. The model is based on a recently developed theory for the ion drag force and the charging of the dust. With this model, we studied the plasma inside the void and obtained an understanding of the way it is sustained by heat generated in the surrounding dust cloud. When this heating mechanism is suppressed by lowering the RF power, the plasma density inside the void decreases, even below the level where the void collapses, as was recently shown in experiments on board the International Space Station. In this paper we present results of simulations of this collapse. At reduced power levels the collapsed central cloud behaves as an electronegative plasma with corresponding low time-averaged electric fields. This enables the creation of relatively homogeneous Yukawa balls, containing more than 100 000 particles. On earth, thermophoresis can be used to balance gravity and obtain similar dust distributions.

  12. Partial discharge patterns related to surface deterioration in voids in epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of the relationship between changes in partial discharge patterns and the surface deterioration process taking place in small naturally formed spherical voids in epoxy plastic. The voids were exposed to a moderate electric stress above inception level......, where partial discharges were present for more than 1500 h. Two types of electrical tree growth were found, the bush like tree and a single channel-like tree, which led to very different partial discharge patterns. It is concluded that the formation of crystals on a void surface leads to an immediate...... and easy-to-detect increase in the partial discharge activity with subsequent severe surface deterioration (deep pit formations) in the vicinity of the crystal. However, the partial discharge signal from a specimen with a black channel-like tree structure did not give any indication of channel growth...

  13. Experimental investigation of void coalescence in a dual phase steel using X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landron, C.; Bouaziz, O.; Maire, E.; Adrien, J.

    2013-01-01

    In situ tensile tests were carried out during X-ray microtomography imaging of a smooth and a notched specimen of dual phase steel. The void coalescence was first qualitatively observed and quantitative data concerning this damage step was then acquired. The void coalescence criteria of Brown and Embury and of Thomason were then tested against the experimental data at both the macroscopic and local levels. Although macroscopic implementation of the criteria gave acceptable results, the local approach was probably closest to the real nature of void coalescence, because it takes into account local coalescence events observed experimentally before final fracture. The correlation between actual coalescing couples of cavities and local implementation of the two criteria showed that the Thomason criterion is probably the best adapted to predict the local coalescence events in the case of the material studied

  14. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  15. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  16. Time dependent voiding mechanisms in polyamide 6 submitted to high stress triaxiality: experimental characterisation and finite element modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Nathan; King, Andrew; Proudhon, Henry; Saintier, Nicolas; Laiarinandrasana, Lucien

    2017-08-01

    Double notched round bars made of semi-crystalline polymer polyamide 6 (PA6) were submitted to monotonic tensile and creep tests. The two notches had a root radius of 0.45 mm, which imposes a multiaxial stress state and a state of high triaxiality in the net (minimal) section of the specimens. Tests were carried out until the failure occurred from one of the notches. The other one, unbroken but deformed under steady strain rate or steady load, was inspected using the Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) technique. These 3D through thickness inspections allowed the study of microstructural evolution at the peak stress for the monotonic tensile test and at the beginning of the tertiary creep for the creep tests. Cavitation features were assessed with a micrometre resolution within the notched region. Spatial distributions of void volume fraction ( Vf) and void morphology were studied. Voiding mechanisms were similar under steady strain rates and steady loads. The maximum values of Vf were located between the axis of revolution of the specimens and the notch surface and voids were considered as flat cylinders with a circular basis perpendicular to the loading direction. A model, based on porous plasticity, was used to simulate the mechanical response of this PA6 material under high stress triaxiality. Both macroscopic behaviour (loading curves) and voiding micro-mechanisms (radial distributions of void volume fraction) were accurately predicted using finite element simulations.

  17. Sample handling of clinical specimens for ultratrace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.

    1987-01-01

    Some simple logistics to an improved sample handling of clinical specimens are presented. This comprises clean room conditions, clean laboratory ware, ultra-pure reagents and good analytical practice. Sample handling procedures for blood, urine, soft tissues and pharmaceuticals are briefly discussed. (author) 26 refs

  18. Coolant Void Reactivity Analysis of CANDU Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Su; Lee, Hyun Suk; Tak, Tae Woo; Lee, Deok Jung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Models of CANDU-6 and ACR-700 fuel lattices were constructed for a single bundle and 2 by 2 checkerboard to understand the physics related to CVR. Also, a familiar four factor formula was used to predict the specific contributions to reactivity change in order to achieve an understanding of the physics issues related to the CVR. At the same time, because the situation of coolant voiding should bring about a change of neutron behavior, the spectral changes and neutron current were also analyzed. The models of the CANDU- 6 and ACR-700 fuel lattices were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP6 using the ENDF/B-VII.0 continuous energy cross section library based on the specification from AECL. The CANDU fuel lattice was searched through sensitivity studies of each design parameter such as fuel enrichment, fuel pitch, and types of burnable absorber for obtaining better behavior in terms of CVR. Unlike the single channel coolant voiding, the ACR-700 bundle has a positive reactivity change upon 2x2 checkerboard coolant voiding. Because of the new path for neutron moderation, the neutrons from the voided channel move to the no-void channel where they lose energy and come back to the voided channel as thermal neutrons. This phenomenon causes the positive CVR when checkerboard voiding occurs. The sensitivity study revealed the effects of the moderator to fuel volume ratio, fuel enrichment, and burnable absorber on the CVR. A fuel bundle with low moderator to fuel volume ratio and high fuel enrichment can help achieve negative CVR.

  19. 38 CFR 3.207 - Void or annulled marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled. A...

  20. Stability of Synthetic Cathinones in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksberg, Lindsay; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    In this report, we evaluate the concentration, pH, temperature and analyte-dependent effects on cathinone stability in preserved human urine. A total of 22 synthetic cathinones were evaluated at 100 ng/mL and 1,000 ng/mL in pH 4 and pH 8 urine over 6 months. Specimens were stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C and 32°C. The stability of synthetic cathinones was highly dependent on urine pH and storage temperature. Cathinones were considerably more stable in acidic urine (pH 4) at low temperature. In alkaline urine (pH 8) at 32°C, significant losses (>20%) were observed within hours for the majority of drugs. In contrast, all drugs were stable in frozen and refrigerated urine at pH 4 for the duration of the study. These results highlight the importance of sample storage and the potential for pre-analytical changes in concentration during routine shipping and handling of specimens. Significant structural influence was also observed. Cathinones bearing a tertiary amine (pyrrolidine group) were significantly more stable than their secondary amine counterparts. The methylenedioxy group also exerted a significant stabilizing effect on both the tertiary and secondary amines. In the absence of the methylenedioxy group, no significant differences in stability were observed between the unsubstituted and ring substituted secondary amines. Half-lives at ambient temperature in pH 8 urine ranged from 9 h (3-fluoromethcathinone) to 4.3 months (methylenedioxypyrovalerone and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone), demonstrating the importance of analyte dependence, and the dual stabilizing effect of both the pyrollidine and methylenedioxy groups. Biological evidence may be subjected to a variety of environmental conditions prior to, and during transport to the forensic laboratory. These findings demonstrate the inherent instability of certain cathinone species in biological evidence under some conditions. Moreover, this study highlights the need for quantitative drug findings in

  1. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  2. Comparison between the urine dipstick and the pH-meter to assess urine pH in sheep and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Katsogiannou, Eleni G; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Diamantaki, Myrto; Kamatsos, Constantinos; Christodoulopoulos, Georgios

    2018-02-06

    Urine pH is an integral part of a complete urinalysis, and is commonly measured in veterinary practice using semiquantitative reagent strips. The aim of this study was to compare the urine pH of dogs and sheep, using visual interpretation of dipstick reactions, and using a pH-meter as the reference method. Agreement between the 2 methods was also assessed. An additional objective was to compare the urine pH before and after centrifugation. A total of 50 voided urine samples from sheep and 52 from dogs were collected into sterile containers. For pH measurements, 2 methods were used, a pH-meter and urine dipstick reagent pads. Measurements were performed using urine samples before (whole urine) and after centrifugation (urine supernatant). For comparison of the 2 methods, Passing and Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used. The equation created to assess agreement between the 2 methods in dogs showed a constant bias at -0.14 and a positive proportional bias at 0.98. From a clinical standpoint, total bias was below and above the maximum acceptable bias in sheep and dogs, respectively. Clinically acceptable bias was also found using centrifuged urine samples in sheep, but the urine pH values before and after centrifugation were nearly identical in dogs. Urine dipstick reagent pads and pH-meters can be used interchangeably to determine urine pH in sheep without needing centrifugation. In contrast, pH-meters provide more accurate pH measurements than urine dipstick pads in canine urine, which is not improved by centrifugation. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Software quality assurance plan for void fraction instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste Tank SY-101 has been the focus of extensive characterization work over the past few years. The waste continually generates gases, most notably hydrogen, which are periodically released from the waste. Gas can be trapped in tank waste in three forms: as void gas (bubbles), dissolved gas, or absorbed gas. Void fraction is the volume percentage of a given sample that is comprised of void gas. The void fraction instrument (VFI) acquires the data necessary to calculate void fraction. This document covers the product, Void Fraction Data Acquisition Software. The void fraction software being developed will have the ability to control the void fraction instrument hardware and acquire data necessary to calculate the void fraction in samples. This document provides the software quality assurance plan, verification and validation plan, and configuration management plan for developing the software for the instrumentation that will be used to obtain void fraction data from Tank SY-101

  4. Nucleation of voids - the impurity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I-W; Taiwo, A.

    1984-01-01

    Nucleation of voids under irradiation in multicomponent alloys remains an unsolved theoretical problem. Of particular interest are the effects of nonequilibrium solute segregation phenomena on the critical nucleus and the nucleation rate. The resolution of the multicomponent nucleation in a dissipative system also has broader implication to the field of irreversible thermodynamics. The present paper describes a recent study of solute segregation effects in void nucleation. We begin with a thermodynamic model for a nonequilibrium void with interfacial segregation. The thermodynamic model is coupled with kinetic considerations of solute/solvent diffusion under a bias, which is itself related to segregation by the coating effect, to assess the stability of void embryos. To determine nucleation rate, we develop a novel technique by extending the most probable path method in statistical mechanics for nonequilibrium steady state to simulate large fluctuation with nonlinear dissipation. The path of nucleation is determined by solving an analogous problem on particle trajectory in classical dynamics. The results of both the stability analysis and the fluctuation analysis establish the paramount significance of the impurity effect via the mechanism of nonequilibrium segregation. We conclude that over-segregation is probably the most general cause for the apparently low nucleation barriers that are responsible for nearly ubiquitous occurrence of void swelling in common metals

  5. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the assumption that void galaxies are more pristine, we compare the evolutionary properties of a sample of dwarf galaxies selected specifically to lie in voids with a sample of similar isolated dwarf galaxies in average density environments. We measure gas-phase oxygen abundances and gas fractions for eight dwarf galaxies (Mr > -16.2), carefully selected to reside within the lowest density environments of seven voids, and apply the same calibrations to existing samples of isolated dwarf galaxies. We find no significant difference between these void dwarf galaxies and the isolated dwarf galaxies, suggesting that dwarf galaxy chemical evolution proceeds independent of the large-scale environment. While this sample is too small to draw strong conclusions, it suggests that external gas accretion is playing a limited role in the chemical evolution of these systems, and that this evolution is instead dominated mainly by the internal secular processes that are linking the simultaneous growth and enrichment of these galaxies.

  6. Urine Creatinine Concentrations in Drug Monitoring Participants and Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Seegmiller, Jesse C; Kloss, Julie; Apple, Fred S

    2016-10-01

    Urine drug testing is commonly performed in both clinical and forensic arenas for screening, monitoring and compliance purposes. We sought to determine if urine creatinine concentrations in monitoring program participants were significantly different from hospital in-patients and out-patients undergoing urine drug testing. We retrospectively reviewed urine creatinine submitted in June through December 2015 for all specimens undergoing urine drug testing. The 20,479 creatinine results were categorized as hospitalized patients (H) and monitoring/compliance groups for pain management (P), legal (L) or recovery (R). Median creatinine concentrations (interquartile range, mg/dL) were significantly different (P creatinine concentrations were significantly lower in the R vs. L group (Pcreatinine concentration and may indicate participants' attempts to tamper with their drug test results through dilution means. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Failure by void coalescence in metallic materials containing primary and secondary voids subject to intense shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    Failure under intense shearing at close to zero stress triaxiality is widely observed for ductile metallic materials, and is identified in experiments as smeared-out dimples on the fracture surface. Numerical cell-model studies of equal sized voids have revealed that the mechanism governing...... this shear failure mode boils down to the interaction between primary voids which rotate and elongate until coalescence occurs under severe plastic deformation of the internal ligaments. The objective of this paper is to analyze this failure mechanism of primary voids and to study the effect of smaller...... secondary damage that co-exists with or nucleation in the ligaments between larger voids that coalesce during intense shearing. A numerical cell-model study is carried out to gain a parametric understanding of the overall material response for different initial conditions of the two void populations...

  8. Molecular dynamics modeling on the role of initial void geometry in a thin aluminum film under uniaxial tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yi; Chen, Zengtao

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial void geometry on damage progression in a thin aluminum film under uniaxial load is studied via molecular dynamics (MD) method. The embedded voids are with different initial geometries regarding shape, porosity and intervoid ligament distance (ILD). Major simulations are run upon twelve MD geometries with each containing 8–27 million atoms. The corresponding stress–strain relation is monitored during the microstructure evolution of the specimens. The critical stress to trigger the dislocation emission is found in line with the prediction of the Lubarda model. The simulation results reveal that the initial void geometry has substantial impact on the stress–strain relation especially for a specimen with larger initial porosity. (paper)

  9. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  10. Comparative study of void fraction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.) [pt

  11. From Voids to Yukawaballs And Back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, V.; Goedheer, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    When dust particles are introduced in a radio-frequency discharge under micro-gravity conditions, usually a dust free void is formed due to the ion drag force pushing the particles away from the center. Experiments have shown that it is possible to close the void by reducing the power supplied to the discharge. This reduces the ion density and with that the ratio between the ion drag force and the opposing electric force. We have studied the behavior of a discharge with a large amount of dust particles (radius 3.4 micron) with our hydrodynamic model, and simulated the closure of the void for conditions similar to the experiment. We also approached the formation of a Yukawa ball from the other side, starting with a discharge at low power and injecting batches of dust, while increasing the power to prevent extinction of the discharge. Eventually the same situation could be reached.

  12. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  13. Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, P. W.; Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying it to a s......Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying...

  14. Voids and overdensities of coupled Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainini, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the clustering properties of dynamical Dark Energy even in association of a possible coupling between Dark Energy and Dark Matter. We find that within matter inhomogeneities, Dark Energy migth form voids as well as overdensity depending on how its background energy density evolves. Consequently and contrarily to what expected, Dark Energy fluctuations are found to be slightly suppressed if a coupling with Dark Matter is permitted. When considering density contrasts and scales typical of superclusters, voids and supervoids, perturbations amplitudes range from |δ φ | ∼ O(10 −6 ) to |δ φ | ∼ O(10 −4 ) indicating an almost homogeneous Dark Energy component

  15. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  16. Measurement of void fractions by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, A.; Vazquez G, J.; Diaz H, C.; Salinas R, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is done a general analysis of those techniques used to determine void fractions and it is chosen a nuclear technique to be used in the heat transfer circuit of the Physics Department of the Basic Sciences Management. The used methods for the determination of void fractions are: radioactive absorption, acoustic techniques, average velocity measurement, electromagnetic flow measurement, optical methods, oscillating absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, relation between pressure and flow oscillation, infrared absorption methods, sound neutron analysis. For the case of this work it will be treated about the radioactive absorption method which is based in the gamma rays absorption. (Author)

  17. Creatinine urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine creatinine test ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ... done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed by the body entirely by the ...

  18. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  19. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  20. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    sudden onset, progressive left sided weakness involving both upper and ... computed tomography of the brain showed right ... included a complete blood count, renal functions which were ... Urine culture had a significant growth of Klebsiella.

  1. Antibiotic Screening of Urine Culture for Internal Quality Audit at Amrita Hospital, Kochi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Aswathy; Gopinathan, Anusha; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Kumar, Anil

    2017-07-01

    Urine antimicrobial activity is a seldom analysed laboratory test which greatly impacts the quantification of urine specimens. Presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine reduces the bacterial load in these specimens. Hence, the chances of erroneously reporting insignificant bacteriuria can be reduced on analysis of the antimicrobial activity in urine. The aim of the study was to measure the antimicrobial activity of urine samples obtained from patients in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 urine specimens were collected from the study group. Tests like wet mount, Gram staining and culture were performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on the bacteria isolated from each specimen. The urine specimens were reported as significant bacteriuria (>105 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml) and insignificant bacteriuria (<105 CFU/ml - clean catch midstream urine; <102 CFU/ml - catheterized urine sample) according to the CFU/ml. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC ® 25923 ™ and Escherichia coli ATCC ® 25922 ™ were used to identify the presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine sample by Urine Anti-Bacterial substance Assay (UABA). McNemar test was used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. On analysis of the antimicrobial activity of urine sample with the prior antibiotic history of the patients, 17 were true positives and 43 were true negatives. Twenty six of samples with UABA positivity were culture negative and 28 samples with UABA positivity were culture positive. Sensitivity and specificity of the test was 85% and 53.8% respectively. Accuracy of the test was 60%. The p-value of UABA was <0.001. Enterobacteriaceae was the most common bacterial family isolated from the urine specimens. A total of 85% patients responded to treatment. Presence of antimicrobial activity in urine has a great impact on the interpretation of urine culture reports. Identification of urine antimicrobial activity helps

  2. Preserve specimens for reproducibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krell, F.-T.; Klimeš, Petr; Rocha, L. A.; Fikáček, M.; Miller, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 539, č. 7628 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproducibility * specimen * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/539168b.html

  3. The evolution of voids in the adhesion approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Varun; Sathyaprakah, B. S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1994-08-01

    We apply the adhesion approximation to study the formation and evolution of voids in the universe. Our simulations-carried out using 1283 particles in a cubical box with side 128 Mpc-indicate that the void spectrum evolves with time and that the mean void size in the standard Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE)-normalized cold dark matter (CDM) model with H50 = 1 scals approximately as bar D(z) = bar Dzero/(1+2)1/2, where bar Dzero approximately = 10.5 Mpc. Interestingly, we find a strong correlation between the sizes of voids and the value of the primordial gravitational potential at void centers. This observation could in principle, pave the way toward reconstructing the form of the primordial potential from a knowledge of the observed void spectrum. Studying the void spectrum at different cosmological epochs, for spectra with a built in k-space cutoff we find that the number of voids in a representative volume evolves with time. The mean number of voids first increases until a maximum value is reached (indicating that the formation of cellular structure is complete), and then begins to decrease as clumps and filaments erge leading to hierarchical clustering and the subsequent elimination of small voids. The cosmological epoch characterizing the completion of cellular structure occurs when the length scale going nonlinear approaches the mean distance between peaks of the gravitaional potential. A central result of this paper is that voids can be populated by substructure such as mini-sheets and filaments, which run through voids. The number of such mini-pancakes that pass through a given void can be measured by the genus characteristic of an individual void which is an indicator of the topology of a given void in intial (Lagrangian) space. Large voids have on an average a larger measure than smaller voids indicating more substructure within larger voids relative to smaller ones. We find that the topology of individual voids is strongly epoch dependent

  4. Dynamic void behavior in polymerizing polymethyl methacrylate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Scott D; McCaskie, Andrew W

    2006-02-01

    Cement mantle voids remain controversial with respect to survival of total hip arthroplasty. Void evolution is poorly understood, and attempts at void manipulation can only be empirical. We induced voids in a cement model simulating the constraints of the proximal femur. Intravoid pressure and temperature were recorded throughout polymerization, and the initial and final void volumes were measured. Temperature-dependent peak intravoid pressures and void volume increases were observed. After solidification, subatmospheric intravoid pressures were observed. The magnitude of these observations could not be explained by the ideal gas law. Partial pressures of the void gas at peak pressures demonstrated a dominant effect of gaseous monomer, thereby suggesting that void growth is a pressure-driven phenomenon resulting from temperature-dependent evaporation of monomer into existing trapped air voids.

  5. Friction stir welding process to repair voids in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Charles D. (Inventor); Litwinski, Edward (Inventor); Valdez, Juan M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an in-process method to repair voids in an aluminum alloy, particularly a friction stir weld in an aluminum alloy. For repairing a circular void or an in-process exit hole in a weld, the method includes the steps of fabricating filler material of the same composition or compatible with the parent material into a plug form to be fitted into the void, positioning the plug in the void, and friction stir welding over and through the plug. For repairing a longitudinal void (30), the method includes machining the void area to provide a trough (34) that subsumes the void, fabricating filler metal into a strip form (36) to be fitted into the trough, positioning the strip in the trough, and rewelding the void area by traversing a friction stir welding tool longitudinally through the strip. The method is also applicable for repairing welds made by a fusing welding process or voids in aluminum alloy workpieces themselves.

  6. Automated urinalysis: first experiences and a comparison between the Iris iQ200 urine microscopy system, the Sysmex UF-100 flow cytometer and manual microscopic particle counting

    OpenAIRE

    Shayanfar, Noushin; Tobler, Ulrich; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Bestmann, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Automated analysis of insoluble urine components can reduce the workload of conventional microscopic examination of urine sediment and is possibly helpful for standardization. We compared the diagnostic performance of two automated urine sediment analyzers and combined dipstick/automated urine analysis with that of the traditional dipstick/microscopy algorithm. Methods: A total of 332 specimens were collected and analyzed for insoluble urine components by microscopy and automated ...

  7. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The preventive effect of tamsulosin on voiding dysfunction after prostate biopsy: a prospective, open-label, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seung Jun; Jung, Seung Il; Ryu, Ji Won; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Jin Woong

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the association of prostate biopsy with voiding impairment and to investigate whether tamsulosin treatment given before prostate biopsy could improve voiding dysfunction after the procedure. The study included 88 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy without prior BPH medication and were prospectively randomized. Of these 88 patients, 44 patients underwent prostate biopsy only without tamsulosin treatment and served as the control group. The remaining 44 patients were treated with tamsulosin (0.2 mg daily) beginning the day before the biopsy procedure for 7 days. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was recorded in all patients before the procedure and on postbiopsy day 7. Maximal flow rate (Q(max)) and postvoid residual urine volume were recorded in all patients before the procedure and on postbiopsy days 1 and 7. No difference was found in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The IPSS (total, storage, and voiding symptom) was not significantly changed after biopsy in both groups. In the control group, the postvoid residual urine volume was increased on postbiopsy days 1 (P tamsulosin group, Q(max) was significantly increased on postbiopsy days 1 and 7 (P tamsulosin group, but it developed in two patients (4.5%) of the control group. The results of our study show that prostate biopsy leads to objective voiding impairment. Therefore, the use of alpha-1 blocker tamsulosin before biopsy in patients without prior BPH medication may decrease this morbidity.

  9. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the

  10. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.

    2012-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ⊙) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion" and dark energy. Moreover, the discrete distribution of these dark repulsors, in contrast to the uniformly permeating dark energy, can also explain dark flows and other recently observed excessive inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the Universe.

  11. Void porosity measurements in coastal structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, C.; Verhagen, H.J.; D'Angremond, K.; Sint Nicolaas, W.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the use of two fundamental design parameters, the void porosity and layer thickness in rock armour constructions. These design parameters are very sensible for factors such as the boundary definition of a rock layer, rock production properties, intrinsic properties and

  12. Nonlocal plasticity effects on interaction of different size voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2004-01-01

    A nonlocal elastic-plastic material model is used to show that the rate of void growth is significantly reduced when the voids are small enough to be comparable with a characteristic material length. For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the competition between...... dimensional array of spherical voids. It is shown that the high growth rate of very small voids predicted by conventional plasticity theory is not realistic when the effect of a characteristic length, dependent on the dislocation structure, is accounted for. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Radioimmunoassay of bleomycin in plasma and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teale, J.D.; Clough, J.M.; Marks, V.

    1977-01-01

    Antibodies to bleomycin were raised by immunization of sheep and rabbits with bleomycin-albumin conjugates. The combination of a high-titre, high-avidity sheep antiserum and iodinated bleomycin produced a radioimmunoassay sensitive to 8 ng of bleomycin per ml of plasma or urine. Untreated specimens (100 μl) of plasma or urine could be added directly to the assay tubes. The anti-serum was specific for bleomycin and showed no cross-reaction with other anti-cancer agents used in combination chemotherapy. Over a concentration range of 20 to 100 ng/ml. recovery of bleomycin from plasma was 110% and from urine, 93%. Repeated assay of plasma samples showed a decrease in bleomycin levels unless the samples were kept at 4 0 C or below. Assay of bleomycin levels in plasma and urine from patients under treatment with bleomycin showed similarities with results reported using a microbiological assay. The radioimmunoassay offers a more reliable, rapid and sensitive method for the measurement of bleomycin. (author)

  14. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  15. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  16. Use of a midstream clean catch mobile application did not lower urine contamination rates in an ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mary S; Kulie, Paige; Benedict, Cameron; Ordoobadi, Alexander J; Sikka, Neal; Steinmetz, Erika; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2018-01-01

    Urine microscopy is a common test performed in emergency departments (EDs). Urine specimens can easily become contaminated by different factors, including the collection method. The midstream clean-catch (MSCC) collection technique is commonly used to reduce urine contamination. The urine culture contamination rate from specimens collected in our ED is 30%. We developed an instructional application (app) to show ED patients how to provide a MSCC urine sample. We hypothesized that ED patients who viewed our instructional app would have significantly lower urine contamination rates compared to patients who did not. We prospectively enrolled 257 subjects with a urinalysis and/or urine culture test ordered in the ED and asked them to watch our MSCC instructional app. After prospective enrollment was complete, we retrospectively matched each enrolled subject to an ED patient who did not watch the instructional app. Controls were matched to cases based on gender, type of urine specimen provided, ED visit date and shift. Urinalysis and urine culture contamination results were compared between the matched pairs using McNemar's test. The overall urine culture contamination rate of the 514 subjects was 38%. The majority of the matched pairs had a urinalysis (63%) or urinalysis plus urine culture (35%) test done. There were no significant differences in our urine contamination rates between the matched pairs overall or when stratified by gender, by prior knowledge of the clean catch process or by type of urine specimen. We did not see a lower contamination rate for patients who viewed our instructional app compared to patients who did not. It is possible that MSCC is not effective for decreasing urine specimen contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) and commonest causative organisms in spinal cord injury patients with various voiding modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, F.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of urinary tract infection and commonest causative organisms in spinal cord injury patients with various modes of voiding in rehabilitation setup in Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study of 100 spinal cord injury patients. Place and Duration of the Study: The Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi from September 2007 to March 2008 on clinical samples received from admitted patients in CMH Rawalpindi and AFIRM. Material and Methods: In 100 patients of spinal cord urine samples were subjected to Urine Routine examination and Urine Culture sensitivity. Urine culture revealing a bacterial colony count of 105 cfu/ml or higher were considered positive for urinary tract infection (UTI) if present with symptoms. Significant bacteriuria was investigated for spectrum and sensitivity pattern as well. Results: Of all 100 spinal cord patients 52 patients (52%) had symptoms suggestive of UTI but only 37 patients (37%) had significant bacteriuria on urine culture supported by high level pyuria were declared to have UTI. E-coli was the most commonly isolated organism with total no of 20 cases (54.1%) followed by Pseudomonas 6 cases (16.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 cases (8.1%), Proteus mirabilis 3 cases (8.1%), Citrobacter freundi 2 cases (5.4%) and the least frequent was Morganella morganii with 1 case (2.7%). UTI was most frequent in patients with indwelling catheter and was least associated with self voiding. Conclusion: Urinary Tract Infection was commonly observed among spinal cord injury patients. E-coli was the commonest isolated pathogen followed by Pseudomonas, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundi, Candida and Morganella morganii in descending order of frequency. UTI was most frequent in patients using indwelling catheter as a mode of voiding. (author)

  18. 640-slice DVCT multi-dimensionally and dynamically presents changes in bladder volume and urine flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunshan; Fang, Kewei; Mao, Chongwen; Xiang, Shutian; Wang, Jin; Li, Yingwen

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the application of 640-slice dynamic volume computed tomography (DVCT) to excretory cystography and urethrography. A total of 70 healthy subjects were included in the study. Excretory cystography and urethrography using 640-slice DVCT was conducted to continuously record the motions of the bladder and the proximal female and male urethra. The patients' voiding process was divided into early, early to middle, middle, middle to late, and late voiding phases. The subjects were analyzed using DVCT and conventional CT. The cross-sectional areas of various sections of the male and female urethra were evaluated, and the average urine flow rate was calculated. The 640-slice DVCT technique was used to dynamically observe the urine flow rate and changes in bladder volume at all voiding phases. The urine volume detected by 640-slice DVCT exhibited no significant difference compared with the actual volume, and no significant difference compared with that determined using conventional CT. Furthermore, no significant difference in the volume of the bladder at each phase of the voiding process was detected between 640-slice DVCT and conventional CT. The results indicate that 640-slice DVCT can accurately evaluate the status of the male posterior urethra and female urethra. In conclusion, 640-slice DVCT is able to multi-dimensionally and dynamically present changes in bladder volume and urine flow rate, and could obtain similar results to conventional CT in detecting urine volume, as well as the status of the male posterior urethra and female urethra. PMID:29467853

  19. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could interfere with test results. Be sure to review all your child's medications with your doctor. The Procedure Your child will be asked to urinate (pee) into a clean sample cup in the doctor's office or at home. Collecting the specimen should only take a few minutes. If your child isn' ...

  20. Void fraction prediction in saturated flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco J Collado

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: An essential element in thermal-hydraulics is the accurate prediction of the vapor void fraction, or fraction of the flow cross-sectional area occupied by steam. Recently, the author has suggested to calculate void fraction working exclusively with thermodynamic properties. It is well known that the usual 'flow' quality, merely a mass flow rate ratio, is not at all a thermodynamic property because its expression in function of thermodynamic properties includes the slip ratio, which is a parameter of the process not a function of state. By the other hand, in the classic and well known expression of the void fraction - in function of the true mass fraction of vapor (also called 'static' quality), and the vapor and liquid densities - does not appear the slip ratio. Of course, this would suggest a direct procedure for calculating the void fraction, provided we had an accurate value of the true mass fraction of vapor, clearly from the heat balance. However the classic heat balance is usually stated in function of the 'flow' quality, what sounds really contradictory because this parameter, as we have noted above, is not at all a thermodynamic property. Then we should check against real data the actual relationship between the thermodynamic properties and the applied heat. For saturated flow boiling just from the inlet of the heated tube, and not having into account the kinetic and potential terms, the uniform applied heat per unit mass of inlet water and per unit length (in short, specific linear heat) should be closely related to a (constant) slope of the mixture enthalpy. In this work, we have checked the relation between the specific linear heat and the thermodynamic enthalpy of the liquid-vapor mixture using the actual mass fraction. This true mass fraction is calculated using the accurate measurements of the outlet void fraction taken during the Cambridge project by Knights and Thom in the sixties for vertical and horizontal

  1. Tank SY-101 void fraction instrument functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a void fraction instrument for Tank SY-101. This instrument will measure the void fraction in the waste in Tank SY-101 at various elevations

  2. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  3. The Human Urine Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  4. Spatial variation in void volume during charged particle bombardment: the effects of injected interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Yoo, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental observations of the void volume at several depths along the range of 4 MeV Ni ions in 316 stainless steel are reported. The specimens were first preconditioned by neutron irradiation at temperatures of 450 and 584 0 C to fluences of approximately 8 x 10 26 n/m -2 . The void volume after ion bombardment to 60 dpa at the peak damage depth is significantly lower at the peak damage depth than in the region between that and the free surface. The ratio of the step height to void volume at the depth of peak energy deposition between regions masked from and exposed to the beam is strongly dependent on bombardment temperature. The reduction of void volume near the peak damage depth is larger for the 584 0 C than for the 450 0 C preconditioned material. These observations are consistent with recent theoretical results which account for the injection of the bombarding ions as self-interstitials. The theory necessary to understand the effect is developed

  5. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation and strain......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  6. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    as line singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation, the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  7. The use of molecular analyses in voided urine for the assessment of patients with hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukers, Willemien; Kandimalla, Raju; van Houwelingen, Diandra

    2013-01-01

    variables into a logistic regression model. Results Logistic regression analysis based on the five methylation markers, age, gender and type of hematuria resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and an optimism corrected AUC of 0.84 after internal validation by bootstrapping. Using a cut-off value...... examination of low risk patients and thereby, reducing patient burden and costs. Further validation in a large prospective patient cohort is necessary to prove the true clinical value of this model....

  8. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang11School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, ChinaObjective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69% patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31% patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59% patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001 and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625. The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001. Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG tumors (P = 0.031 and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG tumors (P = 0.003, respectively. The advantage was maintained in terms of the detection of invasive tumors between the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC (90.48% versus 23.81%, P = 0.001 as well as between FISH and UC (85.71% versus 23.81%, P = 0.003. The specificities for the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, UC, and FISH were 100%.Conclusion: Results show that the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand is a promising noninvasive tool for diagnosis and surveillance in patients suspected of having a new bladder tumor.Keywords: bladder tumor, tumor-targeting, FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, fluorescent probe

  9. Continuous in-situ measurements of fission fragment irradiation induced void swelling in Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefakis, H.

    1980-01-01

    A novel simulation technique has been developed to study the early stages of irradiation induced void formation in metals. The technique makes use of fission fragment irradiation produced by doping with 235 U and irradiating in a thermal neutron flux under highly controlled irradiation-environmental conditions. Employment of a computer and a high temperature radiation resistant LVDT resulted in a high volumetric sensitivity and the production of continuous, in-situ void swelling data for bulk specimens. Results for Ni, used as a test-metal served to corroborate the technique in a number of ways including comparisons with (a) reactor data, (b) direct post-irradiation specimen length measurements and (c) TEM examinations of irradiated samples. The technique has several unique advantages and, in conjunction with other conventional methods, it offers the possibility of detailed evaluation of void nucleation and growth theories. In view of the present results no definitive answer may be given on the issue of the incubation period while checks with two theoretical models have yielded an order-of-magnitude agreement

  10. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  11. Method for thinning specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  12. Effect of void cluster on ductile failure evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a non-uniform void distribution in a ductile material is investigated by using a cell model analysis to study a material with a periodic pattern of void clusters. The special clusters considered consist of a number of uniformly spaced voids located along a plane perpendicular...

  13. Void probability scaling in hadron nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Ghosh, Jayita; Bandyopadhyay, Prabhat; Das, Rupa; Mukherjee, Sima

    2002-01-01

    Heygi while investigating with the rapidity gap probability (that measures the chance of finding no particle in the pseudo-rapidity interval Δη) found that a scaling behavior in the rapidity gap probability has a close correspondence with the scaling of a void probability in galaxy correlation study. The main aim in this paper is to study the scaling behavior of the rapidity gap probability

  14. Neutron gauging to detect voids in polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, F.Y.; Alger, D.M.; Brugger, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal-neutron radiography and fast-neutron gauging measurements were made to evaluate the feasibility of detecting voids in a polyurethane block placed between steel plates. This sandwich of polyurethane and steel simulates the walls of a canister being designed to hold explosive devices. The polyurethane would act as a shock absorber in the canister. A large fabrication cost saving would result by casting the polyurethane, but a nondestructive testing (NDT) method is needed to determine the uniformity of the polyurethane fill. The radiography measurements used a beam of thermal neutrons, while the gauging used filtered beams of 24 keV and fission spectrum neutrons. For the 83-mm-thick polyurethane and 130-mm-thick steel matrix, the thermal-neutron radiography was able to detect only those voids equal to about one-half the polyurethane thickness. The gauging detected voids in the path of the neutron beam of a few millimetres thickness in seconds to minutes. The gauging is feasible as an NDT method for the canister application

  15. Transcutaneous sacral neurostimulation for irritative voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, I K; Johnston, R S; Keane, P F

    1999-01-01

    Patients with irritative voiding dysfunction are often unresponsive to standard clinical treatment. We evaluated the response of such individuals to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the third sacral nerve. 32 patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction (31 female and 1 male; mean age 47 years) were recruited to the study. Ambulatory transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation was applied bilaterally to the third sacral dermatomes for 1 week. Symptoms of frequency, nocturia, urgency, and bladder pain were scored by each patient throughout and up to 6 months following treatment. The mean daytime frequency was reduced from 11.3 to 7.96 (p = 0.01). Nocturia episodes were reduced from a mean of 2.6 to 1.8 (p = 0.01). Urgency and bladder pain mean symptom scores were reduced from 5.97 to 4.89 and from 1.48 to 0.64, respectively. After stopping therapy, symptoms returned to pretreatment levels within 2 weeks in 40% of the patients and within 6 months in 100%. Three patients who continued with neurostimulation remained satisfied with this treatment modality at 6 months. Transcutaneous third sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective and noninvasive ambulatory technique for the treatment of patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction. Following an initial response, patients may successfully apply this treatment themselves to ensure long-term relief.

  16. Void fraction measurements using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Vance, W.H.; Joo, H.

    1992-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography is being evaluated for studying the dynamic behavior of two phase flow and for measuring void fraction in vertical and inclined water ducts. This technique provides a unique means of visualizing the behavior of fluid flow inside thick metal enclosures. To simulate vapor conditions encountered in a fluid flow duct, an air-water flow system was constructed. Air was injected into the bottom of the duct at flow rates up to 0.47 I/s (1 cfm). The water flow rate was varied between 0--3.78 I/m (0--1 gpm). The experiments were performed at the Pennsylvania State University nuclear reactor facility using a real-time neutron radiography camera. With a thermal neutron flux on the order of 10 6 n/cm 2 /s directed through the thin duct dimension, the dynamic behavior of the air bubbles was clearly visible through 5 cm (2 in.) thick aluminum support plates placed on both sides of the duct wall. Image analysis techniques were employed to extract void fractions from the data which was recorded on videotape. This consisted of time averaging 256 video frames and measuring the gray level distribution throughout the region. The distribution of the measured void fraction across the duct was determined for various air/water mixtures. Details of the results of experiments for a variety of air and water flow conditions are presented

  17. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal ... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test ... Abnormal results may be due to: A group ...

  18. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  19. Evaluation of impacts of stress triaxiality on plastic deformability of RAFM steel using various types of tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Taichiro, E-mail: kato.taichiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166, Obuchi-omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ohata, Mitsuru [Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei [Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166, Obuchi-omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The fracture ductility is lower as the stress triaxiality is higher. • Voids of the interrupted RB1 specimen were observed along grain boundaries and expanded parallel to the tensile axis. • Voids of interrupted R0.2 specimen were rounded shape than those of RB1. • The fracture surface of specimens were observed the elongated and the equiaxed dimples. • The decrease of plastic deformability of the notched specimen was caused by the process of voids formation and crack growth due to the effect of plastic constraint of the notch. - Abstract: A case study on a fusion blanket design such as DEMO indicated that there could be some sections with high stress triaxiality, a parameter to evaluate the magnitude of plastic constraint, in the case of plasma disruption or coolant loss accident. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately understand the ductility loss limit of structural material in order to conduct the structural design assessment of the irradiated and embrittled fusion reactor blanket. Tensile tests were conducted by using three kinds of tensile specimen shapes to investigate of the plastic deformability of F82H. From the results, the fracture ductility is lower as the stress triaxiality is higher. Voids of the interrupted RB1 specimen were observed along grain boundaries and expanded parallel to the tensile axis. That of interrupted R0.2 specimen was rounded shape compared with those of RB1. The fracture surface of RB1 and R0.2 specimens were observed the elongated dimples and the equiaxed dimples without so much elongation, respectively. It is considered that the decrease of plastic deformability for the notched specimen was caused by the process of voids formation and crack growth due to the effect of plastic constraint of the notch.

  20. Development of Personalized Urination Recognition Technology Using Smart Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jong Eun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study collected and analyzed activity data sensed through smart bands worn by patients in order to resolve the clinical issues posed by using voiding charts. By developing a smart band-based algorithm for recognizing urination activity in patients, this study aimed to explore the feasibility of urination monitoring systems. Methods This study aimed to develop an algorithm that recognizes urination based on a patient’s posture and changes in posture. Motion data was obtained from a smart band on the arm. An algorithm that recognizes the 3 stages of urination (forward movement, urination, backward movement was developed based on data collected from a 3-axis accelerometer and from tilt angle data. Real-time data were acquired from the smart band, and for data corresponding to a certain duration, the absolute value of the signals was calculated and then compared with the set threshold value to determine the occurrence of vibration signals. In feature extraction, the most essential information describing each pattern was identified after analyzing the characteristics of the data. The results of the feature extraction process were sorted using a classifier to detect urination. Results An experiment was carried out to assess the performance of the recognition technology proposed in this study. The final accuracy of the algorithm was calculated based on clinical guidelines for urologists. The experiment showed a high average accuracy of 90.4%, proving the robustness of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions The proposed urination recognition technology draws on acceleration data and tilt angle data collected via a smart band; these data were then analyzed using a classifier after comparative analyses with standardized feature patterns.

  1. Automated color classification of urine dipstick image in urine examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Royananda; Muchtar, M. A.; Taqiuddin, R.; Adnan, S.; Anugrahwaty, R.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urine examination using urine dipstick has long been used to determine the health status of a person. The economical and convenient use of urine dipstick is one of the reasons urine dipstick is still used to check people health status. The real-life implementation of urine dipstick is done manually, in general, that is by comparing it with the reference color visually. This resulted perception differences in the color reading of the examination results. In this research, authors used a scanner to obtain the urine dipstick color image. The use of scanner can be one of the solutions in reading the result of urine dipstick because the light produced is consistent. A method is required to overcome the problems of urine dipstick color matching and the test reference color that have been conducted manually. The method proposed by authors is Euclidean Distance, Otsu along with RGB color feature extraction method to match the colors on the urine dipstick with the standard reference color of urine examination. The result shows that the proposed approach was able to classify the colors on a urine dipstick with an accuracy of 95.45%. The accuracy of color classification on urine dipstick against the standard reference color is influenced by the level of scanner resolution used, the higher the scanner resolution level, the higher the accuracy.

  2. Smart monitoring of fluid intake and bladder voiding using pressure sensitive mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-McFarlane, Madison; Green, James R; Knoefel, Frank; Goubran, Rafik

    2016-08-01

    Pressure sensitive mats have been used in noninvasive smart monitoring for a variety of problems including breathing rate monitoring, sleep monitoring, mobility, and weight. This paper describes a proof of concept application of pressure mats to monitor fluid intake/output (fluid cycle) events during the night. The ability to more accurately track such events has potential implications for monitoring those individuals who have nocturia, a condition where a person wakes at night to urinate. Data were collected from a healthy young female subject instructed to drink as much water as was comfortable (700mL) and lie in a supine position on a mattress located directly on three pressure mats. This was compared to an initial data set collected immediately after voiding but before drinking, 30 minutes after drinking, 60 minutes after drinking and a final data set after again voiding the bladder. The additional pressure from the 700mL of water was detectible and tracked over the course of the hour-long testing session under idealized conditions. This provides a proof-of-concept that nocturnal fluid intake and bladder voiding events can be tracked using non-invasive pressure-sensitive mats, however additional testing and development is required to achieve a deployable monitoring system.

  3. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  4. Measurements of void fraction by an improved multi-channel conductance void meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul-Hwa; Chung, Moon Ki; No, Hee Cheon

    1998-01-01

    An improved multi-channel Conductance Void Meter (CVM) was developed to measure a void fraction. Its measuring principle is basically based upon the differences of electrical conductance of a two-phase mixture due to the variation of void fraction around a sensor. The sensor is designed to be flush-mounted to the inner wall of the test section to avoid the flow disturbances. The signal processor with three channels is specially designed so as to minimize the inherent error due to the phase difference between channels. It is emphasized that the guard electrodes are electrically shielded in order not to affect the measurements of two-phase mixture conductance, but to make the electric fields evenly distributed in a measuring volume. Void fraction is measured for bubbly and slug flow regimes in a vertical air-water loop, and statistical signal processing techniques are applied to show that CVM has a good dynamic resolution which is required to investigate the structural developments of bubbly flow and the propagation of void waves in a flow channel. (author)

  5. Effects of storage conditions on results for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of proteins in canine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, Marie-Laure; Piane, Laetitia; Lucarelli, Laetitia; Henrion, Rémi; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Palanché, Florence; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Trumel, Catherine; Lavoué, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of storage conditions on the canine urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) and on SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) of urinary proteins. SAMPLE Urine specimens from 20 proteinuric (UPC > 0.5) and 20 nonproteinuric (UPC ≤ 0.2) dogs. PROCEDURES UPC and SDS-AGE were performed on urine specimens stored at room temperature (20°C) and 4°C for up to 5 days and at -20° and -80°C for up to 360 days; some specimens were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Results were compared with those obtained for fresh urine specimens. RESULTS UPC was not affected by storage at room temperature or by freezing. A decrease in UPC was observed for specimens from nonproteinuric dogs after 5 days at 4°C (10%) and from both groups after 90 days at -20° and -80°C (≤ 20% and ≤ 15%, respectively). The SDS-AGE profiles revealed no visual changes regardless of duration of storage for specimens stored at room temperature, 4°C, and -80°C, except for 1 profile after 360 days at -80°C. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect SDS-AGE profiles. Appearance or strengthening of high-molecular-weight bands that could alter interpretation was evident in SDS-AGE profiles after storage at -20°C for ≥ 15 days (31/40 dogs). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Storage of urine at -20° or -80°C for up to 1 year influenced the UPC without affecting clinical interpretation. Storage of urine specimens at -20°C impaired visual analysis of SDS-AGE. When SDS-AGE cannot be performed on fresh or recently refrigerated urine specimens, storage at -80°C is recommended.

  6. On the observability of coupled dark energy with cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Carlesi, Edoardo; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Taking N-body simulations with volumes and particle densities tuned to match the sloan digital sky survey DR7 spectroscopic main sample, we assess the ability of current void catalogues to distinguish a model of coupled dark matter-dark energy from Λ cold dark matter cosmology using properties of cosmic voids. Identifying voids with the VIDE toolkit, we find no statistically significant differences in the ellipticities, but find that coupling produces a population of significantly larger voids, possibly explaining the recent result of Tavasoli et al. In addition, we use the universal density profile of Hamaus et al. to quantify the relationship between coupling and density profile shape, finding that the coupling produces broader, shallower, undercompensated profiles for large voids by thinning the walls between adjacent medium-scale voids. We find that these differences are potentially measurable with existing void catalogues once effects from survey geometries and peculiar velocities are taken into account.

  7. Void growth and coalescence in metals deformed at elevated temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöcker, H.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    For metals deformed at elevated temperatures the growth of voids to coalescence is studied numerically. The voids are assumed to be present from the beginning of deformation, and the rate of deformation considered is so high that void growth is dominated by power law creep of the material, without...... any noticeable effect of surface diffusion. Axisymmetric unit cell model computations are used to study void growth in a material containing a periodic array of voids, and the onset of the coalescence process is defined as the stage where plastic flow localizes in the ligaments between neighbouring...... voids. The focus of the study is on various relatively high stress triaxialties. In order to represent the results in terms of a porous ductile material model a set of constitutive relations are used, which have been proposed for void growth in a material undergoing power law creep....

  8. Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y C; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Brenner, Nicole C; Martin, Louise M; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M

    2014-09-01

    The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

  9. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  10. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ''Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated

  11. Patient dose reduction during voiding cystourethrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Valerie L.

    2006-01-01

    Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a commonly performed examination in a pediatric uroradiology practice. This article contains suggestions on how the radiation dose to a child from VCUG can be made ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA). The pediatric radiologist should consider the appropriateness of the clinical indication before performing VCUG and utilize radiation exposure techniques and parameters during VCUG to reduce radiation exposure to a child. The medical physicist and fluoroscope manufacturer can also work together to optimize a pulsed-fluoroscopy unit and further reduce the radiation exposure. Laboratory and clinical research is necessary to investigate methods that reduce radiation exposures during VCUG, and current research is presented here. (orig.)

  12. Impact of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgical treatment on voiding and urinary bladder filling symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Snježana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP is one of the most common diseases of elderly men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia to voiding and urinary bladder filling symptoms. Quantification of voiding and filling symptoms was done with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Method. The study included 80 patients with BHP, of whom 40 were treated with open prostatectomy (group A, and other 40 with transurethral resection of prostate gland (group B. All the patients were under 80 years old (average age in the group A was 70.23 years with a variation interval of 21 years, and in the group B 69.37 years with a variation interval of 22 years, with a value of IPSS > 19 points, quantity of residual urine higher than 150 mL, the weight of benign prostatic gland hyperplasia tissue over 30 grams for the method of prostate transurethral resection, and over 80 grams for the method of open prostatectomy. To all patients, for two times, the value of IPSS was determined, and then in a postoperative period in time intervals of 4 and 12 weeks. Results. Arithmetic mean of IPSS preoperatively was 32.05 points in the group A and 31.75 points in the group B. During the postoperative check-ups in time intervals of 4 and 12 weeks, arithmetic means of IPSS in the group A were 5.4 and 1.85 points, respectively, and in the group B 11.425 and 9.025 points, respectively. Surgical treatment had better effect on voiding symptoms than on urinary bladder filling ones. Conclusion. After the mentioned surgical procedures a significant reduction of the lower urinary tract symptoms quantified by the IPSS was observed. Surgical treatment of BHP had a more pronounced effect on the voiding symptoms in relation to filling ones.

  13. Detection of prostate cancer-specific transcripts in extracellular vesicles isolated from post-DRE urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Kathryn L; Patil, Dattatraya; Douglas, Kristen J S; Lee, Grace; Wehrmeyer, Kathryn; Torlak, Mersiha; Clark, Jeremy; Cooper, Colin S; Moreno, Carlos S; Sanda, Martin G

    2017-06-01

    The measurement of gene expression in post-digital rectal examination (DRE) urine specimens provides a non-invasive method to determine a patient's risk of prostate cancer. Many currently available assays use whole urine or cell pellets for the analysis of prostate cancer-associated genes, although the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has also recently been of interest. We investigated the expression of prostate-, kidney-, and bladder-specific transcripts and known prostate cancer biomarkers in urine EVs. Cell pellets and EVs were recovered from post-DRE urine specimens, with the total RNA yield and quality determined by Bioanalyzer. The levels of prostate, kidney, and bladder-associated transcripts in EVs were assessed by TaqMan qPCR and targeted sequencing. RNA was more consistently recovered from the urine EV specimens, with over 80% of the patients demonstrating higher RNA yields in the EV fraction as compared to urine cell pellets. The median EV RNA yield of 36.4 ng was significantly higher than the median urine cell pellet RNA yield of 4.8 ng. Analysis of the post-DRE urine EVs indicated that prostate-specific transcripts were more abundant than kidney- or bladder-specific transcripts. Additionally, patients with prostate cancer had significantly higher levels of the prostate cancer-associated genes PCA3 and ERG. Post-DRE urine EVs are a viable source of prostate-derived RNAs for biomarker discovery and prostate cancer status can be distinguished from analysis of these specimens. Continued analysis of urine EVs offers the potential discovery of novel biomarkers for pre-biopsy prostate cancer detection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Specimen Collection and Submission Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    collection procedures. Urine Sterile screw-capped, leak proof, container or sterile urine container A clean catch mid-stream sample is preferred. Follow...several days cannot be avoided, freeze samples for storage and ship frozen on dry ice. TR-16-161 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public...designed to provide detailed instructions for submission of samples that will be analyzed in the SPL. Tests that are not listed may require special

  15. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  16. A NEW STATISTICAL PERSPECTIVE TO THE COSMIC VOID DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pycke, J-R; Russell, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we obtain the size distribution of voids as a three-parameter redshift-independent log-normal void probability function (VPF) directly from the Cosmic Void Catalog (CVC). Although many statistical models of void distributions are based on the counts in randomly placed cells, the log-normal VPF that we obtain here is independent of the shape of the voids due to the parameter-free void finder of the CVC. We use three void populations drawn from the CVC generated by the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) Mocks, which are tuned to three mock SDSS samples to investigate the void distribution statistically and to investigate the effects of the environments on the size distribution. As a result, it is shown that void size distributions obtained from the HOD Mock samples are satisfied by the three-parameter log-normal distribution. In addition, we find that there may be a relation between the hierarchical formation, skewness, and kurtosis of the log-normal distribution for each catalog. We also show that the shape of the three-parameter distribution from the samples is strikingly similar to the galaxy log-normal mass distribution obtained from numerical studies. This similarity between void size and galaxy mass distributions may possibly indicate evidence of nonlinear mechanisms affecting both voids and galaxies, such as large-scale accretion and tidal effects. Considering the fact that in this study, all voids are generated by galaxy mocks and show hierarchical structures in different levels, it may be possible that the same nonlinear mechanisms of mass distribution affect the void size distribution.

  17. Effect of Sacral Neuromodulation on Outcome Measures and Urine Chemokines in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kenneth M; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Bui, Don; Killinger, Kim; Chancellor, Michael; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-05-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may improve interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/BPS) symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency and perhaps even pain, but objective measures of improvement are lacking. We evaluated the potential for urinary chemokines to serve as measures of treatment response over time to SNM. Women with IC/BPS undergoing SNM consented for this study. Three-day bladder/pain diaries were collected at baseline and validated Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Problem Index (ICSPI) scores and mid-stream urine specimens were collected at baseline and at 24 weeks after successful implant. Collected urine was screened for infection by dipstick and analyzed for chemokines by luminex xMAP analysis. At baseline (n = 16), urine levels of CXCL-1 positively correlated with pain score (r = 0.63, P = 0.009), urgency (r = 0.61, P = 0.01), ICSPI (r = 0.43, P = 0.09) and daily voids (r = 0.44, P = 0.08). ICSPI and pain scores also positively correlated with sIL-1ra (r = 0.50, P = 0.04) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) or CCL2 positively correlated with daily voids (r = 0.45, P = 0.07) only. At 24 weeks, the median ICSPI index fell from 28 to 15 (n = 7, P = 0.008). Urine levels of sIL-1ra (633.8 ± 188.2 vs. 149.9 ± 41.62 pg/mL) and MCP-1 (448.3 ± 11.6 vs. 176.9 ± 46.16 pg/mL) and CCL5 (20.78 ± 4.09 vs. 11.21 ± 4.12 pg/mL) were also significantly reduced at the follow-up relative to baseline values (P = 0.04). Multivariable analysis of data revealed that sIL-1ra and MCP-1 together explained the majority of variance in data. Levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, interleukin (IL)-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also reduced at 24 weeks, but differences were not significant. Concomitant decrease in urine levels of chemokines especially MCP-1 was associated with treatment response of SNM. These results

  18. Influence of root canal sealer on the radiographic appearance of filling voids in maxillary single-rooted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodanezi, Augusto; Munhoz, Etiene Andrade; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Bernardineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the influence of three epoxy resin-based sealers with distinct radiopacities on the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis. The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was laterally condensed with one sealer (AH Plus®, Acroseal® or a non-radiopaque sealer), and a longitudinal void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8). Buccolingual radiographs were obtained and randomly interpreted for voids by a radiologist and an endodontist in a blinded fashion. Teeth were cut and inspected under a microscope to confirm the position of void. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using the Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests, respectively (α=0.05). Significantly lower sensitivity levels (p<0.05) were observed in the coronal portion of fillings performed with both radiopaque sealers. Specificity values for Acroseal® were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the coronal and apical portions of fillings. The type of root canal sealer can affect the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis of upper single-rooted teeth.

  19. Influence of root canal sealer on the radiographic appearance of filling voids in maxillary single-rooted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bodanezi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the influence of three epoxy resin-based sealers with distinct radiopacities on the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was laterally condensed with one sealer (AH Plus®, Acroseal® or a non-radiopaque sealer, and a longitudinal void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8. Buccolingual radiographs were obtained and randomly interpreted for voids by a radiologist and an endodontist in a blinded fashion. Teeth were cut and inspected under a microscope to confirm the position of void. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using the Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests, respectively (α=0.05. RESULTS: Significantly lower sensitivity levels (p<0.05 were observed in the coronal portion of fillings performed with both radiopaque sealers. Specificity values for Acroseal® were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the coronal and apical portions of fillings. CONCLUSIONS: The type of root canal sealer can affect the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis of upper single-rooted teeth.

  20. Relationship between voided volume and the urge to void among patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaivas, Jerry G; Tsui, Johnson F; Amirian, Michael; Ranasinghe, Buddima; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Haukka, Jari; Tikkinen, Kari A O

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between voided volume (VV) and urge to void among patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Consecutive adult patients (aged 23-90 years) were enrolled, and completed a 24 h bladder diary and the Urgency Perception Scale (UPS). Patients were categorized as urgency or non-urgency based on the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. The relationship between UPS and VV (based on the bladder diary) was analyzed by Spearman's rho and proportional odds model. In total, 1265 micturitions were evaluated in 117 individuals (41 men, 76 women; 56 individuals in the urgency and 61 in the non-urgency group). The mean (± SD) VV and UPS were 192 ± 127 ml and 2.4 ± 1.2 ml in the urgency group and 173 ± 124 ml and 1.7 ± 1.1 ml in the non-urgency group, respectively. Spearman's rho (between UPS and VV) was 0.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-029, p < 0.001] for the urgency group, 0.32 (95% CI 0.25-0.39, p < 0.001) for the non-urgency group, and 0.28 (95% CI 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001) for the total cohort. Urgency patients had higher UPS [odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% CI 2.5-3.8]. Overall, each additional 50 ml VV increased the odds of having a higher UPS with OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2-1.3). The relationship between VV and UPS score was similar in both groups (p = 0.548 for interaction). Although urgency patients void with a higher UPS score, among both urgency and non-urgency patients there is only a weak correlation between VV and the urge to void. This suggests that there are factors other than VV that cause the urge to void.

  1. Effect of helium on void formation in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Simonen, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    This study examines the influence of helium on void formation in self-ion irradiated nickel. Helium was injected either simultaneously with, or prior to, the self-ion bombardment. The void microstructure was characterized as a function of helium deposition rate and the total heavy-ion dose. In particular, at 575 0 C and 5 X 10 -3 displacements per atom per second the void density is found to be proportional to the helium deposition rate. The dose dependence of swelling is initially dominated by helium driven nucleation. The void density rapidly saturates after which swelling continues with increasing dose only from void growth. It is concluded that helium promotes void nucleation in nickel with either helium implantation technique, pre-injection or simultaneous injection. Qualitative differences, however, are recognized. (Auth.)

  2. Void migration, coalescence and swelling in fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    A recent analysis of the migration of voids and bubbles, produced in neutron irradiated fusion materials, is outlined. The migration, brought about by thermal hopping of atoms on the surface of a void, is normally a random Brownian motion but, in a temperature gradient, can be slightly biassed up the gradient. Two effects of such migrations are the transport of voids and trapped transmutation helium atoms to grain boundaries, where embrittlement may result; and the coalescence of migrating voids, which reduces the number of non-dislocation sites available for the capture of knock-on point defects and thereby enables the dislocation bias process to maintain void swelling. A selection of candidate fusion power plant armour and structural metals have been analysed. The metals most resistant to void migration and its effects are tungsten and molybdenum. Steel and beryllium are least so and vanadium is intermediate

  3. Dependence of calculated void reactivity on film-boiling representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.; Garland, W.

    1992-01-01

    Partial voiding of a fuel channel can lead to complicated neutronic analysis, because of highly nonuniform spatial distributions. An investigation of the distribution dependence of void reactivity in a Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) lattice, specifically in the regime of film boiling, was done. Although the core is not expected to be critical at the time of sheath dryout, this study augments current knowledge of void reactivity in this type of lattice

  4. Nucleation and growth of voids by radiation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.M.; Brown, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The original model of Brown, Kelly and Mayer [1] for the nucleation of interstitial loops has been extended to take into account the following: (i) mobility of the vacancies, (ii) generation and migration of gas atoms during irradiation, (iii) nucleation and growth of voids, and (iv) vacancy emission from voids and clusters at high temperatures. Using chemicalrate equations, additional expressions are formulated for the nucleation and growth of vacancy loops and voids. (orig.)

  5. Splitting tests on rock specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J D; Stagg, K G

    1970-01-01

    Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.

  6. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  7. Sample handling for mass spectrometric proteomic investigations of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Høgdall, Claus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; T'jampens, Davy; Hellmann, Marja-Leena; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Fung, Eric T; Høgdall, Estrid

    2008-09-01

    Because of its non-invasive sample collection method, human urine is an attractive biological material both for discovering biomarkers and for use in future screening trials for different diseases. Before urine can be used for these applications, standardized protocols for sample handling that optimize protein stability are required. In this explorative study, we examine the influence of different urine collection methods, storage temperatures, storage times, and repetitive freeze-thaw procedures on the protein profiles obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Prospectively collected urine samples from 11 women were collected as either morning or midday specimens. The effects of storage temperature, time to freezing, and freeze-thaw cycles were assessed by calculating the number, intensity, and reproducibility of peaks visualized by SELDI-TOF-MS. On the CM10 array, 122 peaks were detected and 28 peaks were found to be significantly different between urine types, storage temperature and time to freezing. On the IMAC-Cu array, 65 peaks were detected and 1 peak was found to be significantly different according to time to freezing. No significant differences were demonstrated for freeze-thaw cycles. Optimal handling and storage conditions are necessary in clinical urine proteomic investigations. Collection of urine with a single and consistently performed protocol is needed to reduce analytical bias. Collecting only one urine type, which is stored for a limited period at 4°C until freezing at -80°C prior to analysis will provide the most stable profiles. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Stability studies of amphetamine and ephedrine derivatives in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, C; de la Torre, R; Ventura, M; Segura, J; Ventura, R

    2006-10-20

    Knowledge of the stability of drugs in biological specimens is a critical consideration for the interpretation of analytical results. Identification of proper storage conditions has been a matter of concern for most toxicology laboratories (both clinical and forensic), and the stability of drugs of abuse has been extensively studied. This concern should be extended to other areas of analytical chemistry like antidoping control. In this work, the stability of ephedrine derivatives (ephedrine, norephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine), and amphetamine derivatives (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) in urine has been studied. Spiked urine samples were prepared for stability testing. Urine samples were quantified by GC/NPD or GC/MS. The homogeneity of each batch of sample was verified before starting the stability study. The stability of analytes was evaluated in sterilized and non-sterilized urine samples at different storage conditions. For long-term stability testing, analyte concentration in urine stored at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C was determined at different time intervals for 24 months for sterile urine samples, and for 6 months for non-sterile samples. For short-term stability testing, analyte concentration was evaluated in liquid urine stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing (at room temperature) was also studied in sterile urine for up to three cycles. No significant loss of the analytes under study was observed at any of the investigated conditions. These results show the feasibility of preparing reference materials containing ephedrine and amphetamine derivatives to be used for quality control purposes.

  9. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed by the software ATP) of the void fraction instrument (VFI). Acceptance testing of the VFI, control console, and decontamination spray assembly was conducted in the 306E building high bay and area adjacent to the facility. The VFI was tested in the horizontal position supported in multiple locations on rolling tables. The control console was located next to the VFI pneumatic control assembly. The VFI system was operated exactly as is expected in the tank farm, with the following exceptions: power was provided from a building outlet and the VFI was horizontal. The testing described in this document verifies that the mechanical and electrical features are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service

  11. How to perform the perfect voiding cystourethrogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawalla, Seema; Pearce, Rowena; Goodman, T.Robin

    2004-01-01

    The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) examination is a difficult investigation to perform and is a stressful experience for patients and their parents, as well as for the radiologists, technicians and paediatric radiology nurses involved in the examination. Despite the VCUG being one of the most commonly performed fluoroscopic procedures in paediatric radiology practice, there is no general consensus as to the best way to perform this investigation. This is particularly concerning when one considers the potentially high gonadal radiation dose children may receive. Because of this, we have undertaken a comprehensive literature review of various aspects of the test in order to determine the best way to perform the VCUG in modern paediatric radiology practice. (orig.)

  12. Dynamics of core voiding during boiloff experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.T.; Aksan, S.N.; Stierli, F.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1987-01-01

    A series of boiloff experiments were conducted at the EIR NEPTUN test facility with a bundle consisting of 37 PWR fuel rod simulators. The test section was filled with subcooled coolant and the power was turned on. After an initial heatup phase, coolant was expelled from the test section due to rapid vapor generation near the mid-plane where the power generation was highest. Gradual boiloff of the remaining water followed. It was found that the ''collapsed liquid level'' (CLL) and the rod temperature histories could be predicted well, provided the initial expulsion of the coolant was calculated correctly. The axial void fraction and enthalpy profiles calculated with TRAC-BD/MOD1 provided the information needed for understanding the importance of heat transfer to the coolant before the inception of vapor generation, and the sensitivity of the results to the interfacial friction correlation used

  13. Oral Fluid vs. Urine Analysis to Monitor Synthetic Cannabinoids and Classic Drugs Recent Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Vincent; Wetzel, Jillian; Kim, Jiyoung; Haxhi, Petrit; Curtis, Richard; Concheiro, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a common biological sample to monitor recent drug exposure, and oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. Limited data are available about oral fluid vs. urine drug disposition, especially for synthetic cannabinoids. To compare urine and oral fluid as biological matrices to monitor recent drug exposure among HIV-infected homeless individuals. Seventy matched urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 13 participants. Cannabis, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and opiates were analyzed in urine by the enzyme-multipliedimmunoassay- technique and in oral fluid by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Eleven synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed in urine and in oral fluid by LC-MSMS. Five oral fluid samples were positive for AB-FUBINACA. In urine, 4 samples tested positive for synthetic cannabinoids PB-22, 5-Fluoro-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and metabolites UR-144 5-pentanoic acid and UR-144 4-hydroxypentyl. In only one case, oral fluid and urine results matched, both specimens being AB-FUBINACA positive. For cannabis, 40 samples tested positive in urine and 30 in oral fluid (85.7% match). For cocaine, 37 urine and 52 oral fluid samples were positive (75.7% match). Twenty-four urine samples were positive for opiates, and 25 in oral fluid (81.4% match). For benzodiazepines, 23 samples were positive in urine and 25 in oral fluid (85.7% match). These results offer new information about drugs disposition between urine and oral fluid. Oral fluid is a good alternative matrix to urine for monitoring cannabis, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines recent use; however, synthetic cannabinoids showed mixed results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Prolonged Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Urine and Whole Blood in a Returned Short-term Traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G Khai Lin; Tio, Shio Yen; Caly, Leon; Nicholson, Suellen; Thevarajan, Irani; Papadakis, Georgina; Catton, Mike; Tong, Steven Y C; Druce, Julian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a fatal case of Japanese encephalitis virus infection following short-term travel to Thailand. Viral RNA was detected in urine and whole blood out to 26 and 28 days, respectively, after the onset of symptoms. Live virus was isolated from a urine specimen from day 14.

  15. Effect of metallurgical variables on void swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.G.; Lauritzen, T.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Turkalo, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of void swelling is reviewed briefly and the anticipated effects of metallurgical variables are described. Experimental results showing the effects of metallurgical variables are reviewed, most of the work being done by simulation methods employing charged particle bombardments to simulate reactor damage. Although the early emphasis was on structural variables such as grain size, cold work and precipitates to control swelling, it now seems that the practical reduction of swelling will be achieved by modifying alloy composition. Void swelling is strongly influenced by the relative amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni in an alloy; the amount of swelling can be varied by three orders of magnitude by changing the relative amounts of the three elements in an austenitic ternary alloy. The effect of composition on swelling of a simple ferritic alloy will also be described. The swelling of a simple austenitic alloy of Fe, Cr, and Ni can be reduced by certain minor element additions. The most effective swelling inhibitors are Si, Ti, Zr, and Nb, and combinations of Si and Ti are synergetic. Swelling reductions of two orders of magnitude have been achieved with combined additions. Predictions of swelling in commercial solid solution alloys are made on the basis of the present knowledge of the effects of major composition and minor element additions. The predictions agree with experimental results. For more complex commercial alloys, predictions are made for the effects on swelling of heat treatments that cause changes in matrix composition. In some cases, heat treatment is expected to change the peak swelling by more than a factor of ten, and to shift the peak swelling temperature by almost 100 0 C. Sensitivity of swelling to detailed matrix composition places emphasis on the need for developing understanding of the stability of structure and local composition in an irradiation environment

  16. [Examination about utility of a Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular antigen swiftness search kit urine in a pneumonia patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikita, Giichi; Yamaguti, Toshiyuki; Tachi, Yoshimi; Kishi, Etsuko; Kawamura, Toru; Takahashi, Shun; Arai, Yukie; Koyama, Sachie; Huruhata, Toshihumi; Itabashi, Akira; Oka, Yoko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Maesaki, Sigefumi

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the usefullness of Binax NOW urine antigen test, an immunochromatographic assay that binds any soluble Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen (C polysaccharide) for the diagnosis of penumoniae form September 2003 to March 2005. We used 372 samples form the patinets with pneumoniae diagnosed for blood or sputum cultuter or gram-stained sputum smear. Out of 24 culture positive specimens, Binax NOW urine antigen test, showed positive in 18 (75%) specimens. The sensitivity of sputum and blood culture was 71.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Binax NOW urine antigen test was seemed false positives in 55 samples, false negatives in 6 samples. The specificity of Binax NOW urine antigen test was evaluated 84.1%. Overall agreement among tests was 83.6%. When compared to culture, false negative urine antigen may be the result of colonizing S. pneumoniae in sputum or pneumonia caused by an agent other than S. pneumoniae. CRP values for cases were both urine antigen and culture were positive ranged from 40 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl while urine antigen and culture negative cases were predominantly less than 10 mg/dl. Positive blood and pleural fluid culture cases were consistently associated with strongly positive urine antigen tests. Non-agreement between urine antigen, culture, and microscopy may be the result of specimen quality, labile nature of S. pneumoniae and antimicrobial therapy.

  17. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  18. Influence of voids in the hybrid layer based on self-etching adhesive systems: a 3-D FE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Martini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of porosities at the dentin/adhesive interface has been observed with the use of new generation dentin bonding systems. These porosities tend to contradict the concept that etching and hybridization processes occur equally and simultaneously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the micromechanical behavior of the hybrid layer (HL with voids based on a self-etching adhesive system using 3-D finite element (FE analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three FE models (Mr were built: Mr, dentin specimen (41x41x82 μm with a regular and perfect (i.e. pore-free HL based on a self-etching adhesive system, restored with composite resin; Mp, similar to M, but containing 25% (v/v voids in the HL; Mpp, similar to Mr, but containing 50% (v/v voids in the HL. A tensile load (0.03N was applied on top of the composite resin. The stress field was obtained by using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The nodes of the base of the specimen were constrained in the x, y and z axes. The maximum principal stress (σmax was obtained for all structures at the dentin/adhesive interface. RESULTS: The Mpp showed the highest peak of σmax in the HL (32.2 MPa, followed by Mp (30 MPa and Mr (28.4 MPa. The stress concentration in the peritubular dentin was high in all models (120 MPa. All other structures positioned far from voids showed similar increase of stress. CONCLUSION: Voids incorporated into the HL raised the σmax in this region by 13.5%. This behavior might be responsible for lower bond strengths of self-etching and single-bottle adhesives, as reported in the literature.

  19. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  20. Three-dimensional simulations of void collapse in energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    The collapse of voids in porous energetic materials leads to hot-spot formation and reaction initiation. This work advances the current knowledge of the dynamics of void collapse and hot-spot formation using 3D reactive void collapse simulations in HMX. Four different void shapes, i.e., sphere, cylinder, plate, and ellipsoid, are studied. For all four shapes, collapse generates complex three-dimensional (3D) baroclinic vortical structures. The hot spots are collocated with regions of intense vorticity. The differences in the vortical structures for the different void shapes are shown to significantly impact the relative sensitivity of the voids. Voids of high surface area generate hot spots of greater intensity; intricate, highly contorted vortical structures lead to hot spots of corresponding tortuosity and therefore enhanced growth rates of reaction fronts. In addition, all 3D voids are shown to be more sensitive than their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. The results provide physical insights into hot-spot formation and growth and point to the limitations of 2D analyses of hot-spot formation.

  1. Void worths in subcritical cores cooled by lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne; Tucek, Kamil; Gudowski, Waclaw

    2001-01-01

    The introduction lead-bismuth coolant in accelerator driven transmutation systems (ADS) was: good neutron economy (higher source efficiency); natural circulation possible (decay heat removal); synergy with spallation target (simplified coolant management); high temperature of boiling (larger overpower margin); smaller void worths (operation at higher k-values). This paper deals with different aspects of the void worths in JAERI ADS

  2. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe

  3. A variational void coalescence model for ductile metals

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; Arciniega, Roman; El Sayed, Tamer

    2011-01-01

    We present a variational void coalescence model that includes all the essential ingredients of failure in ductile porous metals. The model is an extension of the variational void growth model by Weinberg et al. (Comput Mech 37:142-152, 2006

  4. Theory of void swelling, irradiation creep and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.H.; Bullough, R.; Hayns, M.R.

    Recent progress in our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved in swelling, creep and growth of materials subjected to irradiation is reviewed. The topics discussed are: the sink types and their strengths in the lossy continuum; swelling and void distribution analysis, including recent work on void nucleation; and, irradiation creep and growth of zirconium and zircaloy are taken as an example

  5. Alignment of galaxy spins in the vicinity of voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slosar, Anže; White, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We provide limits on the alignment of galaxy orientations with the direction to the void center for galaxies lying near the edges of voids. We locate spherical voids in volume limited samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the HB inspired void finder and investigate the orientation of (color selected) spiral galaxies that are nearly edge-on or face-on. In contrast with previous literature, we find no statistical evidence for departure from random orientations. Expressed in terms of the parameter c, introduced by Lee and Pen to describe the strength of such an alignment, we find that c0.11(0.13) at 95% (99.7%) confidence limit within a context of a toy model that assumes a perfectly spherical voids with sharp boundaries

  6. Stability of void lattices under irradiation: a kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Martin, G.

    1975-01-01

    Voids are imbedded in a homogeneous medium where point defects are uniformly created and annihilated. As shown by a perturbation calculation, the proportion of the defects which are lost on the cavities goes through a maximum, when the voids are arranged on a translation lattice. If a void is displaced from its lattice site, its growth rate becomes anisotropic and is larger in the direction of the vacant site. The relative efficiency of BCC versus FCC void lattices for the capture of point defects is shown to depend on the relaxation length of the point defects in the surrounding medium. It is shown that the rate of energy dissipation in the crystal under irradiation is maximum when the voids are ordered on the appropriate lattice

  7. Stability of void lattices under irradiation: a kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Martin, G.

    1975-01-01

    Voids are imbedded in a homogeneous medium where point defects are uniformly created and annihilated. As shown by a perturbation calculation, the proportion of the defects which are lost on the cavities goes through a maximum, when the voids are arranged on a translation lattice. If a void is displaced from its lattice site, its growth the rate becomes anisotropic and is larger in the direction of the vacant site. The relative efficiency of BCC versus FCC void lattices for the capture of point defects is shown to depend on the relaxation length of the point defects in the surrounding medium. It is shown that the rate of energy dissipation in the crystal under irradiation is maximum when the voids are ordered on the appropriate lattice [fr

  8. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, Masafumi

    The objective of this study is to explore the void formation mechanisms and to clarify the influence of the hardness and structural parameters (volume fraction, size and morphology) of martensite particles on the void formation and mechanical properties in dual phase steels composed of ferrite...... and (iii) strain localization. The critical strain for void formation depends on hardness of the martensite, but is independent of the volume fraction, shape, size and distribution of the martensite. The strain partitioning between the martensite and ferrite depends on the volume fraction and hardness...... of the martensite accelerates the void formation in the martensite by enlarging the size of voids both in the martensite and ferrite. It is suggested that controlling the hardness and structural parameters associated with the martensite particles such as morphology, size and volume fraction are the essential...

  9. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  10. Radionuclide voiding cystography in intrarenal reflux detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzoni, G.; Perale, R.; Bui, F.; Pitter, M.; Pavanello, L.; Boscolo, R.; Passerini Glazel, G.; Macri, C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of detecting intra-renal reflux (IRR) with a more sensitive procedure, 48 children with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent intravenous urography (IVU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCU) using a solution containing contrast medium and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid particles which are known to persist in the renal parenchyma for a long time. Scintigraphic images were taken at 5 and 20 hours after VCU. 18 children had no vesico-ureteral reflux, 11 showed unilateral and 19 bilateral VUR, which was therefore present in 49 renal units. Among the 49 renal refluxing units (RRUs) IRR was detected radiologically in 8; of these isotopic activity in the renal area was present in all 6 RRUs who were examined at 20 hours. Of the remaining 41 RRUs with no radiologically detectable IRR 24 were evaluated at 20 hours and 5 (21%) showed renal radioactivity. Renal scars were significantly more frequent in kidneys with radioisotopic activity at 20 hours. The results of this study indicate that radionuclide cystography using sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is a reliable procedure for demonstrating IRR, and to this end is more sensitive than X-ray VCU. Radionuclide cystography with sulfur colloid particles should therefore be considered a simple and useful complementary procedure, which is more sensitive than X-ray VCU in the diagnosis and follow-up of IRR

  11. Effect of a shear modified Gurson model on damage development in a FSW tensile specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2009-01-01

    For a friction stir welded aluminum plate the resistance to ductile failure is studied by analyzing tensile test specimens cut out across the weldline. As the stress triaxiality is rather low in these tests, the Gurson material model is not expected to give a very accurate description of the void......, such that the damage parameter does not really represent the void volume fraction. Various amounts of the additional damage evolution are compared with predictions of the original Gurson model. The analyses are carried out for different yield stress profiles transverse to the weld and for different specimen widths....... It is found that the modification does provide additional damage development in the friction stir weld, which may help to fit experimental data. But the suggested modification depends strongly on the overall stress state, and may have a too strong effect in some cases where the stress triaxiality is rather...

  12. Screen-film specimen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations

  13. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  14. Partial discharges within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illias, H A; Mokhlis, H; Tunio, M A; Chen, G; Bakar, A H A

    2013-01-01

    A void in a dielectric insulation material may exist due to imperfection in the insulation manufacturing or long term stressing. Voids have been identified as one of the common sources of partial discharge (PD) activity within an insulation system, such as in cable insulation and power transformers. Therefore, it is important to study PD phenomenon within void cavities in insulation. In this work, a model of PD activity within two spherical voids in a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed using finite element analysis software to study the parameters affecting PD behaviour. The parameters that have been taken into account are the void surface conductivity, electron generation rate and the inception and extinction fields. Measurements of PD activity within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin under ac sinusoidal applied voltage have also been performed. The simulation results have been compared with the measurement data to validate the model and to identify the parameters affecting PD behaviour. Comparison between measurements of PD activity within single and two voids in a dielectric material have also been made to observe the difference of the results under both conditions. (paper)

  15. The association of age of toilet training and dysfunctional voiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges SJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Steve J Hodges, Kyle A Richards, Ilya Gorbachinsky, L Spencer KraneDepartment of Urology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USAObjective: To determine whether age of toilet training is associated with dysfunctional voiding in children.Materials and methods: We compared patients referred to the urologic clinics for voiding dysfunction with age-matched controls without urinary complaints. Characteristics including age and reason for toilet training, method of training, and encopresis or constipation were compared between both groups.Results: Initiation of toilet training prior to 24 months and later than 36 months of age were associated with dysfunctional voiding. However, dysfunctional voiding due to late toilet training was also associated with constipation.Conclusion: Dysfunctional voiding may be due to delayed emptying of the bowel and bladder by children. The symptoms of dysfunctional voiding are more common when toilet training early, as immature children may be less likely to empty in a timely manner, or when training late due to (or in association with constipation.Keywords: voiding dysfunction, constipation

  16. A sharp interface model for void growth in irradiated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochrainer, Thomas; El-Azab, Anter

    2015-03-01

    A thermodynamic formalism for the interaction of point defects with free surfaces in single-component solids has been developed and applied to the problem of void growth by absorption of point defects in irradiated metals. This formalism consists of two parts, a detailed description of the dynamics of defects within the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame, and the application of the second law of thermodynamics to provide closure relations for all kinetic equations. Enforcing the principle of non-negative entropy production showed that the description of the problem of void evolution under irradiation must include a relationship between the normal fluxes of defects into the void surface and the driving thermodynamic forces for the void surface motion; these thermodynamic forces are identified for both vacancies and interstitials and the relationships between these forces and the normal point defect fluxes are established using the concepts of transition state theory. The latter theory implies that the defect accommodation into the surface is a thermally activated process. Numerical examples are given to illustrate void growth dynamics in this new formalism and to investigate the effect of the surface energy barriers on void growth. Consequences for phase field models of void growth are discussed.

  17. Local, zero-power void coefficient measurements in the ACPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, J B; Thome, F V [Sandia Laboratories (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Changes in reactivity may be stimulated in the ACPR by the local introduction of voids into the reactor coolant. The local void coefficients of reactivity which describe this effect are of interest from a reactor safety point-of-view, and their determination is the subject of this presentation. Bottled nitrogen gas was used to produce the voids. The gas was forced out of a small diameter tube which was positioned vertically in the core lattice with its open end below the fuel. The gas was passed through a pressure regulator, a valve, and a flowmeter to establish a steady flow condition, following which a delayed-critical (zero-power) reactor state was established. Correlation of the average volume of core void created by the nitrogen flow with the reactivity worth of the delayed-critical control-rod bank position produced the values of the zero-power void coefficients of reactivity. The void coefficients were determined at various core positions from {approx}6 mm to 142 mm beyond the central irradiation space and for three different flow rates. For the range of void fractions investigated, these coefficients are negative, with values ranging between -$0.02 and -$0.12. Tabular and graphical results of the measurements are presented, and details of the coefficient determination are explained. (author)

  18. On nonlinear excitation of voids in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebbat, E.; Annou, R.; Bharuthram, R.

    2007-01-01

    The void, which is a dust-free region inside the dust cloud in the plasma, results from a balance of the electrostatic force and the ion-drag force on a dust particulate that has numerous forms, some of which are based on models whereas others are driven from first principles. To explain the generation of voids, K. Avinash, A. Bhattacharjee, and S. Hu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075001 (2003)] proposed a time-dependent nonlinear model that describes the void as a result of an instability. We augment this model by incorporating the grain drift and reintroducing the velocity convective term as well as by replacing the modeled ion-drag force by a more accurate one. The analysis is conducted in a spherical configuration. It is revealed that the void formation is a threshold phenomenon, i.e., it depends on the grain size. Furthermore, the void possesses a sharp boundary beyond which the dust density decreases and may present a corrugated aspect. For big size grains, the use of both ion-drag forces leads to voids of the same dimension, though for grains of small sizes, the Avinash force drives voids of a higher dimension. The model shows good agreement with the experiment

  19. Void nucleation at elevated temperatures under cascade-damage irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A.A.; Woo, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects on void nucleation of fluctuations respectively due to the randomness of point-defect migratory jumps, the random generation of free point defects in discrete packages, and the fluctuating rate of vacancy emission from voids are considered. It was found that effects of the cascade-induced fluctuations are significant only at sufficiently high total sink strength. At lower sink strengths and elevated temperatures, the fluctuation in the rate of vacancy emission is the dominant factor. Application of the present theory to the void nucleation in annealed pure copper neutron-irradiated at elevated temperatures with doses of 10 -4 -10 -2 NRT dpa showed reasonable agreement between theory and experiment. This application also predicts correctly the temporal development of large-scale spatial heterogeneous microstructure during the void nucleation stage. Comparison between calculated and experimental void nucleation rates in neutron-irradiated molybdenum at temperatures where vacancy emission from voids is negligible showed reasonable agreement as well. It was clearly demonstrated that the athermal shrinkage of relatively large voids experimentally observable in molybdenum at such temperatures may be easily explained in the framework of the present theory

  20. Local, zero-power void coefficient measurements in the ACPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, J.B.; Thome, F.V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in reactivity may be stimulated in the ACPR by the local introduction of voids into the reactor coolant. The local void coefficients of reactivity which describe this effect are of interest from a reactor safety point-of-view, and their determination is the subject of this presentation. Bottled nitrogen gas was used to produce the voids. The gas was forced out of a small diameter tube which was positioned vertically in the core lattice with its open end below the fuel. The gas was passed through a pressure regulator, a valve, and a flowmeter to establish a steady flow condition, following which a delayed-critical (zero-power) reactor state was established. Correlation of the average volume of core void created by the nitrogen flow with the reactivity worth of the delayed-critical control-rod bank position produced the values of the zero-power void coefficients of reactivity. The void coefficients were determined at various core positions from ∼6 mm to 142 mm beyond the central irradiation space and for three different flow rates. For the range of void fractions investigated, these coefficients are negative, with values ranging between -$0.02 and -$0.12. Tabular and graphical results of the measurements are presented, and details of the coefficient determination are explained. (author)

  1. 49 CFR 40.71 - How does the collector prepare the specimens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this requirement: you may use excess urine to conduct clinical tests (e.g., protein, glucose) if the... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the collector prepare the specimens? 40.71 Section 40.71 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the transfer of the blood tubes on the second line of STEP 5 (the chain of custody block). E. Collect... (the chain of custody block). F. Seal the Individual Employee Kit a. The blood and urine specimens have... railroad representatives handling the box shall document chain of custody of the shipping box and shall...

  3. Magnetic resonance voiding cystography in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux: comparative study with voiding cystourethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Young Hwan; Woo, Seongku

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance voiding cystography (MRVC) compared with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) for detecting and grading vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). MRVC was performed upon 20 children referred for investigation of reflux. Either coronal T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) or gradient-echo (GE) (fast multiplanar spoiled gradient-echo (FMPSPGR) or turbo fast low-angle-shot (FLASH)) images were obtained before and after transurethral administration of gadolinium solution, and immediately after voiding. The findings of MRVC were compared with those of VCUG and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed within 6 months of MRVC. VUR was detected in 23 ureterorenal units (16 VURs by both methods, 5 VURs by VCUG, and 2 VURs by MRVC). With VCUG as the standard of reference, the sensitivity of MRVC was 76.2%; the specificity, 90.0%; the positive predictive value, 88.9%; and the negative predictive value, 78.3%. There was concordance between two methods regarding the grade of reflux in all 16 ureterorenal units with VUR detected by both methods. Of 40 kidneys, MRVC detected findings of renal damage or reflux nephropathy in 13 kidneys, and (99m)Tc DMSA renal SPECT detected findings of reflux nephropathy in 17 kidneys. Although MRVC is shown to have less sensitivity for VUR than VCUG, MRVC may represent a method of choice offering a safer nonradiation test that can additionally evaluate the kidneys for changes related to reflux nephropathy. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in urine. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsters, A; Micalessi, I; Bilcke, J; Ieven, M; Bogers, J; Van Damme, P

    2012-05-01

    The detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine, a specimen easily obtained by a non-invasive self-sampling method, has been the subject of a considerable number of studies. This review provides an overview of 41 published studies; assesses how different methods and settings may contribute to the sometimes contradictory outcomes; and discusses the potential relevance of using urine samples in vaccine trials, disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and specific settings of cervical cancer screening. Urine sampling, storage conditions, sample preparation, DNA extraction, and DNA amplification may all have an important impact on HPV DNA detection and the form of viral DNA that is detected. Possible trends in HPV DNA prevalence in urine could be inferred from the presence of risk factors or the diagnosis of cervical lesions. HPV DNA detection in urine is feasible and may become a useful tool but necessitates further improvement and standardization.

  5. A void fraction model for annular two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, T.N.; Gupta, C.P.; Varma, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed for predicting void fraction in two-phase annular flow. In the analysis, the Lockhart-Martinelli method has been used to calculate two-phase frictional pressure drop and von Karman's universal velocity profile is used to represent the velocity distribution in the annular liquid film. Void fractions predicted by the proposed model are generally in good agreement with a available experimental data. This model appears to be as good as Smith's correlation and better than the Wallis and Zivi correlations for computing void fraction.

  6. Radiation-induced void swelling in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, V.F.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Ozhigov, L.S.; Reznichenko, Eh.A.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Chernyaeva, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Main regularities in the development of radiation-induced void swelling are considered. Special attention is paid to consideration of a possibility to obtain information on material behaviour under conditions of reactor irradiation proceeding from the data of simulation experiments and to methods of rate control, for the processes which occur in material during irradiation and further annealing by the way of rationalized alloying, of thermomechanical treatment and programmed change of irradiation conditions under operation. Problems of initiation and growth of voids in irradiated materials are discussed as well as the ways to decrease the rate of radiation-induced void swelling

  7. Numerical simulation of void growth under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.

    1996-01-01

    Following a brief general review of developments in material behavior under high strain rates, a cylindrical cell surrounding a spherical void in OFHC copper is numerically simulated by Zerri-Armstrong model. This simulation results show that the plastic deformation tends to be concentrated in the vicinity of voids either in the axial or transverse direction depending upon the stress state. This event is associated with the accelerated void through accompanying coalescence causing ductile fracture. A3-node triangular mesh generation code used as input for finite element code is developed by a 'Central Generation' technique. (author)

  8. Local void and slip model used in BODYFIT-2PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    A local void and slip model has been proposed for a two-phase flow without the need of fitting any empirical parameters. This model is based on the assumption that all bubbles have reached their terminal rise velocities in the two-phase region. This simple model seems to provide reasonable calculational results when compared with the experimental data and other void and slip models. It provides a means to account for the void and slip of a two-phase flow on a local basis. This is particularly suitable for a fine mesh thermal-hydraulic computer program such as BODYFIT-2PE

  9. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Void consolidation during open-die forging for ultralarge rotor shafts. (1. Formulation of void-closing behavior)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shin-ichi; Minami, Katsuyuki; Ochiai, Tomoyuki; Iwadate, Tadao; Nakata, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Open-die forging experiments using different die geometries under hot isothermal conditions and three-dimensional simulations using rigid-plastic finite-element method were performed to formulate a void-closing behavior using only two factors; the integral of hydrostatic stress and the equivalent strain. First, upsetting, side-upsetting and V-shape die cogging of several cylinders with a spherical void at the center are carried out and the information on the void volume reduction is obtained. Seconds, the same forgings, but without voids is treated numerically and the development of stress and strain at the location of voids is investigated. Then, by combining these results, and using regression analysis, it is found that the void volume reduction is expressed as a polynomial function of the two factors. When the polynomial function is used, various forging methods can be evaluated quantitatively in terms of void-closing behavior. Therefore it is beneficial to optimize the forging process for a large rotor shaft. (author)

  11. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... blood pressure, and epinephrine increases heart rate and metabolism . After completing their actions, catecholamines are metabolized to ...

  12. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Y.; Monge, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R.

    2009-01-01

    Positron annihilation experiments were performed on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and non-ODS EUROFER prepared by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The results revealed the presence of small voids in these materials in the as-HIPed conditions. Their evolution under isochronal annealing experiments was investigated. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectra of ODS EUROFER exhibited a characteristic signature attributed to positron annihilation in Ar-decorated voids at the oxide particle/matrix interfaces. The variation of the positron annihilation parameters with the annealing temperature showed three stages: up to 623 K, between 823 and 1323 K, and above 1323 K. In the temperature range 823-1323 K void coarsening had effect. Above 1323 K some voids annealed out, but others, associated to oxide particles and small precipitates, survived to annealing at 1523 K. Transmission electron microscopy observations were also performed to verify the characteristics of the surviving defects after annealing at 1523 K.

  13. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)], E-mail: yanicet@fis.ucm.es; Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Castro, V. de [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    Positron annihilation experiments were performed on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and non-ODS EUROFER prepared by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The results revealed the presence of small voids in these materials in the as-HIPed conditions. Their evolution under isochronal annealing experiments was investigated. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectra of ODS EUROFER exhibited a characteristic signature attributed to positron annihilation in Ar-decorated voids at the oxide particle/matrix interfaces. The variation of the positron annihilation parameters with the annealing temperature showed three stages: up to 623 K, between 823 and 1323 K, and above 1323 K. In the temperature range 823-1323 K void coarsening had effect. Above 1323 K some voids annealed out, but others, associated to oxide particles and small precipitates, survived to annealing at 1523 K. Transmission electron microscopy observations were also performed to verify the characteristics of the surviving defects after annealing at 1523 K.

  14. Comment on theories for helium-assisted void nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.C.

    1976-01-01

    Voids form by agglomeration of irradiation-induced vacancies which remain after preferential absorption of self interstitials at dislocation lines. Helium which is formed by (n,α) transmutations and, in simulation studies, may be ion-implanted, often plays an important, but puzzling role. In some materials, very few voids form in the absence of helium, even after intense irradiation. In many other materials , voids form readily under a variety of irradiation conditions, even in the absence of helium. Why some materials require helium - typically in the 10 -6 apa (atom per atom) range - and others do not, and the reason for that particular level are by no means clear. The physics of void nucleation, particularly the role of helium, have been the subject of several theoretical papers. This note presents a critique of these theories, and then briefly outlines a new analysis which is not subject to their limitations. (Auth.)

  15. A variational void coalescence model for ductile metals

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2011-08-17

    We present a variational void coalescence model that includes all the essential ingredients of failure in ductile porous metals. The model is an extension of the variational void growth model by Weinberg et al. (Comput Mech 37:142-152, 2006). The extended model contains all the deformation phases in ductile porous materials, i.e. elastic deformation, plastic deformation including deviatoric and volumetric (void growth) plasticity followed by damage initiation and evolution due to void coalescence. Parametric studies have been performed to assess the model\\'s dependence on the different input parameters. The model is then validated against uniaxial loading experiments for different materials. We finally show the model\\'s ability to predict the damage mechanisms and fracture surface profile of a notched round bar under tension as observed in experiments. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  16. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  17. Estimation of creatinine in Urine sample by Jaffe's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Arunkumar, Suja; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    In-vitro bioassay monitoring is based on the determination of activity concentrations in biological samples excreted from the body and is most suitable for alpha and beta emitters. A truly representative bioassay sample is the one having all the voids collected during a 24-h period however, this being technically difficult, overnight urine samples collected by the workers are analyzed. These overnight urine samples are collected for 10-16 h, however in the absence of any specific information, 12 h duration is assumed and the observed results are then corrected accordingly obtain the daily excretion rate. To reduce the uncertainty due to unknown duration of sample collection, IAEA has recommended two methods viz., measurement of specific gravity and creatinine excretion rate in urine sample. Creatinine is a final metabolic product creatinine phosphate in the body and is excreted at a steady rate for people with normally functioning kidneys. It is, therefore, often used as a normalization factor for estimation of duration of sample collection. The present study reports the chemical procedure standardized and its application for the estimation of creatinine in urine samples collected from occupational workers. Chemical procedure for estimation of creatinine in bioassay samples was standardized and applied successfully for its estimation in bioassay samples collected from the workers. The creatinine excretion rate observed for these workers is lower than observed in literature. Further, work is in progress to generate a data bank of creatinine excretion rate for most of the workers and also to study the variability in creatinine coefficient for the same individual based on the analysis of samples collected for different duration

  18. (100) faceted anion voids in electron irradiated fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1979-01-01

    High fluence electron irradiation of fluorite crystals in the temperature range 150 to 320 K results in formation of a simple cubic anion void superlattice. Above 320 K the damage structure changes to a random distribution of large [001] faceted anion voids. This voidage behaviour, similar to that observed in a range of irradiated metals, is discussed in terms points defect rather than conventional colour centre terminology. (Auth.)

  19. Uroflowmetry in neurologically normal children with voiding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Nielsen, K.K.; Kristensen, E S

    1985-01-01

    of neurological deficits underwent a complete diagnostic program including intravenous urography, voiding cystography and cystoscopy as well as spontaneous uroflowmetry, cystometry-emg and pressure-flow-emg study. The incidence of dyssynergia was 22%. However, neither the flow curve pattern nor single flow...... variables were able to identify children with dyssynergia. Consequently uroflowmetry seems inefficient in the screening for dyssynergia in neurological normal children with voiding disorders in the absence of anatomical bladder outlet obstruction....

  20. The Cutoff Level for Urine Protein in Urine Immunofixation Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Curek, Gulten; Eren, Esin; Aydin, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Necat

    2015-01-01

    Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) maintains its importance in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathies. In particular, urine IFE detects free light chains (FLC) in urine samples even at low concentrations and offers higher sensitivity compared to serum electrophoresis and serum IFE. The aim of the present study was to determine the place and significance of quantitative urinary protein measurement before IFE in interpreting the results of subsequent IFE and to determine the most appropriate protein concentrations for the appearance of bands. The records of a total of 600 patients, who underwent screening for Bence Jones proteinuria using IFE on 24-hour urine, were retrospectively reviewed. Urine IFE was performed using Helena SAS-I and SAS-I devices. The total protein concentration in the urine was quantitatively determined by the Pyrogallol red method, and the urine albumin level was determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. These analyses were measured on an Olympus/Beckmann AU5800. The evaluation of IFE results revealed that 311 patients had normal results, 108 patients had monoclonal bands, five patients had biclonal bands, 28 had polyclonal bands, and 148 patients had various degrees of proteinuria. ROC curves were created in order to determine the most appropriate urinary protein and albumin levels to observe bands in IFE. Accordingly, urine baseline protein level (mg/dL) showed the highest AUC value (cutoff value: 19.4 mg/dL, sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 98.2%, AUC: 0.972). The present study showed that quantitative protein measurement before IFE eliminated the disadvantages associated with the IFE method and its interpretation.

  1. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  2. Effect of Dark Energy Perturbation on Cosmic Voids Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takao; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present the effects of dark energy perturbation on the formation and abundance of cosmic voids. We consider dark energy to be a fluid with a negative pressure characterised by a constant equation of state w and speed of sound c_s^2. By solving fluid equations for two components, namely, dark matter and dark energy fluids, we quantify the effects of dark energy perturbation on the sizes of top-hat voids. We also explore the effects on the size distribution of voids based on the excursion set theory. We confirm that dark energy perturbation negligibly affects the size evolution of voids; c_s^2=0 varies the size only by 0.1% as compared to the homogeneous dark energy model. We also confirm that dark energy perturbation suppresses the void size when w -1 (Basse et al. 2011). In contrast to the negligible impact on the size, we find that the size distribution function on scales larger than 10 Mpc/h highly depends on dark energy perturbation; compared to the homogeneous dark energy model, the number of large voids of radius 30Mpc is 25% larger for the model with w = -0.9 and c_s^2=0 while they are 20% less abundant for the model with w = -1.3 and c_s^2=0.

  3. Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test

  4. Influence of the void fraction in the linear reactivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, J.A.; Ramirez, J.R.; Alonso, G.

    2003-01-01

    The linear reactivity model allows the multicycle analysis in pressurized water reactors in a simple and quick way. In the case of the Boiling water reactors the void fraction it varies axially from 0% of voids in the inferior part of the fuel assemblies until approximately 70% of voids to the exit of the same ones. Due to this it is very important the determination of the average void fraction during different stages of the reactor operation to predict the burnt one appropriately of the same ones to inclination of the pattern of linear reactivity. In this work a pursuit is made of the profile of power for different steps of burnt of a typical operation cycle of a Boiling water reactor. Starting from these profiles it builds an algorithm that allows to determine the voids profile and this way to obtain the average value of the same one. The results are compared against those reported by the CM-PRESTO code that uses another method to carry out this calculation. Finally, the range in which is the average value of the void fraction during a typical cycle is determined and an estimate of the impact that it would have the use of this value in the prediction of the reactivity produced by the fuel assemblies is made. (Author)

  5. Importance of sample preparation for molecular diagnosis of lyme borreliosis from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, A R; Schmidt, B L; Derler, A-M; Aberer, E

    2002-12-01

    Urine PCR has been used for the diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in recent years but has been abandoned because of its low sensitivity and the irreproducibility of the results. Our study aimed to analyze technical details related to sample preparation and detection methods. Crucial for a successful urine PCR were (i) avoidance of the first morning urine sample; (ii) centrifugation at 36,000 x g; and (iii) the extraction method, with only DNAzol of the seven different extraction methods used yielding positive results with patient urine specimens. Furthermore, storage of frozen urine samples at -80 degrees C reduced the sensitivity of a positive urine PCR result obtained with samples from 72 untreated erythema migrans (EM) patients from 85% in the first 3 months to samples was proven by hybridization with a GEN-ETI-K-DEIA kit and for a 10 further positive amplicons by sequencing. By using all of these steps to optimize the urine PCR technique, B. burgdorferi infection could be diagnosed by using urine samples from EM patients with a sensitivity (85%) substantially better than that of serological methods (50%). This improved method could be of future importance as an additional laboratory technique for the diagnosis of unclear, unrecognized borrelia infections and diseases possibly related to Lyme borreliosis.

  6. The void nucleation mechanism within lead phase during spallation of leaded brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Can; Chen, Xingzhi; Chen, Kaiguo; Hu, Haibo; Fu, Yanan

    2018-07-01

    The incipient spall behaviours of Cu-34%Zn-3%Pb leaded brass samples with annealed and cryogenic-treated conditions were loaded using one-stage light gas gun experiments. The effect of Pb-phase on dynamic damage nucleation in leaded brass specimens was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray computer tomography. It was found that the voids of incipient spall were mainly nucleated in the interior of the lead (no tensile stress would be produced within lead according to the impact theory) instead of nucleated at the phase interface as expected by quasi-static damage fracture theory. A nucleation model is proposed in the present work that is the asymmetry high compression zones in the centre of the lead-phase were formed by the rarefaction wave convergence effects of matrix/quasi-spherical lead interface, which caused adiabatic temperature rise that exceeded melting point of lead due to severe plastic deformation, finally led to local melting and void nucleation. In addition, the spall strength and damage rate increased with the increase in the Pb-phase number.

  7. Void-assisted grain boundary migration in ion-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, W.V.

    1983-01-01

    A number of austenitic stainless steels (15 wt% Cr-15 wt% Ni) were irradiated in the solution-annealed condition with 46 MeV Nisup(6+)-ions to a dose-level of 64 dpa at 848 K. Though the microstructure was initially well-equilibrated, under irradiation a general interface migration was observed, the most pronounced being at grain boundaries followed by that at incoherent and even at coherent twins. Changes at the migrating interfaces, features of the migration and variations in the near grain boundary voidage are described. After considering various possibilities which might have caused the migration, it is shown that the observed migration was void-assisted. This has led to the conclusion that voids by nature do not constitute an obstacle for the migrating interface but on the contrary, they offer driving force. Therefore, migration becomes feasible even in the solution-annealed specimens in which inherently there should be a least tendency for such a migration. (orig.)

  8. Void-assisted grain boundary migration in ion-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, W.V.

    1983-01-01

    A number of austenitic stainless steels (15 wt% Cr-15 wt% Ni) were irradiated in the solution-annealed condition with 46 MeV Ni 6+ -ions to a dose-level of 64 dpa at 848 K. Though the microstructure was initially well-equilibrated, under irradiation a general interface migration was observed, the most pronounced being at grain boundaries followed by that at incoherent and even at coherent twins. Changes at the migrating interfaces, features of the migration and variations in the near grain boundary voidage are described. After considering various possibilities which might have caused the migration, it is shown that the observed migration was void-assisted. This has led to the conclusion that voids by nature do not constitute an obstacle for the migrating interface but on the contrary, they offer driving force. Therefore, migration becomes feasible even in the solution-annealed specimens in which inherently there should be a least tendency for such a migration. (orig.)

  9. Urinary tract infection after voiding cystourethrogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Malhotra, N R; Shannon, R; Jacobson, D L; Green, J; Rigsby, C K; Holl, J L; Cheng, E Y

    2017-08-01

    Reported rates of post-procedural urinary tract infection (ppUTI) after voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) are highly variable (0-42%). This study aimed to determine the risk of ppUTI after cystogram, and evaluate predictors of ppUTI. A retrospective cohort study of children undergoing VCUG or radionuclide cystogram (henceforth 'cystogram') was conducted. Children with neurogenic bladder who underwent cystogram in the operating room and without follow-up at the study institution were excluded. Incidence of symptomatic ppUTI within 7 days after cystogram was recorded. Predictors of ppUTI were evaluated using univariate statistics. A total of 1108 children (54% female, median age 1.1 years) underwent 1203 cystograms: 51% were on periprocedural antibiotics, 75% had a pre-existing urologic diagnosis (i.e., vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) or hydronephrosis; not UTI alone), and 18% had a clinical UTI within 30 days before cystogram. Of the cystograms, 41% had an abnormal cystogram and findings included VUR (82%), ureterocele (6%), and diverticula (6%). Twelve children had a ppUTI (1.0%; four girls, five uncircumcised boys, three circumcised boys; median age 0.9 years). Factors significantly associated with diagnosis of a ppUTI (Summary fig.) included: pre-existing urologic diagnosis prior to cystogram (12/12, 100% of patients with ppUTI), abnormal cystogram results (11/12, 92%), and use of periprocedural antibiotics (11/12, 92%). All 11 children with an abnormal cystogram had VUR ≥ Grade III. However, among all children with VUR ≥ Grade III, 4% (11/254) had a ppUTI. This is the largest study to date that has examined incidence and risk factors for ppUTI after cystogram. The retrospective nature of the study limited capture of some clinical details. This study demonstrated that the risk of ppUTI after a cystogram is very low (1.0% in this cohort). Having a pre-existing urologic diagnosis such as VUR or hydronephrosis was associated with ppUTI; therefore, children with

  10. Reliability Impact of Stockpile Aging: Stress Voiding; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROBINSON, DAVID G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to statistically characterize the aging of integrated circuit interconnects. This report supersedes the stress void aging characterization presented in SAND99-0975, ''Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging,'' by the same author. The physics of the stress voiding, before and after wafer processing have been recently characterized by F. G. Yost in SAND99-0601, ''Stress Voiding during Wafer Processing''. The current effort extends this research to account for uncertainties in grain size, storage temperature, void spacing and initial residual stress and their impact on interconnect failure after wafer processing. The sensitivity of the life estimates to these uncertainties is also investigated. Various methods for characterizing the probability of failure of a conductor line were investigated including: Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), quasi-Monte Carlo sampling (qMC), as well as various analytical methods such as the advanced mean value (Ah/IV) method. The comparison was aided by the use of the Cassandra uncertainty analysis library. It was found that the only viable uncertainty analysis methods were those based on either LHS or quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. Analytical methods such as AMV could not be applied due to the nature of the stress voiding problem. The qMC method was chosen since it provided smaller estimation error for a given number of samples. The preliminary results indicate that the reliability of integrated circuits due to stress voiding is very sensitive to the underlying uncertainties associated with grain size and void spacing. In particular, accurate characterization of IC reliability depends heavily on not only the frost and second moments of the uncertainty distribution, but more specifically the unique form of the underlying distribution

  11. Breaking the vicious circle: Onabotulinum toxin A in children with therapy-refractory dysfunctional voiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. 't Hoen (Lisette); J. van den Hoek (Joop); K.P. Wolffenbuttel (Katja); F. van der Toorn; J.R. Scheepe (Jeroen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction An increased activity of the external urethral sphincter or pelvic floor muscles during voluntary voiding leads to dysfunctional voiding. Frequently reported symptoms are urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections and high post-void residuals. Dysfunctional voiding is a

  12. Automated air-void system characterization of hardened concrete: Helping computers to count air-voids like people count air-voids---Methods for flatbed scanner calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karl

    Since the discovery in the late 1930s that air entrainment can improve the durability of concrete, it has been important for people to know the quantity, spacial distribution, and size distribution of the air-voids in their concrete mixes in order to ensure a durable final product. The task of air-void system characterization has fallen on the microscopist, who, according to a standard test method laid forth by the American Society of Testing and Materials, must meticulously count or measure about a thousand air-voids per sample as exposed on a cut and polished cross-section of concrete. The equipment used to perform this task has traditionally included a stereomicroscope, a mechanical stage, and a tally counter. Over the past 30 years, with the availability of computers and digital imaging, automated methods have been introduced to perform the same task, but using the same basic equipment. The method described here replaces the microscope and mechanical stage with an ordinary flatbed desktop scanner, and replaces the microscopist and tally counter with a personal computer; two pieces of equipment much more readily available than a microscope with a mechanical stage, and certainly easier to find than a person willing to sit for extended periods of time counting air-voids. Most laboratories that perform air-void system characterization typically have cabinets full of prepared samples with corresponding results from manual operators. Proponents of automated methods often take advantage of this fact by analyzing the same samples and comparing the results. A similar iterative approach is described here where scanned images collected from a significant number of samples are analyzed, the results compared to those of the manual operator, and the settings optimized to best approximate the results of the manual operator. The results of this calibration procedure are compared to an alternative calibration procedure based on the more rigorous digital image accuracy

  13. New Markers: Urine Xanthine Oxidase and Myeloperoxidase in the Early Detection of Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Ciragil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate if xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase levels quantitation method may alternate routine culture method, which takes more time in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Material and Methods. Five hundred and forty-nine outpatients who had admitted to Clinic Microbiology Laboratory were included in the study. The microorganisms were identified by using VITEK System. The urine specimens that were negative from the quantitative urine culture were used as controls. The activities of MPO and XO in spot urine were measured by spectrophotometric method. Results. Through the urine cultures, 167 bacteria were isolated from 163 urine specimens; 386 cultures yielded no bacterial growth. E. coli was the most frequent pathogen. In infection with E. coli both XO and MPO levels were increased the most. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for XO were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. These values for MPO were 87%, 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusion. These data obtained suggest that urine XO and MPO levels may be new markers in the early detection of UTI.

  14. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  15. Kvaliteten af resistensbestemmelser på urin i almen praksis er generelt god

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Per; Knudsen, Anette Flindt; Højbjerg, Tove

    2012-01-01

    a program for quality assessment. National quality requirements for susceptibility examinations have already been established. The clinical microbiological departments send simulated urines with bacteria of common UTI strains. The specimens are examined in general practice with routine methods. The results...... for a two-year period of susceptibility examinations are reported. Generally, the quality criteria were met....

  16. Choice of urine collection methods for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in young, febrile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Alan R; Newman, Thomas B; Wasserman, Richard C; Finch, Stacia A; Pantell, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    The optimal method of urine collection in febrile infants is debatable; catheterization, considered more accurate, is technically difficult and invasive. To determine predictors of urethral catheterization in febrile infants and to compare bag and catheterized urine test performance characteristics. Prospective analysis of infants enrolled in the Pediatric Research in Office Settings' Febrile Infant Study. A total of 219 practices from within the Pediatric Research in Office Settings' network, including 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. A total of 3066 infants aged 0 to 3 months with temperatures of 38 degrees C or higher. We calculated adjusted odds ratios for predictors of catheterization. Diagnostic test characteristics were compared between bag and catheterization. Urinary tract infection was defined as pure growth of 100 000 CFU/mL or more (bag) and 20 000 CFU/mL or more (catheterization). Seventy percent of urine samples were obtained by catheterization. Predictors of catheterization included female sex, practitioner older than 40 years, Medicaid, Hispanic ethnicity, nighttime evaluation, and severe dehydration. For leukocyte esterase levels, bag specimens demonstrated no difference in sensitivity but somewhat lower specificity (84% [bag] vs 94% [catheterization], PInfection rates were similar in bag and catheterized specimens (8.5% vs 10.8%). Ambiguous cultures were more common in bag specimens (7.4% vs 2.7%, Purinary tract infection. Although both urine cultures and urinalyses are more accurate in catheterized specimens, the magnitude of difference is small but should be factored into clinical decision making.

  17. ON THE STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF VOID GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Moreno, Jackeline; White, Amanda; Vogeley, Michael S. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hoyle, Fiona [Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Ecuador, 12 de Octubre 1076 y Roca, Quito (Ecuador); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P., E-mail: crystal.m.moorman@drexel.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We measure the star formation properties of two large samples of galaxies from the SDSS in large-scale cosmic voids on timescales of 10 and 100 Myr, using H α emission line strengths and GALEX FUV fluxes, respectively. The first sample consists of 109,818 optically selected galaxies. We find that void galaxies in this sample have higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs; star formation rates per unit stellar mass) than similar stellar mass galaxies in denser regions. The second sample is a subset of the optically selected sample containing 8070 galaxies with reliable H i detections from ALFALFA. For the full H i detected sample, SSFRs do not vary systematically with large-scale environment. However, investigating only the H i detected dwarf galaxies reveals a trend toward higher SSFRs in voids. Furthermore, we estimate the star formation rate per unit H i mass (known as the star formation efficiency; SFE) of a galaxy, as a function of environment. For the overall H i detected population, we notice no environmental dependence. Limiting the sample to dwarf galaxies still does not reveal a statistically significant difference between SFEs in voids versus walls. These results suggest that void environments, on average, provide a nurturing environment for dwarf galaxy evolution allowing for higher specific star formation rates while forming stars with similar efficiencies to those in walls.

  18. Electromigration of intergranular voids in metal films for microelectronic interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, A; Ravve, I

    2003-01-01

    Voids and cracks often occur in the interconnect lines of microelectronic devices. They increase the resistance of the circuits and may even lead to a fatal failure. Voids may occur inside a single grain, but often they appear on the boundary between two grains. In this work, we model and analyze numerically the migration and evolution of an intergranular void subjected to surface diffusion forces and external voltage applied to the interconnect. The grain-void interface is considered one-dimensional, and the physical formulation of the electromigration and diffusion model results in two coupled fourth-order one-dimensional time-dependent PDEs. The boundary conditions are specified at the triple points, which are common to both neighboring grains and the void. The solution of these equations uses a finite difference scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme in time, and is also coupled to the solution of a static Laplace equation describing the voltage distribution throughout the grain. Since the v...

  19. How institutional voids influence Brazilian foreign direct investment in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Virches

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available How do institutional voids influence emerging market multinationals (EMNEs foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries? In this article we respond to this question by examining Brazilian FDI in Angola as our analytical setting. We focus on the host country’s institutions and its institutional voids as essential factors that attract the FDI of EMNES to developing countries. The research indicates that Brazilian companies fill in much of these voids within the market intermediaries, often creating a point of competitive advantage, and also creating advantages in relation to FDI from other economies that invest in Angola. The scarce literature on FDI in Africa has been largely dedicated to the analysis of Chinese investment in the region. We aim to complement recent research on the influence of the host country’s institutions on the behavior of FDI in developing countries, explaining how some EMNEs are able to use the institutional voids of developing countries as market opportunities. Our findings should provide also implications for EMNEs managers from other emerging markets by providing a better understanding of how Brazilian multinationals expand their business in less developed countries, handle institutional voids and manage relationships with local and foreign institutions in the host country.

  20. Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables

  1. Effect of voids-controlled vacancy supersaturations on B diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelot, O.; Claverie, A.; Cristiano, F.; Cayrel, F.; Alquier, D.; Lerch, W.; Paul, S.; Rubin, L.; Jaouen, H.; Armand, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present here preliminary results on boron diffusion in presence of pre-formed voids of different characteristics. The voids were fabricated by helium implantation followed by annealing allowing the desorption of He prior to boron implantation. We show that under such conditions boron diffusion is always largely reduced and can even be suppressed in some cases. Boron diffusion suppression can be observed in samples not containing nanovoids in the boron-rich region. It is suggested that direct trapping of Si(int)s by the voids is not the mechanism responsible for the reduction of boron diffusion in such layers. Alternatively, our experimental results suggest that this reduction of diffusivity is more probably due to the competition between two Ostwald ripening phenomena taking place at the same time: in the boron-rich region, the competitive growth of extrinsic defects at the origin of TED and, in the void region, the Ostwald ripening of the voids which involves large supersaturations of Vs

  2. Effect of voids-controlled vacancy supersaturations on B diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelot, O. [CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: marcelot@cemes.fr; Claverie, A. [CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Cristiano, F. [LAAS/CNRS, 7 av. du Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); Cayrel, F. [LMP, Universite de Tours, 16 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 7155, 37071 Tours (France); Alquier, D. [LMP, Universite de Tours, 16 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 7155, 37071 Tours (France); Lerch, W. [Mattson Thermal Products GmbH, Daimlerstr. 10, D-89160 Dornstadt (Germany); Paul, S. [Mattson Thermal Products GmbH, Daimlerstr. 10, D-89160 Dornstadt (Germany); Rubin, L. [Axcelis Technologies, 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly MA 01915 (United States); Jaouen, H. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); Armand, C. [LNMO/INSA, Service analyseur ionique, 135 av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2007-04-15

    We present here preliminary results on boron diffusion in presence of pre-formed voids of different characteristics. The voids were fabricated by helium implantation followed by annealing allowing the desorption of He prior to boron implantation. We show that under such conditions boron diffusion is always largely reduced and can even be suppressed in some cases. Boron diffusion suppression can be observed in samples not containing nanovoids in the boron-rich region. It is suggested that direct trapping of Si(int)s by the voids is not the mechanism responsible for the reduction of boron diffusion in such layers. Alternatively, our experimental results suggest that this reduction of diffusivity is more probably due to the competition between two Ostwald ripening phenomena taking place at the same time: in the boron-rich region, the competitive growth of extrinsic defects at the origin of TED and, in the void region, the Ostwald ripening of the voids which involves large supersaturations of Vs.

  3. Controlling Interfacial Separation in Porous Structures by Void Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Ahmed; Elbanna, Ahmed

    Manipulating interfacial response for enhanced adhesion or fracture resistance is a problem of great interest to scientists and engineers. In many natural materials and engineering applications, an interface exists between a porous structure and a substrate. A question that arises is how the void distribution in the bulk may affect the interfacial response and whether it is possible to alter the interfacial toughness without changing the surface physical chemistry. In this paper, we address this question by studying the effect of patterning voids on the interfacial-to-the overall response of an elastic plate glued to a rigid substrate by bilinear cohesive material. Different patterning categories are investigated; uniform, graded, and binary voids. Each case is subjected to upward displacement at the upper edge of the plate. We show that the peak force and maximum elongation at failure depend on the voids design and by changing the void size, alignment or gradation we may control these performance measures. We relate these changes in the measured force displacement response to energy release rate as a measure of interfacial toughness. We discuss the implications of our results on design of bulk heterogeneities for enhanced interfacial behavior.

  4. Pre-analytical Factors Influence Accuracy of Urine Spot Iodine Assessment in Epidemiological Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2018-03-26

    Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is commonly used to assess iodine status of subjects in epidemiological surveys. As pre-analytical factors are an important source of measurement error and studies about this phase are scarce, our objective was to assess the influence of urine sampling conditions on UIC, i.e., whether the child ate breakfast or not, urine void rank of the day, and time span between last meal and urine collection. A nationwide, two-stage, stratified, cross-sectional study including 1560 children (6-12 years) was performed in 2012. UIC was determined by the Sandell-Kolthoff method. Pre-analytical factors were assessed from children's mothers by using a questionnaire. Association between iodine status and pre-analytical factors were adjusted for one another and socio-economic characteristics by multivariate linear and multinomial regression models (RPR: relative prevalence ratios). Skipping breakfast prior to morning urine sampling decreased UIC by 40 to 50 μg/L and the proportion of UIC analytical factors is a key step toward improving accuracy and comparability of survey results for assessing iodine status from spot urine samples. These recommendations have to be evaluated by future research.

  5. Urine Sodium in 3 Consecutive Days Urine collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that salt sensitivity, which is a heritable trait, is a hallmark to hypertension in blacks. Previous studies on twenty-four hour urinary sodium were either incomplete or yielded contradictory results possibly from incomplete urine collection. This study attempted complete ...

  6. 10 CFR 26.153 - Using certified laboratories for testing urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Workplace Drug Testing Programs [published in the Federal Register on April 11, 1988 (53 FR 11970), and as... current certification status of laboratories is available from the Division of Workplace Programs, Center... relationship with the licensee's or other entity's MRO(s) that may be construed as a potential conflict of...

  7. The relationship between temperament, gender, and childhood dysfunctional voiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Dobkin, Roseanne D; Sterling, Matthew; Schneider, Dona; Barone, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Dysfunctional voiding (DV) is an extremely common pediatric complaint. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between DV and childhood temperament. Information about the voiding behaviors and temperaments of 50 children was examined using a case-control model. Caregivers were asked to fill out the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in order to rate their child on the dimensions of surgency, negative affect, and effortful control. The relationship between DV and these dimensions was then evaluated. Males with DV were found to have lower effortful control than males with normal voiding habits. Females with DV did not demonstrate a difference in effortful control, but did demonstrate a higher rate of surgency. The results suggest that temperament does have an association with DV. These findings are in line with temperamental associations with other externalizing trouble behaviors and may inform potential treatment strategies for DV.

  8. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-06-01

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs

  9. Nucleation from a cluster of inclusions, leading to void coalescense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2017-01-01

    A cell model analysis is used to study the nucleation and subsequent growth of voids from a non-uniform distribution of inclusions in a ductile material. Nucleation is modeled as either stress controlled or strain controlled. The special clusters considered consist of a number of uniformly spaced...... inclusions located along a plane perpendicular to the maximum principal tensile stress. A plane strain approximation is used, where the inclusions are parallel cylinders perpendicular to the plane. Clusters with different numbers of inclusions are compared with the nucleation and growth from a single...... inclusion, such that the total initial volume of the inclusions is the same for the clusters and the single inclusion. After nucleation, local void coalescence inside the clusters is accounted for, since this makes it possible to compare the rate of growth of the single larger void that results from...

  10. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Barad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives.

  11. Multiple void formation in plasmas containing multispecies charged grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Bogaerts, A.; Yu, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Self-organized separation of charged-dust species in two-dimensional dusty plasmas is studied by means of molecular-dynamics simulation. The multispecies dust grains, interacting through a screened Coulomb potential with a long-range attractive component, are confined by an external quadratic potential and subjected to a radially outward ion drag force. It is found that, in general, the species are spatially separated by bandlike dust-free (or void) regions, and grains of the same species tend to populate a common shell. At large ion drag and/or large plasma screening, a central disklike void as well as concentric bandlike voids separating the different species appear. Because of the outward drag and the attractive component of the dust-dust interaction forces, highly asymmetrical states consisting of species-separated dust clumps can also exist despite the fact that all the forces are either radial or central

  12. A DRAGON-MCNP comparison of void reactivity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, G [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. de Genie Nucleaire; Milgram, M S [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant voiding in a CANDU reactor is a subject which has attracted a large amount of interest in the last few years both from the theoretical and experimental point of view. One expects that deterministic codes such as DRAGON and WIMS-AECL or the MCNP4 Monte Carlo code should be able to adequately simulate the cell behaviour upon coolant voiding. However, the absence of an experimental database at equilibrium and discharge burnups has not permitted the full validation of any of these lattice codes, although a partial validation through comparison of two different computer codes has been considered. Here we present a comparison between DRAGON and MCNP4 of the void reactivity evaluation for fresh fuel. (author). 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Void distributions in liquid BiBr{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, K [Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Endo, H [Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8224 (Japan); Hoshino, H [Faculty of Education, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S; Itou, M [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute(JASRI), Sayo-cho 679-5198 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    The X-ray diffraction experiments and the reverse Monte Carlo analysis for liquid BiBr{sub 3} have been performed to clarify the distribution of Bi and Br ions around voids, comparing with previous results derived in the neutron diffraction experiments. The hexagonal cages involving voids are formed by the corner-sharing of the trigonal pyramidal BiBr{sub 3} blocks. The neighboring cages are linked together in highly correlated fashion. The observed pre-peak in S(Q) at 1.3A{sup -1} is related to the pre-peak of the void-based S'{sub CC} (Q) due to an intermediate chemical order in the structure. The pre-peak intensity increases with increasing temperature. This characteristic change for the pre-peak intensity is discussed by considering the modifications of the topology and stacking in the hexagonal cages.

  14. A DRAGON-MCNP comparison of void reactivity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marleau, G.

    1995-01-01

    The determination of the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant voiding in a CANDU reactor is a subject which has attracted a large amount of interest in the last few years both from the theoretical and experimental point of view. One expects that deterministic codes such as DRAGON and WIMS-AECL or the MCNP4 Monte Carlo code should be able to adequately simulate the cell behaviour upon coolant voiding. However, the absence of an experimental database at equilibrium and discharge burnups has not permitted the full validation of any of these lattice codes, although a partial validation through comparison of two different computer codes has been considered. Here we present a comparison between DRAGON and MCNP4 of the void reactivity evaluation for fresh fuel. (author). 16 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Two-dimensional void reconstruction by neutron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaib, G.D.; Harms, A.A.; Vlachopoulos, J.

    1978-01-01

    Contemporary algebraic reconstruction methods are utilized in investigating the two-dimensional void distribution in a water analog from neutron transmission measurements. It is sought to ultimately apply these techniques to the determination of time-averaged void distribution in two-phase flow systems as well as for potential usage in neutron radiography. Initially, projection data were obtained from a digitized model of a hypothetical two-phase representation and later from neutron beam traverses across a voided methacrylate plastic model. From 10 to 15 views were incorporated, and decoupling of overlapped measurements was utilized to afford greater resolution. In general, the additive Algebraic Reconstruction Technique yielded the best reconstructions, with others showing promise for noisy data. Results indicate the need for some further development of the method in interpreting real data

  16. Voiding patterns in men evaluated by a questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P; Nielsen, K K; Bauer, T

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire on obstructive and irritative voiding symptoms was sent to 572 men aged between 20 and 79 years, selected at random from the National Register; 337 questionnaires were completed. None of the responders had consulted a doctor because of voiding symptoms. There was a significant...... voiding symptoms in men aged 60 to 79 years without subjective prostatism was the same as in patients admitted with prostatism, although most of the men had milder symptoms. Only nocturia and urge incontinence were more prevalent in patients admitted with prostatism. About 20% of men in the oldest decades...... had symptoms equal in severity to those found in men undergoing prostatectomy; 29% and 11% of men in the eighth decade [corrected] had nocturia twice and 3 times or more respectively; 19% complained of urge incontinence. More information on possible treatment is needed....

  17. Noninvasive Medical Tools for Evaluating Voiding Pattern in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwonsoo Chun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction is a common disease that contributes to a lower quality of life and has an increased prevalence in the elderly population. Noninvasive and objective methods such as uroflowmetry (UFM and voiding diaries (VDs are essential for exact diagnosis and effective treatment of this condition because patients with different causes of voiding dysfunction can complain of the same lower urinary tract symptoms. Further, different treatment options can be determined based on the diagnosis made from these symptoms. In order to improve the quality of UFM and VDs and to provide a convenient testing environment, several advances have been made by previous investigators. In this study, we investigate the history and technological mechanisms of UFM and VDs. We also aim to review UFM from the viewpoint of clinical and at-home uses, including the recently proposed toilet-shaped UFM and electronic VDs.

  18. Loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nagumo, Kiyomi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fujinawa, Naoto; Hashimoto, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    A case of sacral herpes zoster infection in a 56-year-old man with the complication of loss of urinary voiding sensation is presented. He had typical herpes zoster eruption on the left S2 dermatome, hypalgesia of the S1-S4 dermatomes, and absence of urinary voiding sensation. There was no other urinary symptom at the first medical examination. Urinary complications associated with herpes zoster are uncommon, but two types, acute cystitis and acute retention, have been recognized. No cases of loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster have been reported. In this case, hypalgesia of the sacral dermatomes was mild compared to the marked loss of urethral sensation. This inconsistency is explained by the hypothesis that the number of urethral fibers is very small as compared to that of cutaneous fibers, therefore, urethral sensation would be more severely disturbed than cutaneous sensation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Effects of two-phase mixing and void drift models on subchannel void fraction predictions in vertical bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.H. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: leungk4@mcmaster.ca

    2009-07-01

    The evaluation of the subchannel code ASSERT against the OECD/NEA BFBT benchmark data demonstrated that at low pressures, the void fraction in the corner and side subchannels of a vertical bundle was over-predicted. Preliminary results suggest that this was due to the use of Carlucci's empirical correlation for void drift beyond its applicable range of pressure. Further examination indicates that the choice of the mixing and void drift models has a negligible effect on the error of the subchannel void fraction predictions. A single, isolated subchannel was simulated and results suggest that the root cause behind the over-prediction is inadequate mixing at the sides and corners of the bundle. Increasing the magnitude of the void drift coefficients in Carlucci's model at low pressure was found to improve the overall accuracy of the predictions. A simple correlation relating {omega} to the outlet pressure was found to increase the number of points falling within experimental error by 1.0%. (author)

  20. Effects of two-phase mixing and void drift models on subchannel void fraction predictions in vertical bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the subchannel code ASSERT against the OECD/NEA BFBT benchmark data demonstrated that at low pressures, the void fraction in the corner and side subchannels of a vertical bundle was over-predicted. Preliminary results suggest that this was due to the use of Carlucci's empirical correlation for void drift beyond its applicable range of pressure. Further examination indicates that the choice of the mixing and void drift models has a negligible effect on the error of the subchannel void fraction predictions. A single, isolated subchannel was simulated and results suggest that the root cause behind the over-prediction is inadequate mixing at the sides and corners of the bundle. Increasing the magnitude of the void drift coefficients in Carlucci's model at low pressure was found to improve the overall accuracy of the predictions. A simple correlation relating Ω to the outlet pressure was found to increase the number of points falling within experimental error by 1.0%. (author)

  1. Effects of Void Uncertainties on Pin Power Distributions and the Void Reactivity Coefficient for a 10X10 BWR Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatuff, F.; Krouthen, J.; Helmersson, S.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    A significant source of uncertainty in Boiling Water Reactor physics is associated with the precise characterisation of the axially-dependent neutron moderation properties of the coolant inside the fuel assembly channel, and the corresponding effects on reactor physics parameters such as the lattice neutron multiplication, the neutron migration length, and the pin-by-pin power distribution. In this paper, the effects of particularly relevant void fraction uncertainties on reactor physics parameters have been studied for a BWR assembly of type Westinghouse SVEA-96 using the CASMO-4, HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and MCNP4C codes. The SVEA-96 geometry is characterised by the sub-division of the assembly into four different sub-bundles by means of an inner bypass with a cruciform shape. The study has covered the following issues: (a) the effects of different cross-section data libraries on the void coefficient of reactivity, for a wide range of void fractions; (b) the effects due to a heterogeneous vs. homogeneous void distribution inside the sub-bundles; and (c) the consequences of partly inserted absorber blades producing different void fractions in different sub-bundles. (author)

  2. The urine metabolome differs between lean and overweight Labrador Retriever dogs during a feed-challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefin Söder

    Full Text Available Obesity in dogs is an increasing problem and better knowledge of the metabolism of overweight dogs is needed. Identification of molecular changes related to overweight may lead to new methods to improve obesity prevention and treatment. The aim of the study was firstly to investigate whether Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR based metabolomics could be used to differentiate postprandial from fasting urine in dogs, and secondly to investigate whether metabolite profiles differ between lean and overweight dogs in fasting and postprandial urine, respectively. Twenty-eight healthy intact male Labrador Retrievers were included, 12 of which were classified as lean (body condition score (BCS 4-5 on a 9-point scale and 16 as overweight (BCS 6-8. After overnight fasting, a voided morning urine sample was collected. Dogs were then fed a high-fat mixed meal and postprandial urine was collected after 3 hours. Metabolic profiles were generated using NMR and 45 metabolites identified from the spectral data were evaluated using multivariate data analysis. The results revealed that fasting and postprandial urine differed in relative metabolite concentration (partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA 1 comp: R2Y = 0.4, Q2Y = 0.32; cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.00006. Univariate analyses of discriminant metabolites showed that taurine and citrate concentrations were elevated in postprandial urine, while allantoin concentration had decreased. Interestingly, lean and overweight dogs differed in terms of relative metabolite concentrations in postprandial urine (PLS-DA 1 comp: R2Y = 0.5, Q2Y = 0.36, cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.005 but not in fasting urine. Overweight dogs had lower postprandial taurine and a trend of higher allantoin concentrations compared with lean dogs. These findings demonstrate that metabolomics can differentiate 3-hour postprandial urine from fasting urine in dogs, and that postprandial urine metabolites may be more useful than fasting

  3. Elevated CXC chemokines in urine noninvasively discriminate OAB from UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Qu, Xianggui; Chuang, Yao Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Chancellor, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Overlapping symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) often complicate the diagnosis and contribute to overprescription of antibiotics. Inflammatory response is a shared characteristic of both UTI and OAB and here we hypothesized that molecular differences in inflammatory response seen in urine can help discriminate OAB from UTI. Subjects in the age range of (20-88 yr) of either sex were recruited for this urine analysis study. Urine specimens were available from 62 UTI patients with positive dipstick test before antibiotic treatment. Six of these patients also provided urine after completion of antibiotic treatment. Subjects in cohorts of OAB (n = 59) and asymptomatic controls (n = 26) were negative for dipstick test. Urinary chemokines were measured by MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Immunoassay and their association with UTI and OAB was determined by univariate and multivariate statistics. Significant elevation of CXCL-1, CXCL-8 (IL-8), and CXCL-10 together with reduced levels for a receptor antagonist of IL-1A (sIL-1RA) were seen in UTI relative to OAB and asymptomatic controls. Elevated CXCL-1 urine levels predicted UTI with odds ratio of 1.018 and showed a specificity of 80.77% and sensitivity of 59.68%. Postantibiotic treatment, reduction was seen in all CXC chemokines with a significant reduction for CXCL-10. Strong association of CXCL-1 and CXCL-10 for UTI over OAB indicates mechanistic differences in signaling pathways driving inflammation secondary of infection in UTI compared with a lack of infection in OAB. Urinary chemokines highlight molecular differences in the paracrine signaling driving the overlapping symptoms of UTI and OAB. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effects contributing to positive coolant void reactivity in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.J.; Garland, W.J.; Milgram, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The lattice cell code WIMS-AECL (Ref. 3) is used to model a typical CANDU lattice cell, using nominal geometric bucklings, the PIJ option, and 69-group Winfrith library. The effect of cell voiding is modeled as a 100% instantaneous removal of coolant from the lattice. This is conservative because of the neglect of time dependence and partial core voiding, considered more plausible in CANDU. Results are grouped into three spectral groups: fast neutrons (0.821 to 10 MeV), epithermal neutrons (0.625 eV to 0.821 MeV), and thermal neutrons (<0.625 eV)

  5. Supernovae observations in a 'meatball' universe with a local void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Marra, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    We study the impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on the interpretation of observations. We build an inhomogeneous universe model without dark energy that can confront supernova data and yet is reasonably well compatible with the Copernican principle. Our model combines a relatively small local void, that gives apparent acceleration at low redshifts, with a meatball model that gives sizable lensing (dimming) at high redshifts. Together these two elements, which focus on different effects of voids on the data, allow the model to mimic the concordance model.

  6. Supernovae observations in a 'meatball' universe with a local void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Marra, Valerio [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PL 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae, Finland and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PL 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    We study the impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on the interpretation of observations. We build an inhomogeneous universe model without dark energy that can confront supernova data and yet is reasonably well compatible with the Copernican principle. Our model combines a relatively small local void, that gives apparent acceleration at low redshifts, with a meatball model that gives sizable lensing (dimming) at high redshifts. Together these two elements, which focus on different effects of voids on the data, allow the model to mimic the concordance model.

  7. Supernovae observations in a ``meatball'' universe with a local void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Marra, Valerio

    2009-12-01

    We study the impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on the interpretation of observations. We build an inhomogeneous universe model without dark energy that can confront supernova data and yet is reasonably well compatible with the Copernican principle. Our model combines a relatively small local void, that gives apparent acceleration at low redshifts, with a meatball model that gives sizable lensing (dimming) at high redshifts. Together these two elements, which focus on different effects of voids on the data, allow the model to mimic the concordance model.

  8. Cluster-void degeneracy breaking: Modified gravity in the balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlén, Martin; Silk, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    Combining galaxy cluster and void abundances is a novel, powerful way to constrain deviations from general relativity and the Λ CDM model. For a flat w CDM model with growth of large-scale structure parametrized by the redshift-dependent growth index γ (z )=γ0+γ1z /(1 +z ) of linear matter perturbations, combining void and cluster abundances in future surveys with Euclid and the four-meter multiobject spectroscopic telescope could improve the figure of merit for (w ,γ0,γ1) by a factor of 20 compared to individual abundances. In an ideal case, improvement on current cosmological data is a figure of merit factor 600 or more.

  9. Void redistribution in sand under post-earthquake loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, R.W.; Truman, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    A mechanism for void redistribution in an infinite slope under post-earthquake loading conditions is described by consideration of the in situ loading paths that can occur under post-earthquake conditions and the results of triaxial tests designed to represent specific in situ post-earthquake loading paths. The mechanism is illustrated by application to an example problem. Void redistribution is shown to be a phenomena that may be more pronounced at the field scale than at the laboratory scale. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  10. Influence of void on image quality of industrial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J G; Jung, S H; Kim, J B; Moon, J; Kim, C H

    2013-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising technique to determine the dynamic behavior of industrial process media and has been developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present study evaluated the influence of a void, which is presence in multiphase reactors of industrial process, on the image quality of an industrial SPECT. The results are very encouraging; that is, the performance of the industrial SPECT system is little influenced by the presence of a void, which means that industrial SPECT is an appropriate tool to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the process media in a water-air phase bubble column with a static gas sparger

  11. Transient void fraction measurements in rod bundle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.M.C.

    1998-01-01

    A new gamma densitometer with a Ba-133 source and a Nal(TI) scintillator operated in the count mode has been designed for transient void fraction measurements in the RD-14M heated channels containing a seven-element heater bundle. The device was calibrated dynamically in the laboratory using an air-water flow loop. The void fraction measured was found to compare well with values obtained using the trapped-water method. The device was also found to follow very well the passage of air slugs in pulsating flow with slug passing frequencies of up to about 1.5 hz. (author)

  12. Void swelling behaviour of austenitic stainless steel during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhongqi; Xiao Hong; Peng Feng; Ti Zhongxin

    1994-04-01

    The irradiation swelling behaviour of 00Cr17Ni14Mo2 austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) was investigated by means of high voltage electron microscope. Results showed that in solution annealed condition almost no swelling incubation period existed, and the swelling shifted from the transition period to the steady-state one when the displacement damage was around 40 dpa. In cold rolled condition there was evidently incubation period, and when the displacement damage was up to 84 dpa the swelling still remained in the transition period. The average size and density of voids in both conditions were measured, and the factors, which influenced the void swelling, were discussed. (3 figs.)

  13. Void initiation from interfacial debonding of spherical silicon particles inside a silicon-copper nanocomposite: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Chen, Zengtao

    2017-02-01

    Silicon particles with diameters from 1.9 nm to 30 nm are embedded in a face-centered-cubic copper matrix to form nanocomposite specimens for simulation. The interfacial debonding of silicon particles from the copper matrix and the subsequent growth of nucleated voids are studied via molecular dynamics (MD). The MD results are examined from several different perspectives. The overall mechanical performance is monitored by the average stress-strain response and the accumulated porosity. The ‘relatively farthest-traveled’ atoms are identified to characterize the onset of interfacial debonding. The relative displacement field is plotted to illustrate both subsequent interfacial debonding and the growth of a nucleated void facilitated by a dislocation network. Our results indicate that the initiation of interfacial debonding is due to the accumulated surface stress if the matrix is initially dislocation-free. However, pre-existing dislocations can make a considerable difference. In either case, the dislocation emission also contributes to the subsequent debonding process. As for the size effect, the debonding of relatively larger particles causes a drop in the stress-strain curve. The volume fraction of second-phase particles is found to be more influential than the size of the simulation box on the onset of interfacial debonding. The volume fraction of second-phase particles also affects the shape of the nucleated void and, therefore, influences the stress response of the composite.

  14. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Pietrzyk, Robert a.; Johnson, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Samples from the International Space Station (ISS), including blood and urine, will be collected, processed and archived during the preflight, inflight and postflight phases of ISS missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biosamples for use as a resource for future space flight related research. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a platform to investigate the effects of microgravity on human physiology prior to lunar and exploration class missions. The storage of crewmember samples from many different ISS flights in a single repository will be a valuable resource with which researchers can study space flight related changes and investigate physiological markers. The development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository will allow for the collection, processing, storage, maintenance, and ethical distribution of biosamples to meet goals of scientific and programmatic relevance to the space program. Archiving of the biosamples will provide future research opportunities including investigating patterns of physiological changes, analysis of components unknown at this time or analyses performed by new methodologies.

  16. [Microbiota of urine and vagina of healthy postmenopausal women (a pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, Yu L; Rymashevsky, A N; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Borovleva, O A; Jalagonia, K T; Zarutskiy, S A

    2016-02-01

    Studying microbiota of different urogenital tract habitats in healthy postmenopausal women is of practical importance in deciding on the appropriateness of correction of dysbiotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the vaginal and urine microbiota of healthy postmenopausal women. The study included 20 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 59,0+/-2,1 years). Duration of menopause in all subjects was more than 8 years. Bacteriological testing of urine and vaginal specimen was carried out on the extended media (15) for cultivating facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) and nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) and included PCR of midstream morning urine. Among FAB in the urine and vagina dominated coagulase-negative staphylococci and NAB. Bacterial patterns of studied habitats turned out to be similar in many respects. In the urine Megasphaera spp., Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Mobiluncus spp., Fusobacterium spp. were found, whereas in the vagina these microorganisms were not present. Cluster analysis revealed no significant differences in the concentration of the same microorganisms isolated from the urine and vagina. When comparing the frequency of microorganism detection in urine by bacteriological method and by PCR, bacterial patterns were identical in 56% of cases.

  17. Assessment of the stability of DNA in specimens collected under conditions for drug testing-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert M; Mitchell, John M; Hart, E Dale; Evans, Amy; Meaders, Meredith; Norsworthy, Sarah E; Hayes, Eugene D; Flegel, Ron; Maha, George C; Shaffer, Megan D; Hall, Erin M; Rogers, Kelley

    2018-02-01

    For forensic biological sample collections, the specimen donor is linked solidly to his or her specimen through a chain of custody (CoC) sometimes referenced as a chain of evidence. Rarely, a donor may deny that a urine or oral fluid (OF) specimen is his or her specimen even with a patent CoC. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the potential effects of short-term storage on the quality and quantity of DNA in both types of specimen under conditions that may be encountered with employment-related drug testing specimens. Fresh urine and freshly collected oral fluid all produced complete STR profiles. For the "pad" type OF collectors, acceptable DNA was extractable both from the buffer/preservative and the pad. Although fresh urine and OF produced complete STR profiles, partial profiles were obtained after storage for most samples. An exception was the DNA in the Quantisal OF collector, from which a complete profile was obtained for both freshly collected OF and stored OF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of the critical size of initial voids on stress-induced migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    The stress-induced migration phenomenon is one of the problems related to the reliability of metal interconnections in semiconductor devices. This phenomenon causes voids and fractures in interconnections. The basic feature of this phenomenon is vacancy migration to minute initial voids. Expanding initial voids grow into larger voids and fractures. The purpose of this work is to theoretically clarify the effects of residual thermal stress and void surface stress on the behavior of the initial voids which exist immediately after a passivation process. Using a spherical metal sample with a spherical void under external stress, vacancy absorption or emission was investigated between the void surface and the sample surface. The behavior of vacancies and atoms was also investigated in interconnections under residual thermal stress. We show that the void or sample surface becomes a vacancy sink or source, depending on the mutual relationship between the surface stress due to the surface-free energy and the residual thermal stress. We also reveal that the initial voids, which exist immediately after a passivation process, grow into larger voids and fractures when the size of the initial voids exceeds the critical size. If the size of the initial void can be controlled to below the critical size, voids and fractures do not occur

  19. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  20. Solute segregation and void formation in ion-irradiated vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation-induced segregation of solute atoms in the V-15Cr-5Ti alloys was determined after either single- dual-, or helium implantation followed by single-ion irradiation at 725 0 C to radiation damage levels ranging from 103 to 169 dpa. Also, the effect of irradiation temperature (600-750 0 C) on the microstructure in the V-15Cr-5Ti alloy was determined after single-ion irradiation to 200 and 300 dpa. The solute segregation results for the single- and dual-ion irradiated alloy showed that the simultaneous production of irradiation damage and deposition of helium resulted in enhanced depletion of Cr solute and enrichment of Ti, C and S solute in the near-surface layers of irradiated specimens. The observations of the irradiation-damaged microstructures in V-15Cr-5Ti specimens showed an absence of voids for irradiations of the alloy at 600-750 0 C to 200 dpa and at 725 0 C to 300 dpa. The principle effect on the microstructure of these irradiations was to induce the formation of a high density of disc-like precipitates in the vicinity of grain boundaries and intrinsic precipitates and on the dislocation structure. 8 references, 4 figures

  1. THE PREDICTION OF VOID VOLUME IN SUBCOOLED NUCLEATE POOL BOILING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, E. E. [General Dynamics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1963-11-15

    A three- step equation was developed that adequately describes the average volume of vapor occurring on a horizontal surface due to nucleate pool boiling of subcooled water. Since extensive bubble frequency data are lacking, the data of others were combined with experimental observations to make predictions of void volume at ambient pressure with various degrees of subcooling. (auth)

  2. Nucleation of voids and other irradiation-produced defect aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.; Katz, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The nucleation of defect clusters in crystalline solids from radiation-produced defects is different from the usual nucleation processes in one important aspect: the condensing defects, interstitial atoms and vacancies, can mutually annihilate and are thus similar to matter and antimatter. The nucleation process is described as the simultaneous reaction of vacancies and interstitials (and gas atoms if present) with embryos of all sizes. The reaction rates for acquisition of point defects (and gas atoms) are calculated from their respective jump frequencies and concentrations in the supersaturated system. The reaction rates for emission of point defects are derived from the free energies of the defect clusters in the thermodynamic equilibrium system, i.e., the system without excess point defects. This procedure differs from that used in conventional nucleation theory and permits the inclusion of the ''antimatter'' defect into the set of reaction-rate equations in a straightforward manner. The method is applied to steady-state nucleation, during irradiation, of both dislocation loops and voids in the absence and in the presence of immobile and mobile gas. The predictions of the nucleation theory are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations, e.g., void densities increase with increasing displacement rates; gases such as helium enhance void nucleation; at low displacement rates and at high temperatures the presence of gas is essential to void formation. For quantitative predictions, the theory must be extended to include the termination of nucleation

  3. Predictive efficacy of radioisotope voiding cystography for renal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Kwang Myeung; Choi, Whang; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    As vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) could lead to renal functional deterioration when combined with urinary tract infection, we need to decide whether operative anti-reflux treatment should be performed at the time of diagnosis of VUR. Predictive value of radioisotope voiding cystography (RIVCG) for renal outcome was tested. In 35 children (18 males, 17 females), radiologic voiding cystoure-thrography (VCU), RIVCG and DMSA scan were performed. Change in renal function was evaluated using the follow-up DMSA scan, ultrasonography, and clinical information. Discriminant analysis was performed using individual or integrated variables such as reflux amount and extent at each phase of voiding on RIVCG, in addition to age, gender and cortical defect on DMSA scan at the time of diagnosis. Discriminant function was composed and its performance was examined. Reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase had a significant prognostic value. Total reflux amount was a composite variable to predict prognosis. Discriminant function composed of reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase showed better positive predictive value and specificity than conventional reflux grading. RIVCG could predict renal outcome by disclosing characteristic reflux pattern during various voiding phases.=20

  4. Decay of charge deposited on the wall of gaseous void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    sustained in the void. However, the absolute value of this field is reduced with an increase in bulk permittivity. It is concluded that the present choice of a point charge to simulate the wall charge has the disadvantage that such a source is associated with a field singularity, and thus it is not possible...

  5. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces...

  6. Effect of main stream void distribution on cavitating hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.

    1993-01-01

    For the safety analysis of a loss of coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor, it is important to establish an analytical method which predicts the pump performance under gas-liquid two-phase flow condition. J.H. Kim briefly reviewed several major two-phase flow pump models, and discussed the parameters that could significantly affect two-phase pump behavior. The parameter pointed out to be of the most importance is void distribution at the pump inlet. This says that the pipe bend near the pump inlet makes the void distribution at the pump inlet nonuniform, and this matter can have a significant effect on the impeller blade performance. This paper proposes an analytical method of solution for a partially cavitating hydrofoil placed in the main stream of incompressible homogeneous bubbly two-phase flow conditions whose void fraction is exponentially distributed normal to chordline. The paper clarifies the effect of main stream void distribution parameter on the partially cavitating hydrofoil characteristics

  7. The cosmic web in CosmoGrid void regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieder, Steven; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of the cosmic web, using the high-resolution CosmoGrid ΛCDM simulation. In particular, we investigate the evolution of the large-scale structure around void halo groups, and compare this to observations of the VGS-31 galaxy group, which consists of three

  8. Monte Carlo validation of self shielding and void effect calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.; Coste, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Soldevila, M.; Van der Gucht, C.

    1995-01-01

    The self shielding validation and the void effect are studied with Monte Carlo method. The satisfactory comparison obtained between the APOLLO 2 results of the self shielding effect and the TRIPOLI and MCNP results allows us to be confident in the multigroup transport code. (K.A.)

  9. Extrapolation of ZPR sodium void measurements to the power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.L.; Collins, P.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Grasseschi, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Sodium-voiding measurements of ZPPR assemblies 2 and 5 are analyzed with ENDF/B Version IV data. Computations include directional diffusion coefficients to account for streaming effects resulting from the plate structure of the critical assembly. Bias factors for extrapolating critical assembly data to the CRBR design are derived from the results of this analysis

  10. Detection of Vesico-Ureteric Reflux Using Voiding Hippuran Ureterograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J. B.; Palser, R. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Manitoba Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation, Winnipeg General Hospital, Winnipeg (Canada); Macpherson, R. I. [Children' s Hospital of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada)

    1971-02-15

    Initial results of a technique for the demonstration of vesico-ureteric reflux in children are described. Hippuran-{sup 131}I (15 {mu}Ci) (ortho-iodohippurate) is injected intravenously. A standard renogram is obtained. Additional collimation is added to the recording probes and they are positioned to record the radioactivity from the mid-ureteric region. Recordings of normal and abnormal peristaltic activity during per-ora hydration of the patient are thus obtained. When the child is willing to void, he is placed upright on a bed pan, the probes positioned to record over the lower ureteric region and recordings are made while the child voids. All data are recorded on a 512-channel analyser operated in the multi-scaler node. Data are punched out on paper tape and, after an 11 point computer smoothing program, are displayed graphically. These recordings show different patterns in normal children and those with vesico-ureteric reflux. There are several advantages to this technique over the standard radiological and other radionuclide voiding cystoureterograms. The results are compared with contrast voiding cystourethrograms in both normal children and those with vesico-ureteric reflux. (author)

  11. 3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J.; Dehghani, Hamid; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon R.; Ripoll, Jorge; Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    We present an investigation of the effect of a 3D non-scattering gap region on image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography. The void gap is modelled by the Radiosity-Diffusion method and the inverse problem is solved using the adjoint field method. The case of a sphere with concentric spherical gap is used as an example.

  12. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S., E-mail: floliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  13. Influence of ageing, inclusions and voids on ductile fracture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The strain hardening capacity has a marked effect on void size, and is an indicator of fracture .... a model of ductile failure based on the concept that the critical step in the .... Ashby M F, Gandhi C and Taplin D M R 1979 Acta Metal. 27. 699.

  14. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  15. Calculation of Void in the Fort Saint Vrain Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, David Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Craig Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coons, James Elmer [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    The percent void of the Fort Saint Vrain (FSV) material is estimated to be 21.1% based on the volume of the gap at the top of the drums, the volume of the coolant channels in the FSV fuel element, and the volume of the fuel handling channel in the FSV fuel element.

  16. An innovative HIV testing service using the internet: Anonymous urine delivery testing service at drugstores in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia He

    Full Text Available Innovative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing services will be needed to achieve the first 90 (90% of HIV-positive persons aware of their infection status of the 90-90-90 target in China. Here, we describe an internet-based urine delivery testing service delivered through three pilot drugstores in Beijing that send specimens to a designated laboratory for HIV. From May 2016 to January 2017, we provided 500 HIV urine-testing service packs for display at the drugstores, and a total of 430 (86.0% urine specimens were mailed back. All of the 430 urine specimens were of good quality and were tested. 70 urine specimens were HIV positive, showing a 16.3% (70/430 positivity rate. A total of 94.3% (66/70 of the HIV-positive participants obtained their test results through the internet, and 69.7% (46/66 of these participants received follow-up care. A total of 40 out of 46 (87.0% participants agreed to have their results confirmed by a blood test, and 39 out of 40 (97.5% participants were confirmed as HIV-1 positive, including two individuals that were previously diagnosed. Lastly, 28 out of 37 (75.7% of the study participants were referred to the hospital and provided free antiviral treatment. Our data indicate that this innovative HIV testing service is effective and play an important role in HIV testing and surveillance.

  17. An innovative HIV testing service using the internet: Anonymous urine delivery testing service at drugstores in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxia; Liu, Guowu; Xia, Dongyan; Feng, Xia; Lv, Yi; Cheng, Huanyi; Wang, Yuehua; Lu, Hongyan; Jiang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Innovative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing services will be needed to achieve the first 90 (90% of HIV-positive persons aware of their infection status) of the 90-90-90 target in China. Here, we describe an internet-based urine delivery testing service delivered through three pilot drugstores in Beijing that send specimens to a designated laboratory for HIV. From May 2016 to January 2017, we provided 500 HIV urine-testing service packs for display at the drugstores, and a total of 430 (86.0%) urine specimens were mailed back. All of the 430 urine specimens were of good quality and were tested. 70 urine specimens were HIV positive, showing a 16.3% (70/430) positivity rate. A total of 94.3% (66/70) of the HIV-positive participants obtained their test results through the internet, and 69.7% (46/66) of these participants received follow-up care. A total of 40 out of 46 (87.0%) participants agreed to have their results confirmed by a blood test, and 39 out of 40 (97.5%) participants were confirmed as HIV-1 positive, including two individuals that were previously diagnosed. Lastly, 28 out of 37 (75.7%) of the study participants were referred to the hospital and provided free antiviral treatment. Our data indicate that this innovative HIV testing service is effective and play an important role in HIV testing and surveillance.

  18. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Toloczko, Mychailo B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Bailey, Nathan [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected ion profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected ion profiles based on these phenomenon and without regard to diffusion is presented along with examples of differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies. The intent is to provide the reader with a convenient tool for more accurately calculating dose and injected ion profiles for heavy-ion irradiations.

  19. Validation and calculation of uncertainties of the method of determination of creatinine in urine in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Barcedo, I.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Benito Alonso, P.; Lopez Zarza, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used Lo conduct the validation of the quantification technique of content by specLrophoLomeLry creatinine in urine sarnples of exposed workers at risk of internal counterirritant, and the sludgy of ah sources uncertainty that influence in the proceas. This technique is used Lo carry ouL Lhe normahizaLion of Lhe amount of urine to urinary 24h, necessary for dosimeLric purposes, as well as a criterion for accepLance ox rejecLion of urine specimens received by the laboraLory.

  20. Nucleation of voids in materials supersaturated with mobile interstitials, vacancies and divacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.; Si-Ahmed, A.

    1982-01-01

    In previous void nucleation theories, the void size has been allowed to change only by one atomic volume through vacancy or interstitial absorption or through vacancy emission. To include the absorption of divacancies, the classical nucleation theory is here extended to include double-step transitions between clusters. The new nucleation theory is applied to study the effect of divacancies on void formation. It is found that the steady-state void nucleation rate is enhanced by several orders of magnitude as compared to results with previous void nucleation theories. However, to obtain void nucleation rates comparable to measured ones, the effect of impurities, segregation and insoluble gases must still be invoked. (author)

  1. Size-effects at a crack-tip interacting with a number of voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    A strain gradient plasticity theory is used to analyse the growth of discretely represented voids in front of a blunting crack tip, in order to study the influence of size effects on two competing mechanisms of crack growth. For a very small void volume fraction the crack tip tends to interact...... of the characteristic material length relative to the initial void radius. For a case showing the multiple void mechanism, it is found that the effect of the material length can change the behaviour towards the void by void mechanism. A material model with three characteristic length scales is compared with a one...

  2. Constraints on Cosmology and Gravity from the Dynamics of Voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Pisani, Alice; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Weller, Jochen

    2016-08-26

    The Universe is mostly composed of large and relatively empty domains known as cosmic voids, whereas its matter content is predominantly distributed along their boundaries. The remaining material inside them, either dark or luminous matter, is attracted to these boundaries and causes voids to expand faster and to grow emptier over time. Using the distribution of galaxies centered on voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and adopting minimal assumptions on the statistical motion of these galaxies, we constrain the average matter content Ω_{m}=0.281±0.031 in the Universe today, as well as the linear growth rate of structure f/b=0.417±0.089 at median redshift z[over ¯]=0.57, where b is the galaxy bias (68% C.L.). These values originate from a percent-level measurement of the anisotropic distortion in the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, ϵ=1.003±0.012, and are robust to consistency tests with bootstraps of the data and simulated mock catalogs within an additional systematic uncertainty of half that size. They surpass (and are complementary to) existing constraints by unlocking cosmological information on smaller scales through an accurate model of nonlinear clustering and dynamics in void environments. As such, our analysis furnishes a powerful probe of deviations from Einstein's general relativity in the low-density regime which has largely remained untested so far. We find no evidence for such deviations in the data at hand.

  3. Influence of second phase dispersion on void formation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Banerjee, S.; Krishnan, R.

    Irradiation-induced void formation in alloys has been found to be strongly influenced by the microstructure, the important microstructural parameters being the dislocation density and the nature, density and distribution of second-phase precipitates. The effects of various types of precipitates on void swelling have been examined using the generally-accepted model of void formation : void embryos are assumed to grow in a situation where equal numbers of vacancies and interstitials are continuously generated by the incident irradiation, the interstitials being somewhat perferentially absorbed in some sinks present in the material. The mechanism of the trapping of defects by a distribution of precipitates has been discussed and the available experimental results on the suppression of void formation in materials containing coherent precipitates have been reviewed. Experimental results on the microstructure developed in a nickel-base alloys, Inconel-718 (considered to be a candidate material for structural applications in fast reactors), have been presented. The method of determination of the coherency strain associated with the precipitates has been illustrated with the help of certain observations made on this alloy. The major difficulty in using a two-phase alloy in an irradiation environment is associated with the irradiation-induced instability of the precipitates. Several processes such as precipitate dislocation (in which the incident radiation removes the outer layer of precipitates by recoil), enhanced diffusion disordering, fragmentation of precipitates, etc. are responsible for bringinq about a significant change in the structure of a two-phase material during irradiation. The effect of these processes on the continued performance of a two-phase alloy subjected to irradiation at an elevated temperature has been discussed. (auth.)

  4. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  5. Collagen Quantification in Tissue Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentro, João Quintas; Capella-Monsonís, Héctor; Graceffa, Valeria; Wu, Zhuning; Mullen, Anne Maria; Raghunath, Michael; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2017-01-01

    Collagen is the major extracellular protein in mammals. Accurate quantification of collagen is essential in the biomaterials (e.g., reproducible collagen scaffold fabrication), drug discovery (e.g., assessment of collagen in pathophysiologies, such as fibrosis), and tissue engineering (e.g., quantification of cell-synthesized collagen) fields. Although measuring hydroxyproline content is the most widely used method to quantify collagen in biological specimens, the process is very laborious. To this end, the Sircol™ Collagen Assay is widely used due to its inherent simplicity and convenience. However, this method leads to overestimation of collagen content due to the interaction of Sirius red with basic amino acids of non-collagenous proteins. Herein, we describe the addition of an ultrafiltration purification step in the process to accurately determine collagen content in tissues.

  6. Determination of americium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.; Mikhajlova, O.A.; Popov, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the determination of americium 241 in urine by a raiochemical purification of the nuclide from uranium (upon co-precipitation of americium 241 with calcium and lanthanum), plutonium, thorum, and polonium 210 (upon co-precipitation of these radionuclides with zirconium iodate). α-Radioactivity was measured either in a thick layer of the americium 241 precipitate with a nonisotope carrier or in thin-layer preparations after electrolytic precipitation of americium 241 on a cathode

  7. Urine colorimetry to detect Low rifampin exposure during tuberculosis therapy: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Isaac; Schlecht, Hans P; Khensouvann, Lorna; Tamuhla, Neo; Kutzler, Michele; Ivaturi, Vijay; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Gumbo, Tawanda; Peloquin, Charles A; Bisson, Gregory P; Vinnard, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The cost and complexity of current approaches to therapeutic drug monitoring during tuberculosis (TB) therapy limits widespread use in areas of greatest need. We sought to determine whether urine colorimetry could have a novel application as a form of therapeutic drug monitoring during anti-TB therapy. Among healthy volunteers, we evaluated 3 dose sizes of rifampin (150 mg, 300 mg, and 600 mg), performed intensive pharmacokinetic sampling, and collected a timed urine void at 4 h post-dosing. The absorbance peak at 475 nm was measured after rifamycin extraction. The optimal cutoff was evaluated in a study of 39 HIV/TB patients undergoing TB treatment in Botswana. In the derivation study, a urine colorimetric assay value of 4.0 × 10(-2) Abs, using a timed void 4 h after dosing, demonstrated a sensitivity of 92 % and specificity of 60 % to detect a peak rifampin concentration (Cmax) under 8 mg/L, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. In the validation study, this cutoff was specific (100 %) but insensitive (28 %). We observed similar test characteristics for a target Cmax target of 6.6 mg/L, and a target area under the drug concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0-8) target of 24.1 mg•hour/L. The urine colorimetric assay was specific but insensitive to detect low rifampin serum concentrations among HIV/TB patients. In future work we will attempt to optimize sampling times and assay performance, with the goal of delivering a method that can translate into a point-of-care assessment of rifampin exposure during anti-TB therapy.

  8. Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delph, T.J.

    1979-03-01

    Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments

  9. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  10. Specimen rejection in laboratory medicine: Necessary for patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Zeliha Gunnur; Pinar, Asli; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The emergency laboratory in Hacettepe University Hospitals receives specimens from emergency departments (EDs), inpatient services and intensive care units (ICUs). The samples are accepted according to the rejection criteria of the laboratory. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the sample rejection ratios according to the types of pre-preanalytical errors and collection areas. The samples sent to the emergency laboratory were recorded during 12 months between January to December, 2013 in which 453,171 samples were received and 27,067 specimens were rejected. Rejection ratios was 2.5% for biochemistry tests, 3.2% for complete blood count (CBC), 9.8% for blood gases, 9.2% for urine analysis, 13.3% for coagulation tests, 12.8% for therapeutic drug monitoring, 3.5% for cardiac markers and 12% for hormone tests. The most frequent rejection reasons were fibrin clots (28%) and inadequate volume (9%) for biochemical tests. Clotted samples (35%) and inadequate volume (13%) were the major causes for coagulation tests, blood gas analyses and CBC. The ratio of rejected specimens was higher in the EDs (40%) compared to ICUs (30%) and inpatient services (28%). The highest rejection ratio was observed in neurology ICU (14%) among the ICUs and internal medicine inpatient service (10%) within inpatient clinics. We detected an overall specimen rejection rate of 6% in emergency laboratory. By documentation of rejected samples and periodic training of healthcare personnel, we expect to decrease sample rejection ratios below 2%, improve total quality management of the emergency laboratory and promote patient safety.

  11. Evaluation and analytical validation of a handheld digital refractometer for urine specific gravity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara P. Wyness

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Refractometers are commonly used to determine urine specific gravity (SG in the assessment of hydration status and urine specimen validity testing. Few comprehensive performance evaluations are available demonstrating refractometer capability from a clinical laboratory perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct an analytical validation of a handheld digital refractometer used for human urine SG testing. Design and methods: A MISCO Palm Abbe™ refractometer was used for all experiments, including device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, evaluation of potential substances which contribute to SG (i.e. “interference”, and reference interval evaluation. A manual refractometer, urine osmometer, and a solute score (sum of urine chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, total protein, and urea nitrogen; all in mg/dL were used as comparative methods for accuracy assessment. Results: Significant carryover was not observed. A wash step was still included as good laboratory practice. Low imprecision (%CV, <0.01 was demonstrated using low and high QC material. Accuracy studies showed strong correlation to manual refractometry. Linear correlation was also demonstrated between SG, osmolality, and solute score. Linearity of Palm Abbe performance was verified with observed error of ≤0.1%. Increases in SG were observed with increasing concentrations of albumin, creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, sodium chloride, and urea. Transference of a previously published urine SG reference interval of 1.0020–1.0300 was validated. Conclusions: The Palm Abbe digital refractometer was a fast, simple, and accurate way to measure urine SG. Analytical validity was confirmed by the present experiments. Keywords: Specific gravity, Osmolality, Digital refractometry, Hydration, Sports medicine, Urine drug testing, Urine adulteration

  12. Void formation and its impact on Cu−Sn intermetallic compound formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Glenn; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    Void formation in the Cu−Sn system has been identified as a major reliability issue with small volume electronic interconnects. Voids form during the interdiffusion of electrochemically deposited Cu and Sn, with varying magnitude and density. Electroplating parameters include the electrolytic chemistry composition and the electroplating current density, all of which appear to effect the voiding characteristics of the Cu−Sn system. In addition, interfacial voiding affects the growth kinetics of the Cu_3Sn and Cu_6Sn_5 intermetallic compounds of the Cu−Sn system. The aim here is to present voiding data as a function of electroplating chemistry and current density over a duration (up to 72 h) of isothermal annealing at 423 K (150 °C). Voiding data includes the average interfacial void size and average void density. Voids sizes grew proportionally as a function of thermal annealing time, whereas the void density grew initially very quickly but tended to saturate at a fixed density. A morphological evolution analysis called the physicochemical approach is utilised to understand the processes that occur when a voided Cu/Cu_3Sn interface causes changes to the IMC phase growth. The method is used to simulate the intermetallic thickness growths' response to interfacial voiding. The Cu/Cu_3Sn interface acts as a Cu diffusion barrier disrupting the diffusion of Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the Cu_3Sn thickness and an accelerated growth rate of Cu_6Sn_5. - Highlights: • Average void size is proportional linearly to thermal annealing time. • Average void density grows initially very rapidly followed by saturation. • Voids located close to the Cu/Cu_3Sn interface affect IMC growth rates. • Voids act as a diffusion barrier inhibiting Cu diffusion towards Sn. • Voids located at the interface cause Cu_3Sn to be consumed by Cu_6Sn_5.

  13. Voids and superstructures: correlations and induced large-scale velocity flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, Marcelo; Luparello, Heliana E.; Maldonado, Victoria; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Paz, Dante J.; Ceccarelli, Laura; Garcia Lambas, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The expanding complex pattern of filaments, walls and voids build the evolving cosmic web with material flowing from underdense on to high density regions. Here, we explore the dynamical behaviour of voids and galaxies in void shells relative to neighbouring overdense superstructures, using the Millenium simulation and the main galaxy catalogue in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. We define a correlation measure to estimate the tendency of voids to be located at a given distance from a superstructure. We find voids-in-clouds (S-types) preferentially located closer to superstructures than voids-in-voids (R-types) although we obtain that voids within ˜40 h-1 Mpc of superstructures are infalling in a similar fashion independently of void type. Galaxies residing in void shells show infall towards the closest superstructure, along with the void global motion, with a differential velocity component depending on their relative position in the shell with respect to the direction to the superstructure. This effect is produced by void expansion and therefore is stronger for R-types. We also find that galaxies in void shells facing the superstructure flow towards the overdensities faster than galaxies elsewhere at the same relative distance to the superstructure. The results obtained for the simulation are also reproduced for the Sky Survey Data Release data with a linearized velocity field implementation.

  14. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  15. Illicit drugs in alternative biological specimens: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Franco, João; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2011-04-01

    Postmortem tissues (e.g. liver, kidney) have been long used in forensic applications especially in those cases where blood is unavailable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the information provided to the forensic toxicologist at the time of carrying out the toxicological analysis, especially in cases where the samples commonly used in forensic toxicology are unavailable. This work describes the toxicological findings in a violent death resulting from a man who was hit by a train. Vitreous humor, liver and kidney were sent for toxicological analysis, once it was not possible to obtain blood and urine. The validated procedures used in the routine casework of Forensic Toxicology Laboratory of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine, were applied in the analysis of liver, kidney and vitreous humor, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for the analysis of drugs of abuse and ethanol, respectively. Morphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were found in the liver and in the kidney and no ethanol was found in the vitreous humor. The method validation included the study of specificity, selectivity, limits of detection, recovery and carryover. Although blood and urine are the most common and preferred matrices used for toxicological studies involving drugs of abuse, sometimes the choice of specimen is determined by the case under investigation. The forensic pathologist must be aware that relevant information must be provided so that the toxicological analysis can be conducted in accordance with case history, particularly when the only samples available for analysis are these "unconventional" specimens, since the interpretation of the obtained results is more difficult. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental investigation of effect of specimen thickness on fracture toughness of Al-TiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Raviraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the macro and micro-mechanical fracture behavior was studied for aluminum (Al6061 alloy matrix, reinforced with various proportions of TiC particles such as 3wt%, 5wt% and 7wt%. The Al6061-TiC metal matrix composites were produced by stir casting method to ensure uniform distribution of the TiC particulates in the Al matrix. The compact tension (CT specimens were machined according to ASTM E399 specifications to evaluate the fracture toughness for Al6061-TiC metal matrix composites. The CT specimens were machined for crack to width (a/W ratio of 0.5 and thickness to width (B/W ratios of 0.2 to 0.7 with an increment of 0.1. Load versus crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD data was plotted to estimate stress intensity factor KQ for various thicknesses of the specimen. The fracture toughness KIC was obtained by plotting stress intensity factor versus thickness to width ratios of specimen data. The fracture toughness of these composites varied between 16.4-19.2 MPa√m. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM studies was made on the fractured surface of the specimens to understand the micro-mechanisms of failure involved in these composites. Void initiation is more significant in the matrix near the interface. The micro-cracks grow from these micro-voids and crack propagates by linking these micro cracks locating the crack path preferentially in the matrix adjacent to the interface indicating ductile fracture.

  17. Evaluation of abalone β-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the potential of abalone β-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia β-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. Abalone β-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia β-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) β-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone β-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli β-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone β-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone β-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone β-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids.

  18. Characterizing the effects of elevated temperature on the air void pore structure of advanced gas-cooled reactor pressure vessel concrete using x-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withers P.J.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT has been applied to nondestructively characterise changes in the microstructure of a concrete used in the pressure vessel structure of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR in the UK. Concrete specimens were conditioned at temperatures of 105 °C and 250 °C, to simulate the maximum thermal load expected to occur during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Following thermal treatment, these specimens along with an unconditioned control sample were characterised using micro-focus X-ray CT with a spatial resolution of 14.6 microns. The results indicate that the air void pore structure of the specimens experienced significant volume changes as a result of the increasing temperature. The increase in the porous volume was more prevalent at 250 °C. Alterations in air void size distributions were characterized with respect to the unconditioned control specimen. These findings appear to correlate with changes in the uni-axial compressive strength of the conditioned concrete.

  19. Three-dimensional core analysis on a super fast reactor with negative local void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Liangzhi; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Ikejiri, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Keeping negative void reactivity throughout the cycle life is one of the most important requirements for the design of a supercritical water-cooled fast reactor (super fast reactor). Previous conceptual design has negative overall void reactivity. But the local void reactivity, which is defined as the reactivity change when the coolant of one fuel assembly disappears, also needs to be kept negative throughout the cycle life because the super fast reactor is designed with closed fuel assemblies. The mechanism of the local void reactivity is theoretically analyzed from the neutrons balance point of view. Three-dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulic coupling calculation is employed to analyze the characteristics of the super fast reactor including the local void reactivity. Some configurations of the core are optimized to decrease the local void reactivity. A reference core is successfully designed with keeping both overall and local void reactivity negative. The maximum local void reactivity is less than -30 pcm

  20. Constitutive modeling of void-growth-based tensile ductile failures with stress triaxiality effects

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Liu, Jinxing; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2014-01-01

    In most metals and alloys, the evolution of voids has been generally recognized as the basic failure mechanism. Furthermore, stress triaxiality has been found to influence void growth dramatically. Besides strain intensity, it is understood

  1. Mechanism of Void Prediction in Flip Chip Packages with Molded Underfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Tsai; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang

    2017-08-01

    Voids have always been present using the molded underfill (MUF) package process, which is a problem that needs further investigation. In this study, the process was studied using the Moldex3D numerical analysis software. The effects of gas (air vent effect) on the overall melt front were also considered. In this isothermal process containing two fluids, the gas and melt colloid interact in the mold cavity. Simulation enabled an appropriate understanding of the actual situation to be gained, and, through analysis, the void region and exact location of voids were predicted. First, the global flow end area was observed to predict the void movement trend, and then the local flow ends were observed to predict the location and size of voids. In the MUF 518 case study, simulations predicted the void region as well as the location and size of the voids. The void phenomenon in a flip chip ball grid array underfill is discussed as part of the study.

  2. Void swelling in fast reactor irradiated high purity binary iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.A.; Stow, D.A.

    The void swelling characteristics of a series of high purity binary iron-chromium alloys containing 0 - 615 0 C. The void swelling behaviour can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of point defect trapping and precipitation processes involving chromium atoms

  3. Effect of scale size, orientation type and dispensing method on void ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AIZAT ABAS

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... reduce the formation of void during encapsulation process. Keywords. Ball grid ... Additionally, the usage of LBM to study of void in CUF was again conducted by ... models are fabricated using clear Perspex and plastics beads.

  4. Parallel Void Thread in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates void filling (idle periods) in long-reach Ethernet passive optical networks. We focus on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. We introduce a novel approach called parallel void thread (PVT), which

  5. Void fraction instrument software, Version 1,2, Acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, M.

    1995-01-01

    This provides the report for the void fraction instrument acceptance test software Version 1.2. The void fraction will collect data that will be used to calculate the quantity of gas trapped in waste tanks

  6. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  7. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  8. Antibiotic prescribing practices for catheter urine culture results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient's treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient

  9. Constitutive modeling of rate dependence and microinertia effects in porous-plastic materials with multi-sized voids (MSVs)

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-voids of varying sizes exist in most metals and alloys. Both experiments and numerical studies have demonstrated the critical influence of initial void sizes on void growth. The classical Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model summarizes

  10. Void swelling and segregation in dilute nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.I.; Rehn, L.E.; Okamoto, P.R.; Wiedersich, H.

    1977-01-01

    Five binary alloys containing 1 at.% of Al, Ti, Mo, Si and Be in nickel were irradiated at temperatures from 525 to 675 0 C with 3.5-MeV 58 Ni + ions. The resultant microstructures were examined by TEM, and void diameters, number densities and swelling are presented for each alloy over the temperature interval investigated. A systematic relation between solute misfit (size factor) and void swelling is established for these alloys. Solute concentration profiles near the irradiated surface were determined and these also exhibited a systematic behavior--undersize solutes segregated to the surface, whereas oversize solutes were depleted. The results are consistent with calculations based on strong interstitial-solute trapping by undersize solutes and vacancy-solute trapping by oversize solutes that are weak interstitial traps

  11. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. 40 CFR 1065.525 - Engine starting, restarting, shutdown, and optional repeating of void discrete modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and optional repeating of void discrete modes. 1065.525 Section 1065.525 Protection of Environment... repeating of void discrete modes. (a) Start the engine using one of the following methods: (1) Start the... during one of the modes of a discrete-mode test, you may void the results only for that individual mode...

  13. Void coalescence mechanism for combined tension and large amplitude cyclic shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Void coalescence at severe shear deformation has been studied intensively under monotonic loading conditions, and the sequence of micro-mechanisms that governs failure has been demonstrated to involve collapse, rotation, and elongation of existing voids. Under intense shearing, the voids are flat...

  14. Discrete modelling of ductile crack growth by void growth to coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    of the ligaments between the crack-tip and a void or between voids involves the development of very large strains, which are included in the model by using remeshing at several stages of the plastic deformation. The material is here described by standard isotropic hardening Mises theory. For a very small void...

  15. Void structure of concrete with superabsorbent polymers and its relation to frost resistance of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Laustsen, Sara

    2013-01-01

    the difference between poor and satisfactory frost-resistance. Furthermore, the results indicate that voids created directly by SAP protect concrete against frost deterioration just like other air voids; if the concrete contains enough SAP voids, these alone can provide sufficient frost resistance. © 2013 RILEM....

  16. A theoretical derivation of the transients related to partial discharges in ellipsoidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, A.; Pedersen, Aage

    1988-01-01

    be drawn about the effects of the gas within the void as well as the size, shape, and location of voids. The method is illustrated by applying it to a spheroidal void in a simple disk-type gas-insulated-substation (GIS) spacer. It is found that the nonattaching gas generates an induced charge...

  17. Laboratory and exterior decay of wood plastic composite boards: voids analysis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca E. Ibach; Meghan Faillace; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie A. Glaeser; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    After exposure in the field and laboratory soil block culture testing, the void content of wood–plastic composite (WPC) decking boards was compared to unexposed samples. A void volume analysis was conducted based on calculations of sample density and from micro-computed tomography (microCT) data. It was found that reference WPC contains voids of different sizes from...

  18. Influence of void ratio on thermal performance of heat pipe receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Xiaohong; Tang Dawei; Liang Shiqiang; Lin Bin; Yuan Xiugan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The temperature gradient increases significantly and the utility ratio of PCM decreases obviously as void ratio increases. ► Void cavity influences the process of phase change greatly. ► PCM melts slowly during sunlight periods and freezes slowly during eclipse periods as void ratio increases. ► The temperature gradient of PCM zone is very significant with the effect of void cavity. - Abstract: In this paper, influence of void ratio on thermal performance of heat pipe receiver under microgravity is numerically simulated. Accordingly, mathematical model is set up. Numerical method is offered. The temperature field of Phase Change Material (PCM) canister is shown. Numerical results are compared with numerical ones of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Numerical results show that the temperature gradient increases significantly and the utility ratio of PCM decreases obviously as void ratio increases. Void cavity influences the process of phase change greatly. PCM melts slowly during sunlight periods and freezes slowly during eclipse periods as void ratio increases. The thermal resistance of void cavity is much bigger than that of PCM canister wall. Void cavity prevents the heat transfer between PCM zone and canister wall. The temperature gradient of PCM zone is very significant with the effect of void cavity. So the thermal stress of heat pipe receiver may increase, and the lifetime may decrease as void ratio increases.

  19. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHODS....... Twenty-six per cent had a maximum flow rate less than 15 ml/s, but only 4% at a voided volume > or =200 ml. Residual urine more than 149 ml was found in 6%. Two women had chronic retention with overflow incontinence. Both had typical symptoms with continuous leakage, stranguria and chronic cystitis...

  20. Void Formation during Diffusion - Two-Dimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Bartek

    2016-06-01

    The final set of equations defining the interdiffusion process in solid state is presented. The model is supplemented by vacancy evolution equation. The competition between the Kirkendall shift, backstress effect and vacancy migration is considered. The proper diffusion flux based on the Nernst-Planck formula is proposed. As a result, the comparison of the experimental and calculated evolution of the void formation in the Fe-Pd diffusion couple is shown.

  1. Effect of helium on void swelling in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Simonen, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    Little difference in void microstructural swelling of vanadium is observed when helium is injected simultaneously with a 46- or 5-MeV nickel beam as compared to no helium injection, at least at high dose rates. At lower dose rates, a strong helium effect is seen when the helium is injected prior to heavy ion bombardment. The effect of the helium is shown to be a strong function of the overall displacement damage rate

  2. Influence of silicon on void nucleation in irradiated alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmailzadeh, B.; Kumar, A.; Garner, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The addition of silicon to pure nickel, Ni-Cr alloys and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys raises the diffusivity of each of the alloy components. The resultant increase in the effective vacancy diffusion coefficient causes large reductions in the nucleation rate of voids during irradiation. This extends the transient regime of swelling, which is controlled not only by the amount of silicon in solution but also by the precipitation kinetics of precipitates rich in nickel and silicon

  3. Theories of nucleation and growth of bubbles and voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The application of classical nucleation theory to the formation of voids from a supersaturated concentration of vacancies is reviewed. The effect of a dissolved concentration of barley soluble gas on the nucleation rate of voids is emphasized. Exposure to a damaging flux of irradiation is the most effective way of introducing a vacancy supersaturation, but interstitials are produced at an equal rate. The concentration of interstitials inhibits the nucleation of voids which can occur only in the presence of dislocations since they preferentially absorb interstitials. It is well known that a definite value of internal gas pressure is necessary to stabilize a bubble so that it shows no tendencies to either shrink or grow. The arguments are reviewed which conclude that this pressure is determined by the specific surface free energy of the solid rather than the surface tension. While the former property refers to the energy necessary to create new surface, the latter is a measure of the work done in elastically stretching a a given surface. The presence of an equilibrium gas bubble leaves the stresses in the surrounding solid unperturbed only when surface energy and surface tension are numerically equal. A bubble with internal pressure greater than the restraint offered by surface energy tends to grow to relieve the excess pressure. The mechanism of growth can involve the migration of vacancies from remote sources to the bubble surface or the plastic straining of the solid surrounding the bubble. The kinetics of both mechanisms are developed and compared. The theory of growth of grain-boundary voids by vacancy condensation under an applied stress is also considered. (author)

  4. A FACSIMILE code for calculating void swelling, version VS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, M.; Bullough, R.; Wood, M.H.

    1979-11-01

    VS1 is the first of a series of FACSIMILE codes that are being made available to predict the swelling of materials under irradiation at different temperatures, using chemical rate equations for the point defect losses to voids, interstitial loops, dislocation network, grain boundaries and foil surfaces. In this report the rate equations used in the program are given together with a detailed description of the code and directions for its use. (author)

  5. Validation uncertainty of MATRA code for subchannel void distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae-Hyun; Kim, S. J.; Kwon, H.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To extend code capability to the whole core subchannel analysis, pre-conditioned Krylov matrix solvers such as BiCGSTAB and GMRES are implemented in MATRA code as well as parallel computing algorithms using MPI and OPENMP. It is coded by fortran 90, and has some user friendly features such as graphic user interface. MATRA code was approved by Korean regulation body for design calculation of integral-type PWR named SMART. The major role subchannel code is to evaluate core thermal margin through the hot channel analysis and uncertainty evaluation for CHF predictions. In addition, it is potentially used for the best estimation of core thermal hydraulic field by incorporating into multiphysics and/or multi-scale code systems. In this study we examined a validation process for the subchannel code MATRA specifically in the prediction of subchannel void distributions. The primary objective of validation is to estimate a range within which the simulation modeling error lies. The experimental data for subchannel void distributions at steady state and transient conditions was provided on the framework of OECD/NEA UAM benchmark program. The validation uncertainty of MATRA code was evaluated for a specific experimental condition by comparing the simulation result and experimental data. A validation process should be preceded by code and solution verification. However, quantification of verification uncertainty was not addressed in this study. The validation uncertainty of the MATRA code for predicting subchannel void distribution was evaluated for a single data point of void fraction measurement at a 5x5 PWR test bundle on the framework of OECD UAM benchmark program. The validation standard uncertainties were evaluated as 4.2%, 3.9%, and 2.8% with the Monte-Carlo approach at the axial levels of 2216 mm, 2669 mm, and 3177 mm, respectively. The sensitivity coefficient approach revealed similar results of uncertainties but did not account for the nonlinear effects on the

  6. Work Capacity of the Bladder During Voiding: A Novel Method to Evaluate Bladder Contractile Function and Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work in voiding (WIV of the bladder may be used to evaluate bladder status throughout urination rather than at a single time point. Few studies, however, have assessed WIV owing to the complexity of its calculations. We have developed a method of calculating work capacity of the bladder while voiding and analyzed the associations of bladder work parameters with bladder contractile function and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 160 men and 23 women, aged >40 years and with a detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate (P det Q max of ≥40 cmH 2 O in men, who underwent urodynamic testing. The bladder power integration method was used to calculate WIV; WIV per second (WIV/t and WIV per liter of urine voided (WIV/v were also calculated. In men, the relationships between these work capacity parameters and P det Q max and Abrams-Griffiths (AG number were determined using linear-by-linear association tests, and relationships between work capacity parameters and BOO grade were investigated using Spearman′s association test. Results: The mean WIV was 1.15 ± 0.78 J and 1.30 ± 0.88 J, mean WIV/t was 22.95 ± 14.45 mW and 23.78 ± 17.02 mW, and mean WIV/v was 5.59 ± 2.32 J/L and 2.83 ± 1.87 J/L in men and women, respectively. In men, WIV/v showed significant positive associations with P det Q max (r = 0.845, P = 0.000, AG number (r = 0.814, P = 0.000, and Schafer class (r = 0.726, P = 0.000. Conversely, WIV and WIV/t showed no associations with P det Q max or AG number. In patients with BOO (Schafer class > II, WIV/v correlated positively with increasing BOO grade. Conclusions: WIV can be calculated from simple urodynamic parameters using the bladder power integration method. WIV/v may be a marker of BOO grade, and the bladder contractile function can be evaluated by WIV and WIV/t.

  7. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaus, Nico; Weller, Jochen [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie, E-mail: hamaus@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: cousinou@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pisani@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: maubert@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: escoffier@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: jochen.weller@usm.lmu.de [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, 163 avenue de Luminy, F-13288, Marseille (France)

    2017-07-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h {sup −1}Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β( z-bar =0.32)=0.599{sup +0.134}{sub −0.124} and β( z-bar =0.54)=0.457{sup +0.056}{sub −0.054}, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at z-bar =0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15< z <0.33.

  8. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Weller, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h-1Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β(bar z=0.32)=0.599+0.134-0.124 and β(bar z=0.54)=0.457+0.056-0.054, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at bar z=0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15

  9. Void coefficient of reactivity calculation for AP-600 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparlina, L.; Budiono, T.A.; Mardha, A.; Tukiran

    1998-01-01

    Void coefficient of reactivity as one of reactor kinetics parameters has been carried out. The calculation was done into two steps which is cell calculation using WIMSD/4 and core calculation using Batan-2DIFF code programs with the condition of beginning of cycle with all fresh fuels elements and all control rods withdrawn. The one dimension transport program in four neutron energy groups is used to calculate the cell generation of various core materials cell has been calculated in 1/4 fuel element with cluster model and square pitch arrange. Moderator density have been reduced until 20% for the void coefficient of reactivity calculation. Macroscopic cross-section as the out put of WIMSD/4 is being used as the input at the diffusion neutron program for core calculation. The void coefficient of reactivity of the AP-600 core can be determined with regular neutron flux and adjoint in four energy groups and X-Y geometry. The results is shown that the K eff calculation value is different 5.2% from the design data

  10. Pelvic floor spasm as a cause of voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tricia L C; Ng, L G; Chapple, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic floor disorders can present with lower urinary tract symptoms, bowel, sexual dysfunction, and/or pain. Symptoms of pelvic muscle spasm (nonrelaxing pelvic floor or hypertonicity) vary and can be difficult to recognize. This makes diagnosis and management of these disorders challenging. In this article, we review the current evidence on pelvic floor spasm and its association with voiding dysfunction. To distinguish between the different causes of voiding dysfunction, a video urodynamics study and/or electromyography is often required. Conservative measures include patient education, behavioral modifications, lifestyle changes, and pelvic floor rehabilitation/physical therapy. Disease-specific pelvic pain and pain from pelvic floor spasm needs to be differentiated and treated specifically. Trigger point massage and injections relieves pain in some patients. Botulinum toxin A, sacral neuromodulation, and acupuncture has been reported in the management of patients with refractory symptoms. Pelvic floor spasm and associated voiding problems are heterogeneous in their pathogenesis and are therefore often underrecognized and undertreated; it is therefore essential that a therapeutic strategy needs to be personalized to the individual patient's requirements. Therefore, careful evaluation and assessment of individuals using a multidisciplinary team approach including a trained physical therapist/nurse clinician is essential in the management of these patients.

  11. Nebular metallicities in two isolated local void dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Basurah, Hassan, E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  12. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J W; Choi, H; Rhee, B W [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  13. Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Zachary H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Kalukin, Andrew R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kuhn, Markus [Intel Corporation RA1-329, 5200 Northeast Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, Oregon 74124 (United States); Frigo, Sean P. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); McNulty, Ian [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Retsch, Cornelia C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang, Yuxin [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Arp, Uwe [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Lucatorto, Thomas B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Ravel, Bruce D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-05-01

    An integrated circuit interconnect was subject to accelerated-life test conditions to induce an electromigration void. The silicon substrate was removed, leaving only the interconnect test structure encased in silica. We imaged the sample with 1750 eV photons using the 2-ID-B scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the Advanced Photon Source, a third-generation synchrotron facility. Fourteen views through the sample were obtained over a 170 degree sign range of angles (with a 40 degree sign gap) about a single rotation axis. Two sampled regions were selected for three-dimensional reconstruction: one of the ragged end of a wire depleted by the void, the other of the adjacent interlevel connection (or ''via''). We applied two reconstruction techniques: the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique and a Bayesian reconstruction technique, the generalized Gaussian Markov random field method. The stated uncertainties are total, with one standard deviation, which resolved the sample to 200{+-}70 and 140{+-}30 nm, respectively. The tungsten via is distinguished from the aluminum wire by higher absorption. Within the void, the aluminum is entirely depleted from under the tungsten via. The reconstructed data show the applicability of this technique to three-dimensional imaging of buried defects in submicrometer structures relevant to the microelectronics industry. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaus, Nico; Weller, Jochen; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h −1 Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β( z-bar =0.32)=0.599 +0.134 −0.124 and β( z-bar =0.54)=0.457 +0.056 −0.054 , with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at z-bar =0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15< z <0.33.

  15. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  16. Nebular Metallicities in Two Isolated Local Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A.; Basurah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  17. Void-free epoxy castings for cryogenic insulators and seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Westinghouse Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Large Coil Program (LCP) incorporates a main lead bushing which transmits heat-leak loads by conduction to the supercritical helium stream. The bushing, which consists of epoxy resin cast about a copper conductor, must be electrically insulated, vacuum tight and be capable of withstanding the stresses encountered in cryognic service. The seal design of the bushing is especially important; leakage from either the helium system or the external environment into the vacuum will cause the magnet to quench. Additionally, the epoxy-resin casting must resist mechanical loads caused by the weight of leads attached to the bushing and thermal stresses transmitted to the epoxy via the conductor. The epoxy resin is cast about the conductor in such a way as to provide the required vacuum tight seal. The technique by which this is accomplished is reviewed. Equally important is the elimination of voids in the epoxy which will act as stress-concentrating discontinuities during cooling to or warming from 4K. The types of voids that could be expected and their causes are described. The paper reviews techniques employed to eliminate voids within the cast-resin portion of the bushing

  18. Herpes zoster-associated voiding dysfunction in hematopoietic malignancy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imafuku, Shinichi; Takahara, Masakazu; Uenotsuchi, Takeshi; Iwato, Koji; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction is a rare but important complication of lumbo-sacral herpes zoster. Although the symptoms are transient, the clinical impact on immunocompromised patients cannot be overlooked. To clarify the time course of voiding dysfunction in herpes zoster, 13 herpes zoster patients with voiding dysfunction were retrospectively analyzed. Of 13 patients, 12 had background disease, and six of these were hematopoietic malignancies; four of these patients were hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Ten patients had sacral lesions, two had lumbar, and one had thoracic lesions. Interestingly, patients with severe rash, or with hematopoietic malignancy had later onset of urinary retention than did patients with mild skin symptoms (Mann-Whitney U analysis, P = 0.053) or with other background disease (P = 0.0082). Patients with severe skin rash also had longer durations (P = 0.035). In one case, acute urinary retention occurred as late as 19 days after the onset of skin rash. In immune compromised subjects, attention should be paid to patients with herpes zoster in the lumbo-sacral area for late onset of acute urinary retention even after the resolution of skin symptoms.

  19. Indications for ureteropyeloscopy based on radiographic findings and urine cytology in detection of upper urinary tract carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Akira; Saika, Takashi; Uehara, Shinya; Monden, Koichi; Abarzua, F.; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the indication of diagnostic ureteropyeloscopy based on clinical features for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer with over 100 patients and over a 10-year series. From January 1997 to December 2008, consecutive 129 units in 124 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopy to obtain a definitive diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out a malignancy. Patients were divided into four subgroups based on voided urine cytology and preoperative radiographic findings: group A (n=8), positive urine cytology and positive radiographic findings; group B (n=4), positive cytology and negative radiographic findings; group C (n=55), negative cytology and positive radiographic findings and group D (n=62), gross hematuria originating from the upper urinary tract with negative cytology and negative radiographic findings. Ureteropyeloscopic findings were compared with radiographic and cytological results. Adverse effects were also investigated. In group A, all patients had confirmed cancer. In group B, one revealed small cancer and the remaining three confirmed carcinoma in situ by biopsy with ureteropyeloscopy. In groups C and D, 33 patients (60%) and four (6.5%) revealed cancer. Seventy-eight patients out of 80 (97.5%) in groups C and D were confirmed to have benign disease. No patient was found with malignancy during follow up after negative finding of ureteropyeloscopy. Ureteropyeloscopy can help in detecting upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out malignancy for patients with negative voiding cytology. However, ureteropyeloscopy is redundant for patients with positive radiographic findings and positive voiding cytology. (author)

  20. Extravasation of the contrast media during voiding cystourethrography in a long-term spinal cord injury patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovindha, A; Sivasomboon, C; Ovatakanont, P

    2005-07-01

    To present complications and pitfalls in voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and introduce a guideline for performing VCUG in a long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) and contracted bladder. A case report. Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand. We describe a chronic C(5) tetraplegic man with NBD and contracted bladder, who developed autonomic dysreflexia (AD), gross hematuria and extravasation of contrast median during VCUG. A foley catheter was retained after VCUG. AD was resolved and urine cleared after a week of continuous bladder irrigation. VCUG should be performed with caution in a long-term SCI patient with NBD and contracted bladder. Forceful pushing of the contrast media by the hand-injection method caused abrupt distention of the contracted bladder, damaged bladder mucosa and aggrevated AD. We suggest a guideline as follows: report bladder capacity and AD, if present, in an X-ray requisition form; use the gravity-drip method, stop the drip and drain the contrast media if a sudden headache and rising of blood pressure (BP) develop; observe urine colour, and report if bleeding or AD occurs.

  1. Leukocyte counts in urine reflect the risk of concomitant sepsis in bacteriuric infants: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harper Marvin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When urine infections are missed in febrile young infants with normal urinalysis, clinicians may worry about the risk – hitherto unverified – of concomitant invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid by uropathogens. In this study, we determine the extent of this risk. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of febrile 0–89 day old infants evaluated for sepsis in an urban academic pediatric emergency department (1993–1999, we estimated rates of bacteriuric sepsis (urinary tract infections complicated by sepsis after stratifying infants by urine leukocyte counts higher, or lower than 10 cells/hpf. We compared the global accuracy of leukocytes in urine, leukocytes in peripheral blood, body temperature, and age for predicting bacteruric sepsis. The global accuracy of each test was estimated by calculating the area under its receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests compared count data. Medians for data not normally distributed were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Two thousand two hundred forty-nine young infants had a normal screening dipstick. None of these developed bacteremia or meningitis despite positive urine culture in 41 (1.8%. Of 1516 additional urine specimens sent for formal urinalysis, 1279 had 0–9 leukocytes/hpf. Urine pathogens were isolated less commonly (6% vs. 76% and at lower concentrations in infants with few, compared to many urine leukocytes. Urine leukocytes (AUC: 0.94 were the most accurate predictors of bacteruric sepsis. Infants with urinary leukocytes Conclusion In young infants evaluated for fever, leukocytes in urine reflect the likelihood of bacteriuric sepsis. Infants with urinary tract infections missed because of few leukocytes in urine are at relatively low risk of invasive bacterial sepsis by pathogens isolated from urine.

  2. Histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the common conditions requiring emergency surgery. A retrospective study was performed to determine various histopathological diagnoses, their demographics and the rates of perforated appendicitis, negative appendectomy and incidental appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Histopathological records of resected appendices submitted to histopathology department Chitwan medical college teaching hospital over the period of 2 yrs from May, 2009 to April 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Out of 930 specimens of appendix, appendicitis accounted for 88.8% with peak age incidence in the age group of 11 to 30 yrs in both sexes. Histopathologic diagnoses included acute appendicitis (45.6%, acute suppurative (20.8%, gangrenous (16.3%, perforated (1.7%, resolving /recurrent/non specific chronic appendicitis (2.5%, acute eosinophilic appendicitis (1.2%, periappendicitis (0.2%, and carcinoid tumour (0.1%. Other important coexisting pathologies were parasitic infestation (0.2% and Meckel’s diverticulum (0.2%. Negative appendectomy rate was 10.8% and three times more common in females with peak occurrence in the age group of 21-30 yrs. There were 10 cases of acute appendicitis in incidental appendectomies (2.5%, 24 cases with 7 times more common in females of age group of 31- 60 yrs. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of appendicitis in adolescents and young adults in central south region of Nepal. Negative appendectomy is also very common in females. Incidental appendectomy in elderly females may have preventive value. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6025 JPN 2012; 2(3: 215-219

  3. Specimen size effects in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Full-size , half-size, and third-size specimens from several different steels have been tested as part of an ongoing alloy development program. The smaller specimens permit more specimens to be made from small trail heats and are much more efficient for irradiation experiments. The results of several comparisons between the different specimen sizes have shown that the smaller specimens show qualitatively similar behavior to large specimens, although the upper-shelf energy level and ductile-to-ductile transition temperature are reduced. The upper-shelf energy levels from different specimen sizes can be compared by using a simple volume normalization method. The effect of specimen size and geometry on the ductile-to-ductile transition temperature is more difficult to predict, although the available data suggest a simple shift in the transition temperature due to specimen size changes.The relatively shallower notch used in smaller specimens alters the deformation pattern, and permits yielding to spread back to the notched surface as well as through to the back. This reduces the constraint and the peak stresses, and thus the initiation of cleavage is more difficult. A better understanding of the stress and strain distributions is needed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Specimen preparation by ion beam slope cutting for characterization of ductile damage by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Hans-Bernward; Gerstein, Gregory; Maier, Hans Jürgen; Nürnberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    To investigate ductile damage in parts made by cold sheet-bulk metal forming a suited specimen preparation is required to observe the microstructure and defects such as voids by electron microscopy. By means of ion beam slope cutting both a targeted material removal can be applied and mechanical or thermal influences during preparation avoided. In combination with scanning electron microscopy this method allows to examine voids in the submicron range and thus to analyze early stages of ductile damage. In addition, a relief structure is formed by the selectivity of the ion bombardment, which depends on grain orientation and microstructural defects. The formation of these relief structures is studied using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction and the use of this side effect to interpret the microstructural mechanisms of voids formation by plastic deformation is discussed. A comprehensive investigation of the suitability of ion beam milling to analyze ductile damage is given at the examples of a ferritic deep drawing steel and a dual phase steel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  6. Learning from errors: analysis of medication order voiding in CPOE systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampallil, Thomas G; Abraham, Joanna; Solotskaya, Anna; Philip, Sneha G; Lambert, Bruce L; Schiff, Gordon D; Wright, Adam; Galanter, William L

    2017-07-01

    Medication order voiding allows clinicians to indicate that an existing order was placed in error. We explored whether the order voiding function could be used to record and study medication ordering errors. We examined medication orders from an academic medical center for a 6-year period (2006-2011; n  = 5 804 150). We categorized orders based on status (void, not void) and clinician-provided reasons for voiding. We used multivariable logistic regression to investigate the association between order voiding and clinician, patient, and order characteristics. We conducted chart reviews on a random sample of voided orders ( n  = 198) to investigate the rate of medication ordering errors among voided orders, and the accuracy of clinician-provided reasons for voiding. We found that 0.49% of all orders were voided. Order voiding was associated with clinician type (physician, pharmacist, nurse, student, other) and order type (inpatient, prescription, home medications by history). An estimated 70 ± 10% of voided orders were due to medication ordering errors. Clinician-provided reasons for voiding were reasonably predictive of the actual cause of error for duplicate orders (72%), but not for other reasons. Medication safety initiatives require availability of error data to create repositories for learning and training. The voiding function is available in several electronic health record systems, so order voiding could provide a low-effort mechanism for self-reporting of medication ordering errors. Additional clinician training could help increase the quality of such reporting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Is the far border of the Local Void expanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, I.; Chamaraux, P.

    2011-07-01

    Context. According to models of evolution in the hierarchical structure formation scenarios, voids of galaxies are expected to expand. The Local Void (LV) is the closest large void, and it provides a unique opportunity to test observationally such an expansion. It has been found that the Local Group, which is on the border of the LV, is running away from the void center at ~260 km s-1. Aims: In this study we investigate the motion of the galaxies at the far-side border of the LV to examine the presence of a possible expansion. Methods: We selected late-type, edge-on spiral galaxies with radial velocities between 3000 km s-1 and 5000 km s-1, and carried out HI 21 cm line and H-band imaging observations. The near-infrared Tully-Fisher relation was calibrated with a large sample of galaxies and carefully corrected for Malmquist bias. It was used to compute the distances and the peculiar velocities of the LV sample galaxies. Among the 36 sample LV galaxies with good quality HI line width measurements, only 15 galaxies were selected for measuring their distances and peculiar velocities, in order to avoid the effect of Malmquist bias. Results: The average peculiar velocity of these 15 galaxies is found to be -419+208-251 km s-1, which is not significantly different from zero. Conclusions: Due to the intrinsically large scatter of Tully-Fisher relation, we cannot conclude whether there is a systematic motion against the center of the LV for the galaxies at the far-side boundary of the void. However, our result is consistent with the hypothesis that those galaxies at the far-side boundary have an average velocity of ~260 km s-1 equivalent to what is found at the position of the Local Group. Based on data taken at Nançay radiotelescope operated by Observatoire de Paris, CNRS and Université d'Orléans, Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) which is operated by Nagoya university under the cooperation of South African Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto University, and National

  8. Validation and calculation of uncertainties of the method of determination of creatinine in urine in internal dosimetry; Validacion y calculo de incertidumbres del metodo de determinacion de creatinina en orina en dosimetria interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Barcedo, I.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Benito Alonso, P.; Lopez Zarza, C.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to conduct the validation of the quantification technique of content by spectrophotometry creatinine in urine samples of exposed workers at risk of internal counter and the study of all sources uncertainty that influence in the process. This technique is used to carry out the normalization of the amount of urine to urinary 24h, necessary for dosimetric purposes, as well as a criterion for acceptance of rejection of urine specimens received by the laboratory.

  9. Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Amer, H.; Schladot, J.D.; Ostapczuk, P.; Emons, H.; Abou El-Nour, F.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany

  10. Isolation of Infective Zika Virus from Urine and Saliva of Patients in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna C Bonaldo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emergent threat provoking a worldwide explosive outbreak. Since January 2015, 41 countries reported autochthonous cases. In Brazil, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly cases was linked to ZIKV infections. A recent report describing low experimental transmission efficiency of its main putative vector, Ae. aegypti, in conjunction with apparent sexual transmission notifications, prompted the investigation of other potential sources of viral dissemination. Urine and saliva have been previously established as useful tools in ZIKV diagnosis. Here, we described the presence and isolation of infectious ZIKV particles from saliva and urine of acute phase patients in the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.Nine urine and five saliva samples from nine patients from Rio de Janeiro presenting rash and other typical Zika acute phase symptoms were inoculated in Vero cell culture and submitted to specific ZIKV RNA detection and quantification through, respectively, NAT-Zika, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Two ZIKV isolates were achieved, one from urine and one from saliva specimens. ZIKV nucleic acid was identified by all methods in four patients. Whenever both urine and saliva samples were available from the same patient, urine viral loads were higher, corroborating the general sense that it is a better source for ZIKV molecular diagnostic. In spite of this, from the two isolated strains, each from one patient, only one derived from urine, suggesting that other factors, like the acidic nature of this fluid, might interfere with virion infectivity. The complete genome of both ZIKV isolates was obtained. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similarity with strains previously isolated during the South America outbreak.The detection of infectious ZIKV particles in urine and saliva of patients during the acute phase may represent a critical factor in the spread of virus. The epidemiological relevance of this finding, regarding the contribution

  11. Isolation of Infective Zika Virus from Urine and Saliva of Patients in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Kely A. B.; de Castro, Marcia G.; Gerber, Alexandra L.; de Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent threat provoking a worldwide explosive outbreak. Since January 2015, 41 countries reported autochthonous cases. In Brazil, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly cases was linked to ZIKV infections. A recent report describing low experimental transmission efficiency of its main putative vector, Ae. aegypti, in conjunction with apparent sexual transmission notifications, prompted the investigation of other potential sources of viral dissemination. Urine and saliva have been previously established as useful tools in ZIKV diagnosis. Here, we described the presence and isolation of infectious ZIKV particles from saliva and urine of acute phase patients in the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Nine urine and five saliva samples from nine patients from Rio de Janeiro presenting rash and other typical Zika acute phase symptoms were inoculated in Vero cell culture and submitted to specific ZIKV RNA detection and quantification through, respectively, NAT-Zika, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Two ZIKV isolates were achieved, one from urine and one from saliva specimens. ZIKV nucleic acid was identified by all methods in four patients. Whenever both urine and saliva samples were available from the same patient, urine viral loads were higher, corroborating the general sense that it is a better source for ZIKV molecular diagnostic. In spite of this, from the two isolated strains, each from one patient, only one derived from urine, suggesting that other factors, like the acidic nature of this fluid, might interfere with virion infectivity. The complete genome of both ZIKV isolates was obtained. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similarity with strains previously isolated during the South America outbreak. Conclusions/Significance The detection of infectious ZIKV particles in urine and saliva of patients during the acute phase may represent a critical factor in the spread of virus. The epidemiological

  12. Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Westwood, Marie; Watt, Ian; Cooper, Julie; Kleijnen, Jos

    2005-04-05

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common sources of infection in children under five. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to reduce the risk of renal scarring. Rapid, cost-effective, methods of UTI diagnosis are required as an alternative to culture. We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for detecting UTI in children under five years of age. The evidence supports the use of dipstick positive for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite (pooled LR+ = 28.2, 95% CI: 17.3, 46.0) or microscopy positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria (pooled LR+ = 37.0, 95% CI: 11.0, 125.9) to rule in UTI. Similarly dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite (Pooled LR- = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) or microscopy negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria (Pooled LR- = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23) can be used to rule out UTI. A test for glucose showed promise in potty-trained children. However, all studies were over 30 years old. Further evaluation of this test may be useful. Dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite or microscopic analysis negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria of a clean voided urine, bag, or nappy/pad specimen may reasonably be used to rule out UTI. These patients can then reasonably be excluded from further investigation, without the need for confirmatory culture. Similarly, combinations of positive tests could be used to rule in UTI, and trigger further investigation.

  13. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  14. Changes in urination according to the sound of running water using a mobile phone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Whi-An; Kim, Sung Han; Kim, Sohee; Joung, Jae Young; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Sang-Jin; Seo, Ho Kyung

    2015-01-01

    The sound of running water (SRW) has been effectively used for toilet training during toddlerhood. However, the effect of SRW on voiding functions in adult males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has not been evaluated. To determine the effect of SRW on urination in male patients with LUTS, multiple voiding parameters of uroflowmetry with postvoid residual urine (PVR) were assessed according to the presence of SRW played by a mobile application. Eighteen consecutive male patients with LUTS were prospectively enrolled between March and April 2014. Uroflowmetry with PVR measured by a bladder scan was randomly performed once weekly for two consecutive weeks with and without SRW in a completely sealed room after pre-checked bladder volume was scanned to be more than 150 cc. SRW was played with river water sounds amongst relaxed melodies from a smartphone mobile application. The mean age of enrolled patients and their mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were 58.9 ± 7.7 years (range: 46-70) and 13.1 ± 5.9, respectively. All patients had not been prescribed any medications, including alpha-blockers or anti-muscarinic agents, in the last 3 months. There was a significant increase in mean peak flow rate (PFR) with SRW in comparison to without SRW (15.7 mL/s vs. 12.3 mL/s, respectively, p = 0.0125). However, there were no differences in other uroflowmetric parameters, including PVR. The study showed that SRW from a mobile phone application may be helpful in facilitating voiding functions by increasing PFR in male LUTS patients.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosowicz, J.; Gembicki, M.; Schneider, E.; Eder, M.

    1977-01-01

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T 3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T 3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T 3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T 3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T 3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  16. Effect of initial void shape on ductile failure in a shear field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2015-01-01

    For voids in a shear field unit cell model analyses have been used to show that ductile failure is predicted even though the stress triaxiality is low or perhaps negative, so that the void volume fraction does not grow during deformation. Here, the effect of the void shape is studied by analyzing...... with circular cross-section, i.e. the voids in shear flatten out to micro-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighboring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Even though the mechanism of ductile failure is the same, the load carrying capacity predicted, for the same initial void volume fraction...

  17. Sensitivity analysis of an impedance void meter to the void distribution in annular flow: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonnier, H.; Nakach, R.; Favreau, C.; Selmer-Olsen, S. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Service d' Etudes Thermohydrauliques)

    1991-04-01

    Impedance void meters are frequently used to measure the are-averaged void fraction in pipes. This is primarily for two reasons: firstly, this method is non-instrusive since the measurement can be made by electrodes flush mounted in the walls, and secondly, the signal processing equipment is simple. Impedance probes may be calibrated by using a pressure drop measurement or a quick closing valve system. In general, little attention is paid to void distribution effects. It can be proved that in annular flow, the departure from radial symmetry has a strong influence on the measured mean film thickness. This can be easily demonstrated by solving the Laplace equation for the electrical potential by simple analytical methods. When some spatial symmetry conditions are encountered, it is possible to calculate directly the conductance of the two-phase medium without a complete calculation of the potential. A solution of this problem by using the separation of variables technique is also presented. The main difficulty with this technique is the mixed nature of the boundary conditions: the boundary condition is both of Neumann and of Drichlet type on the same coordinate curve. This formulation leads to a non-separable problem, which is solved by truncating an infinite algebraic set of linear equations. The results, although strictly valid in annular flow, may give the correct trends when applied to bubbly flow. Finally, the theory provides an error estimate and a design criterion to improve the probe reliability. (orig.).

  18. Sensitivity analysis of an impedance void meter to the void distribution in annular flow: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonnier, H.; Nakach, R.; Favreau, C.; Selmer-Olsen, S.

    1991-01-01

    Impedance void meters are frequently used to measure the are-averaged void fraction in pipes. This is primarily for two reasons: firstly, this method is non-instrusive since the measurement can be made by electrodes flush mounted in the walls, and secondly, the signal processing equipment is simple. Impedance probes may be calibrated by using a pressure drop measurement or a quick closing valve system. In general, little attention is paid to void distribution effects. It can be proved that in annular flow, the departure from radial symmetry has a strong influence on the measured mean film thickness. This can be easily demonstrated by solving the Laplace equation for the electrical potential by simple analytical methods. When some spatial symmetry conditions are encountered, it is possible to calculate directly the conductance of the two-phase medium without a complete calculation of the potential. A solution of this problem by using the separation of variables technique is also presented. The main difficulty with this technique is the mixed nature of the boundary conditions: the boundary condition is both of Neumann and of Drichlet type on the same coordinate curve. This formulation leads to a non-separable problem, which is solved by truncating an infinite algebraic set of linear equations. The results, although strictly valid in annular flow, may give the correct trends when applied to bubbly flow. Finally, the theory provides an error estimate and a design criterion to improve the probe reliability. (orig.)

  19. Infiltration properties of covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to fluctuation of ground water level and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Tadashi; Tadano, Hideki; Abe, Satoshi; Imai, Jun; Yanagisawa, Eiji; Mitachi, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    Low level radioactive concrete waste will be produced in future by breaking up the nuclear facilities, and the waste will be disposed in shallow depth of ground. In order to prepare for those situation, it is needed to clarify the infiltration properties of the covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to the fluctuation of ground water level and to develop the prevention methods against the infiltration of the covering soil. In this study, full-scale concrete structure specimens were broken up, and were compacted in large scale testing boxes and a series tests changing water level up and down in the concrete waste and covering soil were performed. From the test results, it was found that the appropriate filter installed between the covering soil and the concrete waste, enable us to prevent the infiltration of covering soil into the void of concrete waste. (author)

  20. Antibiogram of escherichia coli isolated from urine samples at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudary, Z.A.; Hasan, A.; Alizai, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the E. coli isolated from urine in our setup, especially in low income group of population. Methodology: The study was carried out from July 2010 to June 2011 at surgical and urological units of a hospital in Islamabad. E.coli were isolated from urine specimens by following standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion techniques according to CLSI guidelines. Results: The prevalence of E. coli isolated from urine samples was 28.22%. Highest resistance was seen against ampicillin (80.3%). Imipenem was found out to be highly effective. Conclusion: Imipenem, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin can be reliably used against E. coli causing urinary tract infections. Gentamicin and moxifloxacin also showed satisfactory results. (author)

  1. Definition of Success after Surgery for Female Stress Incontinence or Voiding Dysfunction: An Attempt at Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Maude E; Deng, Donna Y; Greenwell, Tamsin J; Zimmern, Philippe E

    2016-08-01

    There is currently no standardized definition of success for surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and voiding dysfunction (VD) in women. To review the use of outcome measures (OMs) and definitions of success in the literature on SUI and VD surgery in women in an attempt to provide recommendations for future publications. A PubMed search of all English language full-text articles on SUI and VD surgery in women published between 2010 and 2015 was performed. A list of randomized trials and prospective and retrospective studies was obtained. Specific objective and subjective OMs used to define success were reviewed. Some 95 articles met the inclusion criteria for SUI surgery outcomes. Most trials reported outcomes at 12 mo after surgery. The majority (n=48) reported their primary outcomes using both objective and subjective success measures, 24 defined success using subjective OMs alone, and 23 using objective OMs alone. The OMs most frequently used for objective success were a negative cough stress test (CST), a negative pad test, and the absence of retreatment for SUI. The definition of subjective success most often involved questionnaires. The questionnaires most frequently used were Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I), Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI)/UDI-6, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and Medical Epidemiologic and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA). Only 11 studies on OMs used for VD surgery were published between 2010 and 2015. The two most common criteria used for success were measurement of postvoid residual urine (PVR) and subjective resolution of VD symptoms. There is great heterogeneity in the definition of success used after surgery for SUI or VD in women. For SUI surgery, we recommend use of the CST and a 1-h pad test for the definition of objective success, and of the UDI/UDI-6, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), ICIQ-SF, or PGI-I questionnaire for

  2. Alpha-fetoprotein as a tool to distinguish amniotic fluid from urine, vaginal discharge, and semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Amir; Tal, Reshef; Haberman, Shoshana; McCalla, Sandra; Irani, Mohamad; Perlman, Jaqueline; Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard

    2015-02-01

    To estimate whether alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be used to distinguish amniotic fluid absorbed in sanitary pads from other similarly absorbed substances (semen, urine, and normal vaginal discharge). A prospective cohort study. Urine and amniotic fluid specimens were collected from 52 pregnant women admitted for labor. Semen specimens were collected from 17 men undergoing infertility evaluation. Alpha-fetoprotein concentrations were measured directly from urine, amniotic fluid, and semen and from pads instilled with samples from these specimens. Alpha-fetoprotein concentrations were also measured from pads absorbed with normal vaginal discharge collected from 27 pregnant women. Alpha-fetoprotein levels in amniotic fluid (245.38 ± 21.03 ng/mL, n = 52) were significantly higher than those measured in maternal urine (0.84 ± 0.17 ng/mL, n = 52, P < .001), or semen (1.52 ± 0.35 ng/mL, n = 17, P < .001). The same trend was seen when AFP was extracted from pads: amniotic fluid levels (19.44 ± 1.98 ng/mL, n=52) were significantly higher than those of urine (undetectable, n=52), semen (undetectable, n = 17), or normal vaginal discharge (0.53 ± 0.16 ng/mL, n = 27, P < .001). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated 96.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for distinguishing the presence of amniotic fluid from normal vaginal discharge on sanitary pads (cutoff 3.88 ng/mL, area under the curve 0.99). When the diagnosis of rupture of membranes is in doubt, AFP levels can assist in differentiating amniotic fluid from other bodily fluids. A method that utilizes sanitary pads and an assay for AFP quantification may be an accurate and convenient way to confirm the diagnosis of rupture of membranes.

  3. Physics study of Canada deuterium uranium lattice with coolant void reactivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Su; Lee, Hyun Suk; Tak, Tae Woo; Lee, Deok Jung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ho Cheol [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNP-CRI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study presents a coolant void reactivity analysis of Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU)-6 and Advanced Canada Deuterium Uranium Reactor-700 (ACR-700) fuel lattices using a Monte Carlo code. The reactivity changes when the coolant was voided were assessed in terms of the contributions of four factors and spectrum shifts. In the case of single bundle coolant voiding, the contribution of each of the four factors in the ACR-700 lattice is large in magnitude with opposite signs, and their summation becomes a negative reactivity effect in contrast to that of the CANDU-6 lattice. Unlike the coolant voiding in a single fuel bundle, the 2 x 2 checkerboard coolant voiding in the ACR-700 lattice shows a positive reactivity effect. The neutron current between the no-void and voided bundles, and the four factors of each bundle were analyzed to figure out the mechanism of the positive coolant void reactivity of the checkerboard voiding case. Through a sensitivity study of fuel enrichment, type of burnable absorber, and moderator to fuel volume ratio, a design strategy for the CANDU reactor was suggested in order to achieve a negative coolant void reactivity even for the checkerboard voiding case.

  4. Effective void fraction for a BWR assembly with boiling in the bypass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Segev, M.; Knoglinger, E.

    1991-09-01

    Average BWR assembly cross-sections for nominal conditions, namely for zero bypass void, can be utilised in the analysis of transient conditions with boiling in the bypass. A model is developed to yield an effective channel void for such conditions. The use of this void in conjunction with the 'nominal conditions' cross section library approximately preserves the assembly K-infinity corresponding to the true channel and bypass voids. The effective void is an augmentation of the actual channel void. The augment is proportional to the bypass-to-channel volume ratio, to the bypass void, and to a weight W which is introduced to quantify the fact that a water molecule in the bypass has a different assembly criticality worth than one in the channel. The formula developed is superior to the practice of choosing W=1, namely a simple, non-weighted, transfer of water from channel to bypass. The use of this approximate effective channel void reproduces actual K-infinity values of assemblies to better than 5 mk, whereas the use of a simple model sometimes misspredicts the assembly K-infinity by 40 mK. The effective void model cannot handle cases in which both channel and bypass void value are high, simply because then the effective void α ch eff becomes meaningless. A method to treat the α eff >1 domain is developed by which corrections to cross sections are provided. Such corrections are synthesised as functions of the assembly parameters. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Direct evidence of void passivation in Cu(InGa)(SSe)2 absorber layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongho; Kim, Young-Su; Mo, Chan B.; Huh, Kwangsoo; Yang, JungYup; Nam, Junggyu; Baek, Dohyun; Park, Sungchan; Kim, ByoungJune; Kim, Dongseop; Lee, Jaehan; Heo, Sung; Park, Jong-Bong; Kang, Yoonmook

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the charge collection condition around voids in copper indium gallium sulfur selenide (CIGSSe) solar cells fabricated by sputter and a sequential process of selenization/sulfurization. In this study, we found direct evidence of void passivation by using the junction electron beam induced current method, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The high sulfur concentration at the void surface plays an important role in the performance enhancement of the device. The recombination around voids is effectively suppressed by field-assisted void passivation. Hence, the generated carriers are easily collected by the electrodes. Therefore, when the S/(S + Se) ratio at the void surface is over 8% at room temperature, the device performance degradation caused by the recombination at the voids is negligible at the CIGSSe layer

  6. Direct evidence of void passivation in Cu(InGa)(SSe){sub 2} absorber layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongho; Kim, Young-Su; Mo, Chan B.; Huh, Kwangsoo; Yang, JungYup, E-mail: jungyupyang@gmail.com, E-mail: ddang@korea.ac.kr; Nam, Junggyu; Baek, Dohyun; Park, Sungchan; Kim, ByoungJune; Kim, Dongseop [PV Development Team, Energy Solution Business Division, Samsung SDI, 467 Beonyeong-ro, Seobuk-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 331-330 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehan [Core Technology Laboratory, Battery Research Center, Samsung SDI, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sung; Park, Jong-Bong [Analytical Engineering Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoonmook, E-mail: jungyupyang@gmail.com, E-mail: ddang@korea.ac.kr [KUKIST Green School, Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-23

    We have investigated the charge collection condition around voids in copper indium gallium sulfur selenide (CIGSSe) solar cells fabricated by sputter and a sequential process of selenization/sulfurization. In this study, we found direct evidence of void passivation by using the junction electron beam induced current method, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The high sulfur concentration at the void surface plays an important role in the performance enhancement of the device. The recombination around voids is effectively suppressed by field-assisted void passivation. Hence, the generated carriers are easily collected by the electrodes. Therefore, when the S/(S + Se) ratio at the void surface is over 8% at room temperature, the device performance degradation caused by the recombination at the voids is negligible at the CIGSSe layer.

  7. On the formation of voids in internal tin Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Haibel, A

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe three void growth mechanisms in Nb$_{3}$Sn strands of the internal tin design on the basis of combined synchrotron micro-tomography and x-ray diffraction measurements during in-situ heating cycles. Initially void growth is driven by a reduction of void surface area by void agglomeration. The main void volume increase is caused by density changes during the formation of Cu3Sn in the strand. Subsequent transformation of Cu-Sn intermetallics into the lower density a-bronze reduces the void volume again. Long lasting temperature ramps and isothermal holding steps can neither reduce the void volume nor improve the chemical strand homogeneity prior to the superconducting A15 phase nucleation and growth.

  8. The Urine Marker Test: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Urine Collection for Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylansted; Elsborg, Peter; Wetzke, Monika; Woldemariam, Getachew A; Huppertz, Bernd; Keller, Ruprecht; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance of this new method via two questionnaires (n = 253). Furthermore, a third study (n = 91) investigated whether ingestion of the marker can identify the urine as coming from a specific person and whether the marker interferes with the detection of prohibited substances. The results indicate that this new method finds wide acceptance both from athletes who have only heard about the procedure and those who have actually tested the new method. Furthermore, the marker, which can identify urine as coming from a specific person, does not interfere with the detection of prohibited substances.

  9. Kvaliteten af resistensbestemmelser på urin i almen praksis er generelt god

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Per; Knudsen, Anette Flindt; Højbjerg, Tove

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, many microbiological tests (microscopy, culture and susceptibility examinations) are done in general practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI). In 2006, the costs of susceptibility examinations were 28 million DKK. Some regional health authorities have established...... a program for quality assessment. National quality requirements for susceptibility examinations have already been established. The clinical microbiological departments send simulated urines with bacteria of common UTI strains. The specimens are examined in general practice with routine methods. The results...

  10. Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of a Bone Void that Formed After Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Sinus Graft Augmentation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In the present case report, the authors describe radiographic and histologic observations of a bone void that formed after a sinus augmentation using a graft material that contained recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and discuss clinical and histologic implications of their findings. Sinus augmentation was performed using a graft material comprising 1 g of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, which contained 1 mg of rhBMP-2. Radiographic evaluation was conducted with panoramic radiographs and computed tomography images of the augmented maxillary sinus, which were analyzed using a three-dimensional image-reconstruction program. Histologic evaluation was also performed on a biopsy specimen obtained 6 months after the sinus augmentation. The total augmented volume increased from 1,582.2 mm(3) immediately after the sinus augmentation to 3,344.9 mm3 at 6 months after the augmentation because of the formation of a bone void. Twenty-six months after the sinus augmentation, the bone void remained but had reduced in volume, with the total augmented volume reduced to 2,551.7 mm(3). Histologically, new bone was observed to be in contact with the grafted particles, and a fatty marrow-like tissue was present in the area of the bone void. This case report shows that the bone void that had formed after sinus augmentation resolved over time and seemed to be partially replaced with new bone. Furthermore, none of the implants failed, and clinical adverse events were not observed during the follow-up period.

  11. Radiographic determination of urinary bladder volume and residual urine volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumair, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of a long study the author has tested most of the methods for determination of urinary bladder volume. A radiographic method which can state bladder volume exactly in cc's is attainable only with great time and effort. In the author's experience, however, it is possible, by means of a pattern in connection with a IVP, to estimate residual urine volume from a post-void picture of the bladder with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. An account is given of the production of this pattern and of two relatively simple calculations for residual volume based on AP and lateral views of circular- and ellipsoid-shaped bladders. Also discussed is the radiation exposure which varies with the radiographic methods used. In male patients, the radiation exposure appears to be negligible, especially when the testicles are protected by a radiation shield. In female patients - which make up only a small fraction of all patients -, radiation exposure is higher but must be accepted. (orig./MG) [de

  12. [Experimental study of percutaneous vertebroplasty with a novel bone void filling container system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai-Ping; Zhang, Kui-bo; Zheng, Zhao-min; Liu, Hui; Yu, Bin-sheng

    2011-04-19

    To investigate vertebral augmentation with a novel reticulate bone filling container system by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) injection in cadaveric simulated vertebral compressive fracture and explore the effect of reticulate bone filling container on cement distribution controlling within vertebral body and the restoration of biomechanical properties after augmentation. A total of 28 freshly frozen human vertebrae specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups. After the measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebral height, each vertebra received an axle load by a MTS (material testing system) machine to test the initial strength and stiffness. Subsequently a simultaneous compressive fracture model was created to measure the stiffness and height of fractured vertebrae. Then the augmentation procedure was performed. Afterward the biomechanical properties and the vertebral height were similarly measured as pre-operatively. The expansion of bone filling container and the distribution of cement within vertebral body were morphologically observed by crossing the specimens in sagittal midline and also integrated with the radiographic results. Stiffness was significantly restored comparing with that of fractured level (P container groups while it was irregular in single-layer groups. After crossing, the double-layer version expanded well in vertebral body and could enwrap most of injected cement. There was only a little leakage near the vessel layer. But the single-layer version had a poor expansion and a large amount of cement leakage. This novel reticulate bone void filling container system with different layers may restore both the biomechanical properties and the height of fractured vertebrae. But, with the benefit of reducing cement leakage, a double-layer design can enwrap most of injected PMMA and has a brighter prospect of clinical application.

  13. Urine Collection in the Emergency Department: What Really Happens in There?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Alter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In women with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI, a non-contaminated voidedspecimen is considered important for valid urinalysis and culture results. We assess whethermidstream parted-labia catch (MSPC instructions were provided by nurses, understood, andperformed correctly, according to the patient.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking female patientssubmitting voided urine samples for urinalysis for suspected UTI. The survey was conducted in apublic teaching hospital emergency department (ED from June to December 2010, beginning 2months after development and dissemination of a nursing MSPC instructions protocol. Researchassistants administered the survey within 2 hours of urine collection. Nurses were unaware of thestudy purpose.Results: Of 129 patients approached, 74 (57% consented and were included in the analysis.Median age was 35; 44% were Latino. Regarding instructions from nurses, patients reported thefollowing: 45 (61%; 95% CI 50-72% received any instructions; of whom 37 (82%; 95% CI 71-93%understood them completely. Sixteen (36%; 95% CI 22-51% were instructed to collect midstream;and 7 (16%; 95% CI 6-29% to part the labia. Regardless of receiving or understanding instructions,33 (45%; 95% CI 33-57% reported actually collecting midstream, and 11 (15%, 95% CI 8-25%parting the labia.Conclusion: In this ED, instructions for MSPC urine collection frequently were not given, despite anursing protocol, and patients rarely performed the essential steps. An evidence-based approachto urine testing in the ED that considers urine collection technique, is needed.

  14. Increased prostate cancer specific mortality following radical prostatectomy in men presenting with voiding symptoms-A whole of population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Anthony D; Papa, Nathan P; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Syme, Rodney; Giles, Graham G; Bolton, Damien M

    2015-09-01

    Whole of population studies reporting long-term outcomes following radical prostatectomy (RP) are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes in men with prostate cancer (PC) treated with RP in a whole of population cohort. A secondary objective was to evaluate the influence of mode of presentation on PC specific mortality (PCSM). A prospective database of all cases of RP performed in Victoria, Australia between 1995 and 2000 was established within the Victorian Cancer Registry. Specimen histopathology reports and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values were obtained by record linkage to pathology laboratories. Mode of presentation was recorded as either PSA screened (PSA testing offered in absence of voiding symptoms) or symptomatic (diagnosis of PC following presentation with voiding symptoms). Multivariate Cox and competing risk regression models were fitted to analyze all-cause mortality, biochemical recurrence, and PCSM. Between 1995 and 2000, 2,154 men underwent RP in Victoria. During median follow up of 10.2 years (range 0.26-13.5 years), 74 men died from PC. In addition to Gleason score and pathological stage, symptomatic presentation was associated with PCSM. After adjusting for stage and PSA, no difference in PCSM was found between men with Gleason score ≤ 6 and Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7. Men with Gleason score 4 + 3 had significantly greater cumulative incidence of PCSM compared with men with Gleason score 3 + 4. Primary Gleason pattern in Gleason 7 PC is an important prognosticator of survival. Our findings suggest that concomitant voiding symptoms should be considered in the work-up and treatment of PC.

  15. Emission-line galaxies toward the booetes void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Galaxies with strong emission are potentially useful as probes of the large-scale galaxian distribution. However, to serve as probes, their relative frequency and clustering properties must be known. This dissertation presents a study of these properties for field galaxies having [OIII] λ5007 emission equivalent widths greater than 10 A and reports on a search for galaxies with [OIII] λ5007 emission in the direction of the Booetes void, a volume located at α = 4/sup h/48/sup m/, δ = 47 0 , and cz = 15,000 km/sec that has been demonstrated to be under-abundant in galaxies by a factor of at least four. The study of field emission-line galaxies was done in two magnitude limited surveys consisting of 341 galaxies from both the north and south galactic caps having previously published redshifts and photometry. The galaxy spectra used for redshifts were examined and supplemented by new observations for 56 objects, primarily those with confirmed or suspected emission. Emission-line galaxies were found to comprise 8.8% of galaxies in a Illa-J selected sample or 6.6% of galaxies in a Illa-F selected sample. A search for emission-line galaxies towards the Booetes void was undertaken using the Burrell Schmidt telescope and an objective prism giving a reciprocal dispersion of 900 A/mm at Hβ. Three galaxies were found to lie within it, a result consistent with distributions through the void ranging from uniform to under-abundant by a factor of three

  16. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It ...

  17. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  18. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test ( ...

  19. The determination of 210Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  20. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español ...