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Sample records for voglibose oral disintegrating

  1. ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS: A REVIEW

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    Mudgal Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are gaining prominence as new drug delivery systems and emerged as one of the popular and widely accepted dosage forms, especially for the pediatric and geriatric patients. To obviate the problem of dysphagia and to improve patient compliance, ODTs have gained considerable attention as preferred alternatives to conventional tablet and capsule formulations. Various scientific techniques including freeze drying, moulding, spray drying, sublimation, direct compression, cotton candy process, mass extrusion, melt granulation etc. have been employed for the development of ODTs. These techniques render the disintegration of tablet rapidly and dissolve in mouth without chewing or additional water intake. The current article is focused on ideal characteristics, significant features, patented technologies, formulation aspects including the use of superdisintegrants. Various marketed preparations along with numerous scientific advancements made so far in this avenue have also been discussed.

  2. Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

    2013-02-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products.

  3. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

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    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, δ and β crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the β-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Oral Disintegrating Film Containing Donepezil for Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a taste-masked oral disintegrating film (ODF) containing donepezil, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate and crosspovidone served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro resul...

  5. Orally disintegrating films: A modern expansion in drug delivery system

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    Muhammad Irfan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, tendency toward innovative drug delivery systems has majorly increased attempts to ensure efficacy, safety and patient acceptability. As discovery and development of new chemical agents is a complex, expensive and time consuming process, so recent trends are shifting toward designing and developing innovative drug delivery systems for existing drugs. Out of those, drug delivery system being very eminent among pediatrics and geriatrics is orally disintegrating films (ODFs. These fast disintegrating films have superiority over fast disintegrating tablets as the latter are associated with the risks of choking and friability. This drug delivery system has numerous advantages over conventional fast disintegrating tablets as they can be used for dysphasic and schizophrenic patients and are taken without water due to their ability to disintegrate within a few seconds releasing medication in mouth. Various approaches are employed for formulating ODFs and among which solvent casting and spraying methods are frequently used. Generally, hydrophilic polymers along with other excipients are used for preparing ODFs which allow films to disintegrate quickly releasing incorporated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API within seconds. Orally disintegrating films have potential for business and market exploitation because of their myriad of benefits over orally disintegrating tablets. This present review attempts to focus on benefits, composition, approaches for formulation and evaluation of ODFs. Additionally, the market prospect of this innovative dosage form is also targeted.

  6. Further improvement of orally disintegrating tablets using micronized ethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yutaka; Irisawa, Yosuke; Okimoto, Kazuto; Osawa, Takashi; Yamashita, Shinji

    2012-02-28

    The aim of this study is to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing micronized ethylcellulose (MEC). The new ODT was prepared by physical mixing of rapidly disintegrating granules (RDGs) with MEC. To obtain RDGs, mannitol was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (9:1, w/w ratio) using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension spray-coating method). The new ODTs were evaluated for their hardness, friability, thickness, internal structure (X-ray-CT scanning), in vivo disintegration time, and water absorption rate. Since MEC increases tablet hardness by increasing the contact frequency between the granules, the new ODTs could obtain high hardness (>50 N) and low friability (disintegration in vivo (film coating, matrix, and microcapsule).

  7. Preparation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium orally disintegrating tablets

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    Iancu Valeriu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are dosage forms which disintegrate in mouth within seconds without need of water. This type of quality in dosage form can be attained by addition of different varieties of excipients. Pharmaburst™ 500 is a co-processed excipient system which allows rapid disintegration and low adhesion to punches. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate 25 mg diclofenac sodium ODTs (orodispersible tablets batches by direct compression method at different compression forces 10 kN (F1 and 20 kN (F2 and directly compressible excipients used in different ratio (Avicel PH 102, magnesium stearate and coprocessed excipient Pharmaburst™ 500, 70% and 80% w/w. The obtained batches were analyzed for appearance, tablet thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and non-compendial methods (wetting time. Co-processed Pharmaburst™ 500 excipient 70% used for sodium diclofenac ODT obtaining determined good results for quality control tests evaluation.

  8. Characterization of oral disintegrating film containing donepezil for Alzheimer disease.

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    Liew, Kai Bin; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a taste-masked oral disintegrating film (ODF) containing donepezil, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate and crosspovidone served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro results showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 5 minutes with mean disintegration time of 44 seconds. The result of the film flexibility test showed that the number of folding time to crack the film was 40 times, an indication of sufficient mechanical property for patient use. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, eight-treatment, double-blind study involving 16 healthy adult volunteers was performed to evaluate the in situ disintegration time and palatability of ODF. Five parameters, namely taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel, ease of handling and acceptance were evaluated. The mean in situ disintegration time of ODF was 49 seconds. ODF containing 7 mg of sucralose were more superior than saccharin and aspartame in terms of taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel and acceptance. Furthermore, the ODF was stable for at least 6 months when stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity.

  9. Fast disintegrating tablets of nisoldipine for intra-oral administration.

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    El Maghraby, Gamal M; Elsergany, Ramy N

    2014-09-01

    Nisoldipine is a calcium channel blocker with low and variable oral bioavailability. This was attributed to slow dissolution and presystemic metabolism. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to enhance the dissolution rate of nisoldipine to formulate fast disintegrating tablets with rapid dissolution. Binary solid dispersions (SD) were prepared for the drug with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E5 (HPMC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Pluronic F68 or polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000). SD formation increased the dissolution rate compared to pure drug with the corresponding physical mixtures failing to provide the same dissolution enhancement. This indicates that the SD enhanced dissolution is not due to the solubilizing effect of the polymer and can be due to physical change in the drug crystal which was confirmed by thermal analysis. SD with HPMC and PVP were selected for preparation of fast disintegrating tablets as they liberated most of the drug in the first 5 min. HPMC-based tablets disintegrated rapidly and released most of the drug in the first 2 min which correlated with the corresponding SD. In contrast, PVP-based tablets disintegrated slowly with gradual dissolution. This can be attributed to the binding effect of PVP. The study developed fast disintegrating tablet for intra-oral administration.

  10. SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS: A REVIEW

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    Nisha Gupta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The desire of improved palatability in orally administered products has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Orally disintegrating tablets are an emerging trend in novel drug delivery system and have received ever-increasing demand during the last few decades. The field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry and gaining popularity due to ease of administration and better patient compliance especially for geriatric and pediatric patients. ODTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. This type of property in dosage form can be attained by addition of different excipients, from which disintegrant is the key adjuvant. In recent years, several newer agents have been developed known as superdisintegrants. Diverse categories of superdisintegrants such as synthetic, semi-synthetic, natural and co-processed blends etc. have been employed to develop effectual mouth dissolving tablets and to overcome the limitations of conventional tablet dosage forms. The objective of the present article is to highlight the various kinds of superdisintegrants along with their role in tablet disintegration and drug release, which are being used in the formulation to provide the safer, effective drug delivery with patient compliance. This review focuses on various synthetic superdisintegrants, natural superdisintegrants from different plant sources, co-processed excipients blend and their efficiency.

  11. Formulasi Orally Disintegrating Tablet (Odt) Domperidon Menggunakan Superdisintegran Krospovidon Dan Primogel Dengan Metode Sublimasi

    OpenAIRE

    Juliyanti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sublimation method is one of techniques for preparing Orally Disintegrating Tablet that based on principle can increase porous structure in the tablets and/or adding superdisintegrant and other water soluble ingredients into tablets. Hence, it is necessary to develop a formulation of Orally Disintegrating Tablet that fulfilled the requirement. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Camphor to disintegrating time and dissolution of Orally Disintegrating Tab...

  12. Lecithin, gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen orally disintegrating films: functional properties.

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    Borges, J G; Silva, A G; Cervi-Bitencourt, C M; Vanin, F M; Carvalho, R A

    2016-05-01

    Orally disintegrating films (ODFs) can transport natural active compounds such as ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). This paper aimed to investigate the effect of lecithin on different gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen (HC) polymeric matrices with addition of EEP. ODFs were prepared by casting technique and were characterized (color parameters, water content, mechanical properties, microstructure, disintegration time (DT), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle (CA), swelling degree and total phenolic content). The mechanical properties were influenced by HC. The microstructure demonstrated increased porosity and roughness in films with EEP, and the addition of lecithin resulted in an increase in the number of pores. Lecithin-gelatin and lecithin-EEP-gelatin interactions were observed by FTIR. The addition of HC and EEP reduced the DT and CA, and HC and lecithin reduced the swelling capacity. However, the swelling capacity was not affected by presence of EEP. The addition of lecithin to gelatin and HC ODFs may improve the incorporation and the oral transport of active compounds such as EEP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of low cost orally disintegrating film (ODF

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    Riana Jordao Barrozo Heinemann

    Full Text Available Abstract Orally disintegrating films (ODF produced with a hydrophilic polymers are a thin and flexible material, wich disintegrate in contact with saliva and can vehicule bioactive materials. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize ODF formulation with potential to act as a carrier for different bioactives compounds prepared with low cost polymers. Gelatin (G, starch (S, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and their blends (G:S, CMC:S, CMC:G, and CMC:S:G were prepared by casting technique with sorbitol as a plasticizer. The formulations were characterized in terms of visual aspects, FTIR, SEM, mechanical characteristics, hygroscopicity, dissolution (in vitro and in vivo and swelling index. FTIR analysis revealed that no interaction between polymers in ODF was observed. By SEM, it was possible to observe differences on surfaces by different polymers. ODF made with CMC and CMC:G presented higher water absorption (P<0.05 and higher swelling index probably due to the higher water affinity by CMC. Formulations with G, CMC:G and CMC:S:G presented the highest values of tensile strength (P<0.05. ODF prepared with S alone presented the highest disintegration time, the others formulations showed in vitro dissolution ranging from 5.22 to 8.50 min, while in vivo dissolution time ranged from 2.15 to 3.38 min. By the formulations made with G and blend of G:S and CMC:S:G it is possible to develop a ODF of low cost with desired characteristics being an alternative vehicle to deliver functional compounds for continuous use.

  14. Stability of benzocaine formulated in commercial oral disintegrating tablet platforms.

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    Köllmer, Melanie; Popescu, Carmen; Manda, Prashanth; Zhou, Leon; Gemeinhart, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical excipients contain reactive groups and impurities due to manufacturing processes that can cause decomposition of active drug compounds. The aim of this investigation was to determine if commercially available oral disintegrating tablet (ODT) platforms induce active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) degradation. Benzocaine was selected as the model API due to known degradation through ester and primary amino groups. Benzocaine was either compressed at a constant pressure, 20 kN, or at pressure necessary to produce a set hardness, i.e., where a series of tablets were produced at different compression forces until an average hardness of approximately 100 N was achieved. Tablets were then stored for 6 months under International Conference on Harmonization recommended conditions, 25°C and 60% relative humidity (RH), or under accelerated conditions, 40°C and 75% RH. Benzocaine degradation was monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Regardless of the ODT platform, no degradation of benzocaine was observed in tablets that were kept for 6 months at 25°C and 60% RH. After storage for 30 days under accelerated conditions, benzocaine degradation was observed in a single platform. Qualitative differences in ODT platform behavior were observed in physical appearance of the tablets after storage under different temperature and humidity conditions.

  15. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

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    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  16. Development and evaluation of ofloxacin orally disintegrating tablets

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    Badrinath Pralhadrao Mohite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste of ofloxacin, a broad spectrum bactericidal agent, is masked and orally disintegrating tablets were formulated. The bitter taste is masked by forming complex between drug and weak cation exchange resins, Tulsion 335 and Indion 204. Effect of pH and drug:resin ratio on the drug loading was studied. Maximum drug loading was observed at pH 6. Ratio of 1:2 of drug:resin masked almost complete bitterness of ofloxacin. Formation of complexes was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Physical characterization of taste masked complexes was carried out. Present work envisages the taste masking of ofloxacin and development of orally disintegrating tablets. The effect of pH and resin quantities on drug loading were studied to find the optimum conditions of drug loading for complete taste masking. Effect of superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and polyplasdone XL at varying level on physical parameters of compressed tablets was also assessed. The formulations containing 5 % w/w polyplasdone XL showed about 90 % of drug release within 5 minutes. No significant differences were observed in the physical parameters of resinates as well as tablets prepared from Tulsion 335 and Indion 204.O gosto amargo de ofloxacina, agente bactericida de largo espectro, é mascarado e formularam-se comprimidos dispersíveis. O sabor amargo é mascarado pela formação de complexo entre o fármaco e resinas de troca catiônica fraca, Tulsion 335 e Indion 204. Efeito do pH e da proporção fármaco: resina sobre a carga de fármaco foi estudada. Carga de fármaco máxima foi observada em pH 6. Proporção 1:2 do fármaco: resina mascarou quase completamente o gosto amargo de ofloxacina. A formação de complexos foi confirmada por espectroscopia no IV. Caracterização física dos complexos de sabor mascarado foi realizada. O presente trabalho preconiza o mascaramento do gosto de ofloxacina e desenvolvimento decomprimidos por via oral, se

  17. Formulation and Characterization of Acetaminophen Nanoparticles in Orally Disintegrating Films

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    AI-Nemrawi, Nusaiba K.

    The purpose of this study is to prepare acetaminophen loaded nanoparticles to be cast directly, while still in the emulsion form, into Orally Disintegrating Films (ODF). By casting the nanoparticles in the films, we expected to keep the particles in a stable form where the nanoparticles would be away from each other to prevent their aggregation. Once the films are applied on the buccal mucosa, they are supposed to dissolve within seconds, releasing the nanoparticles. Then the nanoparticles could be directly absorbed through the mucosa to the blood stream and deliver acetaminophen there. The oral cavity mucosa is one of the most attractive sites for systemic drug delivery due to its high permeability and blood supply. Furthermore, it is robust and shows short recovery times after stress or damage, and the drug bypasses first pass effect and avoids presystemic elimination in the GI tract. Nanoencapsulation increases drug efficacy, specificity, tolerability and therapeutic index. These Nanocapsules have several advantages in the protection of premature degradation and interaction with the biological environment, enhancement of absorption into a selected tissue, bioavailability, retention time and improvement of intracellular penetration. The most important characteristics of nanoparticles are their size, encapsulation efficiency (EE), zeta potential (surface charge), and the drug release profiles. Unfortunately, nanoparticles tend to precipitate or aggregate into larger particles within a short time after preparation or during storage. Some solutions for this problem were mentioned in literature including lyophilization and spray drying. These methods are usually expensive and give partial solutions that might have secondary problems; such as low re-dispersion efficacy of the lyophilized NPs. Furthermore, most of the formulations of NPs are invasive or topical. Few formulas are available to be given orally. Fast disintegrating films (ODFs) are rapidly gaining interest

  18. A new formulation for orally disintegrating tablets using a suspension spray-coating method.

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    Okuda, Y; Irisawa, Y; Okimoto, K; Osawa, T; Yamashita, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) that has high tablet hardness and a fast oral disintegration rate using a new preparation method. To obtain rapid disintegration granules (RDGs), a saccharide, such as trehalose, mannitol, or lactose, was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension method). As an additional disintegrant, crospovidone, light anhydrous silicic acid, or hydroxypropyl starch was also included in the suspension. The RDGs obtained possessed extremely large surface areas, narrow particle size distribution, and numerous micro-pores. When tabletting these RDGs, it was found that the RDGs increased tablet hardness by decreasing plastic deformation and increasing the contact frequency between granules. In all tablets, a linear relationship was observed between tablet hardness and oral disintegration time. From each linear correlation line, a slope (D/H value) and an intercept (D/H(0) value) were calculated. Tablets with small D/H and D/H(0) values could disintegrate immediately in the oral cavity regardless of the tablet hardness and were considered to be appropriate for ODTs. Therefore, these values were used as key parameters to select better ODTs. Of all the RDGs prepared in this study, mannitol spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (2.5:1 w/w ratio) showed most appropriate properties for ODTs; fast in vivo oral disintegration time, and high tablet hardness. In conclusion, this simple method to prepare superior formulations for new ODTs was established by spray-coating mannitol with a suspension of appropriate disintegrants.

  19. Gelatin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrices - Polymer interactions approach for oral disintegrating films.

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    Tedesco, Marcela P; Monaco-Lourenço, Carla A; Carvalho, Rosemary A

    2016-12-01

    Oral disintegrating film represents an optimal alternative for delivery system of active compounds. The choice of film-forming polymer is the first step in the development of oral disintegrating films and the knowledge of molecular interactions in this matrix is fundamental to advance in this area. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films and their blends as matrices of oral disintegrating films. The films were produced by casting technique and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical properties, contact angle, time disintegration and bioadhesive strength. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that enthalpy of fusion and melting temperatures of the blends films were lower than those of the gelatin film, which may be associated with the lack of intra-chain interactions also observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. In blends, a less compact cross-section structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images compared with isolated polymer films. The addition of HPMC increased the elongation, hydrophilicity and in vitro bioadhesive force and decreased in vitro disintegration time, important properties in the development of oral disintegrating films. Although the mixture of the polymers showed no synergistic behavior, this study may contribute to the development of new applications for polymeric matrices in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Formulation development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of doxazosin mesylate

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    Shilpa P Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxazosin mesylate has some of the ideal characteristics required for an orally disintegrating tablet. There were some challenges faced during this formulation development. The aims of the present research were to mask the bitter taste of Doxazosin mesylate and to formulate orally disintegrating tablets of taste masked drug. Taste masking was performed by coating Doxazosin Mesylate with suitable polymer Eudragit powdered E-100 using spray drying technique. The resultant microspheres were then evaluated for thermal analysis, yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro taste masking. The tablets were formulated by mixing the taste masked microspheres with different types and concentration of super-disintegrants and granulated Mannitol was selected as diluent and compressed using direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release and compared with marketed IR tablet of Doxazosin mesylate.

  1. Development and characterization of orally-disintegrating films for propolis delivery

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) on the properties of an orally disintegrating film containing propolis ethanol extract (PEE) as an active component. The films were evaluated in terms of total phenols, mechanical properties, solubility, contact angle, disintegration time, and microstructure. The films were prepared by casting with 2 g of protein mass (gelatin and HC), 30 g of sorbitol/100 g of protein mass, and 100 g of PEE/100 ...

  2. Preparation and characterization of novel fast disintegrating capsules (Fastcaps) for administration in the oral cavity.

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    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2005-10-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare novel capsule-based fast disintegrating dosage forms for the oral cavity (Fastcaps). First, cast films were prepared from various additive-containing gelatin solutions and evaluated with respect to disintegration time and mechanical properties in order to identify suitable formulations for the capsule preparation. The disintegration time of films decreased with decreasing bloom strength and could be further decreased by the addition of sugars or PEGs. Fast disintegrating capsules were successfully prepared by a dipping process, whereby parameters such as the viscosity and temperature of the dipping solution and the dipping velocity of the steel pins were optimized. The required viscosity range of the dipping solution for Fastcap manufacturing was 500-600 cP. The addition of the hydrophilic additives (xylitol, sorbitol or PEG 1500) did not significantly affect the viscosity and gelation temperature of the dipping solution. The in vitro disintegration of Fastcaps (30-45 s) was twice as rapid as the one of regular hard gelatin capsules. In vivo, Fastcaps disintegrated rapidly (9-13 s) and their content was spread throughout the oral cavity within seconds. Lactose and/or microcrystalline cellulose were suitable fillers for Fastcaps. The mechanical properties of Fastcaps were similar to commercially available gelatin capsules, which assures good processability and handling.

  3. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Polietilen Glikol 400 Terhadap Formulasi Oral Disintegrating Film Antalgin

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral disintegrating film (ODF) is a new drug dosage form for oral administration. The dosage form ismade from a very thin oral film that can be placed easily on the patient's tongue or the other mucosal tissues. Antalgin is one pirozolone derivate thathas an analgesic andantipyretic effect. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 todisintegration and dissolution of ODF Antalgin. Methods: The ODF formulas that ...

  4. Application of freeze-drying technology in manufacturing orally disintegrating films.

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    Liew, Kai Bin; Odeniyi, Michael Ayodele; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2016-01-01

    Freeze drying technology has not been maximized and reported in manufacturing orally disintegrating films. The aim of this study was to explore the freeze drying technology in the formulation of sildenafil orally disintegrating films and compare the physical properties with heat-dried orally disintegrating film. Central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three factors, namely concentration of carbopol, wheat starch and polyethylene glycol 400 on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the film. Heat-dried films had higher tensile strength than films prepared using freeze-dried method. For folding endurance, freeze-dried films showed improved endurance than heat-dried films. Moreover, films prepared using freeze-dried methods were thicker and had faster disintegration time. Formulations with higher amount of carbopol and starch showed higher tensile strength and thickness whereas formulations with higher PEG 400 content showed better flexibility. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the freeze-dried films had more porous structure compared to the heat-dried film as a result of the release of water molecule from the frozen structure when it was subjected to freeze drying process. The sildenafil film was palatable. The dissolution profiles of freeze-dried and heat-dried films were similar to Viagra® with f2 of 51.04 and 65.98, respectively.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablet of Rizatriptan using natural superdisintegrant

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    Tabbakhian Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rizatriptan benzoate is a potent and selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist and is effective for the treatment of acute migraine. Difficulty in swallowing is common among all age groups, especially elderly and pediatrics. Orally disintegrating tablets may constitute an innovative dosage form that overcome the problem of swallowing and provides a quick onset of action. This study was aimed to formulate and evaluate an Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT containing Rizatriptan while using semi-synthetic and natural superdisintegrants. Methods: Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression using natural superdisntegrant (Plantago ovata mucilage and semi-synthetic superdisntegrant (crospovidone. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, water absorption and wetting time. A 32 factorial design was used to investigate the effect of independent variables (amount of crospovidone and Plantago ovata mucilage on dependent variables [disintegration time, wetting time and Q5 (cumulative amount of drug release after 5 minutes]. A counter plot was also presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variable on the disintegration time, wetting time and Q5. The check point batch was also prepared to prove the validity of the evolved mathematical model. The systematic formulation approach helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variable. Results: According to the results of optimized batches, the best concentration of superdisintegrant were as follows: 9.4 mg Psyllium mucilage and 8.32 mg crospovidone gave rapid disintegration in 35sec and showed 99% drug release within 5 minutes. Conclusion: Plantago ovata mucilage, a natural superdisintegrant, gives a rapid disintegration and high release when used with synthetic superdisntegrant in formulation of orally disintegrating tablet of Rizatriptan.

  6. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKED ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE MONOHYDRATE

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    Abbaraju Prasanna Lakshmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to mask the unpleasant taste of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate with mannitol by co-grinding method and to formulate it as an oral disintegrating tablet by direct compression method. Drug-mannitol complexes were taken in 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2 ratios and tested for in vitro and in vivo bitter masking capacity of mannitol, drug content and molecular property. Different super-disintegrants like croscaramellose, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone was used as disintegrating agents. The prepared tablets were characterized for tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and In vitro and in vivo disintegration time. In addition, aspartame is used as sweetening agent which gives more pleasant taste in the mouth. Among all the formulations F1 to F6, Formulation F6 has good taste masking capacity and fast disintegration within 40sec. Furthermore, 96.7% of the drug has been released in 15min.The results disclosed that the productivity of taste masking of the drug has been done effectively with mannitol and 40mg of crosscarmellose sodium is efficient for rapid disintegrating of tablet.

  7. In vitro and in vivo characteristics of prochlorperazine oral disintegrating film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Misao; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Tsukioka, Tadao; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Naoki; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2009-02-23

    Oral disintegrating film containing prochlorperazine, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist with anti-emetic property, was newly developed using microcrystalline cellulose, polyethlene glycol and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose as the base materials. The uniformity of dosage units of the preparation was acceptable according to the criteria of JP15 or USP27. The film showed an excellent stability at least for 8 weeks when stored at 40 degrees C and 75% in humidity. The dissolution test revealed a rapid disintegration property, in which most of prochlorperazine dissolved within 2 min after insertion into the medium. Subsequently, rats were used to compare pharmacokinetic properties of the film preparation applied topically into the oral cavity with those of oral administration of prochlorperazine solution. None of the parameters, including T(max), C(max), area under curves, clearance and steady-state distribution volume was significantly different between oral disintegrating film and oral solution. These findings suggest that the present prochlorperazine-containing oral film is potentially useful to control emesis induced by anti-cancer agents or opioid analgesics in patients who limit the oral intake.

  8. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ONDANSETRON ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS AND ITS OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Bhasin et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondansetron is the first of a new class of drugs, selective serotonin receptor antagonist (5 hydroxy tryptamine type 3 used as an anti emetic associated with cancer chemotherapy. Its Orally Disintegrating Tablet has been developed for patients who find swallowing difficult by freeze dried technology by RP Scherer Corporation and Scherer DDS. The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet that has high hardness and a fast disintegration rate using conventional tablet technology. Ondansetron ODT was prepared by using traditional technology like direct compression and wet granulation technique. As blend exhibited poor flow in direct compression process, so wet granulation process was finalized. Bitter taste of Ondansetron has been masked by use of sweetener like aspartame and peppermint flavor. Quick disintegration has been achieved by use of surfactant in the granulating solvent and superdisintegrant like crospovidone in both intra and extragranular part. Design space has been created by use of different concentrations of both binders as well as disintegrant with the help of DOE and a robust formulation has been made. In vitro release profile of both formulations prepared by freeze drying and wet granulation is matching. Formulation prepared by wet granulation process has been found acceptable to volunteers in term of taste, mouth feel and convenience of administration.

  9. PHARMACOKINETICS OF PARACETAMOL ORALLY DISINTEGRATING AND GENERAL TABLETS IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU De-qiu; CUI Lan; HUANG Sai-jie; TAO Da-ren; SUN Li; SHEN Jin-fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the pharmacokinetics and relative biological availability of Paracetamol orally disintegrating tablets and general tablets in healthy volunteers. Methods In a random two periods crossover study, 19 healthy male Chinses volunteers received a single dose of Paracetamol500mg of two formularies respectively. The plasma concentration of paracetamol was determined by HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two preparation and the relative biological availability of Paracetamol orally disintegrating tablets and general tablets were caculated with statistical analysis. Results The main pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol orally disintegrating tablets and general tablets were (31436. 70 ± 7062. 80) μg · h-1 · L-1 and (29871.40±7965.04)μg·h-1·L-1 for AUC0~1 (33295.7 ± 7663.10) μg·h -1 ·L-1 and(31845.20±8830.83)μg·h-1·L-1 for A UC0~∞; ( 9.71±2.78 )μg/ml and ( 10.36±3.86 ) μg/ml for Cmax; ( 0.82±0.45 ) h and ( 0.74± 0.67) h for Tmax ; ( 2.90±0.42 ) h and ( 3.13±0.67 ) h for T1/2ke ; ( 0.24±0.04 ) and ( 0.23±0.04 ) for Ke;(4.1481±0.4492 ) and (4.0771±0.8131 ) for mean residence time ( MRT) , respectively. Variance analysis showed that there was significant difference in AUC0~12 and Cmax between the two preparations. Conclusion The paracetamol orally disintegrating tablets and general tablets are bioequivalent and the relative biological availability of Paracetamol orally disintegrating tablets is (108±19)%.

  10. Bioavailability Enhancement of Rizatriptan Benzoate by Oral Disintegrating Strip: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagawati, S T; Chonkar, Ankita D; Dengale, Swapnil J; Reddy, Sreenivasa M; Bhat, Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Oral disintegrating strips containing rizatriptan benzoate, a selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine receptor agonist with anti migraine property, was developed using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose as the base materials. The analytical and bioanalytical methods were developed and validated using HPLC (PDA and flouroscence detectors). The dissolution study performed on the strips revealed that all the five formulations, release the drug within eight minutes. Under ICH accelerated stability conditions, strips were stable at 40°C and 75% humidity for eight weeks. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic properties of oral strip were compared with rizatriptan benzoate marketed tablet. Oral disintegrating strip and tablet showed significantly higher bioavailability. Oral strip exhibited better pharmacokinetic parameters than rizatriptan marketed tablet. The Tmax, Cmax, AUC and t1/2 for oral strip were found to be 1.00 h, 64.13±19.46 ng/mL, 352.00±71.57 ng/mL/h and 3.09±1.03 h respectively, whereas, tablet showed 1.5 h, 38.00±13.43 ng/mL, 210.38± 40.37ng/mL/h and 1.66±0.31 h respectively. These findings confirm that the rizatriptan benzoate oral disintegrating strip is potentially a useful tool for an effective treatment of migraine with improved bioavailability, rapid onset of action and with increased patient compliance.

  11. Maltodextrin: a novel excipient used in sugar-based orally disintegrating tablets and phase transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra Shaaban R; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y; Ebian, Abd Elazim R

    2010-06-01

    The recent challenge in orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) manufacturing encompasses the compromise between instantaneous disintegration, sufficient hardness, and standard processing equipment. The current investigation constitutes one attempt to fulfill this challenge. Maltodextrin, in the present work, was utilized as a novel excipient to prepare ODT of meclizine. Tablets were prepared by both direct compression and wet granulation techniques. The effect of maltodextrin concentrations on ODT characteristics--manifested as hardness and disintegration time--was studied. The effect of conditioning (40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity) as a post-compression treatment on ODT characteristics was also assessed. Furthermore, maltodextrin-pronounced hardening effect was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray analysis. Results revealed that in both techniques, rapid disintegration (30-40 s) would be achieved on the cost of tablet hardness (about 1 kg). Post-compression conditioning of tablets resulted in an increase in hardness (3 kg), while keeping rapid disintegration (30-40 s) according to guidance of the FDA for ODT. However, direct compression-conditioning technique exhibited drawbacks of long conditioning time and appearance of the so-called patch effect. These problems were, yet, absent in wet granulation-conditioning technique. DSC and X-ray analysis suggested involvement of glass-elastic deformation in maltodextrin hardening effect. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of meclizine ODT suggested no degradation of the drug by the applied conditions of temperature and humidity. Overall results proposed that maltodextrin is a promising saccharide for production of ODT with accepted hardness-disintegration time compromise, utilizing standard processing equipment and phenomena of phase transition.

  12. Design, development, and optimization of orally disintegrating tablets of etoricoxib using vacuum-drying approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dharmesh; Shah, Mohit; Shah, Sunny; Shah, Tejal; Amin, Avani

    2008-01-01

    Etoricoxib is a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor that selectively inhibits the COX-2 enzyme and decreases the incidences of side effects associated with these agents. It is commonly prescribed for acute pain, gouty arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conventional tablets of etoricoxib are not capable of rapid action, which is required for faster drug effect onset and immediate relief from pain. Thus, the aim of the present investigation is to formulate orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of etoricoxib. A combination of the superdisintegrants with a sublimation technique was used to prepare the tablets. Tablets were prepared using a direct compression method employing superdisintegrants such as low substituted hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (L-HPMC), low substituted hydroxyl-propyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate. Tablets of etoricoxib prepared using L-HPC exhibited the least friability and disintegration time (approximately 65 s). To decrease the disintegration time further, a sublimation technique was used along with the superdisintegrants for the preparation of ODTs. The use of sublimating agents including camphor, menthol, and thymol was explored. The addition of camphor lowered the disintegration time (approximately 30 s) further, but the percent friability was increased. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the joint influence of the amount of superdisintegrant (L-HPC) and the amount of sublimating agent (camphor) on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining an effective ODT of etoricoxib, higher percentages of L-HPC and camphor should be used. Checkpoint batches were prepared to validate the evolved mathematical model. A response surface plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The approach using

  13. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika, E-mail: dr_krutikasawant@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.

  14. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Say Khalid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1, swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2, and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3. Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for preand post-compression characteristics. The prepared ODmini- tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2 and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use.

  15. Impact of active ingredients on the swelling properties of orally disintegrating tablets prepared by microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Susumu; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    The impact of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) loading on the properties of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) prepared according to our previously reported microwave (MW) treatment process was evaluated using famotidine (FAM), acetaminophen (AAP), and ibuprofen (IBU). None of the APIs interrupted the tablet swelling during the MW treatment and the tablet hardness were improved by more than 20 N. MW treatment, however, led to a significant increase in the disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU, but it had no impact on that of the ODTs containing FAM or AAP. This increased disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU was attributed to the relatively low melting point of IBU (Tm=76 °C), with the IBU particles melting during the MW treatment to form agglomerates, which interrupted the penetration of water into the tablets and delayed their disintegration. The effects of the MW treatment on the chemical stability and dissolution properties of ODTs were also evaluated. The results revealed that MW treatment did not promote the degradations of FAM and AAP or delay their release from the ODTs, while dissolution of the ODTs containing IBU delayed by MW treatment. Based on these results, the MW method would be applicable to the preparation of ODTs containing APIs with melting points higher than 110 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Part III: the convenience of, and patient preference for, zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Andrew J; Almqvist, Per

    2005-01-01

    As part of an optimal strategy for the management of migraine, the individual needs and preferences of patients need to be considered when of patients need to be considered when prescribing treatments. Zolmitriptan has been available as a conventional oral tablet for more than seven years, and is established as a highly effective, well-tolerated compound for the acute treatment of migraine. A bioequivalent, orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of zolmitriptan, which dissolves on the tongue without the need for additional fluid intake, has been developed. In a study designed to compare patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and conventional oral sumatriptan tablets, > 60% of the 186 patients questioned had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT, with > 80% of patients reporting that this was the more convenient and less disruptive therapy to take. Approximately 90% of patients agreed that, unlike a conventional tablet, zolmitriptan ODT can be taken wherever and whenever a migraine occurs. When patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and the ODT formulation of rizatriptan was compared in 171 migraineurs, 70% had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT to be superior to rizatriptan ODT with respect to taste and aftertaste, as well as packaging. In summary, not only is zolmitriptan ODT a convenient tablets, such as the sumatriptan oral tablet, but patients generally consider it to be a more attractive option for the acute treatment of migraine than the orally disintegrating version of rizatriptan.

  17. Development of aprepitant loaded orally disintegrating films for enhanced pharmacokinetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radhika; Kamboj, Sunil; Singh, Gursharan; Rana, Vikas

    2016-03-10

    The present investigation was aimed to prepare orally disintegrating films (ODFs) containing aprepitant (APT), an antiemetic drug employing pullulan as film forming agent, tamarind pectin as wetting agent and liquid glucose as plasticizer and solubiliser. The ODFs were prepared using solvent casting method. The method was optimized employing 3(2) full factorial design considering proportion of pullulan: tamarind pectin and concentration of liquid glucose as independent variables and disintegration time, wetting time, folding endurance, tensile strength and extensibility as dependent variables. The optimized ODF was evaluated for various physicochemical, mechanical, drug release kinetics and bioavailability studies. The results suggested prepared film has uniform film surface, non-sticky and disintegrated within 18s. The in-vitro release kinetics revealed more than 87% aprepitant was released from optimized ODF as compared to 85%, 49%, and 12% aprepitant release from marketed formulation Aprecap, micronized aprepitant and non micronized aprepitant, respectively. The results of animal preference study indicated that developed aprepitant loaded ODFs are accepted by rabbits as food material. Animal pharmacokinetic (PK) study showed 1.80, 1.56 and 1.36 fold enhancement in relative bioavailability for aprepitant loaded ODF, Aprecap and micronized aprepitant respectively, in comparison with non-micronized aprepitant. Overall, the solubilised aprepitant when incorporated in the form of aprepitant loaded ODF showed enhanced bioavailability as compared to micronized/non-micronized aprepitant based oral formulations. These findings suggested that aprepitant loaded ODF could be effective for antiemesis during cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Development and characterization of orally-disintegrating films for propolis delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Gonçalves Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen (HC on the properties of an orally disintegrating film containing propolis ethanol extract (PEE as an active component. The films were evaluated in terms of total phenols, mechanical properties, solubility, contact angle, disintegration time, and microstructure. The films were prepared by casting with 2 g of protein mass (gelatin and HC, 30 g of sorbitol/100 g of protein mass, and 100 g of PEE/100 g of protein mass. HC was incorporated at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, and 30 g/100 g of protein mass. It was found that increased concentrations of HC reduced tensile strength and increased elongation; however, all films showed plastic behavior. An increase in solubility at 25 ºC, a reduction in the contact angle, and disintegration time were also observed. Thus, higher concentrations of collagen led to more hydrophilic and more soluble polymeric matrices that showed shorter dissolution time, favoring the use of these materials as carriers for active compounds to be delivered in the oral cavity.

  19. [Technical scheme of real-time evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine orally disintegrating tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dong; Chen, Xu-dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-fei; Yuan, Jia-rui; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-12-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), a kind of new solid tablet that rapidly disintegrates to work in the mouth, has became the hot form of new drug research in recent years with many advantages, such as the convenient taking, a widely applicable people, fast acting, high bioavailability, good compliance, and so on. ODT has been widely used in chemical medicines, while the application of it in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is still in the stage of development The development of TCMs ODT provides a new direction for the research of Chinese medicine new dosage, accelerates the pace of connecting to the world and modernization of Chinese medicine. This dosage has a broad market prospect, and its quality control and assessment standards, taste, the disintegration time in vitro and evaluation method are the key factors that affect the industrialization, standardization of Chinese medicine ODT. Therefore, this paper reviewed the characteristics, preparation, taste masking technology and quality evaluation with new technology of ODT. Meantime, numerous application examples of ODT used in traditional Chinese medicine were described. We expect to provide the reference and utilization for the development of traditional Chinese medicine orally disinteeratine tablets.

  20. New perspective to develop memantine orally disintegrating tablet formulations: SeDeM expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülbağ, Sıla; Yılmaz Usta, Duygu; Gültekin, Hazal E; Oktay, Ayşe N; Demirtaş, Özden; Karaküçük, Alptuğ; Çelebi, Nevin

    2017-07-18

    Nowadays pharmaceutical industries and regulatory authorities suggest new approaches such as Quality by Design principles to reduce experiments of formulation studies, improve product quality, save cost and time. SeDeM Expert System is a predictive approach for the preformulation studies and it provides information about suitability of API for direct compression by evaluating 12 parameters. The system also allows selecting appropriate excipients by determining same parameters to improve compressibility of API. The objective of this study was to develop direct compressed memantine orally disintegrating tablets using SeDeM Expert System. Memantine was found to have poor flow and compressibility properties. Three different direct compressibility and super disintegrating agents (Ludiflash(®), Ludipress(®) and Parteck(®)) were used to improve compressibility of memantine and according to SeDeM diagrams, Parteck(®) was selected for final formulation. Memantine direct compressed tablets showed proper friability, hardness and thickness. The disintegration time of the tables were found below 15 s which was suitable for ODTs. It was found that SeDeM Expert System was easy to use and application of this method provided to develop memantine direct compressed ODT formulation was successful.

  1. Use of Orally Disintegrating Olanzapine During Electroconvulsive Therapy for Prevention of Postictal Agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Adriana P; Janjua, A Umair; Tang, Yilang; Syre, Sharyn R; Job, Gregory; McDonald, William M

    2016-11-01

    A major medical problem for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the occurrence of postictal agitation (PIA). This phenomenon is associated with confusion and disorientation that can have severe clinical implications for the safety of the patient and health care professionals. Many different pharmacological strategies have been used to prevent PIA. We present data on 40 patients who suffered from PIA after a course of ECT and evaluate the prophylactic use of orally disintegrating olanzapine in the prevention of PIA in subsequent ECT treatments.

  2. Preparation of puerarin orally disintegrating tablets%葛根素口腔崩解片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向程

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop oral disintegrating tablets with puerarin as themodeldrug .Methods The develop-ment selected the disintegration time and sedimentation volume ratio as an indicator .Screened tablet formulation consisting and process of single factor method .Optimized the preparation process .Results Puerarin orally disintegrating tablets were pre-pared by lyopyilization,containing the inactive ingredient:mannitol,gelatin,aspartame and mint flavor.The prepared tablets tas-ted fine and could disintegrate in 4s.The in vitro dissolution test indicated that 96.46%of puerarin dissolved in 4 minutes from the oral disintegrating tablets .Conclusion The prepared of puerarin oral disintegrating tablets disintegrated rapidly in oral cavity,the process of preparation is feasible .%目的:以葛根素为模型药物制备口腔崩解片。方法该研制把崩解时间及沉降容积比为指标,单因素法筛选片剂的处方组成及工艺,并优化制备工艺。结果葛根素口腔崩解片的辅料为甘露醇、明胶、阿司帕坦与薄荷香精,经过冷冻干燥方法制备,口感良好,4s的崩解时间,在4min内体外溶出度达96.46%。结论葛根素口腔崩解片可迅速崩解于口腔内,制备工艺可行。

  3. A dual strategy to improve psychotic patients’ compliance using sustained release quetiapine oral disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of swelling induced-orally disintegrating tablets by microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    A major challenge in the development of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) is to achieve a good balance between tablet hardness and disintegration time. In this study, an advanced method was demonstrated to improve these opposing properties in a molded tablet using a one-step procedure that exploits the swelling induced by microwave treatment. Wet molded tablets consisting of the delta form of mannitol and silicon dioxide were prepared and microwave-heated to generate water vapor inside the tablets. This induced either swelling or shrinking of tablets, in the extent of each being dependent on tablet formulation and manufacturing conditions. A two-level full factorial design method was used to evaluate the effects of several variables in formulation and manufacturing conditions on the tablet properties, hardness, disintegration time and change in shape. The variables investigated in this study were: ratio of silicon dioxide in formulation, water volume added in granulation, ratio of water absorbed by silicon dioxide prior to granulation, and microwave irradiation time. Swelling of tablet by microwave irradiation was observed in the batches with high ratio of silicon dioxide and low levels of water volume. The disintegration time was clearly shortened by induction of the swelling, while tablet hardness increased. We demonstrated that the water vapor generated by microwave irradiation promoted a change in the crystalline form of mannitol from delta to beta, and that this may have contributed to an increase in tablet hardness. Additionally, it was found that new solid bridges were formed between the granules in the tablet via the pathway from dissolution of mannitol in water vapor to congelation, resulting in an increase in tablet hardness. Thus, both tablet hardness and disintegration properties of the molded tablets were improved by the proposed one-step method and the appropriate ranges for variables are indicated. In addition, multiple regression modeling was

  5. Formulation,Optimization and Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablet of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Minal Arvindbhai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic properties. The purpose of this studywas to develop a taste masked orally disintegrating tablet of poorly soluble Piroxicam by directcompression technique with β-cyclodextrin (ß-CD complexes using various superdisintegrants likesodium starch glycolate, crospovidone XL and croscarmellose sodium. Complex was characterizedusing infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, % drug release study, gustatoryevaluation for taste masking. A 32 full factorial design was applied to systematically optimize the drugdisintegration time. The concentration of Crospovidone (X1 and concentration of Croscarmellose (X2were selected as independent variables. The Disintegration time (Y1 and Wetting time (Y2 wereselected as dependent variables. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability,disintegration time, wetting time and In-vitro drug release. FT-IR studies and physical compatibilitystudy were conducted for drug, and drug excipient mixture for interactions if any. The differentformulations showed disintegration time between 12 to 58 sec. The results indicated that concentrationof Crospovidone (X1 and concentration of Croscarmellose (X2 significantly affected theDisintegration time (Y1 and Wetting time (Y2. Regression analysis and numerical optimization wereperformed to identify the best formulation. Formulation F10 prepared with croscarmellose (4.23% &crospovidone (6.74% was found to be the best formulation with disintegration time 16 sec, wetting time21 sec and % drug release in 10 min 94.23%.

  6. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S; Kusum Devi, V; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, particle size, in vitro drug release, and in vivo evaluation on humans for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. The results revealed that the average size of pellets was influenced greatly by the percentage of binder and extrusion speed. The optimized ODPs disintegrated in less than 20 s and showed more than 98% of drugs in ODPs dissolved within 15 min. Taste perception study was carried out on human volunteers to evaluate the taste masking ability of ODPs for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. Crystalline state evaluation of drugs in the optimized ODPs was conducted for X-ray powder diffraction. In conclusion, the study confirmed that ODPs can be utilized as an alternative approach for effective taste masking and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity.

  7. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S.; Kusum Devi, V.; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, particle size, in vitro drug release, and in vivo evaluation on humans for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. The results revealed that the average size of pellets was influenced greatly by the percentage of binder and extrusion speed. The optimized ODPs disintegrated in less than 20 s and showed more than 98% of drugs in ODPs dissolved within 15 min. Taste perception study was carried out on human volunteers to evaluate the taste masking ability of ODPs for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. Crystalline state evaluation of drugs in the optimized ODPs was conducted for X-ray powder diffraction. In conclusion, the study confirmed that ODPs can be utilized as an alternative approach for effective taste masking and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity. PMID:27379290

  8. Formulation, development and evaluation of patient friendly dosage forms of metformin, Part-I: Orally disintegrating tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra Ashutosh; Parikh Rajesh; Gohel Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride is an orally administered antihyperglycemic agent, used in the management of non-insulin-dependant (type-2) diabetes mellitus. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) is common among all age groups, especially in elderly and pediatrics. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients suffering from type-2 diabetes are elderly people showing dysphagia. In this study, orally disintegrating tablets were prepared using direct compression and wet granulation method. First, the ta...

  9. Olanzapine orally-disintegrating tablet in severe psychotic agitation: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J C; Pérez, V; Martín, J L R; Safont, G; Puigdemont, D; Alvarez, E

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine effectiveness and safety of olanzapine in patients with severe agitation. A naturalistic, open-label study in 80 acutely agitated psychotic patients visited in our psychiatric emergency department. Patients received either a 20-mg olanzapine orally-disintegrating tablet or conventional treatment depending on attending psychiatrist's preference. Efficacy was assessed by the Excitement Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) and pragmatic variables (second pharmacological intervention and need for physical restraints). 60 % patients completed a 6 hour trial. Both groups showed a significant reduction in mean PANSS-EC score. The olanzapine-treated group showed statistically significant improvements: PANSS-EC (F=122.9; df=2.4; p=0.000), ACES (F=68.2; df=2.8; p=0.000). Treatment was well-tolerated and no serious side-effects were observed. In this naturalistic study in patients with severe agitation, 20-mg oral olanzapine was effective, rapid and safe.

  10. Formulation strategy and evaluation of nanocrystal piroxicam orally disintegrating tablets manufacturing by freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Pini, Elena; Corrias, Francesco; Perricci, Jacopo; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sinico, Chiara

    2014-06-05

    Piroxicam (PRX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug characterized by a poor water solubility and consequently by a low oral bioavailability. In this work, different nanocrystal orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared to enhance piroxicam dissolution rate and saturation solubility. PRX nanocrystals were prepared by means of high pressure homogenization technique using poloxamer 188 as stabilizer. Three different ODTs were prepared with the same nanosuspension using different excipients in order to study their effect on the PRX dissolution properties. PRX nanocrystal size and zeta potential were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Additional characterization of PRX nanocrystal ODT was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution study was performed in distilled water (pH 5.5) and compared with PRX coarse suspension ODT, PRX/poloxamer 188 physical mixture, bulk PRX samples and a PRX commercial ODT. All PRX nanocrystal ODT formulations showed a higher drug dissolution rate than coarse PRX ODT. PRX nanocrystal ODT prepared using gelatin or croscarmellose as excipient showed a higher PRX dissolution rate compared with the commercial formulation and ODT prepared using xanthan gum. Overall results confirmed that improved PRX dissolution rate is due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio due to the nanosized drug particle but also revealed the important role of different excipients used.

  11. Optimization of Jiawei Qing'e Oral Fast Disintegrating Tablets Based on Response Surface-Central Composite Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-ling; WANG Ya-jing; GAO Xiu-mei; GAO Xu; PENG Shu-juan; ZHENG Yin; OKEKE Chukwunweike Ikechukwu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To apply the response surface-central composite design to developing and optimizing the oral fast disintegrating tablets (ODT) formulation for Jiawei Qing'e,a kind of prescription of Chinese herbal medicine.Methods The bitterness of Jiawei Qing'e was masked using Eudragit E-100 by solvent evaporation technique.Response surface approach was applied to investigating the interaction of formulation parameters in optimizing the formulation.The independent variables were Eudragit E-100/drug ratio (X1),amount of disintegrants (X2),and the amount of diluents (X3).The disintegration time (Y1),hardness (Y2),and weight variations of the tablets were characterized.Results The models predicted levels ofX1 =4.63%,X2 =5.25%,and X3 =34.33%,for the optimal formulation having a hardness of 3.0 kg with the disintegration time of 30 s within experimental region.The observed response of Y1 =26.5 s and Y2 =3.14 kg reasonably agreed with the predicted response.Conclusion Response surface methodology shows the good predictability and reliability in optimizing the formulation.The optimized ODT of Jiawei Qing'e has acceptable taste,rapid disintegrating ability,and good mechanical strength.

  12. Development of taste masked fast disintegrating films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride for oral use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A; Shastri, Nalini; Sadanandam, M

    2010-01-01

    Fast disintegrating films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride useful for the treatment of acute allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria have been developed by using the taste masking ability of cyclodextrins. The fast disintegrating films were prepared by solvent casting method. The films contained water-soluble polymers such as Kollicoat IR or pullulan, aspartame and sucralose as sweeteners and pre-gelatinized starch as disintegrant. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride was incorporated into these films by in-situ complex formation with hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin. The optimized films were evaluated for weight variation, film thickness, folding endurance, tackiness, tensile strength, assay, content uniformity, in vitro disintegration and dissolution, in vivo disintegration and taste masking ability by human gustatory sensation test. Results revealed that the organoleptic properties of levocetirizine dihydrochloride were improved by complexation with hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin and the complex could be successfully formulated into a fast disintegrating film.

  13. Bioequivalence of ondansetron oral soluble film 8 mg (ZUPLENZ) and ondansetron orally disintegrating tablets 8 mg (ZOFRAN) in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Oral formulations of ondansetron are used to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. An oral soluble film formulation of ondansetron (OND OSF) was developed using MonoSol Rx's proprietary PharmFilm technology and was formulated to dissolve rapidly on the tongue, without the need for water. This product provides an oral antiemetic treatment option for patients who experience difficulty swallowing. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioequivalence of OND OSF 8 mg (ZUPLENZ, Monosol Rx, Warren, NJ) with ondansetron orally disintegrating tablets (OND ODT) 8 mg (ZOFRAN, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park). In 3 individual open-label, randomized studies, healthy adult subjects received a single dose of OND OSF 8 mg and a single dose of OND ODT 8 mg, under fasted conditions (study 1, n = 48), fed conditions (study 2, n = 48), and fasted with and without water (study 3, n = 18). Each dosing period was followed by a 3- or 7-day washout period. Ondansetron pharmacokinetics were assessed predose to 24 hours postdose for the single 8-mg doses of OND OSF and OND ODT. All analyses were conducted on natural log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters for OND OSF and OND ODT. Under both fasted and fed conditions, the 90% confidence interval for the comparisons of OND OSF and OND ODT plasma ondansetron area under the curve from time 0 to the last measured concentration (AUC0-t), area under the concentration vs. time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞), and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were within the 80%-125% range, indicating bioequivalence between the formulations. With features designed to make it portable and easy to take, OND OSF 8 mg provides an alternative treatment option, particularly for patients with dysphagia and others who find it difficult to take oral tablets.

  14. Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jingping Zhao,1 Jianjun Ou,1 Haibo Xue,2 Li Liu,2 William Montgomery,3 Tamas Treuer4 1Mental Health Institute of The Second Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Province Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 4Emerging Markets Business Unit (Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. Keywords: orally disintegrating, olanzapine, Chinese, schizophrenia, patients

  15. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S.; V. Kusum Devi; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, pa...

  16. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai,Roopa S.; V Kusum Devi; Singh,Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, pa...

  17. Enhancement of Solubility of Lamotrigine by Solid Dispersion and Development of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Using 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinderpal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation deals with the preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs of lamotrigine using β-cyclodextrin and PVP-K30 as polymers for the preparation of solid dispersion which help in enhancement of aqueous solubility of this BCS CLASS-II drug and sodium starch glycolate (SSG and crospovidone as a superdisintegrating agent, to reduce disintegration time. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were developed with different ratios of superdisintegrating agents. All the formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 rpm using 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl maintained at 37°C ± 0.5°C as the dissolution medium. On the basis of evaluation parameters formulations were prepared using β-CD 1 : 1 solid dispersion. Then 32 full factorial design was applied using SSG and crospovidone in different ratios suggested by using design expert 8.0.7.1 and optimized formulation was prepared using amount of SSG and crospovidone as suggested by the software. The optimized formulation prepared had disintegrating time of 15 s, wetting time of 24 s, and % friability of 0.55.

  18. Comparison of metabolic profile and adiponectin level with pioglitazone versus voglibose in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitaka, Keisuke; Otani, Hajime; Jo, Fusakazu; Jo, Hiromi; Nomura, Emiko; Iwasaki, Masayoshi; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a high risk of cardiovascular disease. We compared the effect of early intervention with pioglitazone versus voglibose on physical and metabolic profiles and serum adiponectin level in patients with T2DM associated with MetS. Sixty patients who were diagnosed for the first time as T2DM associated with MetS were analyzed for insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, serum adiponectin and systemic inflammation. Those patients were randomly assigned to oral pioglitazone group (n = 30) or voglibose group (n = 30) in addition to conventional diet and exercise training. Body mass index and waist circumference did not change in the pioglitazone group, whereas these physical parameters significantly decreased in the voglibose group during a 6-month follow-up period. However, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, and HOMA-IR more significantly decreased in the pioglitazone group. The level of serum adiponectin especially high-molecular weight adiponectin markedly increased in the pioglitazone group. Moreover, high sensitive CRP significantly decreased only in the pioglitazone group. These results suggest that voglibose is superior in improving obesity, while pioglitazone is superior in ameliorating insulin sensitivity and increasing serum adiponectin in patients with an early stage of T2DM associated with MetS.

  19. Formulation, development and evaluation of patient friendly dosage forms of metformin, Part-I: Orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Ashutosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride is an orally administered antihyperglycemic agent, used in the management of non-insulin-dependant (type-2 diabetes mellitus. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia is common among all age groups, especially in elderly and pediatrics. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients suffering from type-2 diabetes are elderly people showing dysphagia. In this study, orally disintegrating tablets were prepared using direct compression and wet granulation method. First, the tablets of metformin were prepared using starch RX1500 and microcrystalline cellulose by direct compression. The tablets showed erosion behavior rather than disintegration. Then lactose was incorporated which created pores to cause burst release of drug. But these tablets did not give good mouth feel. Thus, Pearlitol SD 200 (spray dried mannitol was used to prepare tablets by wet granulation (10% polyvinylpyrrolidone in Isopropyl alcohol as binder. The optimized batches of tablets (LMCT3 and MP13 not only exhibited desired mouth feel but also disintegration time, in vitro dispersion time, water absorption ratio, and in vitro drug release. All the batches contained 15% starch 1500 and 4% of croscarmellose sodium. The optimized batches prepared by direct compression and wet granulation showed 85% drug release at 4 min and 8 min, respectively. The strong saline and slight bitter taste of the drug was masked using nonnutritive sweetener and flavor.

  20. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li FQ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Qian Li1, Cheng Yan2, Juan Bi1, Wei-Lin Lv3, Rui-Rui Ji3, Xu Chen1, Jia-Can Su3, Jin-Hong Hu31Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w and loading capacity of 20% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 µm to 8 µm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics.Keywords: scopolamine hydrobromide, chitosan, nanoparticles-in-microparticles system, spray-drying, orally disintegrating tablets

  1. RP-HPLC analytical method development and optimization for quantification of donepezil hydrochloride in orally disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Peh, Kok Khiang; Fung Tan, Yvonne Tze

    2013-09-01

    An easy, fast and validated RV-HPLC method was invented to quantify donepezil hydrochloride in drug solution and orally disintegrating tablet. The separation was carried out using reversed phase C-18 column (Agilent Eclipse Plus C-18) with UV detection at 268 nm. Method optimization was tested using various composition of organic solvent. The mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer (0.01M), methanol and acetonitrile (50:30:20, v/v) adjusted to pH 2.7 with phosphoric acid (80%) was found as the optimum mobile phase. The method showed intraday precision and accuracy in the range of 0.24% to -1.83% and -1.83% to 1.99% respectively, while interday precision and accuracy ranged between 1.41% to 1.81% and 0.11% to 1.90% respectively. The standard calibration curve was linear from 0.125 μg/mL to 16 μg/mL, with correlation coefficient of 0.9997±0.00016. The drug solution was stable under room temperature at least for 6 hours. System suitability studies were done. The average plate count was > 2000, tailing factor method was used to assay donepezil hydrochloride in tablet and dissolution study of in-house manufactured donepezil orally disintegrating tablet and original Aricept.

  2. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH's intrinsic characteristics.

  3. Application of water-insoluble polymers to orally disintegrating tablets treated by high-pressure carbon dioxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-09-10

    The phase transition of pharmaceutical excipients that can be induced by humidifying or heating is well-known to increase the hardness of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). However, these conditions are not applicable to drug substances that are chemically unstable against such stressors. Here, we describe a system which enhances the hardness of tablets containing water-insoluble polymers by using high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2). On screening of 26 polymeric excipients, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) markedly increased tablet hardness (+155N) when maintained in a high-pressure CO2 environment. ODTs containing 10% AMCE were prepared and treatment with 4.0MPa CO2 gas at 25°C for 10min increased the hardness to +30N, whose level corresponded to heating at 70°C for 720min. In addition, we confirmed the effects of CO2 pressure, temperature, treatment time, and AMCE content on the physical properties of ODTs. Optimal pressure of CO2 gas was considered to be approximately 3.5MPa for an AMCE formula, as excessive pressure delayed the disintegration of ODTs. Combination of high-pressure CO2 gas and AMCE is a prospective approach for increasing the tablet hardness for ODTs, and can be conducted without additional heat or moisture stress using a simple apparatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality by Design approach for studying the impact of formulation and process variables on product quality of oral disintegrating films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sonal; Pavurala, Naresh; Manda, Prashanth; Xu, Xiaoming; Cruz, Celia N; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R

    2017-07-15

    The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA). A total of 14 laboratory-scale DoE formulations were prepared and evaluated for mechanical properties (%elongation at break, yield stress, Young's modulus, folding endurance) and other CQA (dry thickness, disintegration time, dissolution rate, moisture content, moisture uptake, drug assay and drug content uniformity). The main factors affecting mechanical properties were plasticizer to film former ratio and drying temperature. Dissolution rate was found to be sensitive to air flow rate during drying and plasticizer to film former ratio. Data were analyzed for elucidating interactions between different variables, rank ordering the critical materials attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP), and for providing a predictive model for the process. Results suggested that plasticizer to film former ratio and process controls on drying are critical to manufacture LMT ODF with the desired CQA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Bioavailability of a dexlansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablet: effects of food and mode of administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukulka M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael Kukulka, Sai Nudurupati, Maria Claudia Perez Takeda Development Center Americas, Inc., Deerfield, IL, USA Background: Dexlansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI approved for use in dual delayed-release capsule and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT formulations.Aim: To assess effects of food, water, and route of administration on the bioavailability of dexlansoprazole 30-mg ODT. Methods: Two separate open-label, phase 1, single-dose crossover studies were conducted in healthy adults. In study 1, pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed in participants receiving dexlansoprazole ODT in a fed or fasted state with and without water. In study 2, the bioavailability of dexlansoprazole after administration via oral syringe or nasogastric (NG tube, or after swallowing intact with water was compared to ODT administration in the fasted state, swallowed without water. Blood samples for determining dexlansoprazole plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were collected before and after dosing. Results: Equivalent values for area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC were observed in the fed and fasted states, but the maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax was 38% lower in the fed state; therefore, bioequivalence was not achieved. A water rinse following standard ODT administration decreased dexlansoprazole bioavailability, with lower Cmax and AUC values than when ODT was administered without a water rinse. Bioequivalence was demonstrated when comparing the alternative routes of administration, including via oral syringe or NG tube with standard ODT administration. Unlike with a water rinse, bioequivalence to standard ODT administration (i.e., without water was demonstrated when swallowing the ODT intact with water. Rates of adverse events were comparable irrespective of administration route in the fasted state (6.7%–9.3% and were 12% higher in the fed state than in the fasted state. Conclusion: The AUC

  6. Bioavailability of a dexlansoprazole delayed-release orally disintegrating tablet: effects of food and mode of administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, Michael; Nudurupati, Sai; Perez, Maria Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background Dexlansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) approved for use in dual delayed-release capsule and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulations. Aim To assess effects of food, water, and route of administration on the bioavailability of dexlansoprazole 30-mg ODT. Methods Two separate open-label, phase 1, single-dose crossover studies were conducted in healthy adults. In study 1, pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed in participants receiving dexlansoprazole ODT in a fed or fasted state with and without water. In study 2, the bioavailability of dexlansoprazole after administration via oral syringe or nasogastric (NG) tube, or after swallowing intact with water was compared to ODT administration in the fasted state, swallowed without water. Blood samples for determining dexlansoprazole plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were collected before and after dosing. Results Equivalent values for area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) were observed in the fed and fasted states, but the maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) was 38% lower in the fed state; therefore, bioequivalence was not achieved. A water rinse following standard ODT administration decreased dexlansoprazole bioavailability, with lower Cmax and AUC values than when ODT was administered without a water rinse. Bioequivalence was demonstrated when comparing the alternative routes of administration, including via oral syringe or NG tube with standard ODT administration. Unlike with a water rinse, bioequivalence to standard ODT administration (i.e., without water) was demonstrated when swallowing the ODT intact with water. Rates of adverse events were comparable irrespective of administration route in the fasted state (6.7%–9.3%) and were 12% higher in the fed state than in the fasted state. Conclusion The AUC from the dexlansoprazole ODT was equivalent when administered in the fed and fasted states. Equivalent systemic exposure to

  7. Voglibose administration before the evening meal improves nocturnal hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with intensive insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, M; Takasu, N; Komiya, I; Taira, T; Tanaka, H

    2000-04-01

    Nocturnal hypoglycemia is one of the serious complications of intensive insulin therapy in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM; type 1 DM). We assessed the effect of voglibose (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor) administration before the evening meal on nocturnal hypoglycemia in IDDM patients with intensive insulin therapy. Ten IDDM patients received 0.3 mg voglibose just before the evening meal for 5 days. The diet and insulin regimen were not changed throughout the study. Nocturnal plasma glucose levels (10 PM, 3 AM, and 7 AM) were studied in these patients before and during voglibose administration. Blood glucose levels were measured at 3 AM before and during voglibose treatment. The mean plasma glucose level at 3 AM was 3.4+/-0.4 mmol/L before voglibose treatment and 7.3+/-1.0 mmol/L during treatment. Plasma glucose at 3 AM was elevated in 9 of 10 patients with voglibose. The decrease in plasma glucose from 10 PM to 3 AM was 6.5+/-0.8 mmol/L before voglibose administration but 3.2+/-0.9 mmol/L during treatment (P hypoglycemia rate was 52% (17 of 33 nights) before voglibose administration but only 9.1% (3 of 33 nights) during treatment. We conclude that voglibose administration before the evening meal improves nocturnal hypoglycemia in IDDM patients with intensive insulin therapy.

  8. 吡罗昔康口崩片处方和工艺研究%Formulation and Preparation Technology of Piroxicam Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐知; 彭红; 陈文杰

    2011-01-01

    制备了吡罗昔康口腔崩解片,并评价其质量.采用直接粉末压片法制备口腔崩片解,以片剂可压性、崩解时限、口感为指标.在先进行预试验的基础上,进行了最佳处方的筛选,并对其溶出度进行检测.结果采用最佳处方及制备工艺的吡罗昔康口崩片口感良好,与市售普通片比较,口腔崩解片具有明显速释效果.说明吡罗昔康口腔崩处方设计合理、制备工艺可行、产品质量可控.%To make Piroxicam orally disintegrating tablets and investigate its quality, the tablets were pre-pared using the direct compression method. The formulation was optimized with compressibility, disintegration time and taste as reference parameters, earlier on the basis of pre-test, the best prescription was screened and their dis-solutionwere examined. It is resulted the orally disintegrating tablets with the best formulation and preparation taste good, the orally disintegrating tablets had better fast release effect than marketed tablets. It is conclused that formu-lation design is reasonable, the process of preparation is feasible and the quality can be controlled.

  9. Inhibitory effect of voglibose and gymnemic acid on maltose absorption in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Luo; Toshiaki Imoto; Yasutake Hiji

    2001-01-01

    AIM To determine whether diabetic care can be improved by combination of voglibose and gymnemic acid ( GA ), we compared the combinative and individual effects of voglibose and GA on maltose absorption in small intestine.METHODS The small intestine 30 cm long from 2 cm caudal ward Treitz's ligament of Wistar rat was used as an in situ loop, which was randomly perfused in recircular mode with maltose (10 mmol/L) with or without different dosages of voglibose and/or GA for an hour. To compare the time course, perfusion of 10 mmol/L maltose was repeated four times.Each time continued for 1 hour and separated by 30 minutes rinse. In the first time, lower dosages of GA (0.5g/ L) and/ or voglibose (2μmol/L) were contained except control.RESULTS Absorptive rate of maltose was the lowest in combinative group (P< 0.05, ANOVA),for example, the inhibition rate was about 37%during the first hour when 0.5g/L GA and 2μmol/L voglibose with 10mmol/L maltose were perfused in the loop. The onset time was shortened to 30 minutes and the effective duration was prolonged to 4 hours with the combination; therefore the total amount of maltose absorption during the effective duration was inhibited more significantly than that in the individual administration (P<0.05, U test of Mann-Whitney). The effect of GA on absorptive barriers of the intestine played an important role in the combinative effects.CONCLUSION There are augmented effects of voglibose and GA. The management of diabetes mellitus can be improved by employing the combination.

  10. Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Carbamazepine Orally Disintegrating Tablets%卡马西平口腔速崩片的制备及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫晓晓; 焦海胜

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prepare Carbamazepine (CBZ) orally disintegrating tablets and to evaluate the quality standard of it.METHODS: The tablets were prepared by directly powder compression method using microcrystaline cellulose (MCC) and croscarmellose sodium (CCNa) as disintegrants.The preparation method was optimized by orthogonal test using amount of MCC,CCNa and lactose as factors and with disintegrating time as index.The content of main components was determined by UV spectrophotometry, and the properties of the tablets were evaluated using dissolution rate and stability as index.The dissolution rate of CBZ orally disintegrating tablets was compared with common tablet, and the stability of CBZ orally disintegrating tablets was compared with raw material.RESULTS: The optimal formula was as follows: MCC 75 mg, CCNa 9 mg, lactose 30 mg.The quality of prepared tablets was in line with the standard.The disintegration time was (21 ± 3) s and the accumulative dissolution rate was 81.46% within 2 min.The accumulative dissolution rate was 71.46% within 90 min.Compared with raw material, the absorption peak of prepared tablets changed slightly.CONCLUSION: The preparation technology of orally disintegrating tablets is simple, controllable in quality.It should be kept in drug and cold environment.%目的:制备卡马西平(CBZ)口腔速崩片并评价其质量.方法:选用CBZ为主药,微晶纤维素(MCC)、交联羧甲基纤维素钠(CCNa)为崩解剂,以直接粉末压片法制备片剂;以MCC、CCNa、乳糖用量为考察因素,崩解时间为考察指标设计正交试验筛选处方;采用紫外分光光度法测定制剂中主药的含量,同时以崩解时间、溶出度及稳定性等指标进行质量评价,并与普通片剂比较溶出度,与原料药比较稳定性.结果:优选处方为MCC 75mg、CCNa 9mg、乳糖30mg.所制制剂含量均匀度符合规定,崩解时间为(21±3)s.溶出迅速,2 min内累积溶出率达81.46%;普通片剂90 min

  11. An integrated, quality by design (QbD) approach for design, development and optimization of orally disintegrating tablet formulation of carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saurabh M; Rohera, Bhagwan D

    2016-06-27

    The objective of the present study was to design and develop a formulation for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of carbamazepine using quality by design principles. The target product profile (TPP) and quality target product profile (QTPP) of ODTs were identified. Risk assessment was carried out by leveraging prior knowledge and experience to define the criticality of factors based on their impact by Ishikawa fishbone diagram and preliminary hazard analysis tool. Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to study the effect of critical factors on various attributes of ODTs. The independent factors selected were compression pressure (X1), concentration of sublimating agent (volatile material) (X2), disintegrant concentration (X3) and the responses were tablet crushing strength, tablet porosity, disintegration time, water absorption time, tablet friability and drug dissolution. ANOVA and lack of fit test illustrated that selected independent variables had significant effect on the response variables, and excellent correlation was observed between actual and predicted values. Optimization by desirability function indicated that compression pressure, X1 (1534 lbs), ammonium bicarbonate concentration, X2 (7.68%) and Kollidon(®) CL-SF concentration, X3 (6%) were optimum to prepare ODT formulation of carbamazepine of desired attributes complying with QTPP. Thus, in the present study, a high level of assurance was established for ODT product quality and performance.

  12. Preparation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Powdered Tea Leaves with Enriched Levels of Bioactive Compounds by Means of Microwave Irradiation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hironori; Iwao, Yasunori; Izumikawa, Masahiro; Sano, Syusuke; Ishida, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a microwave treatment process has been applied to prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing powdered tea leaves with enriched levels of the anti-inflammatory compounds such as chafuroside A (CFA) and chafuroside B (CFB). The use of distilled water as the adsorbed and granulation solvents in this preparation process afforded tablets with a long disintegration time (more than 120 s). The CFA and CFB contents of these tablets did not also change after 4 min of microwave irradiation due to the tablet temperature, which only increased to 100°C. In contrast, the tablet temperature increased up to 140°C after 3 min of microwave irradiation when a 1.68 M Na2HPO4 solution instead of distilled water. Notably, the disintegration time of these tablets was considerably improved (less than 20 s) compared with the microwave-untreated tablets, and there were 7- and 11-fold increases in their CFA and CFB contents. In addition, the operational conditions for the preparation of the tablets were optimized by face-centered composite design based on the following criteria: tablet hardness greater than 13 N, disintegration time less than 30 s and friability less than 0.5%. The requirements translated into X1 (the amount of granulation solvent), X2 (tableting pressure) and X3 (content of the powdered tea leaves) values of 45%, 0.43 kN and 32%, respectively, and the ODTs containing powdered tea leaves prepared under these optimized conditions were found to show excellent tablet properties and contain enriched levels of CFA and CFB.

  13. Preparation of orally disintegrating tablets polydatin%正交实验优化虎杖苷口腔崩解片的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 齐红

    2015-01-01

    目的:采用正交试验优选虎杖苷口腔崩解片的最优处方,为虎杖苷口腔崩解片的制备提供最优的方法。方法首先采用乙醇回流提取,过滤,得到虎杖苷,然后使用虎杖苷配合配方制备口腔崩解片,对影响制备工艺的L-HPC,乳糖,淀粉几个因素进行单因素考察,后采用正交试验确定最佳工艺。结果确定虎杖苷口腔崩解片主要成分的配方为L-HPC24.0%,乳糖32.0%,淀粉11.2%。方法学实验表明溶出度曲线回归方程为(以峰面积对浓度进行线性回归) A=3065.7C-0.61,r=0.9999。线性范围为0.076~0.798mg/ml。稳定性RSD在0.729%-2.774%之间,稳定性良好。其精密度RSD在0.634%-2.532%之间,重量差异超过±7.5%的少于2片,无片剂超过±15%。结论本实验制备的虎杖苷口腔崩解片各项指标均符合要求,口感较好。%ğObjective Using Orthogonal Test polydatin orally disintegrating tablet formulation of the optimal preparation of tablets for oral disintegrating polydatin provide the best method method Using ethanol extraction, filtration, get polydatin, with the preparation and use polydatin orally disintegrating tablet formulation, preparation for the impact of L-HPC, lactose, starch, several factors were single factor, after the orthogonal experiment to determine the most good technology.Result polydatin orally disintegrating tablet formulation is the main component of L-HPC24.0%, 32.0% lactose, starch 11.2%.Experiments show that the method of dissolution curve regression equation (peak area concentration linear regression) A = 3065.7C-0.61, r = 0.9999. The linear range of 0.076-0.798mg / ml. RSD stability between 0.729% -2.774%, good stability. Its precision RSD between 0.634% -2.532%, the weight difference of less than± 7.5% 2, no tablets than± 15%.Conclusion Polydatin oral disintegrating tablets prepared in this experiment in the 30s disintegration, taste better.

  14. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING FILM OF ONDANSETRON VERSUS INTRAVENOUS GRANISETRON IN PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING FOLLOWING LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED DOUBLE - BLIND PLACEBO - CONTROLLED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Ondansetron and granisetron are first generation 5 - hydroxytry - ptamine - 3 (5 - HT3) receptor antagonists widely used in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Orally Disintegrating Film (ODF) formulations are novel and advanced oral drug delivery systems used in management of (PONV). We aimed to study the efficacy of ODF of Ondansetron in the prophylaxis of PONV and to co...

  15. 盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片的制备工艺%Preparation Technology of Clomipramine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杏梅; 谢燕萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the formulation of clomipramine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets by orthogonal experiment and to determine the dissolution. Method: The formulation of the tablets was optimized by orthogonal experiment based on four factors, those were the amount of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and sodium carboxymethl starch and the concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and 3 indices, those were disintegrating time (t1,), wetting time (t) and suspending stability (△A). The dissolution of the tablets was determined by HPLC. Result: The optimum preparation technical conditions for the tablets were as follows: the proportions of microcrystalline cellulose,lactose and the sodium carboxymethl starch and the concentration of hydroxypropyl cellulose was 30% ,30% >0. 75% and 1% respectively. The tablets disintegrated completely within 30s with mean td of 13. 2 s,t of 21.6 s,and △A of 0.001 2. Conclusion: The formula of the clomipramine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets is reasonable and valuable to be studied further.%目的:采用正交试验筛选盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片的处方,并测定其溶出度.方法:以微晶纤维素、乳糖、羧甲基淀粉钠的用量以及羟丙纤维素的浓度为考查因素,以口腔崩解片的崩解时间(td)、润湿时间(t)和混悬稳定性(ΔA)为评价指标进行正交试验,确定最佳处方;对优化处方所制样品测定其溶出度.结果:优选工艺为微晶纤维素30%、乳糖30%、羧甲基淀粉钠0.75%、羟丙纤维素的浓度是1%,所制样品平均td为13.2s,t为21.6s,ΔA为0.001 2;30 min内药物溶出超75%.结论:盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片处方设计合理,可进一步开发.

  16. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO – IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION OF ORAL FAST DISINTEGRATING FILMS OF A DRUG MEANT FOR CHRONIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijayalakshmi*, E. Surender , B. Pragna , Md. Zia Askary , Lohidasu Borubhadra , A.J. Balamurugan and Hemant Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to design oral FDFs of a drug meant for management of chronic disease like type-2 diabetes mellitus which affects mostly elderly population. Glimepiride was the drug of choice because of its low dose. Since in vitro dissolution rate is the rate limiting step in drug absorption for class II drugs, in the present work, it was also proposed to make a complex of the drug with hydroxypropyl betacyclodextrin (HPBCD to improve the physicochemical-pharmacokinetic characters of the drug. Various batches of FDFs were developed by the solvent casting method using water soluble polymers HPMC-E5 and Maltodextrin as film formers; Glycerol and PEG-600 as plasticizers; Sodium starch glycollate as super disintegrating/channeling agent; Sodium lauryl sulphate, polaxamer 407 and Tween-80 as surfactants; aspartame as a sweetener and brilliant blue as coloring agent. The drug was complexed with HPBCD by kneading method in the ratio of 1:1 and was incorporated in the film in the place of plain drug. Poloxamer containing films gave better physico-chemical characters than the other tested surfactants and addition of HPBCD complexed drug further improved the characters of the films. The formulation containing drug- HPBCD complex and polaxamer 407 as the surfactant gave lowest disintegration time, more uniform and faster dissolution profile, had better taste, highter Cmax and lower tmax values during in vivo studies. It can therefore be concluded that the drug in its most soluble form gives better physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characters which results in better management of the disease as patient compliance improves.

  17. An advanced technique using an electronic taste-sensing system to evaluate the bitterness of orally disintegrating films and the evaluation of model films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshiko; Usui, Rina; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Tahara, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2017-08-05

    Taste detection systems using electronic sensors are needed in the field of pharmaceutical design. The aim of this study was to propose an advanced technique using a taste-sensing system to evaluate the bitterness of an orally disintegrating film (ODF) samples. In this system, a solid film sample is kept in the test medium with stirring, and the sensor output is recorded. Model films were prepared using a solution-casting method with a water-soluble polymer such as pullulan, HPMC, HPC or PVP as film formers, and donepezil hydrochloride and quinine hydrochloride as model bitter-tasting active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The results showed that this advanced techniques could detect the emergence of bitterness along the time course. Increasing the amount of donepezil hydrochloride increased the sensor output. The sensor output was suppressed at the very early stage of the test, and then increased. Both the film thickness and the use of additives markedly affected the delay of the sensor output. The profile of the sensor output was accurately related to the release of APIs. It was concluded that this advanced technique could detect the onset of bitterness during the initial stage of ODF administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Taste-masking effect of physical and organoleptic methods on peppermint-scented orally disintegrating tablet of famotidine based on suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Takeshi; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are useful for improving benefits for patients of various ages. Masking the unpleasant taste of a drug is an important factor in the compliance of patients who take ODTs. We evaluated the taste acceptability effects of various taste-masking methods on bitter famotidine ODTs as a clinical pharmacological study. The following methods were tested to compare taste-masking effects: physical masking by spray-coating famotidine with ethyl cellulose versus organoleptic masking with added sweetener and flavor. The ODT samples were prepared as single or combinations of each taste-masking method using a novel suspension spray-coating method including a placebo. A total of 31 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study and asked to score their bitterness, sweetness and total palate impressions by 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). VAS scores were significantly improved by the physical and organoleptic methods as compared to without taste-masked ODTs. Furthermore, the combination of both taste-masking methods was most effective for improving palatability and VAS scores were similar to those of placebo ODTs. The results of this study suggest that different taste-masking mechanisms function cooperatively.

  19. Efficacy of orally disintegrating film of ondansetron versus intravenous ondansetron in prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing elective gynaecological laparoscopic procedures: A prospective randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Ondansetron is one of the most widely used drugs for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis. Orally disintegrating film (ODF) formulations are relatively recent innovations. We evaluated the efficacy of ODF of ondansetron for the prophylaxis of PONV. Methods: One hundred and eighty American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I or II women, in the age group 18-65 years, scheduled for elective gynaecological laparoscopic procedures were studied in a prospective ran...

  20. Development and characterization of orally-disintegrating films for propolis delivery Desenvolvimento e caracterização de filmes de desintegração para liberação oral de própolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Gonçalves Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen (HC on the properties of an orally disintegrating film containing propolis ethanol extract (PEE as an active component. The films were evaluated in terms of total phenols, mechanical properties, solubility, contact angle, disintegration time, and microstructure. The films were prepared by casting with 2 g of protein mass (gelatin and HC, 30 g of sorbitol/100 g of protein mass, and 100 g of PEE/100 g of protein mass. HC was incorporated at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, and 30 g/100 g of protein mass. It was found that increased concentrations of HC reduced tensile strength and increased elongation; however, all films showed plastic behavior. An increase in solubility at 25 ºC, a reduction in the contact angle, and disintegration time were also observed. Thus, higher concentrations of collagen led to more hydrophilic and more soluble polymeric matrices that showed shorter dissolution time, favoring the use of these materials as carriers for active compounds to be delivered in the oral cavity.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de colágeno hidrolisado nas propriedades de filmes de desintegração oral contendo extrato etanólico de própolis como componente ativo. Os filmes foram avaliados em relação aos fenóis totais, propriedade mecânica, solubilidade, ângulo de contato, tempo de desintegração e microestrutura. Os filmes foram produzidos por "casting" com concentrações de 2 g de massa proteica (gelatina e colágeno hidrolisado, 30 g de sorbitol/100 g de massa proteica e 100 g de extrato fenólico de própolis/100 g de massa proteica. Colágeno hidrolisado foi incorporado nas concentrações de 0, 10, 20 e 30 g/100 g de massa proteica. Verificou-se que o aumento da concentração de colágeno hidrolisado provocou redução na tensão de ruptura e aumento da elongação, entretanto todos os filmes

  1. 白花蛇舌草口腔崩解片防治青少年青春痘临床试验%Hedyotis Diffusa Orally Disintegrating Tablets Treatment of Adolescent Acne Clinical Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹晓如; 谭丽荷; 郑小吉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the ef ects of Herba Hedyotis dif usae oral y disintegrating tablet on the clinical ef icacy and safety of adolescent acne. Methods The test group of 76 patients with Oldenlandia oral y disintegrating tablets, 42 cases in the control group with clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, tails capsule, Vitamin B6 Tablets oral, topical clindamycin and 0.1%tretinoin cream gel 1% (before the external) treatment for 1 weeks. Results The experimental group, the total ef iciency was 92.11%, control group, the total ef iciency of 88.10%, compared with two groups of curative ef ect, by the analysis of Ridit, u=1.486 ( >0.O5), no significant treatment group curative ef ect between the control group and the. Conclusion Can ef ectively prevent acne Hedyotis dif usa oral y disintegrating tablets, has the very good development value.%目的:观察白花蛇舌草口腔崩解片防治青少年青春痘临床疗效及安全性。方法试验组76例采用白花蛇舌草口腔崩解片,对照组42例用克林霉素胶囊、泰尔丝胶丸、维生素月远片内服,同时外用员豫克林霉素凝胶及园.员豫迪维霜(睡前外用)疗程均为1 w。结果其中试验组总有效率为92.11%,对照组总有效率为88.10%,两组疗效比较,经Ridit分析,u=1.486(跃0.05),治疗组疗效与对照组无显著性差异。结论白花蛇舌草口腔崩解片能有效地防治青少年青春痘,具有很好开发价值。

  2. Efficacy of orally disintegrating film of ondansetron versus intravenous ondansetron in prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing elective gynaecological laparoscopic procedures: A prospective randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harihar V Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Ondansetron is one of the most widely used drugs for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV prophylaxis. Orally disintegrating film (ODF formulations are relatively recent innovations. We evaluated the efficacy of ODF of ondansetron for the prophylaxis of PONV. Methods: One hundred and eighty American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I or II women, in the age group 18-65 years, scheduled for elective gynaecological laparoscopic procedures were studied in a prospective randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The patients were randomised into four groups: Placebo, intravenous (IV ondansetron 4 mg, ODF of ondansetron 4 mg (ODF4 and 8 mg (ODF8 groups. PONV was assessed in two epochs of 0-6 and 7-24 h. Primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV and secondary outcome measures were severity of nausea, need for rescue anti-emetic, analgesic consumption, time to oral intake, overall patient satisfaction and side effects such as headache and dizziness. PONV was compared using analysis of variance or Mann-Whitney U-test as applicable. Results: Data of 173 patients were analysed. The incidence of postoperative nausea was significantly lower (P = 0.04 only during the 0-6 h in the ODF8 group when compared with the placebo group. During the 0-6 h interval postoperatively, the ODF8 group had a significantly lower incidence of vomiting when compared with the placebo (P = 0.002 and the IV group (P = 0.044. During the 0-24 h interval postoperatively, ODF4 (P = 0.01 and ODF8 (P = 0.002 groups had a significantly lower incidence of vomiting compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: Orally disintegrating film of ondansetron is an efficacious, novel, convenient and may be a cost-effective option for the prophylaxis of PONV.

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING FILM OF ONDANSETRON VERSUS INTRAVENOUS GRANISETRON IN PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING FOLLOWING LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED DOUBLE - BLIND PLACEBO - CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehalatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Ondansetron and granisetron are first generation 5 - hydroxytry - ptamine - 3 (5 - HT3 receptor antagonists widely used in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV. Orally Disintegrating Film (ODF formulations are novel and advanced oral drug delivery systems used in management of (PONV. We aimed to study the efficacy of ODF of Ondansetron in the prophylaxis of PONV and to compare it with intravenous Granisetron and placebo in patients undergoing Laparoscopic cholecystectomy . MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this prospective, randomized double - blind placebo - controlled study, 120 consented adult patients of ASA grade I and grade II, aged between 25 - 55 years of both genders, undergoing elective Laparoscopic cholecystectomy , w ere randomized into 3 groups of 40 patients each as Placebo, intravenous Granisetron 2mg and ODF of Ondansetron 8mg (ODF8 g roups. Study drugs were administered just before induction of Anaesthesia. Standardized anesthetic technique was used, and data was collected. Incidence of PONV was assessed and the number of patients suffering from nausea and vomiting at 0 - 6, 7 - 14, and overall 0 - 24 hours post - operatively was evaluated in all the groups and need for rescue anti - emetic noted. RESULTS : Data was analysed using one - way ANOVA test, Chi ‑ square test and Mann – Whitney test. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting at different time intervals in Group G and ODF Group was significantly lower when compared with Placebo Group ( p=0.000 . But there was no significant difference in between the ODF and in travenous groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects in between the three groups. CONCLUSION : orally disintegrating film of Ondansetron is a safe, simple and cost - effective, novel formulation , equally effective to intraven ous Granisetron in preventing PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  4. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  5. 银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片治疗精神分裂症的临床研究%A clinical study of combined utization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schlzophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚飞中; 曾骥; 余瑞; 龚昌群; 刘均富

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical efficacy and the side effects between combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets and only the use of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods Seventy-five patients with schizophrenia were treated randomly with combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets or risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only for six weeks,and measured with the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS) before treatment and 1,2,4,6 weeks after treatment. Results The both programes were different in efficacy, combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone o-rally disintegrating tablets is more effective than risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only in treating schizophrenia, and the side effects combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets is no more effective than risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only in treating schizophrenia. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets take a active part earlier than only the use of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia, however, the reduced rate of BPRS was no significant difference after 2 weeks, itcould be necessary to continue the joint use of ginkgo biloba extract.%目的 比较银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片与单用利培酮口腔崩解片治疗精神分裂症的疗效及不良反应.方法 将符合标准的75例精神分裂症患者分为两组,一组给予银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片治疗(治疗组,n=40),另一组给予利培酮口腔崩解片治疗(对照组,n=35),疗程6周.用简明精神量表(BPRS)在治疗前及治疗1、2、4、6周末评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果

  6. Preparation of Lamotrigine Orally Disintegrating Tablets based on the co-processed exicipient%基于预混辅料的拉莫三嗪口腔崩解片的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查静; 王铁杰; 王思明; 涂家生

    2015-01-01

    目的:由预混辅料入手,制备拉莫三嗪口腔崩解片。方法以异麦芽酮糖醇、微晶纤维素和交联聚维酮为主要辅料,使用湿法制粒的方法制备预混辅料,并测定了预混辅料产品的粉体学性质。选用拉莫三嗪为主药,与预混辅料及少量崩解剂、润滑剂和矫味剂,通过粉末直压的方法制备拉莫三嗪口腔崩解片,并对拉莫三嗪口腔崩解片进行基本的体外评价。结果通过单因素考察和正交试验,预混辅料的最终处方组成为:异麦芽酮糖醇与微晶纤维素的比例为3:4,加入8%交联聚维酮。拉莫三嗪口腔崩解片的最优处方组成(按1000片计)为:25 g 拉莫三嗪,137 g预混辅料,14.4 g低取代羟丙基纤维素,1.8 g硬脂酸镁,1.8 g矫味剂。拉莫三嗪口腔崩解片的崩解时限为35 s,且在5 min内溶出完全。结论根据试验,制备的预混辅料的性质优良,口腔崩解片的崩解时限、口感和溶出度等均符合规定。%Objective To prepare Lamotrigine Orally Disintegrating Tablets( ODTs)based on the co-processed ex-cipients. Methods Firstly,to prepare the co - processed excipient consisting of isomalt,microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone by wet granulation method. Afterwards,Lamotrigine ODTs was directly compressed after mixing the co-pro-cessed excipient with a small amount of disintegrant,taste-masked agents and magnesium stearate,and the formula optimi-zation was conducted. Finally,the micromeritic properties of co-processed excipient and the disintegration time of Lam-otrigine ODTs with the optimal formula were investigated. Results The desirable co-processed excipient composed of iso-malt/microcrystalline cellulose at a ratio of 3:4 and 8% crospovidone. And the components of the optimal formula of Lam-otrigine ODTs(in 1 000)included 25 g lamotrigine,137 g co-processed excipient,14. 4 g low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose,1. 8 g magnesium stearate,1. 8 g

  7. Study on the Formula and Preparation Technology of Diclofenac Sodium-β-CD Inclusion Complex Orally Disintegrating Tablets%双氯芬酸钠-β-环糊精包合物口腔速崩片的处方及制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 阴元魁

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prepare the orally disintegrating tablets of diclofenac sodium-β-CD inclusion complex and to establish the formula and preparation technology of it. METHODS: With disintegration time as index, 5 kinds of disintegrating agents,2 kinds of lubricants, 3 kinds of hardness scopes and 2 kinds of preparation technologies were screened to obtain and validate optimal formula and prescription technology. RESULTS: Wet granule compression tablet method was used to prepare orally disintegrating tablet with crospovidone as disintegrating agent, aerosil and talc as the lubricant, and the hardness was 20~30 N. The prepared tablets could disintegrate completely within 60 s. CONCLUSION: The orally disintegrating tablets of diclofenac sodium is prepared after being included with β-CD. The method is simple and up to the standard of quality for the industrial production of diclofenac sodium-β-CD inclusion complex orally disintegrating tablets.%目的:制备双氯芬酸钠-β-环糊精包合物的口腔速崩片,确立其处方及制备工艺.方法:以崩解时间为指标,分别对5种崩解剂、2种润滑荆、3种片剂硬度范围和2种压片方法进行筛选得出最佳处方及制备方法,并进行验证.结果:以交联聚维酮为崩解剂,微粉硅胶和滑石粉为润滑剂,硬度为20~30N,采用湿法制粒压片所制得的口腔速崩片,在60 s内可完全崩解.结论:双氯芬酸钠经-β-环糊精包舍后再制成口腔速崩片,制备方法简单,质量合格,且适合工业化生产.

  8. Effective Therapy Using Voglibose for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Patient with Insufficient Dietary and Exercise Therapy: Exploring Other Treatment Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Nagai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old Japanese female with a 10-year history of thyroiditis presented to our institution. The laboratory data and clinical findings suggested that the patient had complicated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH with autoimmune hepatitis according to the criteria by the application of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis score. The patient could not manage by herself so dietary- and exercise-based treatment was difficult. Accordingly, ursodeoxycholic acid and ezetimibe therapy was started and continued until the performance of a liver needle biopsy to define the diagnosis. However, no improvement in liver function was observed. In addition, pathological findings indicated that the patient had NASH. The patient was finally diagnosed as having NASH. Therefore, voglibose was added to the ursodeoxycholic acid and ezetimibe therapy, and this addition of voglibose actually took effect. The patient’s serum aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels decreased dramatically. This report is the first to document other treatment possibilities of NASH in a case when dietary therapy is difficult.

  9. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of an Extended-Release Orally Disintegrating Methylphenidate Tablet in Children 6–12 Years of Age with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann C.; Kollins, Scott H.; Cutler, Andrew J.; Marraffino, Andrea; Sikes, Carolyn R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (MPH XR-ODTs) represent a new technology for MPH delivery. ODTs disintegrate in the mouth without water and provide a pharmacokinetic profile that is consistent with once-daily dosing. This study sought to determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this novel MPH XR-ODT formulation in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory classroom setting. Methods: Children aged 6–12 years with ADHD (n = 87) were enrolled in this randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, laboratory classroom study. The MPH XR-ODT dose was titrated to an optimized dose during a 4-week open-label period and maintained on that dose for 1 week. Participants (n = 85) were then randomized to receive their optimized dose of MPH XR-ODT or placebo once daily for 1 week (double blind), culminating in a laboratory classroom testing day. Efficacy was evaluated using the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) Attention, Deportment, and Combined scores along with Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP; Attempted and Correct) assessments. Onset and duration of drug action were also evaluated as key secondary endpoints. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), physical examinations, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Results: The average SKAMP-Combined score on the classroom study day was significantly better for the MPH XR-ODT group (n = 43) than for the placebo group (n = 39; p headache, insomnia, upper respiratory tract infection, affect lability, irritability, cough, and vomiting. Conclusions: MPH XR-ODT was effective and well tolerated for the treatment of children with ADHD in a laboratory classroom setting. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT01835548 (ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID:27183299

  10. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of an Extended-Release Orally Disintegrating Methylphenidate Tablet in Children 6-12 Years of Age with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann C; Kollins, Scott H; Cutler, Andrew J; Marraffino, Andrea; Sikes, Carolyn R

    2017-02-01

    Methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (MPH XR-ODTs) represent a new technology for MPH delivery. ODTs disintegrate in the mouth without water and provide a pharmacokinetic profile that is consistent with once-daily dosing. This study sought to determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this novel MPH XR-ODT formulation in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory classroom setting. Children aged 6-12 years with ADHD (n = 87) were enrolled in this randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, laboratory classroom study. The MPH XR-ODT dose was titrated to an optimized dose during a 4-week open-label period and maintained on that dose for 1 week. Participants (n = 85) were then randomized to receive their optimized dose of MPH XR-ODT or placebo once daily for 1 week (double blind), culminating in a laboratory classroom testing day. Efficacy was evaluated using the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) Attention, Deportment, and Combined scores along with Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP; Attempted and Correct) assessments. Onset and duration of drug action were also evaluated as key secondary endpoints. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), physical examinations, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). The average SKAMP-Combined score on the classroom study day was significantly better for the MPH XR-ODT group (n = 43) than for the placebo group (n = 39; p classroom setting. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT01835548 ( ClinicalTrials.gov ).

  11. Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Parkash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.

  12. Pharmacokinetic and Bioavailability of Donepezil Orally Disintegrating Tablet in Healthy Volunteers%盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片人体药物代谢动力学和生物等效性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余勤; 向瑾; 冯萍; 王颖; 梁茂植; 苗佳; 南峰; 沈奇; 秦永平

    2012-01-01

    目的 采用高效液相色谱-质谱联用法研究盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片的人体药物代谢动力学,并评价其生物等效性.方法 2009年9月-11月对22例健康男性受试志愿者单次交叉口服盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片(试验制剂)和盐酸多奈哌齐普通片(参比制剂),测定给药后不同时间点血浆中多奈哌齐经时血药浓度,采用DAS 2.0软件进行药物代谢动力学参数计算和生物等效性评价.结果 受试者单次口服试验制剂与参比制剂后,达峰时间分别为(2.95±1.16)、(3.19±0.98)h,峰浓度分别为(9.98±2.93)、(9.13±2.05)ng/mL,药时曲线下面积(0-t)分别为(470.76±142.64)、(446.57±137.30) ng/mL·h;药时曲线下面积(0-∞)分别为(517.74±169.79)、(489.47±162.13)ng/mL·h.试验制剂与参比制剂的生物等效性结果为104.7%,其90%置信区间为(98.4%,111.4%).结论 盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片与普通片生物等效.%Objective To study the pharmacokinetic and bioavaiiabiiity of donepezi! orally disintegrating tabiet in healthy volunteers with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Methods Twenty-two healthy male volunteers were enrolled in the study between September and November 2009. The subjects orally took a single dose of 5 mg donepezil test or reference preparation. The concentrations of donepezil plasma were assessed and data were analyzed automatically with DAS 2.0 pharmacokinetic program. The relative bioavailability of donepezil test or reference preparation was calculated. Results The parameters of donepezil test and reference preparation were as following: the peak time (Tmax) was (2.95 ±1.16) h and (3.19 ±0.98) h; the peak concentration (Cmax) was (9.98 ±2.93) ng/mL and (9.13 ±2.05) ng/mL; the area under the curve (AUC)(0-t) was (470.76 ±142.64) ng/mL Objective To study the pharmacokinetic and bioavaiiabiiity of donepezi! orally disintegrating tabiet in healthy volunteers with high

  13. Pharmacokinetic profile of rizatriptan 10-mg tablet and 10-mg orally disintegrating tablet administered with or without water in healthy subjects: an open-label, randomized, single-dose, 3-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Suzanne K; Alcorn, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Hustad, Carolyn M; Ramsey, Karen E; Woll, Susan; Skobieranda, Franck

    2006-02-01

    This open-label, 3-period crossover study compared the plasma concentration profiles of rizatriptan tablet, orally disintegrating tablet with water (ODTc), and ODT without water (ODTs) in 24 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 45 years. At each period, subjects received a single dose of either 10-mg rizatriptan tablet, 10-mg rizatriptan ODTs, or 10-mg rizatriptan ODTc. The authors hypothesized that ODTc has a greater geometric mean AUC(0-2h) than ODTs and that ODTc has a greater geometric mean AUC(0-1h) than tablet. A secondary end point was to compare the time of occurrence of the maximum rizatriptan plasma concentration (t(max)) of each dosing method. ODTc had a statistically significantly greater geometric mean AUC(0-2h) compared with ODTs (33.84 h x ng/mL vs 18.83 h x ng/mL; P rizatriptan tablet (17.07 h x ng/mL vs 13.32 h x ng/mL). The median t(max) was 0.67 hours for ODTc and tablet and 1.33 hours for ODTs. ODTc showed a slightly, but not significantly, faster rate of absorption compared with tablet. ODTs with water had a faster rate of absorption than ODTc. Future studies are needed to determine whether this pharmacokinetic difference produces differential efficacy in a clinical setting.

  14. Bioequivalence of Donepezil Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets in Healthy Volunteers%盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋薇; 杨静; 冯智军; 丁莉坤; 李雪晴; 周伦; 杨林; 文爱东

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片与盐酸多奈哌齐片人体的生物等效性.方法:20名男性健康志愿者随机交叉单剂量口服盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片(受试制剂)与盐酸多奈哌齐片(参比制剂)5 mg,用液质联用法测定人血浆中多奈哌齐的浓度,用DAS 2.1软件计算药动学参数,并评价两制剂的生物等效性.结果:口服受试制剂和参比制剂药动学参数分别为Cmax(8.56±2.10)和(8.08±1.78) ng·ml-1,tmax(2.65±0.74)和(3.05±0.83)h,t1/2 (70.31±19.54)和(71.15±18.47)h,AUC0~216(373.76±94.15)和(353.04±81.42) ng·h·m1-1,AUC0~∞(420.30±110.99)和(399.80±108.56) ng·h·ml-1.受试制剂AUG~216的90%置信区间在参比制剂的等效范围内.结论:两种盐酸多奈哌齐制剂生物等效.%Objective; To study the bioequivalenee of donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets and donepezil hydrochlo-ride tablets. Method: 20 healthy male volunteers were enrolled in a randomized crossover study in which the subjects were randomly assigned to receive single dose of 5 mg orally disintegrating tablets (test preparation) or donepezil hydrochloride tablets ( reference preparation). Plasma concentrations of donepezil were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharma-cokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2. 1 software. Result; The main pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference preparations after oral administration were as follows;^ of (8.56 ±2. 10) and (8.08 ± 1.78) ng ml"' ,tmax of (2.65 ±0.74) and(3.05 ± 0.83) h,tI/2 of (70.31 ±19.54) and (71.15 ± 18.47) h,AUC0_m of (373.76 ±94.15) and (353.04 ± 81.42) ng -h -ml-', AUC0_, of (420. 30 ±110.99) and (399. 80 ± 108.56) ng -h ml"1. The 90% confidential intervals (CI) of AUC0_2]6 of the test preparation was in the bioequivalent range of the reference preparation. Conclusion; The two kinds of donepezil formulations are bio-equivalent.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of terazosin orally disintegrating tablets%盐酸特拉唑嗪口腔崩解片人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 吴玉柱; 徐海燕; 袁波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence between two kinds of terazosin tablets in healthy volunteers. Methods A single oral dose of two kinds of terazosin tablets was given to 18 healthy volunteers in a randomized two-period crossover study. The concentrations of terazosin in plasma were determined by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The plasma concentration-time curves were plotted and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Results The main pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference tablets in plasma were shown as follows: tmax were (1.3 ±0.8) and (1. 2 ±0. 8)h,pmax were (62.9 ±20.4) and (62.0 ± 15.3) μg·Lμ-1 ,t1/2 were (10. 2 ± 1.3) and (10.7 ± 1. 3)h, AUC0-t., were (556.3 ±162.6) and (584.2 ± 124. 2) μg·h·L-1, AUC0-∞, were (576.4 ± 169.9) and (611.7 ± 126.5)μg·H·L-1, respectively. The relative bioavailability of the tested drug was(96. 2 ±22.4) %. Conclusions The two kinds of terazosin formulations are bioequivalent in healthy volunteers.%目的 研究特拉唑嗪口腔崩解片在健康人体内的药动学行为,并以胶囊剂为参比进行生物等效性评价.方法 采用液质联用(LC-MS-MS)法测定服药后受试者血浆中特拉唑嗪的质量浓度并计算主要药动学参数.结果 18名受试者口服含盐酸特拉唑嗪2 mg的受试制剂和参比制剂后,血浆中特拉唑嗪的fmax为(1.3±0.8)、(1.2±0.8)h,ρmax为(62.9±20.4)、(62.0±15.3) μg·L-1,t1/2为(10.2±1.3)、(10.7±1.3)h,AUC0-t为(556.3±162.6)、(584.2±124.2) μg ·h·L-1,AUC0-∞为(576.4±169.9)、(611.7±126.5)μg·h·L-1.以AUC0-t计算,盐酸特拉唑嗪口腔崩解片中特拉唑嗪的相对生物利用度为(96.2±22.4)%.结论 受试制剂和参比制剂具有生物等效性.

  16. Effects of combination therapy with mitiglinide and voglibose on postprandial plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konya H

    2013-09-01

    suitable for Japanese people, who consume more carbohydrates, such as polished rice, than Caucasians. It has recently been reported that combined use of mitiglinide and voglibose reduces postprandial insulin secretion and blunts diurnal glycemic changes in T2DM patients. This therapy can thus be regarded as being suitable for achieving strict postprandial glycemic control. In this report, we outline the effects of this combination therapy on postprandial plasma glucose and assess its safety. Keywords: mitiglinide, voglibose, combination therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, postprandial hyperglycemia

  17. 氯氮平口腔崩解片与氯氮平普通片治疗精神分裂症的对照研究%Comparison study of Clozapine Orally Disintegrating Tablets and Clozapine in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽红

    2013-01-01

    目的比较氯氮平口腔崩解片与氯氮平普通片治疗精神分裂症的疗效及安全性。方法将68例精神分裂症患者随机分为氯氮平口腔崩解片组34例和氯氮平普通片组34例。分别给予氯氮平口腔崩解片和氯氮平普通片治疗8周。分别于治疗前及治疗2、4、6、8周采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,用不良反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果两组疗效差异无显著性(P>0.05),氯氮平口腔崩解片不良反应显著少于氯氮平普通片。结论氯氮平口腔崩解片和氯氮平普通片对精神分裂症疗效相当,不良反应小,明显改善患者生活质量。%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of clozapine orally disintegrating tablets and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods There were34 schizophrenia patients in study group treated with clozapine orally disintegrating tablets and34 schizophrenia patients in contyol group with clozapine for the treatment of 8 weeks. The efifcacy was assessed with the positive and negative symptoms scale(PANSS)and TESS was used to evaluate the side effects before and after treatment for. 2.4.6.8 weeks. Restults No signiifcant difference was found in the efifcacy between two groups, but the side effects were signiifcantly less in clozapine orally disintegrating tablets group than in clozapine group. Conclusion Clozapine orally disintegrating tablets and clozapine are similarly effective and safe in the treatment of schizophrenia with improving the patients, quality of life and mild side effects.

  18. Theoretical foundations of ferrosilicium disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushevich, N. F.; Maksimov, A. A.; Pronakin, A. Yu; Polyakh, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    The crystallization processes and solid-phase transformations in alloys FS-75, FS-65, FS-45 and the influence of impurities (aluminum) on the possibility of disintegration of ferroalloys were considered on the basis of state diagrams analysis of Fe - Si and Fe-Si-Al systems. It was shown that the mechanisms of crystallization of melts of different compositions differ quite significantly, both in the chemistry of the process, and in the number and composition of the crystallization products. Process of ferroalloys disintegration depends on many factors: the alloy composition, the degree of superheat, the cooling rate, completeness of solid phase reactions, etc.

  19. Study on Bioequivalence of Ambroxol Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets in Healthy Volunteers%盐酸氨溴索口腔崩解片的人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈白莹; 夏铮铮; 常宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:对生产工艺重大改变前、后盐酸氨溴索口腔崩解片在健康人体的生物等效性进行对比研究.方法:20名健康男性受试者按交叉试验设计方案分别口服受试制剂和参比制剂各30 mg,采集服药后48 h内的动态血标本,以普拉克索为内标,采用液-质联用(LC-MS)法测定血浆中盐酸氨溴索的质量浓度,并用DAS 2.0软件统计分析药动学参数.结果:参比制剂和受试制剂药动学参数分别为:cmax (84.96±32.46)、(90.86±44.81)ng/ml,tmax(1.7±0.7)、(1.4±0.3)h,AUC0-48 h(678.85±235.17)、(663.87±214.37)ng·h/ml,t1/2(9.8±1.9)、(9.7±2.0)h,主要药动学参数无显著性差异.结论:生产工艺重大改变前、后生产的两种制剂生物等效.%OBJECTIVE:To study the bioequivalence of Ambroxol hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets in healthy volunteers after significant change of manufacturing technology.METHODS:Test preparation and reference preparation each 30 mg were given to 20 male healthy volunteers in randomized two-way crossover design.Blood samples were collected within 48 h after medication using pramipexole as internal standard.Plasma concentrations of ambroxol hydrochloride were determined by LC-MS,and pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using DAS 2.0 software.RESULTS:The pharmacokinetics parameters of test preparation and reference preparation were as follows:cmax(84.96 ± 32.46)ng/ml and (90.86 ± 44.81) ng/ml;tmax(1.7 ± 0.7) h and (1.4 ± 0.3) h; AUC0-48 h(678.85 ± 235.17) ng·h/ml and (663.87 ± 214.37)ng·h/ml;t1/2(9.8 ± 1.9) h and (9.7 ± 2.0)h,respectively.There was no significant difference in main pharmacokinetic parameters of them.CONCLUSIONS:Two preparations are bioequivalent after significant change of manufacturing technology.

  20. Study on bioequivalence of ciozapine orally disintegrating tablets in patients with schizophrenia%氯氮平口腔崩解片在精神分裂症患者体内的生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 黄榕波; 黄锦雄; 邱畅; 张明; 温预关

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the bioequivalence of orally disintegrating tablets and tablets of clozapine in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS The study was a randomized, two-way crossover design in which patients with schizophrenia received test preparation or reference preparation 100 mg twice daily for 10 days. Plasma concentrations of clozapine were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioavailability were calculated by DAS. RESULTS The main pharmacokinetic parameters of test preparation or reference preparation were as follows:Cmax were (540. 0 ± 228.3) and (534. 1+205.7) μg·L-1;tmax were(2. 0±0. 9) and (2. 0 + 0. 9)h;t1/2 were(9. 7 ±3. 6)and(11. 4 ±6. 3)h . AUCss were(3 753. 9 ± 1 371. 5)and(3 819. 4± 1 591. 8)μg·h·L-1 , respectively. The mean relative bioavailability of test preparation was(101. 2± 19. 4) %, according to AUCss. CONCLUSION The statistical analysis shows the two preparations are bioequivalent.%目的:研究受试制剂氯氮平口腔崩解片和参比制剂氯氮平片在精神分裂症患者体内的药动学过程并判断两制剂是否具有生物等效性.方法:采用随机双周期,自身交叉设计,20名受试者分别口服受试制剂或参比制剂100 mg,q12 h,连续服用10d后采集血样,HPLC-MS/MS法测定血浆中氯氮平的浓度,DAS软件求算有关药动学参数和相对生物利用度.结果:受试制剂和参比制剂的主要药动学参数Cmax分别为(540.0±228.3) μg·L-1、(534.1±205.7)μg·L-1,tmax分别为(2.0±0.9)h、(2.0±0.9)h,t1/2分别为(9.7±3.6)h、(11.4±6.3)h,AUCss分别为(3753.9±1371.5)μg·h·L-1、(3 819.4±1 591.8)μg·h·L-1;以AUCss计,受试制剂的相对生物利用度为(101.2±19.4)%.20名受试者口服受试制剂口感良好,没有沙砾感,崩解时限为(34.6±10.2)s.结论:两种制剂生物等效.

  1. Short-term treatment with olanzapine does not modulate gut hormone secretion: olanzapine disintegrating versus standard tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Streefland, Trea;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic drug) is frequently associated with various metabolic anomalies, including obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), which dissolve instantaneously in the mouth...

  2. Clinical observation of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in the improvement of women's weight,prolactin increase caused by risperidone,sulpiride,olanzapine%阿立哌唑口腔崩解片改善利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平致女性体重、泌乳素增加的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓子禄; 王群英; 熊英; 胡俊英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑口腔崩解片改善利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平等精神类药物所致体重、泌乳素增加的临床效果。方法:收治因服用利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平等精神类药物后引起体重增加及高催乳素血症患者60例,所有患者均维持原抗精神类药物的治疗方案,根据随机数字表将患者分为阿立哌唑口腔崩解片组(观察组)30例和安慰剂组(对照组)30例,两组患者干预12周后测量患者体质指数(BMI)变化及催乳素(PRI)的水平,同时采用不良反应量表(TESS)评定阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗的不良反应。结果:与对照组相比,观察组治疗后 BMI 及PRL 显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。观察组总有效率93.33%,对照组总有效率76.67%,两组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05)。TESS 评分观察组(5.12±1.12)分,对照组(4.98±1.08)分,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑口腔崩解片能有效改善利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平等抗精神病药所致体重、泌乳素增加症状,且安全、可靠,值得临床应用和推广。%Objective:To explore the clinical effect of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in the improvement of women's weight,prolactin increase caused by sulpiride,risperidone,olanzapine.Methods:60 cases of weight gain and hyperprolactinemic patients caused by sulpiride,risperidone,olanzapine were selected.All patients maintained antipsychotic drug treatment scheme of the original.According to the random number table,they were divided into the aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group(observation group) with 30 cases and the placebo group(control group) with 30 cases.After 12 weeks of treatment,we measured body mass index patients(BMI) changes and prolactin(PRI) level.At the same time,we evaluated the adverse reactions of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets treatment using side effects scale

  3. Brexit and the problem of European disintegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosamond, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The Brexit referendum provokes speculation about the likelihood of European disintegration. This article discusses how scholarship might deal with the issue of disintegration and argues that it should be thought of as an indeterminate process rather than an identifiable outcome. Within the EU...... system, Brexit is likely to unleash disintegrative dynamics, which could see the EU stagnate into a suboptimal institutional equilibrium. At the same time, EU studies needs to lift its gaze beyond the internal dynamics of the EU system to consider the disintegration of the democratic capitalist compact...

  4. Brexit and the problem of European disintegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosamond, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The Brexit referendum provokes speculation about the likelihood of European disintegration. This article discusses how scholarship might deal with the issue of disintegration and argues that it should be thought of as an indeterminate process rather than an identifiable outcome. Within the EU...

  5. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balata, Gehan F; Zidan, Ahmad S; Abourehab, Mohamad AS; Essa, Ebtessam A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 32 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT’s porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by croscarmellose sodium. On the other hand, croscarmellose sodium was most important for the initial simvastatin release. The results suggest the potential use of poloxamer 188-based SD in RDT for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble antihyperlipidemic drug, simvastatin. PMID:27757012

  6. 氯氮平联合抗精神病药治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的效果分析%Analysis of efficacy of antipsychotics combined with clozapine orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia with negative ysmptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽红; 雷佳峰; 彭灵芝; 许芳; 李玉章; 李亚玲

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨氯氮平口腔崩解片联合抗精神病药治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的效果及安全性。方法以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者50例,随机分为观察组(服用抗精神病药物联合氯氮平口腔崩解片)和对照组(单用抗精神病药物),各25例,疗程8周,按阳性与阴性症状量表( PANSS)及有关实验室检查结果评定疗效,分别于治疗前后各评定1次。结果观察组显效17例(68.0%),有效7例,无效1例;对照组显效10例(40.0%),有效12例,无效3例;观察组显效率高于对照组( P <0.05)。治疗8周后,两组各项评分均较治疗前明显下降( P <0.01);治疗后,观察组阴性症状分低于对照组( P <0.05)。结论抗精神病药物联合氯氮平口腔崩解片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症有较好的疗效,不良反应少。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics combined with clozapine orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia with negative symptoms .Mtehod s Fifty cases of schizophrenia mainly with negative symptoms were randomly divided into obsevation group ( treated with antipsychotics and clozapine orally disintegrating tablets ) and control group ( treated with antipsychotics ) .The course of treatment was eight weeks .Indicators included Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale ( PANSS) and Treatment Emergent Symptom scale ( TESS) before and after treatment .Restults The significant improvement rate was higher in the observation group(68.0%)than that of the control group(40%).Eight weeks after treatment,the total scores and negative symptoms scores of PANSS were significantly lower in both observation groups than these of the patients before treatment ( P <0.01).The nega-tive symptom scores of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment ( P <0.05).Conclusion Antip-sychotics combined

  7. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床对照研究%A controlled clinical study of amisulpride and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in treatment of negative schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较氨磺必利和阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床疗效和安全性。方法采用随机对照研究,将64例符合《中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准(第3版)》(CCMD-3)诊断标准的以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者按照入组先后顺序分为氨磺必利组(研究组)和阿立哌唑口崩片组(对照组)各32例,疗程8周,采用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)评定疗效,采用副反应量表( TESS)评定不良反应。结果治疗8周后,两组PANSS评分均下降(P>0.05),氨磺必利组和阿立哌唑口崩片组有效率分别为90.63%,87.5%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组TESS评分分别为(3.98±1.03)分、(4.07±1.89)分,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症疗效相当,不良反应轻。%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety between amisulpride and aripiprazole in treatment of negative schizo-phrenia. Methods Using randomized controlled trials in this study, 64 patients diagnosed with negative schizophrenia were randomly divided into amisulpride group (study group) and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group (control group). The positive and negative scale ( PANSS) was used to evaluate the efficacy, and treatment emergent side effect scale ( TESS) was used to evaluate the advese reactions. The course of treatment was eight weeks. Results PANSS(P>0. 05) scores of the two groups were both significant-ly decreased after 8 weeks, the efficacy rates of amisulpride group and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group were 90. 63% and 87. 5%, which two groups showed no significant difference fromχ2 test (P>0. 05). The TESS scores of amisulpride group and aripi-prazole group were(3. 98 ± 1. 03)and(4. 07 ± 1. 89), The TESS scores of two groups also showed no significant difference by t-test (P>0. 05). Conclusion Amisulpride are as effective as Aripiprazole orally

  8. Evaluation of quick disintegrating calcium carbonate tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Fausett, Hector; Gayser, Charles; Dash, Alekha K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a rapidly disintegrating calcium carbonate (CC) tablet by direct compression and compare it with commercially available calcium tablets. CC tablets were formulated on a Carver press using 3 different forms of CC direct compressed granules (Cal-Carb 4450®, Cal-Carb 4457®, and Cal-Carb 4462®). The breaking strength was measured using a Stokes-Monsanto hardness tester. The disintegration and dissolution properties of the tablets were studied using...

  9. 速崩钙片剂的研究%The studies on rapidly disintegrating calcium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文辉; 崔福德; 雷永; 何继东; 朴洪泽

    2001-01-01

    In order to produce calcium tablets which can rapidly disintegrate in the oral cavity and reduce irritation,the calcium carbonate powders (size between 0.1~20 μm) were prepared by a chemical reaction. Furthermore, the disintegration properties of sodium carboxyl methyl starch (CMS-Na), calcium carboxyl methyl cellulose (ECG-505), pregelatinized starch (PCS), and croscarmellose sodium were investigated under different pressures, and in different ratios. The CMS-Na and croscarmellose sodium were chosen as the disintegrant to make calcium tablets possess excellent disintegration property. The results showed that the disintegration time of the tablets could shorten by 45 seconds.%为了制得崩解迅速,吸收良好的钙制剂,利用化学反应的方法制得粒径为0.1~20 μm的碳酸钙,并对羧甲基淀粉钠、羧甲基纤维素钙、可压性淀粉和交联羧甲基纤维素钠四种崩解剂的性质进行考察,选择了崩解性能良好的羧甲基淀粉钠和交联羧甲基纤维素钠作为崩解剂,将其制成片剂。片剂崩解时间可达45 s。

  10. Formulation and evaluation of nanocrystalline cellulose as a potential disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyu; Huang, Huijin; Jia, Min; Jin, Shanshan; Zhao, Wenjing; Cha, Ruitao

    2015-10-05

    Disintegrant is a typical excipient that improves the solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of drug. In this study, the application of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as a potential disintegrant in the preparation of tablet was investigated. Angle of repose of NCC was 44.26° which was between L-HPC and MCC suggesting a good fluidity of NCC. Swelling property of NCC was between CMS-Na and MCC indicating that NCC was of good absorbent ability. Carbonate calcium tablet of which NCC was used as a disintegrant exhibited fastest disintegration time than known disintegrants. The disintegration and dissolution tests demonstrated that NCC showed effective disintegrant properties, e.g. consistently fast disintegration, rapid dissolution, and effectiveness at low concentrations. Thus, we believe that NCC has a great potential as a disintegrant in tablets.

  11. Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Richard

    2016-01-01

    An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the most

  12. Is the second language acquisition discipline disintegrating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic

  13. Evaluation of quick disintegrating calcium carbonate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausett, H; Gayser, C; Dash, A K

    2000-07-02

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a rapidly disintegrating calcium carbonate (CC) tablet by direct compression and compare it with commercially available calcium tablets. CC tablets were formulated on a Carver press using 3 different forms of CC direct compressed granules (Cal-Carb 4450, Cal-Carb 4457, and Cal-Carb 4462). The breaking strength was measured using a Stokes-Monsanto hardness tester. The disintegration and dissolution properties of the tablets were studied using USP methodology. The calcium concentration was determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the surface topography of the granules and tablets. Breaking strength of Cal-Carb 4450, Cal-Carb 4457, and Cal-Carb 4462 tablets was in the range of 7.2 to 7.7 kg, as compared with a hardness of 6.2 kg and 10 kg for the commercially available calcium tablets Citracal and Tums, respectively. The disintegration time for the tablets presented in the order earlier was 4.1, 2.1, 1.9, 2.9, and 9.7 minutes, respectively. The dissolution studies showed that all formulations released 100% of the elemental calcium in simulated gastric fluid in less than 20 minutes. In summary, this study clearly demonstrated that quick disintegrating CC tablets can be formulated without expensive effervescence technology.

  14. A comparative study on risperidone orally disintegrating tablets and retard tablets of magnesium valproate treatment in hallucination of schizophrenia%利培酮联合丙戊酸镁治疗伴有幻觉的精神分裂症患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小全; 马素杰; 穆小梅; 周海晓

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Observation of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets combined treatment with retard tablets of magne-sium valproate of the efficacy and safety in hallucination of schizophrenia. Methods:80 schizophrenic patientsmet ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and haiiucination with schizophrenia were randomly divided in to groups. With one treated with retard tablets of magnesi-um valproate combined treatment risperidone orally disintegrating tablets and the other with only using risperidone orally disintegrating tablets. Effects and side effects and social function were assessed with Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale ( PANSS) , Treatment E-mergent Symptoms Scale(TESS) and the A Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects(RSESE) respectively beforeand after 2,4,6 weeks treatment. Efficacy and safety of the treatment were assessed respectively by Hallucinatory behavior ( p3 ) points reduction in PANSS. Results:The clinical efficiency of experimental and control groups were 90% and 72. 5%, respectively. The difference was significant between the groups(P<0. 05). P3 in PANSS scale points of the clinical efficiency of experimental in the first week has dropped significantly (P<0. 05), While the control group decreased significantly in the second week(P<0. 05). Positive symptoms scale score of the clinical efficiency of experimental in the first week has decreased obviously (P<0. 05) ,While the control group de-creased significantly in the second week(P<0. 05);Team's activation and aggressive factor points of the clinical efficiency of experi-mental in the first weekend have declined significantly (P<0. 05),While the control group decreased significantly in the second week (P<0. 05). Conclusions: Risperidone combined valproic acid magnesium combination than risperidone for schizophrenia hallucina-tions effect more apparent.%目的:观察利培酮联合丙戊酸镁治疗伴有幻觉的精神分裂症患者的疗效及安全性。方法:将80例符合ICD-10

  15. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-05

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time.

  16. Rational estimation of the optimum amount of non-fibrous disintegrant applying percolation theory for binary fast disintegrating formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausbauer, Etienne; Puchkov, Maxim; Betz, Gabriele; Leuenberger, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a method of determining the exact value of disintegrant ratio in a binary drug-disintegrant compacted mixture for a minimum disintegration time in the case of spherical particles. Disintegration is a limiting factor in dissolution process of compact for low water soluble active ingredients. As disintegration time is shortest at a certain ratio of disintegrant, a calculation of this value is important for solid dosage from design to enhance disintegration and dissolution process. According to percolation theory, a minimum disintegration time corresponds to the formation of a continuous water-conducting cluster through the entire tablet. The critical volumetric ratio at which the cluster is formed is named percolation threshold and has the value of 0.16 for random close packed (RCP) sphere systems. RCP systems where chosen as the best model for compacts consisting of spherical particles. Two cases for water diffusion through the tablet were identified, according to geometrical considerations between disintegrant and drug particles. These cases determine if disintegrant particles can have a contact between each other within the compact and thus if porosity and disintegrant volume are included in the continuous cluster. An equation for both cases is presented in the form of piecewise function to determine the minimal disintegrant volumetric ratio for a binary drug/disintegrant compact in order to achieve a minimum disintegration time. Disintegration tests were performed with tablets at different ratios of modified corn starch mixed with caffeine or paracetamol powders. Estimated and experimental optimal ratio were compared showing coefficient R(2) = 0.96.

  17. Electrostrong Nuclear Disintegration in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, J; Widom, A

    2013-01-01

    Photo- and electro-disintegration techniques have been traditionally used for studying giant dipole resonances and through them nuclear structure. Over a long period, detailed theoretical models for the giant dipole resonances were proposed and low energy electron accelerators were constructed to perform experiments to test their veracity. More recently, through laser and "smart" material devices, electrons have been accelerated in condensed matter systems up to several tens of MeV. We discuss here the possibility of inducing electro-disintegration of nuclei through such devices. It involves a synthesis of electromagnetic and strong forces in condensed matter via giant dipole resonances to give an effective "electro-strong interaction" - a large coupling of electromagnetic and strong interactions in the tens of MeV range.

  18. Consumerism vs. integration and disintegration processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Zaremba-Warnke

    2012-01-01

    In the article two kinds of term consumerism are characterized: 1) consumerism as the idea that buying as many goods as possible is desirable for a consumer and/or society, 2) consumerism as a social movement for sustainable consumption. It is shown that consumerism, in its first sense, causes environmental and social problems, which can disintegrate contemporary civilization, and consumerism as a social movement creates and integrates socially responsible consumers, which can lead to the ful...

  19. Fast disintegrating films containing anastrozole as a dosage form for dysphagia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Dixit Anil; Keshavarao, Kulkarni Parthasarathi

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the present research was to ensure safety during oral administration of medications to dysphagia patients, by preparing fast disintegrating films (FDF) containing anastrozole (ANS) which disintegrate rapidly when placed on the tongue. Films were prepared by solvent-casting method using various polymers such as hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E5 LV), hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate (Na Alginate). Among the formulations examined, film prepared using HPMC E5 LV (F1) exhibited shorter disintegration time (15 sec) with satisfactory mechanical properties. Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR) & differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed no chemical incompatibility between drug and excipients used in the formulation. Surface morphology revealed even distribution of ANS in the film. Dissolution of drug from F1 formulation was rapid with more than 90% drug release in 240 sec. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed no statistical difference between F1 (test) and drug solution (control) indicating comparable plasma level-time profiles. The film showed an excellent stability for 24 weeks when stored at refrigerated temperature (2-8°C). These findings suggest that the fast disintegrating film as a promising candidate for delivery of ANS in dysphagic patients.

  20. Confessionality and (disintegration in multiethnic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Boneta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in the text to sketch out the theoretical framework for empirical research into the influence of confessionality on the processes of integration in the multiethnic areas of Croatian society. The currency of Durkheim's thesis on the integrational role of religion in society is considered in the introductory part of the paper. That is followed by analysis of the four modes of influence wrought by the religious on integration and disintegration in modern societies, drawing on Fox's research. The last part of the text examines the significance of religion and the religious in integrational and disintegrational processes in Croatian society. It is established in that context that confessionality – in those multiethnic milieux in which it coincides with ethnicity – has latent potential that can be instrumentalised in the process of homogenisation and mobilisation of ethnic groups. In such cases, confessionality acts in a twofold manner: integrationally on the ethnic group, as its common denominator that overarches the forces that set it apart, and disintegrationally on society, re-enforcing the ethnic distance. The text concludes with two hypotheses: 1 ethno-confessional instrumentalisation was more successful in regions in which the confessional scene was reduced to only two confessions (the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox; 2 milieux at a higher level of modernisation were more resistant to conflicts.

  1. Sewage sludge disintegration by high-pressure homogenization: A sludge disintegration model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxuan Zhang; Panyue Zhang; Boqiang Ma; Hao Wu; Sheng Zhang; Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) technology was applied as a pretreatment to disintegrate sewage sludge.The effects of homogenization pressure,homogenization cycle number,and total solid content on sludge disintegration were investigated.The sludge disintegration degree (DDCOD),protein concentration,and polysaccharide concentration increased with the increase of homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number,and decreased with the increase of sludge total solid (TS) content.The maximum DDCOD of 43.94% was achieved at 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles for a 9.58 g/L TS sludge sample.A HPH sludge disintegration model of DDcoo=kNaPb was established by multivariable linear regression to quantify the effects of homogenization parameters.The homogenization cycle exponent a and homogenization pressure exponent b were 0.4763 and 0.7324 respectively,showing that the effect of homogenization pressure (P) was more significant than that of homogenization cycle number (N).The value of the rate constant k decreased with the increase of sludge total solid content.The specific energy consumption increased with the increment of sludge disintegration efficiency.Lower specific energy consumption was required for higher total solid content sludge.

  2. A control study of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablet vs . sulpiride in the treatment of childbearing-age female schizo-phrenia characterized by negative symptoms%阿立哌唑口崩片与舒必利治疗以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨银; 杨晶

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨阿立哌唑口崩片与舒必利治疗以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症患者的临床疗效和安全性。方法将120例以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组,每组60例,分别口服阿立哌唑口崩片、舒必利治疗,观察8周。采用阴性症状量表、临床总体印象量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果研究组显效率为70.7%、总有效率为91.4%,对照组分别为66.7%、89.5%,两组比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.22、0.12,P>0.05)。研究组未出现月经失调、泌乳及体质量增加等不良反应,不良反应发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.01)。结论阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症患者疗效显著且与舒必利相当,但阿立哌唑口崩片治疗安全性更高,依从性更好。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablet (AODT ) vs .sulpiride in the treatment of childbearing-age female schizophrenia characterized by negative symptoms .Methods A total of 120 childbearing age female schizophrenics characterized by negative symptoms were randomly divided into research and control group of 60 ones each ,they respectively took o-rally AODT and sulpiride for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Nega-tive Symptoms (SANS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and adverse reactions with the Treatment E-mergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results The obvious and total effective rate were respectively 70 .7%and 91 .4% in research and 66 .7% and 89 .5% in control group ,which showed no significant group differ-ences (χ2 =0 .22 ,0 .12 ,P>0 .05) .Research group had no such adverse reactions as menstrual disorder , lactation ,weight gain and so on ,incidences of adverse reactions were significantly lower in research than control group (P<0 .01

  3. Disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnjatović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the process of gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia during the second half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century. This period is characterized by an appearance of frequent usurpations of the ruling right to mint coinage by local landlords and the attempts of the rulers from Lazarević and Branković families to restore unified monetary system. Common debasements and restorations of silver coinage provoked economic instability and induced frequent turning backwards to the custom of using weighted silver instead of silver coins as commodity monetary standard. The aim of this paper is to explain the reasons for those phenomena. We apply qualitative, historical, empirical analysis where we consider money minting right holders and their decisions to debase and restore the value of silver dinars. We found that gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbian State continued until the fall of Serbian Despotate as a consequence of political instability following dissolution of medieval Serbian Empire and economic and financial exhaustion of Serbia by Ottoman suzerains.

  4. An easy-to-use approach for determining the disintegration ability of disintegrants by analysis of available surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasunori; Tanaka, Shoko; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of directly predicting the functionality and mechanism of disintegrants during the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, we investigated an analysis method based on available surface area, which is the surface area of a drug in a formulation in direct contact with the external solvent during dissolution. We evaluated the following disintegrants in this study: sodium starch glycolate (Glycolys), crospovidone (Kollidon CL), carboxymethylcellulose calcium (CMC-Ca), low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC), and croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol). When disintegrant was added to a 50% ethenzamide tablet formulation, an increase in the dissolution rate dependent on disintegrant concentration was observed, according to the type of disintegrant. In addition, the available surface area also differed between disintegrants. For Glycolys, CMC-Ca, and Ac-Di-Sol, a rapid increase in available surface area and a large increase in maximum available surface area (Smax) were observed due to high swellability and wicking, even when the disintegrant concentration was only 1.0%. In contrast, for Kollidon CL and LH-21, a gradual increase in available surface area was observed, depending on the disintegrant concentration. To evaluate the disintegrant ability, Δtmax and ΔSmax were calculated by subtracting peak time (tmax) at 5.0% from that at 1.0% and subtracting Smax at 1.0% from that at 5.0%, respectively, and it was found that the water absorption ratio had strong negative correlations with Δtmax and ΔSmax. Therefore, this study demonstrates that analysis of only available surface area and parameters thereby obtained can directly provide useful information, especially about the disintegration ability of disintegrants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DISINTEGRANT EFFECT OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUSINE COROCANA STARCH ON DISSOLUTION PROFILE AND DISINTEGRATION TIME IN HIGH DOSE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Shiihii et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Starch was extracted from the grains of finger millet (Eleusine corocana, by steeping in water for 24 hours. The extracted starch was used as a disintegrant, at the concentrations of 2.5-12.5%w/w to compressed paracetamol tablet in comparism with maize starch BP. Results show that, there is no significant difference in the disintegration time or dissolution rate of tablets containing the two starches. Tablets containing Eleusine corocana met compendia requirements for disintegration time and dissolution rate. The starch is recommended as a disintegrant in tablet formulation.

  6. Acoustics aspects of technological process in the rock disintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Futó

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some results of monitoring and aspects of the acoustic signal in the rock disintegration on the drillig stand of the Institute of Geotechnics, SAS in Košice. The registration and processing of the acoustic signal is solved as a part of the research grant task within the basic research of the rock disintegration by drilling.

  7. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface area, as well as the lowest ratio between this area and area of reactor. The best effects of disagglomeration of flocks have corresponded with the

  8. In vitro models for the prediction of in vivo performance of oral dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostewicz, Edmund S; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Brewster, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the in vivo biopharmaceutical performance of oral drug formulations is critical to efficient drug development. Traditionally, in vitro evaluation of oral drug formulations has focused on disintegration and dissolution testing for quality control (QC) purposes. The connectio...

  9. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  10. Energetic approach to the evaluation of rock disintegration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ivaničová

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rock disintegration process may be investigated by several methods. Energetic approach represents one of the methods of characterizing the energetic-transformation changes of rock disintegration process, as the rock disintegration occurs after an increase of the inner energy above the binding energy of its components. The paper review theories of disintegration processes with an energetic approach. Methods of investigation are presented in more details, using a rotary disperser with a calorimeter and an experimental drilling stand, the experimental devices designed and constructed at the Institute of Geotechnics, SAS, providing an imitation of the rotary drilling of rocks. The experimental drilling stand enabled to examine the drilling tools used in industry. The monitoring system installed on the stand scans the regime parameters of the disintegration process. Both the specific disintegration energy and the drilling rate, calculated from the monitored input and output parameters of the process, serve as evaluating variables of the rock disintegration process efficiency. The main effort in the evaluation of parameters from the rock drilling monitoring is to derive the relations that would provide data necessary for the control of drilling process in a real time.

  11. Enhancement of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge by aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Cheng, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sonication is an effective way for sludge disintegration, which can significantly improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion to reduce and recycle use of sludge. But high energy consumption limits the wide application of sonication. In order to improve ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency and reduce energy consumption, aeration was introduced. Results showed that sludge disintegration efficiency was improved significantly by combining aeration with ultrasound. The aeration flow rate, gas bubble size, ultrasonic density and aeration timing had impacts on sludge disintegration efficiency. Aeration that used in later stage of ultrasonic irradiation with low aeration flow rate, small gas bubbles significantly improved ultrasonic disintegration sludge efficiency. At the optimal conditions of 0.4 W/mL ultrasonic irradiation density, 30 mL/min of aeration flow rate, 5 min of aeration in later stage and small gas bubbles, ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency was increased by 45% and one third of ultrasonic energy was saved. This approach will greatly benefit the application of ultrasonic sludge disintegration and strongly promote the treatment and recycle of wastewater sludge.

  12. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesh Kumar Jha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating tablets were prepared with various types of natural gums using the direct compression technique. Formulations containing guar gum disintegrated within a minute and fulfilled the official requirements for dispersible tablets. As the amount of guar gum increased, the friability increased and hardness decreased, resulting in a shorter wetting and disintegration time. Gum acacia and gum tragacanth did the opposite. The glipizide-loaded fast disintegrating tablet prepared with 18 mg of guar gum gave a friability of 0.46 ± 0.02%, content uniformity of 99.34 ± 0.82%, drug content of 99.15 ± 1.16%, wetting time of 39.0 ± 1.04 sec, hardness of 5.70 ± 1.41 Kg and disintegration time less than 30 sec, suggesting that it was a practical product with a good tablet property. In conclusion, natural gum based patient-friendly fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide can be successfully formulated.

  13. Analysis of electrochemical disintegration process of graphite matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Lifang; Wen Mingfen [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen Jing, E-mail: jingxia@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-12-30

    The electrochemical method with ammonium nitrate as electrolyte was studied to disintegrate the graphite matrix from the simulative fuel elements for high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The influences of process parameters, including salt concentration, system temperature and current density, on the disintegration rate of graphite fragments were investigated in the present work. The experimental results showed that the disintegration rate depended slightly on the temperature and salt concentration. The current density strongly affected the disintegration rate of graphite fragments. Furthermore, the content of introduced oxygen in final graphite fragments was independent of the current density and the concentration of electrolyte. Moreover, the structural evolution of graphite was analyzed based on the microstructural parameters determined by X-ray diffraction profile fitting analysis using MAUD (material analysis using diffraction) before and after the disintegration process. It may safely be concluded that the graphite disintegration can be ascribed to the influences of the intercalation of foreign molecules in between crystal planes and the partial oxidation involved. The disintegration process was described deeply composed of intercalate part and further oxidation part of carbon which effected together to lead to the collapse of graphite crystals.

  14. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-15

    Sep 15, 2008 ... Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. ... (ball mill, ultrasonic), oxidation (ozone and hydrogen per- .... American Public Health Association, Wash-.

  15. Identifying the ejected population from disintegrating multiple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yip, A K P; Kurtev, R; Gromadzki, M; Marocco, F

    2016-01-01

    Kinematic studies of the Hipparcos catalogue have revealed associations that are best explained as disintegrating multiple systems, presumably resulting from a dynamical encounter between single/multiple systems in the field (Li et al. 2009). In this work we explore the possibility that known ultra-cool dwarfs may be components of disintegrating multiple systems, and consider the implications for the properties of these objects. We will present here the methods/techniques that can be used to search for and identify disintegrating benchmark systems in three database/catalogues: Dwarf Archive, the Hipparcos Main Catalogue, and the Gliese-Jahrei{\\ss} Catalogue. Placing distance constraints on objects with parallax or colour-magnitude information from spectrophotometry allowed us to identify common distance associations. Proper motion measurements allowed us to separate common proper motion multiples from our sample of disintegrating candidates. Moreover, proper motion and positional information allowed us to sel...

  16. Disintegration of social cognitive processes in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakuła, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid development of research on social cognition (SC impairments in schizophrenia, efforts are still made to generate new, broader theoretical models which include the neural network approach to those dysfunctions. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the structure of SC in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy subjects. Methods. The studied groups consisted of 55 subjects: 30 patients with paranoid schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria, and 25 control healthy subjects matched for age, gender and education to the clinical group. In order to assess processes of SC, a battery of tests was administered: Theory of Mind Picture Stories to assess theory of mind, trials “Faces” (from Ekman and Friesen’s set of emotional expressions and “Figures” (from the publication by Argyle to evaluate recognition of emotions from facial and gesture expression. The methods included also an assessment of self-criticism (insight relating to the subject’s processes of SC. Results. The level of efficacy of SC was lower in the patients compared to the controls. In the clinical group, theory of mind was the most important factor for the overall level of SC and its impairments. There was inadequate, decreased patients’ self-criticism regarding their execution of SC tests. The insight did not correlate with any other SC variables in the clinical group. In general, the group characterized by lower integration of social cognitive processes, also obtained lower scores in individual dimensions of SC. Conclusions. The structure of social cognitive processes in schizophrenic group, unlike in healthy subjects, shows characteristics of generalized disintegration.

  17. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in rock mass surrounding deep tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; GUO Zhi-kun

    2008-01-01

    Zonal disintegration is a typical static phenomenon of deep rock masses. It has been defined as alternating regions of fractured and relatively intact rock mass that appear around or in front of the working stope during excavation of a deep tunnel. Zonal disintegration phenomenon was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory with 3D tests on analogous gypsum models, two circular cracked zones were observed in the test. The linear Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was used with a constitutive model that showed linear softening and ideal residual plastic to analyze the elasto-plastic field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep tunnel. The results show that tunneling causes a maximum stress zone to appear between an elastic and plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The zonal disintegration phenomenon is analyzed by considering the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of the maximum stress zone. Creep instability failure of the rock due to the development of the plastic zone, and transfer of the maximum stress zone into the rock mass, are the cause of zonal disintegration. An analytical criterion for the critical depth at which zonal disintegration can occur is derived. This depth depends mainly on the character and stress concentration coefficient of the rock mass.

  18. Effects of starches on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablet formulations. II. Sorghum and plantain starches as disintegrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebiowu, Gbenga; Itiola, Oludele Adelanwa

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluates the disintegrant properties--tablet disintegration time (DT) and crushing strength--friability/disintegration time (CSFR/DT) ratio of a paracetamol tablet formulation prepared with sorghum and plantain starches in comparison with corn starch BP. The effects of disintegrant concentration, relative density of tablets and the mode of disintegrants addition were studied. The study revealed that the rank order of effectiveness of the starches as disintegrants was corn > plantain > sorghum. The mode of addition of disintegrants, disintegrant concentration and relative density had a significant impact on the disintegrant properties. The tested starches, namely, sorghum and plantain, showed promising results.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR GAS FROM A DISINTEGRATING EXTRASOLAR ASTEROID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles CA 90095-1562 (United States); Dufour, P., E-mail: sxu@eso.org, E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: dufourpa@astro.umontreal.ca [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes (iREx), Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2016-01-10

    We report high-resolution spectroscopic observations of WD 1145+017—a white dwarf that was recently found to be transitted by multiple asteroid-sized objects within its tidal radius. We discovered numerous circumstellar absorption lines with linewidths of ∼300 km s{sup −1} from Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, possibly from several gas streams produced by collisions among the actively disintegrating objects. The atmosphere of WD 1145+017 is polluted with 11 heavy elements, including O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V:, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni. Evidently, we are witnessing the active disintegration and subsequent accretion of an extrasolar asteroid.

  20. Nucleation, aggregation, annealing, and disintegration of granular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    The processes of nucleation, aggregation, annealing, and disintegration of clusters of non-Brownian paramagnetic beads in a vibrofluidized system are experimentally investigated. The interaction among the beads is induced by a magnetic seed composed of two dipoles allocated outside the container cell. We observe a clearly differentiated nucleation stage, whose evolution (nucleation time versus acceleration strength) follows a power law. Thereafter, the beads aggregate forming 2D disordered clusters around the nucleus. Both processes (nucleation and aggregation) are determined by the competition between magnetic forces and the drag produced by a thermal bath created by glass particles. Once the agglomerates reach a final state (shape and length), they are annealed by increasing and decreasing the granular temperature. We found that the fractal dimension and the lacunarity index clearly describe the structural variations of the clusters. Our discussion on this phenomenon is addressed, making a rough analogy with the glass transition in a super-cooled liquid. Finally, we study the disintegration of the clusters as a function of time and the density of the surrounding gas. The question is not if, but how they disintegrate upon removing the external field; we find that the disintegration follows an exponential decay.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of rizatriptan benzoate mouth disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keny, R V; Desouza, Chrisma; Lourenco, C F

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with development of mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate to produce the intended benefits. Mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate were prepared using superdisintegrants crospovidone, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, Indion 414 and Indion 234 using the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, content uniformity, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, mouth feel, in vitro drug release and assay by high performance liquid chromatography. The tablets disintegrated in vitro and in vivo within 4 to 7 s and 6 to 19 s, respectively. Almost 90% of drug was released from all formulations within 20 min. The drug release from the formulations followed first order kinetics. Stability studies of the tablets at 40+/-2 degrees /75%+/-5% RH for 1 mo showed non significant drug loss. The formulation containing combination of crospovidone and Indion 234 was found to give the best results. Apart from fulfilling all official and other specifications, the tablets exhibited higher rate of release.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of rizatriptan Benzoate mouth disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keny R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with development of mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate to produce the intended benefits. Mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate were prepared using superdisintegrants crospovidone, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, Indion 414 and Indion 234 using the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, content uniformity, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, mouth feel, in vitro drug release and assay by high performance liquid chromatography. The tablets disintegrated in vitro and in vivo within 4 to 7 s and 6 to 19 s, respectively. Almost 90% of drug was released from all formulations within 20 min. The drug release from the formulations followed first order kinetics. Stability studies of the tablets at 40±2 o /75%±5% RH for 1 mo showed non significant drug loss. The formulation containing combination of crospovidone and Indion 234 was found to give the best results. Apart from fulfilling all official and other specifications, the tablets exhibited higher rate of release.

  3. Evidence for the disintegration of KIC 12557548 b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Brogi; C.U. Keller; M. de Juan Ovelar; M.A. Kenworthy; R.J. de Kok; M. Min; I.A.G. Snellen

    2012-01-01

    Context. The Kepler object KIC 12557548 b is peculiar. It exhibits transit-like features every 15.7 h that vary in depth between 0.2% and 1.2%. Rappaport et al. (2012, ApJ, 752, 1) explain the observations in terms of a disintegrating, rocky planet that has a trailing cloud of dust created and const

  4. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  5. Probabilistic Analysis of the Hard Rock Disintegration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frydrýšek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a numerical analysis of the hard rock (ore disintegration process. The bit moves and sinks into the hard rock (mechanical contact with friction between the ore and the cutting bit and subsequently disintegrates it. The disintegration (i.e. the stress-strain relationship, contact forces, reaction forces and fracture of the ore is solved via the FEM (MSC.Marc/Mentat software and SBRA (Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment method (Monte Carlo simulations, Anthill and Mathcad software. The ore is disintegrated by deactivating the finite elements which satisfy the fracture condition. The material of the ore (i.e. yield stress, fracture limit, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, is given by bounded histograms (i.e. stochastic inputs which better describe reality. The results (reaction forces in the cutting bit are also of stochastic quantity and they are compared with experimental measurements. Application of the SBRA method in this area is a modern and innovative trend in mechanics. However, it takes a long time to solve this problem (due to material and structural nonlinearities, the large number of elements, many iteration steps and many Monte Carlo simulations. Parallel computers were therefore used to handle the large computational needs of this problem. 

  6. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  7. Influence of Magnetic Field Amplitude on Quantity and Sizes of Disintegration Fragments of Magnetic Particles Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The disintegration of a mass of magnetic particles is investigated at pulsing switching on a magnetic field. The influence of field value on quantity, sizes and allocation of fragments of disintegration is explored. The presence of two critical fields, defining the process of disintegration, is revealed. The results can be used at manufacture of packings to magnetic filters.

  8. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  9. Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-11-20

    An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this case the upper surface of a disintegrating tablet. High-resolution real-time MRI was used to record videos of disintegrating tablets. The acquired video images were processed to depict the upper surface of the tablets and a box-counting algorithm was used to estimate the fractal dimensions. The influence of six different disintegrants, of different relative tablet density, and increasing disintegrant concentration was investigated to evaluate the performance of the novel method. Changing relative densities hardly affect the progression of fractal dimensions, whereas an increase in disintegrant concentration causes increasing fractal dimensions during disintegration, which are also reached quicker. Different disintegrants display only minor differences in the maximal fractal dimension, yet the kinetic in which the maximum is reached allows a differentiation and classification of disintegrants.

  10. Neuronal network disintegration: common pathways linking neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Devenney, Emma M; Irish, Muireann; Ittner, Arne; Naismith, Sharon; Ittner, Lars M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Halliday, Glenda M; Eisen, Andrew; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegeneration refers to a heterogeneous group of brain disorders that progressively evolve. It has been increasingly appreciated that many neurodegenerative conditions overlap at multiple levels and therefore traditional clinicopathological correlation approaches to better classify a disease have met with limited success. Neuronal network disintegration is fundamental to neurodegeneration, and concepts based around such a concept may better explain the overlap between their clinical and pathological phenotypes. In this Review, promoters of overlap in neurodegeneration incorporating behavioural, cognitive, metabolic, motor, and extrapyramidal presentations will be critically appraised. In addition, evidence that may support the existence of large-scale networks that might be contributing to phenotypic differentiation will be considered across a neurodegenerative spectrum. Disintegration of neuronal networks through different pathological processes, such as prion-like spread, may provide a better paradigm of disease and thereby facilitate the identification of novel therapies for neurodegeneration. PMID:27172939

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics.

  12. Clinical Effcacy and Adverse Reactions of Voglibose Tablets in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%伏格列波糖片治疗2型糖尿病的临床效果及不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦国朝; 李明芬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the voglibose tablets for treatment of type 2 diabetes, analyzing the adverse reactions occur. Methods We treated 80 patients with type 2 diabetes as the research object, the patients were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with acarbose tablets for control group patients treatment, for application of the experimental group patients voglibose tablets treatment of implementation. Comparison of two groups of patients with therapeutic effect and adverse reactions. Results Two groups of patients after treatment, the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, two hours after the meal, blood sugar levels are lower than before treatment, P0.05. Incidence of adverse reactions obviously lower than the control group and experimental group patients, P<0.05, differences have statistical significance. Conclusion Using voglibose tablets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, clinical effect is remarkable, the probability of adverse reaction is lower, should be popularized and applied in clinical.%目的:观察伏格列波糖片治疗2型糖尿病的临床效果,分析不良反应发生情况。方法选取本院收治的2型糖尿病患者80例作为研究对象,将患者随机分成对照组和实验组,为对照组患者应用阿卡波糖片实施治疗,为实验组患者应用伏格列波糖片实施治疗。对比两组患者的治疗效果和不良反应情况。结果两组患者治疗后,空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白、餐后2小时血糖均低于治疗前,P<0.05。两组患者治疗以后比较,P>0.05。并且实验组患者不良反应发生率低于对照组患者,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论运用伏格列波糖片治疗2型糖尿病,临床效果显著,发生不良反应的概率比较低。

  13. Ultrasonically enhanced disintegration. Polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, A.

    2010-05-15

    There are a great variety of potential applications of high-intensity ultrasonic energy. Of these, cleaning, plastic pounding, and at present also sludge disintegration and the remediation of contaminated soil are probably the best known and offer the most general market for high-intensity ultrasonics. All developments within the area of ultrasound applications lead to the creation of environmentally friendly processes and compounds, emphasizing the role of ultrasound in 'green chemistry'. Ultrasound technology is considered not easy to use in industrial processes, since devices providing high sonic energy are not easy to construct. This thesis investigates on a semi-pilot scale if it is possible to enhance the disintegration of three quite different samples: polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil by using ultrasound. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance the disintegration of polymers by means of ultrasonic power only when the cavitation threshold is exceeded. Above the cavitation threshold, the most extensive degradation took place at the lowest ultrasonic frequency used. The biggest decrease (from 115,000 g/mol to 30,000 g/mol) in relative molecular mass (RMM) was observed when the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was the lowest (1.0%). However, in the case of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) it was observed that when viscosity was not adjusted there is an optimum polymer concentration (1.5-2.0%) where degradation is most efficient. The thesis shows that the extent of ultrasonic depolymerization decreases with decreasing molecular mass of the CMC polymer. The study also reveals that ultrasonic irradiation causes narrowing of the molecular mass distribution. The degradation of CMC polymer proceeded linearly and the rate of ultrasonic depolymerization decreased with decreasing molecular mass. In cases where the initial dynamic viscosities of polymer solutions were not the same, the sonolytic degradation of CMC polymer mainly depended

  14. Disintegration rate measurement of a 192Ir solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, K A; Koskinas, M F; Dias, M S

    2001-01-01

    The disintegration rate of 192Ir has been measured using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence technique. This radionuclide decays by electron capture (EC) and beta-emission. Since the EC contribution is low (4.5%), it has been corrected using decay scheme data taken from the literature. This measurement has been performed in collaboration with the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes (IRDDM), in Rio de Janeiro. The results, which were obtained independently and employed different techniques, are compared with the Systéme International Reference (SIR) maintained at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.

  15. Enzyme disintegration with spatial resolution reveals different distributions of sludge extracellular polymer substances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lü, Fan; Wang, Jingwen; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-01-01

    To understand the intrinsic role of hydrolytic enzymes in sludge treatment, particularly their effect on the digestibility and dewaterability of sludge, activated sludge flocs were disintegrated using...

  16. Mimosa pudica seed mucilage: isolation; characterization and evaluation as tablet disintegrant and binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Parvinder; Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-06-01

    In the present study Mimosa pudica seed mucilage was isolated, characterized and evaluated as tablet binder and disintegrant. Several properties of mucilage like high swelling index and gelling nature prompted us to explore its applications as disintegrating and binding agent. Disintegrant properties were evaluated by formulating directly compressed hydrochlorothiazide tablets containing 1%-10% (w/w) of seed mucilage as disintegrant and compared with the standard disintegrants. The disintegration time of mucilage containing tablets was found to be in the order of 3%>1%>5%>7.5%>10%. On comparative evaluation with standard disintegrants, it was observed that the order of disintegration of tablets was Ac-Di-SolMimosa mucilage at 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) concentration as the binder and compared with tablets prepared using PVP-K25 (1.7%, w/w) and acacia (6.8%, w/w) as the binder. Mimosa mucilage at 10% (w/w) concentration provided tablets with adequate hardness and friability. In conclusion, M. pudica seed mucilage is a potential tablet disintegrant and binder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron scattering disintegration processes on light nuclei in covariant approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznietsov, P. E.; Kasatkin, Yu. A.; Klepikov, V. F.

    2016-07-01

    We provide general analysis of electro-break up process of compound scalar system. We use covariant approach with conserved EM current, which gives the ability to include strong interaction into QED. Therefore, we receive the ability to describe disintegration processes on nonlocal matter fields applying standard Feynman rules of QED. Inclusion of phase exponent into wave function receives a physical sense while we deal with the dominance of strong interaction in the process. We apply Green's function (GF) formalism to describe disintegration processes. Generalized gauge invariant electro-break up process amplitude is considered. One is a sum of traditional pole series and the regular part. We explore the deposits of regular part of amplitude, and its physical sense. A transition from virtual to real photon considered in photon point limit. The general analysis for electro-break up process of component scalar system is given. Precisely conserved nuclear electromagnetic currents at arbitrary square of transited momentum are received. The only undefined quantity in theory is vertex function. Therefore, we have the opportunity to describe electron scattering processes taking into account minimal necessary set of parameters.

  18. Electron scattering disintegration processes on light nuclei in covariant approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznietsov P.E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide general analysis of electro-break up process of compound scalar system. We use covariant approach with conserved EM current, which gives the ability to include strong interaction into QED. Therefore, we receive the ability to describe disintegration processes on nonlocal matter fields applying standard Feynman rules of QED. Inclusion of phase exponent into wave function receives a physical sense while we deal with the dominance of strong interaction in the process. We apply Green’s function (GF formalism to describe disintegration processes. Generalized gauge invariant electro-break up process amplitude is considered. One is a sum of traditional pole series and the regular part. We explore the deposits of regular part of amplitude, and its physical sense. A transition from virtual to real photon considered in photon point limit. The general analysis for electro-break up process of component scalar system is given. Precisely conserved nuclear electromagnetic currents at arbitrary square of transited momentum are received. The only undefined quantity in theory is vertex function. Therefore, we have the opportunity to describe electron scattering processes taking into account minimal necessary set of parameters.

  19. In Vivo Disintegration of Four Different Luting Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Gemalmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer, a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem, a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus, and a resin cement (Calibra. Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P<0.001. Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results.

  20. Soot particle disintegration and detection using two laserELFFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-11-17

    A two laser technique is used to study laser-particle interactions and the disintegration of soot by high power UV light. Two separate 20 ns laser pulses irradiate combustion generated soot nanoparticles with 193 nm photons. The first laser pulse, from 0 to 14.7 J/cm{sup 2}, photofragments the soot particles and electronically excites the liberated carbon atoms. The second laser pulse, held constant at 13 J/cm{sup 2}, irradiates the remaining particle fragments and other products of the first laser pulse. The atomic carbon fluorescence at 248 nm produced by the first laser pulse increases linearly with laser fluence from 1 to 6 J/cm{sup 2}. At higher fluences, the signal from atomic carbon signal saturates. The carbon fluorescence from the second laser pulse decreases as the fluence from the first laser increases, ultimately approaching zero as first laser fluence approaches 10 J/cm{sup 2}, suggesting that the particles fully disintegrate at high laser fluences. We use an energy balance parameter, called the photon-atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding laser-particle interactions. These results help define the regimes where photofragmentation fluorescence methods quantitatively measure total soot concentrations.

  1. The forensic aspects of contemporary disintegrating rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    A relatively new type of rifle bullet has appeared in the last few years that contains no lead and rapidly disintegrates into very small particles and jacket fragments immediately upon entry into soft tissue. These bullets are intended for use by 'varmint' hunters in high-velocity centerfire rifles where the effect on such animals as prairie dogs, gophers, ground hogs, and other similarly sized animals is nothing short of explosive. The shooting of much larger animals to include human beings will typically result in nonperforating wounds with short wound paths. X-ray views of a decedent or gunshot victim will lack any recognizable bullet or projectile. Only 1 jacket fragment among the many present in the wound tract is suitable for subsequent firearms identification purposes, namely, the small copper disc that represents the base or heel of the bullet jacket. This small circular fragment bears vestiges of the rifling marks of the responsible firearm.This article will aid the forensic pathologist in recognizing gunshot wounds produced by these atypical bullets and the importance of recovering the base portion of the disintegrated bullet jacket.

  2. A Novel Mechanism for $J/\\psi$ Disintegration in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Atreya, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ajit M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of $J/\\psi$ disintegration due the $Z(3)$ domain walls that are expected to form in QGP medium. These domain walls give rise to localised color electric field which disintegrates $J/\\psi$, on interaction, by changing the color composition and simultaneously exciting it to higher states of $c\\bar{c}$ system.

  3. Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Miron, T.L.; Olivieri, G.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations (25–145 gDW kg-1) over a range of agitator sp

  4. Studies of disintegrant properties of seed mucilage of Ocimum gratissimum

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar; Shirwaikar A; Shirwaikar Annie; Prabu S; Mahalaxmi R; Rajendran K; Kumar C

    2007-01-01

    Dispersible tablets of Metformin Hydrochloride were prepared using Ocimum gratissimum mucilage powder and Ocimum gratissimum seed powder as disintegrants. Specifications for herbal raw materials and finished products were set according to the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products. Several formulations were prepared and evaluated for physical parameters such as thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, and disintegration time and drug dissolution. The formulat...

  5. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  6. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  7. Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Miron, T.L.; Olivieri, G.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations (25–145 gDW kg-1) over a range of agitator

  8. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of levocetirizine dihyrochloride oral thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gunjan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was to develop a fast releasing oral polymeric film, with good mechanical properties, instant disintegration and dissolution, producing an acceptable taste when placed on tongue. Solvent casting method was used to prepare oral films. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, an antihistaminic was incorporated to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The polymers selected were HPMC E 15 and PVA. Propylene glycol was the plasticizers used. Nine batches of films with drug were prepared using different combinations of polymers and plasticizer concentration. The resultant films were evaluated for weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, thickness, surface pH, in vitro disintegration and in vitro dissolution. The optimized films which disintegrated in less than 30 sec, releasing 85-98% of drug within 2 minutes. The percentage release was varying with concentration of plasticizer and polymer. The films made with HPMC: PVA (1:2 released 96% of drug in 1 min, which was the best release amongst all.

  9. In vivo disintegration of four different luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P contradiction to previous laboratory results.

  10. The social psychology of disintegrative shaming in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel H; Clarey, Amy M

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning drug education and zero tolerance policies, few have examined their combined youth impact. Comprehensive and nationally recognized mixed method evidence is drawn from 77 school districts and 118 schools in the Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Education (DATE) evaluation. For the first time it is found that the combined negative impact of traditional prevention and intervention efforts--e.g., Life Skills Training (LST) and zero tolerance policies-are so serious that they extend into the wider conditions of educational achievement. Findings are explained by the social psychological processes of "disintegrative shaming," where young people are to be shamed into abstinence and experiencing or witnessing school removal rather than help when needed. With more research needed the negative effects of traditional prevention and intervention-particularly salient among disproportionately affected urban/minority youth-suggest that related efforts be reconsidered together as well as part of mainstream education.

  11. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  12. Disintegration rate measurement of a 152Eu solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, Marina F; Fonseca, Kátia A; Dias, Mauro S

    2002-01-01

    The procedure followed by the Laboratório de Metrologia Nuclear at the IPEN-CNEN/SP, in São Paulo, for the standardization of 152Eu is described. The disintegration rate of 152Eu has been measured using the 4pi beta-gamma coincidence technique, using a 4pi proportional counter, filled with P-10 gas and operated at 0.1 MPa, coupled to one HPGe detector for the gamma-ray emission. Two discrimination windows were set in the gamma-channel, one related to the beta branch (344 keV) and the other related to the electron capture events (1408.03 keV), in order to determine the counting efficiencies for beta, X-ray and Auger electron events in the proportional counter. The activity of solution was determined by a biparametric extrapolation curve obtained for the two selected gamma-windows.

  13. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  14. Oral Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum binds to human salivary α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sato, S; Oho, T

    2013-12-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. In this study, we showed that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum can bind to a salivary component with a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa and identified the protein and another major factor of 55 kDa, as salivary α-amylase by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immuno-reactions. Salivary α-amylase is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms and we found that formation of the dimer depends on copper ions. The F. nucleatum adhered to both monomeric and dimeric salivary α-amylases, but the numbers of bacteria bound to the dimeric form were more than those bound to the monomeric form. The degree of adherence of F. nucleatum to four α-amylases from different sources was almost the same, however its binding to β-amylase was considerably decreased. Among four α-amylase inhibitors tested, acarbose and type 1 and 3 inhibitors derived from wheat flour showed significant activity against the adhesion of F.nucleatum to monomeric and dimeric amylases, however voglibose had little effect. Moreover F. nucleatum cells inhibited the enzymatic activity of salivary α-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that F. nucleatum plays more important and positive role as an early colonizer for maturation of oral microbial colonization.

  15. The effect of ultrasonic disintegration process conditions on the physicochemical characteristics of excess sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytła Malwina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic disintegration, as a method of sludge pre-treatment (before the stabilization process, causes changes in their physicochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ultrasonic disintegration conditions (sonication on the changes in the physicochemical characteristics of sonicated sludge, i.e. an increase in the content of organic substances in the supernatant, sludge dewaterability and flocs structure. Thickened and non-thickened excess sludge from the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Gliwice was disintegrated. The process was conducted, using a high-power disintegrator equipped with a lenticular horn. In order to determine the most favorable conditions, the sewage sludge was sonicated at a wave frequency of f=25 kHz (as a function of time, with a different samples volume (V1=0.5 and V2=1 L and emitter position of 1 and the 2.5 cm from the bottom of the chamber in which the process was conducted. The disintegration of sewage sludge was carried out with a specific energy density (EV in the range from 10 to 30 kWh/m3. The evaluation of the disintegration effects was based on changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the sludge and/or supernatant at the end of the process, expressed by commonly used and author’s disintegration indicators. The best results were obtained for the sludge disintegrated with a volume of V2=1 L and the emitter position of 2.5 cm from the bottom of the chamber. The study confirms that in various operating conditions of ultrasonic disintegration, there is a possibility for obtaining different effects which may influence the course of anaerobic stabilization and quality of the final products of the process.

  16. A laboratory scale model of abrupt ice-shelf disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Boghosian, A.; Styron, D. D.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important mode of Earth’s disappearing cryosphere is the abrupt disintegration of ice shelves along the Peninsula of Antarctica. This disintegration process may be triggered by climate change, however the work needed to produce the spectacular, explosive results witnessed with the Larsen B and Wilkins ice-shelf events of the last decade comes from the large potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and fragmentation. To gain further insight into the underlying exchanges of energy involved in massed iceberg movements, we have constructed a laboratory-scale model designed to explore the physical and hydrodynamic interactions between icebergs in a confined channel of water. The experimental apparatus consists of a 2-meter water tank that is 30 cm wide. Within the tank, we introduce fresh water and approximately 20-100 rectangular plastic ‘icebergs’ having the appropriate density contrast with water to mimic ice. The blocks are initially deployed in a tight pack, with all blocks arranged in a manner to represent the initial state of an integrated ice shelf or ice tongue. The system is allowed to evolve through time under the driving forces associated with iceberg hydrodynamics. Digitized videography is used to quantify how the system of plastic icebergs evolves between states of quiescence to states of mobilization. Initial experiments show that, after a single ‘agitator’ iceberg begins to capsize, an ‘avalanche’ of capsizing icebergs ensues which drives horizontal expansion of the massed icebergs across the water surface, and which stimulates other icebergs to capsize. A surprise initially evident in the experiments is the fact that the kinetic energy of the expanding mass of icebergs is only a small fraction of the net potential energy released by the rearrangement of mass via capsize. Approximately 85 - 90 % of the energy released by the system goes into water motion modes, including a pervasive, easily observed seich mode of the tank

  17. Disintegration of nano-embedded microparticles after deposition on mucus: A mechanistic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Christian A; Bohr, Adam; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    and then evaluated for their disintegration behavior after aerosolization onto model mucus. Although a rapid and complete aqueous redispersion was observed for specific excipient/nanoparticle weight ratios (i.e., greater than 1/1), the same formulations revealed no disintegration after deposition onto a static mucus...... layer. Double-labeled NEMs powders (i.e., dual color staining of polymeric nanoparticles and trehalose) demonstrated rapid matrix dissolution, while the nanoparticle aggregates persisted. When deposited onto agitated mucus, however, sufficient disintegration of NEMs into individual polymeric...

  18. Comparative Plasma Exposure of Albendazole after Administration of Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina G. Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were (a to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  19. Comparative plasma exposure of albendazole after administration of rapidly disintegrating tablets in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Silvina G; Dib, Alicia; Suarez, Gonzalo; Allemandi, Daniel; Lanusse, Carlos; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Palma, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b) to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  20. Research progress of orally disintegrating films%口腔崩解膜研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 姚永秀

    2015-01-01

    口腔崩解膜具有优于常规快速崩片的许多优点,例如给药方便、机械强度高、快速崩解、低窒息风险等,因此比口腔崩解片具有更广的市场开发和应用的潜力.本文对口腔崩解膜的处方组成、制备方法、评价指标等方面的研究进行简要综述.

  1. Severe arrhythmia induced by orally disintegrating aripiprazole tablets (Bosiqing®: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Q

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Qing Shao,1,2,* Wei Quan,1,2,* Xiaoni Jia,1 Jianbo Chen,1 Shanbo Ma,3 Xiaohong Zhang11Xi’an Mental Health Center, Institute of Mental Health, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Psychotropic medications have been known to cause cardiac conduction disturbances. Not much is known about the cardiovascular side effects of newer atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole. A case of a 13-year-old girl with schizophrenia is presented. An analysis of the presented patient’s clinical history indicates the need for a detailed analysis of the severe arrhythmia induced by aripiprazole. This presented case report contains valuable guidelines that can be of assistance in the treatment of patients with aripiprazole.Keywords: schizophrenia, aripiprazole, arrhythmia, antipsychotics

  2. Disintegration process and performance of a coaxial porous injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keonwoong; Kim, Dohun; Koo, Jaye

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the breakup performance of coaxial porous injectors, the sprays of coaxial porous injectors with two different porous material cylinder lengths were compared with those of conventional shear coaxial injectors. To allow comparison, the wall injection lengths were designed to be equivalent to the value of the recess depth. Cold flow sprays were visualized using back-lit photography methods and analyzed quantitatively with a laser diffraction apparatus, in order to study the effects of the momentum flux ratio and Weber number on the breakup for each type of injector. In case of the shear coaxial injector, the large liquid core was observed in low air mass flow rate condition. However, the destabilization of the liquid jet from the coaxial porous injector is almost complete within the inner region, near the injector face plate. Additionally, better breakup performance in low gas flow rate condition was obtained when the porous cylinder length decreased, while the shear coaxial injectors showed better breakup efficiency when the recess length increased. In conclusion, the different breakup process caused by the radial momentum in the inner region of the porous injector disintegrated the liquid core.

  3. Meteotsunami disintegration and soliton forerunners on Atchafalaya shelf, Lousiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Alex; Gravois, Uriah; Shrira, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Field observations collected on the Atcahfalaya shelf in 2008 captured in high detail the shoaling evolution of a meteotsunami, including its disintegration into a undular bore. One of the intriguing elements of this process is a spectacular 1.5-m solitary-wave (soliton) forerunner, that precedes the arrival of the meteotsunami by approximately 5 min, reaching the observation site propagating through relatively calm waters (a wave field of approximately 20-cm height). The source of the meteotsunami is identified as a squall line associated with a strong atmospheric perturbation. An inverse ray method used to estimate the meteotsunami path suggests that the meteotsunami propagated as a trapped wave, originating in shallow water and ending in shallow water. The process of the generation of the soliton forerunner is investigated using the variable-coefficient KdV equation first proposed by Ostrovsky and Pelinovsky (1975). Numerical scenarios indicate that the soliton is the product of the collision of a shoaling "multiple-bump" tsunami structure. Given the natural irregularities of the generation mechanism of the meteotsunami, this suggests that such solitary-wave foreunners might be more common than expected. Ostrovsky L.A., and E.N. Pelinovsky (1975). Refraction of nonlinear ocean waves in a beach zone. Izv Atmos Ocean Phys 11, 37-41.

  4. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the end state of most stars, including the Sun, after they exhaust their nuclear fuel. Between 1/4 and 1/2 of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements should rapidly settle into the stellar interiors unless they are occasionally replenished. The abundance ratios of heavy elements in white dwarf atmospheres are similar to rocky bodies in the Solar system. This and the existence of warm dusty debris disks around about 4% of white dwarfs suggest that rocky debris from white dwarf progenitors' planetary systems occasionally pollute the stars' atmospheres. The total accreted mass can be comparable to that of large asteroids in the solar system. However, the process of disrupting planetary material has not yet been observed. Here, we report observations of a white dwarf being transited by at least one and likely multiple disintegrating planetesimals with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 ...

  5. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  6. Calpains mediate axonal cytoskeleton disintegration during Wallerian degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Marek; Ferguson, Toby A; Schoch, Kathleen M; Li, Jian; Qian, Yaping; Shofer, Frances S; Saatman, Kathryn E; Neumar, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    In both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), transected axons undergo Wallerian degeneration. Even though Augustus Waller first described this process after transection of axons in 1850, the molecular mechanisms may be shared, at least in part, by many human diseases. Early pathology includes failure of synaptic transmission, target denervation, and granular disintegration of the axonal cytoskeleton (GDC). The Ca(2+)-dependent protease calpains have been implicated in GDC but causality has not been established. To test the hypothesis that calpains play a causal role in axonal and synaptic degeneration in vivo, we studied transgenic mice that express human calpastatin (hCAST), the endogenous calpain inhibitor, in optic and sciatic nerve axons. Five days after optic nerve transection and 48 h after sciatic nerve transection, robust neurofilament proteolysis observed in wild-type controls was reduced in hCAST transgenic mice. Protection of the axonal cytoskeleton in sciatic nerves of hCAST mice was nearly complete 48 h post-transection. In addition, hCAST expression preserved the morphological integrity of neuromuscular junctions. However, compound muscle action potential amplitudes after nerve transection were similar in wild-type and hCAST mice. These results, in total, provide direct evidence that calpains are responsible for the morphological degeneration of the axon and synapse during Wallerian degeneration.

  7. Effect of disintegration wave grinding on fractional protein and amino acid composition of chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of fractional changes and amino acid composition of proteins in the application of chickpea disintegration wave grinding. Comparative analysis of six varieties of chickpea before and after grinding.

  8. How Integrated are Students with and without Graduation? Social Disintegration and its Possible Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Endrikat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a closer look at the so-called „losers“ of the educational system in Germany. For this purpose different groups of young people with and without higher graduation are examined. The dependent variables are social disintegration and prejudices towards different target groups. A sample of 1230 youths at the age of 16 – 21 has been drawn from different surveys of the Bielefeld Group-Focused Emnity study. According to the hypotheses the quantitative results show that those adolescents who are less qualified suffer from fear of disintegration. Surprisingly the group without any academic graduation suffers significantly less from strain of social disintegration. Furthermore fear of disintegration can be linked to problematic attitudes and problematic behaviour towards different target groups. Results of this work show as well gender specific effects in prejudices towards target groups.

  9. Atrazine in sub-acute exposure results in sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab-Ali Sadrkhanloo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the detrimental effect of atrazine (ATR on germinal epitheliums (GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate (CH and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA ratio and to clarify the effect of ATR on serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin-B (INH-B. The impact of ATR exposure on total antioxidant capacity (TAC, sperm DNA packing and integrity were also investigated. Seventy two Wistar rats were used. The rats in control group received vehicle and the animals in test groups received 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW of ATR orally on daily bases for 12, 24 and 48 days. In ATR-received groups the spermatogenesis cell were presented with dense reactive sites for lipidophilic staining associated with faint cytoplasmic CH accumulation. Dissociated germinal epithelium, negative tubular and repopulation indexes were manifested. The serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and INH-B decreased by 85% after 48 days exposure to high dose of ATR. TAC was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The sperm DNA damage was marked in animals which exposed to high dose of ATR (72.50 ± 2.25% and the percentage of nuclear immature sperm increased up to 83.40 ± 0.89%. In conclusion, ATR not only induced its detrimental effect on the endocrine function of the testes and pituitary gland but also affected the cytoplasmic CH ratio and consequently leads to inadequate energy supplement in spermatogenesis cells. Therefore the imbalanced oxidative stress occurs in testicular tissue, which in turn enhances the sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity.

  10. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  11. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Guang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  12. Effect of the mode of incorporation on the disintegrant properties of acid modified water and white yam starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Akinwande, Babatunde L

    2012-04-01

    Acid modified starches obtained from two species of yam tubers namely white yam - Dioscorea rotundata L. and water yam - D. alata L. DIAL2 have been investigated as intra- and extra-granular disintegrants in paracetamol tablet formulations. The native starches were modified by acid hydrolysis and employed as disintegrant at concentrations of 5 and 10% w/w and their disintegrant properties compared with those of corn starch BP. The tensile strength and drug release properties of the tablets, assessed using the disintegration and dissolution (t 50 and t 80 - time required for 50% and 80% of paracetamol to be released) times, were evaluated. The results showed that the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets decreased with increase in the concentration of the starch disintegrants. The acid modified yam starches showed better disintegrant efficiency than corn starch in the tablet formulations. Acid modification appeared to improve the disintegrant efficiency of the yam starches. Furthermore, tablets containing starches incorporated extragranularly showed faster disintegration but lower tensile strength than those containing starches incorporated intragranularly. This emphasizes the importance of the mode of incorporation of starch disintegrant.

  13. Development and characterization of seed gums from Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula as disintegrating agent for fast disintegrating Thai cordial tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampanart Huanbutta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude seed gum and their carboxymethyl derivatives from Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula seeds were developed and characterized to apply as the pharmaceutical disintegrant in fast disintegrating Thai cordial tablet. The chemical structure of crude gum was chemically modified via carboxymethylation. Degree of substitution (DS of carboxymethylated gums was determined. Carboxymethylated gums with minimum and maximum DS values were chosen for further application. IR absorption spectra of gum samples were observed to verify their chemical structure changes. In physical properties, the intrinsic viscosity and swelling property of all gum samples were evaluated. The results showed that carboxymethylated gums had higher intrinsic viscosity than those of crude gum. Moreover, they could swell and be soluble in cold water better than those of crude gums. In conclusion, the modified gums from both plants could provide higher hardness and be better used than that crude gums for fast disintegrating Thai cordial tablet. However, this is a preliminary assessment to expressing pharmaceutical application possibility of these gums as disintegrants, diluents and drug release controlling agents.

  14. Integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in a globalized world: challenges and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Paronikian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the challenges and trends in integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in the world of globalization. Established that ethnic disintegration is inevitable consequence of ethnic integration, and its intensity depends on what method is carried Integration: voluntary or forced. What is important is the fact that in the era of globalization integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities that are inherent in the very essence of ethnicity, greatly amplified. It was found that entering to the cultural field of ethnic communities of other ethnic entities, penalized sustainable ethnic balance, contributes to the phenomenon of «rejection of other» causes of ethnic conflict and the consequent threat of disintegration of ethnic communities. Disintegration often leads to weakening of the linkages and interactions between components of the integrated system in a multi-ethnic society. However, the author concludes that the process of disintegration cannot be regarded as unambiguously negative because, on the one hand, it contributes to the weakening and decline; and sometimes division of multi-ethnic countries, but on the other hand - it contributes to the birth of the new and revival of the old nation-states, which is particularly important in conditions of transformation of the global community towards the post-industrial and information epoch in the future. In general, the integration and disintegration change each other depending on global processes and their transformations. Therefore, in the era of globalization’s challenges it is important is the effective management of these processes to prevent adverse effects.

  15. Combination of alkaline and microwave pretreatment for disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, G

    2013-01-01

    Meat processing wastewater sludge has high organic content but it is very slow to degrade in biological processes. Anaerobic digestion may be a good alternative for this type of sludge when the hydrolysis, known to be the rate-limiting step of biological sludge anaerobic degradation, could be eliminated by disintegration. This investigation deals with disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge. Microwave (MW) irradiation and combined alkaline pretreatment and MW irradiation were applied to sludge for disintegration purposes. Disintegration performance of the methods was evaluated with disintegration degree based on total and dissolved organic carbon calculations (DD(TOC)), and the solubilization of volatile solids (S(VS)) in the pretreated sludge. Optimum conditions were found to be 140 degrees C and 30 min for MW irradiation using response surface methodology (RSM) and pH = 13 for combined pretreatment. While DD(TOC) was observed as 24.6% and 54.9, S(VS) was determined as 8.54% and 42.5% for MW pretreated and combined pretreated sludge, respectively. The results clearly show that pre-conditioning of sludge with alkaline pretreatment played an important role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of subsequent MW irradiation. Disintegration methods also affected the anaerobic biodegradability and dewaterability of sludge. An increase of 23.6% in biogas production in MW irradiated sludge was obtained, comparing to the raw sludge at the end of the 35 days of incubation. This increase was observed as 44.5% combined pretreatment application. While MW pretreatment led to a little improvement of the dewatering performance of sludge, in combined pretreatment NaOH deteriorates the sludge dewaterability.

  16. Family disintegration in Latin America: the consequences for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L

    1982-12-01

    A federal study on children conducted by Brazil's Chamber of Deputies in 1975 concluded that some 25 million children, 40% of the total population below the age of 18 years, could be classified as disadvantaged. By 1980 this figure was estimated to have grown by an additional 3 million. An estimated 11 million of the disadvantaged children were literally destitute and homeless. They have been abandoned by their impoverished parents to a precarious life on the streets of the major cities of Brazil. The parents of many such abandoned children are recent migrants from rural areas. Unable to find adequate work and too poor to partake of health and other services, such families slip slowly into a state of destitution and disarray. The children end up on the streets where they are abused, exploited, and drawn into lives of crime and violence. Abandoned children are not the only young victims of the imbalances in Brazilian society. As many as 80% of Brazil's children suffer from some degree of malnutrition. Infant mortality is 84 deaths/1000 compared to an average of 12/1000 for Western Europe. In the Western hemisphere, several nations with lower per capita incomes have made greater progress in reducing infant and child mortality. These facts point up the fallacy of confusing economic growth with development. Economic growth is quantitative, mechanical, and materialistic. Development is organic and includes social dimensions, such as the educational, nutritional, and health status of the population. The problem of the disadvantaged children in Brazil is a problem of families and of the stresses placed on them by rapid, disorienting changes in social, economic, political, and cultural systems. The loss of the traditional functions of the family in the process of technological evolution has throughout modern history placed great strains on the family. This historical tendency toward family disintegration is greatly aggravated throughout the countries of the 3rd and 4th

  17. Cadmium-induced colony disintegration of duckweed (Lemna paucicostata Hegelm.) and as biomarker of phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T Y; Xiong, Z T

    2004-10-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium on Lemna paucicostata was investigated with hydroponic culture in a culture facility. Cadmium treatment (0.4-6.4 micromol L(-1) Cd) induced L. paucicostata to release daughter fronds from the mother frond before maturity, resulting in colony disintegration. The 8-h and 24-h EC(50) values for colony disintegration in L. paucicostata plants were 0.12 and 0.11 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) were 0.012 and 0.011 mg L(-1) accordingly (MPC = 10% x EC(50)). These values were lower than the values of most of these biomarkers in duckweed reported in the literature, suggesting that colony disintegration in L. paucicostata may serve as a sensitive biomarker for the phytotoxicity test. Nutrient concentrations (1/2, 1/10, 1/20, 1/40, and 0-fold concentrations of Hoagland's solution) and Cd salt form (CdCl(2) or CdSO(4)) did not have a significant effect on colony disintegration. In addition, resistance to Cd stress differed significantly among clones of the plants. Approximately 2% of colonies in the wild population of L. paucicostata were tolerant of cadmium. These results indicate that colony disintegration of L. paucicostata could be used as a sensitive, cost-effective, and valuable biomarker to assess the acute phytotoxicity of cadmium and other heavy metals.

  18. Mechanism of zonal disintegration in surrounding rock mass around deep rock engineering and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behaviors of deep rock mass are different from those of shallow rock mass.Through cases of Jinping II Hydropower Station,the special phenomenon of zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels,is analyzed.On the basis of fracture mechanics,a new strength criterion for deep rock mass is derived.The new nonlinear strength criterion that is relative to the rock mass rating classification can be applied to the study of the tensile failure of deep rock mass.Subsequently,zonal disintegration model is established,and the radius of fractured zone and none-fractured zone of deep surrounding rock mass around cylindrical tunnel are obtained,their exact positions and the evolution law of zonal disintegration of surrounding rock mass is determined.To validate the present model,comparison between calculation results and the experiment observation on facture and failure around underground openings is carried out.It is found that the numerical simulation result is in good agreement with the experimental one on failure modes around the hole.Through sensitivity analysis,the effects of stress condition,cohesion and the angle of internal friction on the phenomenon of zonal disintegration are determined.Finally,the present model is adopted in the analysis of the zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels in Jinping II Hydropower Station.Meanwhile,the magnitude and distributions of fractured zones are determined by numerical simulation.

  19. Brand to brand variation in the disintegrant functionality of Polacrilin Potassium, NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula H. Bele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current monograph for Polacrilin Potassium, NF does not specify tests that could assist in distinguishing between different brands of this disintegrant. The objective of this work was to examine the physical characteristics of four brands of Polacrilin Potassium, NF and relate the observed differences to differences in their functionality. Significant differences were observed in the particle size, true density, porosity, surface area and morphology of the samples. Functionality tests, such as settling volume, intrinsic swelling, rate and extent of water uptake were carried out. Significant differences were observed in intrinsic swelling and the initial rate of water uptake. The disintegration times of the tablets were found to be a function of the initial rate of water uptake. Since the disintegration times were shown to be significantly different despite negligible differences in settling volumes, wicking and water uptake, as opposed to the magnitude of swelling, appear to be the major mechanisms that distinguish disintegration performance between different brands of Polacrilin Potassium, NF when incorporated into insoluble tablet matrices. Thus, the measurement of the rate of water uptake may be a useful functionality test for Polacrilin Potassium in particular, and for ion exchange resin type disintegrants in general.

  20. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015.

  1. Kozeny-Carman permeability relationship with disintegration process predicted from early dissolution profiles of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Parveen; Rathi, Pooja; Kumar, Virender; Lal, Jatin; Kaur, Harmeet; Singh, Jasbir

    2017-07-01

    This study was oriented toward the disintegration profiling of the diclofenac sodium (DS) immediate-release (IR) tablets and development of its relationship with medium permeability kperm based on Kozeny-Carman equation. Batches (L1-L9) of DS IR tablets with different porosities and specific surface area were prepared at different compression forces and evaluated for porosity, in vitro dissolution and particle-size analysis of the disintegrated mass. The kperm was calculated from porosities and specific surface area, and disintegration profiles were predicted from the dissolution profiles of IR tablets by stripping/residual method. The disintegration profiles were subjected to exponential regression to find out the respective disintegration equations and rate constants kd. Batches L1 and L2 showed the fastest disintegration rates as evident from their bi-exponential equations while the rest of the batches L3-L9 exhibited the first order or mono-exponential disintegration kinetics. The 95% confidence interval (CI95%) revealed significant differences between kd values of different batches except L4 and L6. Similar results were also spotted for dissolution profiles of IR tablets by similarity (f2) test. The final relationship between kd and kperm was found to be hyperbolic, signifying the initial effect of kperm on the disintegration rate. The results showed that disintegration profiling is possible because a relationship exists between kd and kperm. The later being relatable with porosity and specific surface area can be determined by nondestructive tests.

  2. Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2011-01-01

    A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not

  3. Photo-Disintegration of the Iron Nucleus in Fractured Magnetite Rocks with Magnetostriction

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in recent experiments on iron nuclear disintegrations observed when rocks containing such nuclei are crushed and fractured. The resulting nuclear transmutations are particularly strong for the case of magnetite rocks, i.e. loadstones. We argue that the fission of the iron nucleus is a consequence of photo-disintegration. The electro-strong coupling between electromagnetic fields and nuclear giant dipole resonances are central for producing observed nuclear reactions. The large electron energies produced during the fracture of piezomagnetic rocks are closely analogous to the previously discussed case of the fracture of piezoelectric rocks. In both cases electro-weak interactions can produce neutrons and neutrinos from energetic protons and electrons thus inducing nuclear transmutations. The electro-strong condensed matter coupling discussed herein represents new many body collective nuclear photo-disintegration effects.

  4. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TAPIOCA SAGO AND POTATO STARCHES AS DISINTEGRATING AGENTS IN TABLET FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulam Rabbani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Tapioca sago starch was employed as a disintegrating agent in Chloroquine based tablets at concentration of 5–15% w/w. Properties of the starch were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, carr’s compressibility index, hausner’s ratio, hydration capacity and swelling capacity. The granules were evaluated for moisture content, angle of repose, bulk density and tapped density, carr’s compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, crushing strength, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profiles. Batches of tablets containing equivalent concentration of potato starch were employed as standard. Results obtained indicate that as a disintegrant Tapioca sago starch showed comparable results in Chloroquine phosphate tablets with the standard.

  5. MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF WHEAT STRAW BY ROLLER-PLATE GRIND SYSTEM WITH SHARP-EDGED SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colloid mills and extruders are widely used for disintegrating wet fibrous biomass. However, their main disadvantages are a high energy requirement in the range of hundreds or thousands of kWh per ton of material, and the fact that they grind in process cycles. Efforts have therefore been made to design a new type of continuously operated grinder. Its disintegration principle uses a roller-plate grinding system with sharp-edged segments, where the compressive and shear forces combine to comminute the particles. Test experiments verified that the grinder disintegrates wet untreated straw to particles below 10mm in an effective manner in a single pass, with an energy requirement of 50 kWht−1 TS. A 23% increase in biogas yield was achieved, leading to a net gain in electric energy of310 kWht−1 TS.

  6. Influence of the temperature on the cement disintegration in cement-retained implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkevicius, Tomas; Vindasiute, Egle; Puisys, Algirdas; Linkeviciene, Laura; Svediene, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the average disintegration temperature of three dental cements used for the cementation of the implant-supported prostheses. One hundred and twenty metal frameworks were fabricated and cemented on the prosthetic abutments with different dental cements. After heat treatment in the dental furnace, the samples were set for the separation to test the integration of the cement. Results have shown that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RGIC) exhibited the lowest disintegration temperature (pcement (ZPC) and dual cure resin cement (RC) (p>0.05). Average separation temperatures: RGIC - 306 ± 23 °C, RC - 363 ± 71 °C, it could not be calculated for the ZPC due to the eight unseparated specimens. Within the limitations of the study, it could be concluded that RGIC cement disintegrates at the lowest temperature and ZPC is not prone to break down after exposure to temperature.

  7. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  8. Bore formation, evolution and disintegration into solitons in shallow inhomogeneous channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-G. Caputo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of nonlinear surface waves in channels of smoothly variable in space cross section is studied theoretically and by means of numerical computations. The mathematical model describing wave evolution is based on the generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with additional terms due to spatial inhomogeneity and energy dissipation. Specifically we consider channels of variable depth and width. The breaking of Riemann waves and the disintegration of hydraulic jumps into trains of solitons have been examined. The results obtained can be useful in particular for the understanding some peculiarities of bore (mascaret formation, viscous evolution and disintegration into solitons in inhomogeneous channels or rivers.

  9. High-Throughput Synthetic Chemistry Enabled by Organic Solvent Disintegrating Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Xing, Yanjun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-17

    Synthetic chemistry remains a time- and labor-intensive process of inherent hazardous nature. Our organic solvent disintegrating tablet (O-Tab) technology has shown potential to make industrial/synthetic chemistry more efficient. As is the case with pharmaceutical tablets, our reagent-containing O-Tabs are mechanically strong, but disintegrate rapidly when in contact with reaction media (organic solvents). For O-Tabs containing sensitive chemicals, they can be further coated to insulate them from air and moisture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Results of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge in practice; Ergebnisse des Praxiseinsatzes der Schlammdesintegration mittels Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, E. [IWE-Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wasser und Entsorgung mbH, Radebeul (Germany); Friedrich, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Hielscher, H. [Hielscher GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Using high-performance ultrasonic sludge disintegration in different stages of sewage and sludge treatment is found to be an innovative approach for reducing the accruing amounts of sewage sludge in terms of both mass and volume. By means of practical tests with sludge disintegration at sewage treatment plants, its effects are demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Der Einsatz einer Hochleistungs-Ultraschalltechnik zur Schlammdesintegration in verschiedenen Stufen der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung zeigt sich als innovativer Loesungsweg zur weitestgehenden massenmaessigen sowie volumenmaessigen Minimierung des Klaerschlammanfalles. An Hand von Einsatzerprobungen der Desintegration in der Klaeranlagenpraxis werden die Effekte der Desintegration vorgestellt. (orig.)

  11. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Suarez Garcia, E.; Safi, Carl; Yonathan, K.; Olivieri, G.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3–1 mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order

  12. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  13. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  14. Polyols as filler-binders for disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Rexwinkel, Erik G.; Zuurman, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although polyols are frequently used as tablet excipients in lozenges, chewing tablets, and orodisperse tablets, special directly compressible (DC) forms are recommended as filler-binder in common disintegrating tablets. Aim: In this article, DC types of isomalt, lactitol, mannitol, sorb

  15. [Effect of food thickener on disintegration and dissolution of magnesium oxide tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Tsubouchi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that magnesium oxide tablets are excreted in a non-disintegrated state in the stool of patients when the tablets are administered after being immersed in a food thickener. Therefore we examined whether immersion in a food thickener affects the pharmacological effect in patients taking magnesium oxide tablets, and whether immersion affects its disintegration and solubility. The mean dosage (1705 mg/d) was higher for patients who took tablets after immersion in a food thickener than for those who took non-immersed tablets (1380 mg/d). The disintegration time and dissolution rate of the immersed tablets were lower than those of non-immersed tablets in vitro. Furthermore, components that constitute the food thickener and differences in composition concentrations differentially affect the disintegration and solubility of magnesium oxide tablets. This suggests that commercially available food thickeners are likely to be associated with changes in the degradation of magnesium oxide tablets, and they therefore should be carefully used in certain clinical situations.

  16. Equivalence and Disintegration Theorems for Fell Bundles and their C*-algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Muhly, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    We study the C*-algebras of Fell bundles. In particular, we prove the analogue of Renault's disintegration theorem for groupoids. As in the groupoid case, this result is the key step in proving a deep equivalence theorem for the C*-algebras of Fell bundles.

  17. Preparation of cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch and evaluation as a tablet disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongpatana, Nisit; Suwakon, Janta; Kittipongpatana, Ornanong

    2011-10-01

    The main purposes of this study are to prepare cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch (CL-CMJF) and to evaluate its pharmaceutical property as a tablet disintegrant. CL-CMJF was prepared by a dual carboxymethyl-crosslinking reaction in a flask containing jackfruit seed starch (JFS), chloroacetic acid (CAA), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). The reaction was carried out using methanol as a solvent for 60 min at 70°C and at JFS:CAA:NaOH:STMP ratio of 1.0:0.29:0.28:0.07. The obtained CL-CMJF, with degree of substitution and degree of crosslinking calculated to be 0.34 and 0.06, respectively, was insoluble but swellable in water. Rheological study revealed a decreased in solution viscosity compared to the non-crosslinked CMJF. The water uptake of CL-CMJF was 23 times higher than that of native starch and was comparable to that of a commercial superdisintegrant, sodium starch glycolate (SSG). The swelling ability of CL-CMRS was similar to that of crosscarmellose sodium (CCS), another commercial superdisintegrant. Disintegration test of aspirin tablets containing 2%w/w of JFS, CL-CMJF, SSG and CCS showed disintegration times in the order of SSG < CCS ~ CL-CMJF < JFS. The results suggested that CL-CMJF could be developed as a tablet disintegrant.

  18. Adult Education and (Dis)integration Processes in Yugoslavia. Uppsala Reports on Education 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Michal, Jr.

    This report is a synopsis of a study that dealt with the dominant problem in Yugoslavian society, namely the phenomenon of social and economic crisis, and with the role of adult education within the disintegration processes. In addition to an introduction, the report consists of five sections concerning the following issues: (1) the country in a…

  19. Kazimierz Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and the American Humanistic Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the differences and similarities between Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration and the theories of the American humanistic psychologists. Stresses the suffering associated with attaining higher levels of spiritual development. Suggests that Dabrowski and humanists followed different theodicies. (Author/ABL)

  20. Through the Dabrowski Lens: A Fresh Examination of the Theory of Positive Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Amanda; Cornish, Linley; Smith, Susen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration is an emotion-centered, nonontogenetic, five-level theory of personality development where the experience of all emotions is essential for the process of growth. In this article, we examine the complexities of the three factors of development, which are essential to the notion of development within the…

  1. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-10-22

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern.

  2. Improving the biogas production performance of municipal waste activated sludge via disperser induced microwave disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Vinoth Kumar, J; Rajkumar, M

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of disperser induced microwave pretreatment was investigated to analyze the proficiency of floc disruption on subsequent disintegration and biodegradability process. Initially, the flocs in the sludge was disrupted through disperser at a specific energy input of 25.3kJ/kgTS. The upshot of the microwave disintegration presents that the solids reduction and solubilization of floc disrupted (disperser induced microwave pretreated) sludge was found to be 17.33% and 22% relatively greater than that achieved in microwave pretreated (9.3% and 16%) sludge alone. The biodegradability analysis, affords an evaluation of parameter confidence and correlation determination. The eventual biodegradability of microwave pretreated, and floc disrupted sludges were computed to be 0.15(gCOD/gCOD) and 0.28(gCOD/gCOD), respectively. An economic assessment of this study offers a positive net profit of about 104.8USD/ton of sludge in floc disrupted sample.

  3. Distress from Motivational Dis-integration: When Fundamental Motives Are Too Weak or Too Strong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, James F M; Franks, Becca; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-01-01

    Past research has shown that satisfying different kinds of fundamental motives contributes to well-being. More recently, advances in motivational theory have shown that z is also tied to the integration of different motives. In other words, well-being depends not only on maximizing effectiveness in satisfying specific motives, but also on ensuring that motives work together such that no individual motive is too weak or too strong. In this chapter, we review existing research to show that specific forms of psychological distress can be linked to specific types of motivational imbalance or dis-integration. Such disintegration can arise from either excessive weakness of a specific motive or the excessive strength and/or dominance of a specific motive, thereby inhibiting other motives. Possible neural correlates and avenues of intervention are discussed.

  4. Novel coherent receivers for AF distributed STBC using disintegrated channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    For a single relay network, disintegrated channel estimation (DCE), where the source-relay channel is estimated at the relay and the relay-destination channel is estimated at the destination, gives better performance than the cascaded channel estimation. We derive novel receivers for the relay network with disintegrated channel estimation. The derived receivers do not require channel estimation at the destination, as they use the received pilot signals and the source-relay channel estimate for decoding directly. We also consider the effect of quantized source-relay channel estimate on the performance of the designed receivers. Simulation results show that a performance gain of up to 2.2 dB can be achieved by the new receivers, compared with the conventional mismatched coherent receiver with DCE. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Zonal disintegration mechanism of isotropic rock masses around a deep spherical tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷新保; 毕靖; 许明

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate zonal disintegration mechanism of isotropic rock masses around a deep spherical tunnel, a new mechanical model subjected to dynamic unloading under hydrostatic pressure condition is proposed. The total elastic stress-field distributions is determined using the elastodynamic equation. The effects of unloading rate and dynamic mechanical parameters of isotropic deep rock masses on the zonal disintegration phenomenon of the surrounding rock masses around a deep spherical tunnel as well as the total elastic stress field distributions are considered. The number and size of fractured and non-fractured zones are determined by using the Hoek-Brown criterion. Numerical computation is carried out. It is found from numerical results that the number of fractured zones increases with increasing the disturbance coefficient, in-situ stress, unloading time and unloading rate, and it decreases with increasing parameter geological strength index, the strength parameter and the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock.

  6. Structures, nanomechanics, and disintegration of single-walled GaN nanotubes: atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We have investigated the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of single-walled GaN nanotubes by using atomistic simulations and a Tersoff-type potential. The Tersoff potential for GaN effectively describes the properties of GaN nanotubes. The nanomechanics of GaN nanotubes under tensile and compressive loadings have also been investigated, and Young's modulus has been calculated. The caloric curves of single-walled GaN nanotubes can be divided into three regions corresponding to nanotubes, the disintegrating range, and vapor. Since the stability or the stiffness of a tube decreases with increasing curving sheet-to-tube strain energy, the disintegration temperatures of GaN nanotubes are closely related to the curving sheet-to-tube strain energy.

  7. Disintegration of {sup 12}C nuclei by 700–1500 MeV photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedorezov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Angelo, A.; Bartalini, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bellini, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capogni, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Casano, L.E. [INFN – Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Castoldi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Curciarello, F.; De Leo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, salita Sperone 31, I-98166 Messina (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Didelez, J.-P. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Disintegration of {sup 12}C nuclei by tagged photons of 700–1500 MeV energy at the GRAAL facility has been studied by means of the LAGRANγE detector with a wide angular acceptance. The energy and momentum distributions of produced neutrons and protons as well as their multiplicity distributions were measured and compared with corresponding distributions calculated with the RELDIS model based on the intranuclear cascade and Fermi break-up models. It was found that eight fragments are created on average once per about 100 disintegration events, while a complete fragmentation of {sup 12}C into 12 nucleons is observed typically only once per 2000 events. Measured multiplicity distributions of produced fragments are well described by the model. The measured total photoabsorption cross section on {sup 12}C in the same energy range is also reported.

  8. Production of Indigenous and Enriched Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Coal Briquettes: Combustion and Disintegration Strength Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia Habib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan has considerable amounts of low ranked coal. However, due to the absence of any centrally administered power generation system there is a need to explore indigenous methods for effectively using this valuable energy resource. In the present study an indigenous coal briquetting technology has been developed and evaluated in terms of combustion characteristics such as moisture content, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and calorific value of the resulting coal briquette and disintegration strength using polyvinyl acetate (PVA in combination with calcium carbonate (sample no 3 with highest disintegration strength value of 2059N. Comparison of test samples with the commercially available coal briquettes revealed improved combustion characteristics for the PVA bonded (sample no 1 and 5 coal briquettes having higher fixed carbon content and calorific value, lower ash contents as well as lower initial ignition time.

  9. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  10. Disintegration-wave method of recovery of industrial waste iron and steel industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vasechkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of raw materials and waste is one of the most important factors determining the effectiveness of any processing enterprise. Industrial wastes of mining and metallurgical industries are a valuable source of many elements. However, little activity of the mineral and inconsistent chemical and phase composition of the waste reduce their attractiveness for use as a secondary raw material, and the presence of heavy metals and water-soluble compounds is a serious environmental threat. Fractional excretion of elements that make up the slag can be carried out with the help of their recovery by disintegration-wave method. The paper presents a machine-hardware circuits for the implementation of recovery process of slag and disintegrator design. In conducting research on the example of slag samples of the enterprises in Stavropol and Krasnoyarsk territories, it was found out that the observed enrichment of slags on the composition of iron takes place, its physical and chemical activity increases and persists for a long period of time. These facts were noted in the study of the microstructure and the results of spectral analysis of the initial slags and subjected to recovery by disintegration-wave method. The results analysis led to the conclusion about the possibility of waste recovery of mining and metallurgical industries with by disintegration-wave method. Resulting in the processing materials with enhanced activity of the mineral part and certain chemical and phase composition, can be used as raw material for the production of metallurgical, cement and other industries.

  11. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D.; Itiola, Oludele A.; ODEKU, OLUWATOYIN A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plantMusa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 23 factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and...

  12. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Dan Chen,1 Zhong-Yuan Liang,1 Yan-Yan Cen,1 He Zhang,2 Mei-Gui Han,2 Yun-Qiao Tian,2 Jie Zhang,2 Shu-Jun Li,2 Da-Sheng Yang2 1College of Pharmacy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 2Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101, lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS. The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT, in vitro drug release (DR, thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. Keywords: asthma, superdisintegrant, prednisolone, oral tablets, MCC, CCS, factorial design, ANOVA

  13. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the “comic effect” of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized.

  14. Role of superporous hydrogel particles as a superdisintegrant in fast disintegrating tablet of Glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh V Chavda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Superporous hydrogel (SPH swells very rapidly in a shorter period of time to an equilibrium size and contains highly porous structure. The literature survey reflects the preparation of SPHs and its composite, but its application as an excipient in a drug delivery system is not well focused. Aim: Efforts were made to develop fast disintegrating tablets of Glipizide using superporous hydrogel particles (SPHPs as a wicking agent, which act as a superdisintegrant to decrease disintegration time. Materials and Methods: The SPH of poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid was prepared by solution polymerization and characterized. Prepared tablets were evaluated for concerned parameters. Formulation optimization was carried out using 3 2 full factorial design and analysis of variance. Results: Scanning electron microscopy pictures clearly confirmed the superporous structure of hydrogel. Batch F 4 containing 4% w/w of SPH of poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid as a superdisintegrant showed extremely fast wicking effect and lesser disintegration time compared with other potential superdisintegrants. Drug release was good compared with conventional immediate release marketed product. Conclusion: It can be concluded that SPHPs can be used as a potential superdisintegrant in tablet formulation.

  15. The use of beta-cyclodextrin in the manufacturing of disintegrating pellets with improved dissolution performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Palugan, Luca; Maroni, Alessandra; Foppoli, Anastasia; Sangalli, Maria Edvige; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been highlighted that the release behavior of pellets containing microcystalline cellulose (MCC) as the spheronizing agent may be impaired by the lack of disintegration. Although alternative spheronizing excipients have been proposed, their overall advantages have not thoroughly been assessed. In the present work, the possible use of beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) was therefore explored for the manufacturing of pellets with a potential for effective disintegration and immediate release of poorly soluble active ingredients. MCC/betaCD powder formulations containing no drug or model drugs with different water solubility, able to form inclusion compounds with the employed cyclodextrin, were pelletized by agglomeration in rotary fluid bed equipment. By applying successive statistical experimental designs, the most critical formulation and operating parameters were identified and optimal manufacturing processes were ultimately set up. High yields of pellets provided with satisfactory physical-technological characteristics were obtained using powder formulations with up to 80% betaCD. Based on dissolution testing results, the suitability of betaCD for the preparation of disintegrating MCC-containing pellets with improved dissolution performance was finally demonstrated.

  16. Effects of Ultrasonic and Acid Pretreatment on Food Waste Disintegration and Volatile Fatty Acid Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglian Wu; Wanqian Guo∗; Shanshan Yang; Haichao Luo; Simai Peng; Nanqi Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of ultrasonic and acid pretreatment on food waste ( FW) disintegration and volatile fatty acid ( VFA ) production. Single⁃factor experiments are carried out to obtain optimal conditions of individual ultrasonic and acid pretreatment, and response surface method ( RSM ) is applied to optimize the conditions of the combination of ultrasonic and acid ( UA) pretreatment. Results show that the optimal acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments conditions are individual pH 2, individual ultrasonic energy density of 1�0 W/mL and the combination of ultrasonic energy density1�11 W/mL and pH 1�43, respectively. Correspondingly, the maximum disintegration degrees ( DD) of 46�90%, 57�38% and68�83%are obtained by acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments, respectively. After optimizing pretreatment conditions, batch experiments are operated to produce VFA from raw and pretreated FW under anaerobic fermentation process. Both the maximum VFA production ( 976�17 mg COD/gVS) and VFA/SCOD ( 72�89%) are obtained with ultrasonic pretreatment, followed by UA pretreatment, non⁃pretreatment and acid pretreatment, respectively. This observation demonstrates that a higher acidity on acid and UA pretreatments inhibits the generation of VFA. Results suggest that ultrasonic pretreatment is preferable to promote the disintegration degree of FW and VFA production.

  17. Investigating the effect of processing parameters on pharmaceutical tablet disintegration using a real-time particle imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Arthi D; Reynolds, Gavin K; Wilson, David; Wren, Stephen; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is a fundamental parameter that is tested in vitro before a product is released to the market, to give confidence that the tablet will break up in vivo and that active drug will be available for absorption. Variations in tablet properties cause variation in disintegration behaviour. While the standardised pharmacopeial disintegration test can show differences in the speed of disintegration of different tablets, it does not give any mechanistic information about the underlying cause of the difference. With quantifiable disintegration data, and consequently an improved understanding into tablet disintegration, a more knowledge-based approach could be applied to the research and development of future tablet formulations. The aim of the present research was to introduce an alternative method which will enable a better understanding of tablet disintegration using a particle imaging approach. A purpose-built flow cell was employed capable of online observation of tablet disintegration, which can provide information about the changing tablet dimensions and the particles released with time. This additional information can improve the understanding of how different materials and process parameters affect tablet disintegration. Standard USP analysis was also carried out to evaluate and determine whether the flow cell method can suitably differentiate the disintegration behaviour of tablets produced using different processing parameters. Placebo tablets were produced with varying ratios of insoluble and soluble filler (mannitol and MCC, respectively) so that the effect of variation in the formulation can be investigated. To determine the effect of the stress applied during granulation and tableting on tablet disintegration behaviour, analysis was carried out on tablets produced using granular material compressed at 20 or 50bar, where a tableting load of either 15 or 25kN was used. By doing this the tablet disintegration was examined in terms of the

  18. Studies of ultrasound disintegration of residual sludge and its energy consumption in water treatment of petrochemical plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jinfeng; YIN Xuan; GU Heping; L(U) Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the influence of ultrasound pretreatment on sludge anaerobic digestion,the ultrasound disintegration of residual sludge in water treatment of petrochemical plant was studied,and the mechanisms of ultrasound and medium were introduced.Experimental results indicate that ultrasound cavitation induces the rise of sludge temperature,which improves ultrasound disintegration on sludge.Ultrasound pretreatment can advance observably the quantity of chemical oxygen demand in sludge supernatant fluid (SCOD),which increases with ultrasound intensity and sonication time.The degree of ultrasound disintegration increases with the specific energy input.When the specific energy input is 10 000 kJ/kg of total dry solids,the degree of ultrasonic sludge disintegration reaches 40%.

  19. Oral Thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding mothers In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants may have trouble feeding or be fussy ... candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. ...

  20. Oral Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 規子; スズキ, ノリコ; Noriko, SUZUKI

    2004-01-01

    The major oral functions can be categorized as mastication, swallowing, speech and respiratory functions. Dysfunction of these results in dysphagia, speech disorders and abnormal respiration (such as Sleep Apnea). These functions relate to dentistry in the occurrence of : (1) oral preparatory and oral phases, (2) articulation disorders and velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI), and (3) mouth breathing, respiratory and blowing disorders. These disorders are related to oral and maxillofacial diseas...

  1. Influence of ginger and banana starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine phosphate tab-lets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.A.Odeku; M.A.Odeniyi; G.O.Ogunlowo

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The influence of two experimental starches -ginger starch obtained from Zingiber officinale and ba-nana starch from Musa sapientum -on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine tablets have been studied in comparison with the influence of official corn starch.Methods:Chloroquine tablets were for-mulated using various concentarions of the starches as binding agent.The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed in terms of crushing strength and friability and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR) while drug release properties were evaluated based on disintegration and the time of tablets.Results:The ranking for crushing strength and CSFR was corn >banana >ginger starch while the ranking was reverse for friability.The disintegration time increased with packing fraction and starch concentration in the rank order of formulations containing corn >banana >ginger starch.The CSFR/DT values increased with concentration of starch binder indicating an improved balance between binding and disintegrant properties of the starches.Sta-tistical analysis showed that there were significant (P <0.001)difference in the CSFR/DT for tablets contai-ning the various starch binders.Conclusion:The mechanical and disintegration properties of the experimental starches compared favorably with those of corn starch and ginger starch could be more useful when faster tablet disintegration is desired.

  2. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride: A Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Mankaran; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Gurmeet

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride for allergic and respiratory disorders. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisite for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate were optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug excipient compatibility and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of Cetirizine Hydrochloride were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly, provide rapid onset of action, and enhance the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:26556203

  3. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride: A Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride for allergic and respiratory disorders. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisite for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient’s acceptability. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate were optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug excipient compatibility and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of Cetirizine Hydrochloride were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly, provide rapid onset of action, and enhance the patient convenience and compliance.

  4. Design and optimization of disintegrating pellets of MCC by non-aqueous extrusion process using statistical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Rajesh Kumar; Gandra, Suchithra; Shastri, Nalini R

    2016-03-10

    The objective of the study was to design and optimize a disintegrating pellet formulation of microcrystalline cellulose by non-aqueous extrusion process for a water sensitive drug using various statistical tools. Aspirin was used as a model drug. Disintegrating matrix pellets of aspirin using propylene glycol as a non-aqueous granulation liquid and croscarmellose as a disintegrant was developed. Plackett-Burman design was initially conducted to screen and identify the significant factors. Final optimization of formula was performed by response surface methodology using a central composite design. The critical attributes of the pellet dosage forms (dependent variables); disintegration time, sphericity and yield were predicted with adequate accuracy based on the regression model. Pareto charts and contour charts were studied to understand the influence of factors and predict the responses. A design space was constructed to meet the desirable targets of the responses in terms of disintegration time 0.95 and friability <1.7%. The optimized matrix pellets were enteric coated using Eudragit L 100. The drug release from the enteric coated pellets after 30min in the basic media was ~93% when compared to ~77% from the marketed pellets. The delayed release pellets stored at 25°C/60% RH were stable for a period of 10mo. In conclusion, it can be stated that the developed process for disintegrating pellets using non-aqueous granulating agents can be used as an alternative technique for various water sensitive drugs, circumventing the application of volatile organic solvents in conventional drug layering on inert cores. The scope of this study can be further extended to hydrophobic drugs, which may benefit from the rapid disintegration property and the use of various hydrophilic excipients used in the optimized pellet formulation to enhance dissolution and in turn improve bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring aggregate disintegration with laser diffraction: A tool for studying soils as sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joseph; Kasmerchak, Chase; Liang, Mengyu

    2016-04-01

    One of the more important characteristics of soil that becomes hillslope, fluvial, or aeolian sediment is the presences of aggregates, which disintegrate at varying rates and to varying degrees during transport. Laser diffraction particle size analyzers allow monitoring of aggregate disintegration as a sample of soil or sediment suspended in water is circulated continuously through the measurement cell (Bieganowski et al., 2010, Clay Minerals 45-23-34; Mason et al., Catena 87:107-118). Mason et al. (2011) applied this approach to aeolian sedimentary aggregates (e.g. clay pellets eroded from dry lakebeds), immersing dry samples in DI water and circulating them through a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 particle size analyzer for three hours while repeated size distribution (SD) measurements were made. A final measurement was made after sonication and treatment with Na-metaphosphate. In that study, most samples approached a steady SD within three hours, which included both primary mineral grains and persistent aggregates. The disintegration process could be modeled with a first-order rate law representing the disintegration of a single population of aggregates. A wide range of model parameters were observed among the samples studied, and it was suggested that they could be useful in predicting the behavior of these aggregates, under rainfall impact and during slopewash or fluvial transport. Addition of Ca++ to the suspension altered aggregate behavior in some but not all cases. We applied the same method to dry, unground material from upper horizons of soils sampled along a bioclimatic gradient in northern Minnesota, USA, all formed in lithologically similar glacigenic sediment. These ranged from Alfisols (Luvisols) formed under forest since the last deglaciation, to Alfisols under forest that more recently replaced grassland, and Mollisols (Chernozems) that formed entirely under grassland vegetation. Few of these soil samples approached a steady SD within three hours, and

  6. Modeling the Disintegration Process in Anaerobic Digestion of Tannery Sludge and Fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Polizzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anaerobic digestion (AD is widely acknowledged as a powerful tool to v of the process and to support full-scale plant design, operation and optimization. In this work, a modified version of the IWA-ADM1 model is proposed to simulate the AD of tannery primary sludge (TPS and fleshing, with special emphasis on the disintegration formulation. Multiple batch tests were performed at different inoculum/substrate VS-mass ratio, in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the two substrates and to provide experimental data for modeling purposes. Beside the necessary adjustments of substrates' COD fractionation, the structure modifications of the model focused on the disintegration and hydrolysis. The Contois Monod-based model was adopted to describe disintegration kinetics and the results were compared to the traditionally adopted first-order kinetic. The fate of particulate matter generated from biomass lysis was also questioned and a new model variable was introduced to account for cellular lysis products. Finally, a further modification differentiated substrate particulate matter into a readily and a slowly hydrolysable fraction. Batch tests confirmed that TPS and fleshing are suitable substrates for AD, exhibiting specific methane productions of: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 0.47 ± 0.05 Nm3 Kg−1 VS, respectively. Modeling results showed that the proposed modifications were crucial for successful simulation of experimental data referring to fleshing, whereas did not have a significant effect on the results related to primary sludge degradation. This work is the first application of an IWA-ADM1-based model to AD of tannery waste.

  7. Resistive method for measuring the disintegration speed of Prince Rupert's drops

    CERN Document Server

    Gusenkova, Daria; Glushkov, Evgenii; Zotova, Julia; Zhabin, S N

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully applied the resistance grid technique to measure the disintegration speed in special type of glass objects, widely known as Prince Rupert's drops. We use a digital oscilloscope and a simple electrical circuit, glued to the surface of the drops, to detect the voltage changes, corresponding to the breaks in the specific parts of the drops. The results obtained using this method are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions and previously published data. Moreover, the proposed experimental setup doesn't include any expensive equipment (such as a high-speed camera) and can therefore be widely used in high schools and universities.

  8. One-nucleon channels of the /sup 16/O disintegration in a coincidence experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Starostin, A.S. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR)); Kislyakov, E.F.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Lanskoy, D.E. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1983-01-17

    The differential cross sections for the reactions /sup 16/O(..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup +/p)/sup 15/Nsup(*)(6.32 MeV) and /sup 16/O(..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup +/n)/sup 15/Osup(*)(6.18 MeV) are measured with a 2.0 GeV/c pion beam in a ..pi../sup +/..gamma.. coincidence experiment. Calculations in the framework of the unified theory of nuclear disintegration are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Resistive method for measuring the disintegration speed of Prince Rupert's drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Mark; Gusenkova, Daria; Glushkov, Evgenii; Zotova, Julia; Zhabin, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    We have successfully applied the resistance grid technique to measure the disintegration speed in a special type of glass objects, widely known as Prince Rupert's drops. We use a fast digital oscilloscope and a simple electrical circuit, glued to the surface of the drops, to detect the voltage changes, corresponding to the breaks in the specific parts of the drops. The results obtained using this method are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions and previously published data. Moreover, the proposed experimental setup does not include any expensive equipment (such as a high-speed camera) and can therefore be widely used in high schools and universities.

  10. Theoretic analysis of liquid film movement and its disintegration near the orifice of atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Zhuang, Fengchen

    1993-04-01

    The movement of a conic liquid film in a restricted space is studied in this paper. The film is produced by a centrifugal nozzle and impinged on by a high-speed gas stream. Based on the theory of aerodynamics, some theoretical formulas for liquid film movement are established, a criterion of breaking up the moving liquid film is proposed and a formula for calculating the size of droplet formed by disintegration of the liquid film is presented. The calculation results can be used as a reference for atomizer design.

  11. Detailed calculation of K- and L-Auger electron emission intensities following radioactive disintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, Marie-Martine [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. E-mail: mmbe@cea.fr; Chiste, Vanessa [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dulieu, Christophe [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2006-10-15

    A program has been set up to calculate the K- and L-Auger electron emissions resulting from the radioactive disintegration process, and to study all the possible emissions in detail. Due to the fact that only a small number of experimental results are available in the measurements of K- and L-Auger electrons, the calculated values obtained in this work were compared with the other calculated values available. Good agreement was found between the values. Some of the results are given as examples.

  12. The disintegration of GaSb/GaAs nanostructures upon capping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andrew J; Jinyoung, Hwang; Marquis, Emmanuelle A; Smakman, Erwin; Saucer, Timothy W; Rodriguez, Garrett; Hunter, Allen H; Sih, Vanessa; Koenraad, Paul M; Phillips, Jamie D.; Millunchick, Joanna M

    2013-01-01

    Atom probe tomography and cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy show that GaSb/GaAs quantum dots disintegrate into ring-like clusters of islands upon capping. Band transition energies calculated using an 8-band k.p model of the capped dots with the observed dimensions are consistent with emission energies observed in photoluminescence data. These results emphasize the need for full three-dimensional characterization to develop an accurate understanding of the structure, and thus the optical properties, of buried quantum dots.

  13. Influence of slow disintegrating fertilizer rates on quality of gazania (Gazania rigens L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work has examined the influence of slow disintegrating fertilizer rates of Scotts (Osmocote Exact formulation 15:9:9:MgO + Me on quality of Gazania rigens L. seedlings. The seedlings of Gazania rigens L. was produced in polystyrene containers (speedling system and polypropylene pots (pot system. During the production of seedlings the fertilizer has been applied in rates (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4g/l. The results show that the fertilizer rate of substrata 4g/l influences the qualitative properties of Gazania rigens L. seedlings.

  14. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  15. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Li FQ; Yan C; Bi J; Lv WL; Ji RR; Chen X; Su JC; Hu JH

    2011-01-01

    Feng-Qian Li1, Cheng Yan2, Juan Bi1, Wei-Lin Lv3, Rui-Rui Ji3, Xu Chen1, Jia-Can Su3, Jin-Hong Hu31Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticl...

  16. Disintegration of excess sludge enhanced by a combined treatment of gamma irradiation and modified coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yulin; Wang, Lipeng; Jiao, Yurong

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the disintegration performance and accelerate the disintegration rate of excess sludge, the individual and combined influences of γ-ray irradiation and modified coal fly ash treatment on the disintegration of excess sludge were investigated based on physicochemical properties of excess sludge. The changes in constituents of excess sludge were examined by means of UV/vis spectra and SEM images. The results showed that the disintegration performance of excess sludge was effectively improved by gamma ray irradiation in the presence of modified coal fly ash. A new band from 250 nm to 290 nm appeared on all irradiated sludge samples. The SEM images illustrated the cells surfaces of the sludge by the combined treatment were disfigured. The SCOD, soluble carbohydrate and protein from sludge supernatant increased obviously with increasing modified CFA dosage from 0 to 0.2 g ml-1 and dose from 0 to 10 kGy. The sludge SRF and filter cake moisture declined significantly, and the filtration speed was faster. In conclusion, γ-ray irradiation-modified coal fly ash pretreatment is an effective method to disintegrate excess sludge.

  17. Fast Disintegrating Quercetin-Loaded Drug Delivery Systems Fabricated Using Coaxial Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS distributed in the core and sheath part of nanofibres, respectively, were successfully generated, and the drug content in the nanofibres was able to be controlled simply through manipulating the core fluid flow rates. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images demonstrated that the nanofibres prepared from the single sheath fluid and double core/sheath fluids (with core-to-sheath flow rate ratios of 0.4 and 0.7 have linear morphology with a uniform structure and smooth surface. The TEM images clearly demonstrated the core-sheath structures of the produced nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD results verified that quercetin and SDS were well distributed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP matrix in an amorphous state, due to the favourite second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the core-sheath composite nanofibre mats could disintegrate rapidly to release quercetin within 1 min. The study reported here provides an example of the systematic design, preparation, characterization and application of a new type of structural nanocomposite as a fast-disintegrating drug delivery system.

  18. Disintegration of the self and the regeneration of 'psychic skin' in the treatment of traumatized refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Monica

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a tentative understanding of the characteristics of the extreme traumas, elsewhere called 'complex PTSD', that some refugees and asylum-seekers bring into therapy. It suggests that these kinds of traumas suffered during adulthood may involve a disintegration of the self and a loss of 'psychic skin'. This conceptualization is derived from the treatment of a refugee who survived multiple extreme traumas and with whom efforts were made in therapy to identify a complex methodology making use of supplementary therapeutic tools in addition to individual psychotherapy. The case demonstrates how the disintegration of self implies not only a deep somato-psychic dissociation, but also a loss of intrapsychic and interpersonal space. In the treatment this was worked through via repetition of the victim-aggressor dynamics at multiple levels. In the end, the therapeutic context was structured like a set of concentric layers, creating a 'bandage' over the patient's wounds whilst his 'psychic skin' was able to regenerate. The conditions triggered by extreme traumas in refugees challenge some of the cornerstones of individual psychoanalytic technique, as well as the idea that individual therapy may be thought of as existing in an environmental vacuum. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  19. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gen, Santiago; Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh; Lema, Juan M; Rodríguez, Jorge; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 gVS/Ld. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  20. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: jrodriguez@masdar.ac.ae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  1. Dis-integration of communication in healthcare education: Workplace learning challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Marcy E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper, based on a 2016 Heidelberg International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) plenary presentation, is to examine a key problem in communication skills training for health professional learners. Studies have pointed to a decline in medical students' communication skills and attitudes as they proceed through their education, particularly during their clinical workplace training experiences. This paper explores some of the key factors in this disintegration, drawing on selected literature and highlighting some curriculum efforts and research conducted at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine as a case study of these issues. Five key factors contributing to the disintegration of communication skills and attitudes are presented including: 1) lack of formal communication skills training during clinical clerkships; 2) informal workplace teaching failing to explicitly address learner clinical communication skills; 3) emphasizing content over process in relation to clinician-patient interactions; 4) the relationship between ideal communication models and the realities of clinical practice; and 5) clinical teachers' lack of knowledge and skills to effectively teach about communication in the clinical workplace. Within this discussion, potential practical responses by individual clinical teachers and broader curricular and faculty development efforts to address each of these factors are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study the Physical Properties of Flow, Solubility and Disintegration of Some Root Canal Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Fátima Zacarro SCELZA

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the physical properties of solubility, disintegration and flow of some root canal sealers: SEALAPEX™, PULP CANAL SEALER™, TUBLISEAL™, AH PLUS™, AH 26™, TOP SEAL™, SEALER PLUS™, SEALER 26™ and ENDOFILL™. Method: Methodology used was according ISO 6786 which test the physicochemical properties using five proof specimens for each test. Results: In terms of solubility, the root canal sealers analyzed have been classified in the following decreasing order: ENDOFILL™, SEALAPEX™, PULP CANAL SEALER™, AH 26™, TUBLISEAL™, SEALER PLUS™, AH PLUS™, TOP SEAL™ and SEALER 26™, where a statistically significant difference was found at a 1% level. Between TOP SEAL™ and SEALER™ 26 root canal sealers there was no statistically significant difference. None of the sealers above have shown disintegration. Regarding flow, the root canal sealers in the study have been classified in the following decreasing order: TUBLISEAL™ root canal sealer, followed by ENDOFILL™, SEALAPEX™, PULP CANAL SEALER™, AH PLUS™, TOP SEAL™, AH 26™, SEALER 26™ and SEALER PLUS™, where a statistically significant difference was found at a 1% level. Conclusion: The solubility, only the SEALAPEX™ and ENDOFILL™ have shown a limit above determined by ISO 6786.

  3. The effect of natural biostimulators and slow-disintegrating fertilizers on the quality of rosemary seedlings (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelačić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of natural biostimulators and different doses of slow disintegrating fertilizer on the quality of rosemary seedlings was studied. Rosemary seedlings were produced in containers, according to the 'speedling system'. During the production of seedlings natural biostimulators Megafol and Viva and microbiological fertilizer Slavol were added. The applied biostimulators made a significant effect on the quality of rosemary seedlings. Different doses of the slow disintegrating fertilizer Scotts (Osmocote Extact were applied (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/l, which also produced a significant influence.

  4. Advance in investigation of zonal disintegration phenomenon%分区破裂化现象的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚承志; 钱七虎; 王明洋; 罗健

    2011-01-01

    通过对分区破裂化现象的发现过程进行回顾、对分区破裂化现象的研究现状进行综述,对深部巷道围岩的受力变形的特点有了更好的认识,并利用弹塑性理论、断裂力学理论、非线性科学理论等对分区破裂化现象形成的机理进行了探索,得到了一些有益的结论.在现场观测到了分区破裂化现象,从试验上再现了分区破裂化现象的一些主要特点,在数值模拟方面能够定性地模拟这一现象.但还有很多问题没有解决,包括岩体的力学性质及结构特性对于分区破裂化现象时间演化过程的影响、分区破裂化现象与受损岩石变形增量变符号现象之间的关系、岩爆与分区破裂化现象之间的关系问题等.%The finding process of the zonal disintegration phenomenon was reviewed, and the state-of-the-art of investigations of zonal disintegration phenomenon overviewed. The review shows that our understanding on the stressing and the deformation of the rock mass near the deep level openings has been greatly improved. This phenomenon was investigated with the help of the elasticity and plasticity theories, fracture mechanics and nonlinear science etc. , and many helpful conclusions reached. In situ observations the existence of zonal disintegration phenomenon was observed, laboratory model experiments reproduced the main features of zonal disintegration phenomenon,and numerical modeling qualitatively reproduced zonal disintegration phenomenon. But many problems still exist, including the influence of the mechanical and the structural properties of the rock mass on the temporal evolution process of the zonal disintegration, the relationship between the zonal disintegration and the phenomenon of the sign change of deformation increment after the beginning of the damaging process in rock, the relationship between the zonal disintegration and the rock bursts etc.

  5. ANOMALIES ON EEG IN PATIENTS WITH COGNITIVE EPILEPTIFORM DISINTEGRATION AND EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHIES, ASSOCIATED WITH С BENIGN EPILEPTIFORM PATTERNS OF CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mironov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On background of review and discussion of current scientific literature è own data the article presents the main clinical characteristics and anomalies on EEG in patients with cognitive epileptiform disintegration and epileptic encephalopathies, associated with ñ benign epileptiform patterns of childhood. The author describes in detail EEGpatterns — continuous spike and wave activity during sleep and benign epileptiform patterns of childhood, the role of these patterns and their special features in different syndromes of cognitive epileptiform disintegration. The article illustrated own data of the author.

  6. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  7. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  8. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  9. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  10. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  11. Is the corporate elite disintegrating? Interlock boards and the Mizruchi hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Mentzer, Kevin; Haughton, Dominique; Latouche, Pierre; Rossi, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for comparing interlocked board networks over time to test for statistically significant change. In addition to contributing to the conversation about whether the Mizruchi hypothesis (that a disintegration of power is occurring within the corporate elite) holds or not, we propose novel methods to handle a longitudinal investigation of a series of social networks where the nodes undergo a few modifications at each time point. Methodologically, our contribution is twofold: we extend a Bayesian model hereto applied to compare two time periods to a longer time period, and we define and employ the concept of a hull of a sequence of social networks, which makes it possible to circumvent the problem of changing nodes over time.

  12. Disintegration of Magnetic Flux in Decaying Sunspots as Observed with the Hinode SOT

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, M; Ichimoto, K; Shimizu, T; Suematsu, Y; Katsukawa, Y; Tarbell, T D; Shine, R A; Title, A M; Nagata, S; Tsuneta, S

    2008-01-01

    Continuous observations of sunspot penumbrae with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard \\textit{Hinode} clearly show that the outer boundary of the penumbra fluctuates around its averaged position. The penumbral outer boundary moves inward when granules appear in the outer penumbra. We discover that such granules appear one after another while moving magnetic features (MMFs) are separating from the penumbral ``spines'' (penumbral features that have stronger and more vertical fields than those of their surroundings). These granules that appear in the outer penumbra often merge with bright features inside the penumbra that move with the spines as they elongate toward the moat region. This suggests that convective motions around the penumbral outer boundary are related to the disintegration of magnetic flux in the sunspot. We also find that dark penumbral filaments frequently elongate into the moat region in the vicinity of MMFs that detach from penumbral spines. Such elongating dark penumbral filaments correspond ...

  13. Development and disintegration of Maya political systems in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Aquino, Valorie V; Asmerom, Yemane; Awe, Jaime; Baldini, James U L; Bartlein, Patrick; Culleton, Brendan J; Ebert, Claire; Jazwa, Christopher; Macri, Martha J; Marwan, Norbert; Polyak, Victor; Prufer, Keith M; Ridley, Harriet E; Sodemann, Harald; Winterhalder, Bruce; Haug, Gerald H

    2012-11-09

    The role of climate change in the development and demise of Classic Maya civilization (300 to 1000 C.E.) remains controversial because of the absence of well-dated climate and archaeological sequences. We present a precisely dated subannual climate record for the past 2000 years from Yok Balum Cave, Belize. From comparison of this record with historical events compiled from well-dated stone monuments, we propose that anomalously high rainfall favored unprecedented population expansion and the proliferation of political centers between 440 and 660 C.E. This was followed by a drying trend between 660 and 1000 C.E. that triggered the balkanization of polities, increased warfare, and the asynchronous disintegration of polities, followed by population collapse in the context of an extended drought between 1020 and 1100 C.E.

  14. Disintegration of sewage sludge - an economically efficient alternative?; Desintegration von Klaerschlamm - eine wirtschaftliche Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, K. [ULTRAWAVES Wasser- und Umwelttechnologien GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abwasserwirtschaft

    2003-07-01

    The solid fraction of biological sewage sludge is mostly comprised of organic cell substance. Thermal, chemical or mechanical treatment will release organic compounds from the cells for better biodegradation. This contribution discusses the applicability of ultrasonic treatment for disintegration of sludge cells. For this, extensive research was carried out at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg. (orig.) [German] Die Feststoffe biologischer Klaerschlaemme bestehen zu grossem Teil aus organischer Zellsubstanz. Durch einen thermischen, chemischen oder mechanischen Aufschluss des Zellmaterials koennen organische Verbindungen aus dem Zellinneren freigesetzt werden und sind damit dem nachfolgenden biologischen Abbau besser zugaenglich. Den Ueberblick ueber die verschiedenen Desintegrationsverfahren gibt ein separater Beitrag dieser Veranstaltung. Dieses Paper beschaeftigt sich mit dem Einsatz der Ultraschallbehandlung zur Desintegration von Schlammzellen. Zu diesem Verfahren wurden umfangreiche Erkenntnisse in langjaehrigen Forschungsarbeiten an der Technischen Universitaet Hamburg-Harburg gesammelt. (orig.)

  15. Scintigraphic study of gastrointestinal transit and disintegration sites of mesalazine tablets labelled with technetium 99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciarretta, G.; Furno, A.; Mazzoni, M.; Ferrieri, A.; Malaguti, P. (Ospedale Maggiore, Bologna (Italy))

    1993-09-01

    Tablets of mesalazine covered with a pH-dependent coating, labelled by an original technique with technetium-99m, were administered to 12 patients, 9 with Crohn's disease, 3 of which recurrent, 1 with ulcerative colitis, and 2 with irritable bowel syndrome, with the aim of verifying in vivo the intestinal site of disintegration and how the contents spread throughout the intestine. In all cases the tablet was broken down in the distal ileum at extremely variable intervals, from 5 to 27 h, and the contents spread into the nearby loops and into the colon. The notable differences in the residence time of the whole tablet in the ileum can be explained by differences in adhesion the inflamed mucosa and by a lower pH in the part of the ileum affected by the disease. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Extruded, partially disintegrated, poly-HEMA orbital implant (AlphaSphere).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Prashant; Jakobiec, Frederick A; De Castro, Dawn K; Mendoza, Pia R; Fay, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old diabetic man underwent enucleation for endophthalmitis. Secondary implantation of a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) sphere (AlphaSphere, Addition Technology) was performed 2 weeks later. Six weeks after insertion, noninfectious disintegration of sutured tissue planes represented by Tenon's capsule, rectus muscle, and conjunctiva occurred, requiring removal of the fragmenting implant before uncontrolled extrusion occurred. Histopathologic analysis revealed an absence of infectious pathogens and no tissue necrosis, but rather breakup of the implant material that elicited a granulomatous response with sparse T-lymphocytes and almost no polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This distinctively designed poly-HEMA orbital implant incited a dramatic and irreversible host tissue response. Investigation of other cases will be necessary to determine the frequency of such a complication and should include rigorous histopathologic techniques.

  17. Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith R. Clark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg, emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg, and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form.

  18. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS DISINTEGRANTS ON AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE DISPERSIBLE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a formulation of amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablets of 320mg in a low production value, using cheap amoxicillin trihydrate raw materials available in the market, with direct compression or wet granulation method. Amoxicillin trihydrate is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram +ve and gram –ve organism. Dispersible tablets are uncoated or film coated tablets intended to be dispersed in water before administration giving a homogeneous dispersion. The WHO prefers dispersible dosage form for the elderly and paediatric patients due to its ease in the administration. Amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablet was manufactured with the different disintegrants such as maize starch, crospovidone, croscarmellose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose. The powder blend was evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. After compression the tablets were subjected to weight variation, %drug content, buoyancy studies and in-vitro release studies. The wet granulation was excluded from the formulation due to its high cost if production, direct compression was selected due to its low cost and ease of production. The optimized formulation F10 had showed 99.11% of drug release in 40 min and disintegration of tablet was 25 seconds. The result of FTIR analysis of pure drug alone and drug with excipients there was not showed any physical and chemical interaction. F10 had undergone DTA, which shows the thermal stability of the formulation. The stability studies of optimized formulation F10 at 30◦C / 65%RH, 40◦C / 75%RH did not show any change in tested parameters and release.

  19. Characterization of procoagulant extracellular vesicles and platelet membrane disintegration in DMSO-cryopreserved platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseday Z. Tegegn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freezing is promising for extended platelet (PLT storage for transfusion. 6% DMSO cryopreserved PLTs (CPPs are currently in clinical development. CPPs contain significant amount of platelet membrane vesicles (PMVs. PLT-membrane changes and PMV release in CPP are poorly understood, and haemostatic effects of CPP PMVs are not fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate PLT-membrane alterations in CPPs and provide comprehensive characterization of CPP PMVs, and their contribution to procoagulant activity (PCA of CPPs. Methods: CPPs and corresponding liquid-stored PLTs (LSPs were characterized by flow cytometry (FC, fluorescence polarization (FP, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and thrombin-generation (TG test. Results: SEM and TEM revealed disintegration and vesiculation of the PLT-plasma membrane and loss of intracellular organization in 60% PLTs in CPPs. FP demonstrated that 6% DMSO alone and with freezing–thawing caused marked increase in PLT-membrane fluidity. The FC counts of annexin V-binding PMVs and CD41a+ PMVs were 68- and 56-folds higher, respectively, in CPPs than in LSPs. The AFM and NTA size distribution of PMVs in CPPs indicated a peak diameter of 100 nm, corresponding to exosome-size vesicles. TG-based PCA of CPPs was 2- and 9-folds higher per PLT and per volume, respectively, compared to LSPs. Differential centrifugation showed that CPP supernatant contributed 26% to CPP TG-PCA, mostly by the exosome-size PMVs and their TG-PCA was phosphatidylserine dependent. Conclusions: Major portion of CPPs does not show activation phenotype but exhibits grape-like membrane disintegration with significant increase of membrane fluidity induced by 6% DMSO alone and further aggravated by freezing–thawing process. DMSO cryopreservation of PLTs is associated with the release of PMVs and marked increase of TG-PCA, as compared to LSPs. Exosome-size PMVs have

  20. The disintegration of populations of underwater plants in soft water lakes enriched with acidic organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szmeja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of habitats, individuals and populations of four submerged macrophytes, Lobelia dortmanna L., Isoetes lacustris L., Sphagnum denticulatum Brid. and Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., were studied in 12 soft water oligohumic lakes which had no inflow of allochtonic DOM and the DOC concentration in the water was <4.0 mg C dm-3 and 13 humic lakes enriched with allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM from drained peat bogs and ranging in DOC water concentration from 4.1 to 44.0 mg C dm-3. The analyses of population disintegration were conducted basing on characteristics of individuals (size, habitat, fertility and populations (aggregation density index, settlement index of the population area. The settlement index of the population area for Lobelia, Fontinalis, Isoetes, Sphagnum decreased from 8.4 to 6.2 g d.w. m-2, 4.6 to 0.01 g d.w. m-2, 85.4 to <0.001 g d.w. m-2 and 39.3 to 7.2 g d.w. m-2, respectively. Similar trends were observed in aggregation density. The general pattern of the disintegration of populations of these species was always similar. It was independent of the source macrophytes drew resources from or their susceptibility to environmental changes. Individuals began to be eliminated from the deep and central parts of the population area. The remainder of the populations, which persist in the shallowest, best-illuminated part of the area, are themselves endangered by disturbances caused by wavy motion. The only populations of submerged macrophytes which can survive in polyhumic lakes under such conditions are those which are resistant to disturbances common in the shallow littoral (Lobelia dortmanna, Fontinalis antipyretica.

  1. Solid-assisted melt disintegration (SAMD), a novel technique for metal powder production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghi, F. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ], E-Mail: fakhlagh@ut.ac.ir; Esfandiari, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    A new process termed 'solid-assisted melt disintegration (SAMD)' has been developed for the preparation of aluminum alloy powder particles. The method consists of introducing and mixing a specified amount of as-received alumina particles (in the range of +700 to 500 {mu}m) in A356 aluminum melt at the temperature of 715 deg. C. Melt disintegration occurs in 10 min by kinetic energy transfer from a rotating impeller (450 rpm) to the metal via the solid atomizing medium (alumina particles). The resulting mixture of aluminum droplets and alumina particles was cooled in air and screened through 300 {mu}m sieve to separate alumina from solidified aluminum powder particles. A356 aluminum alloy was also gas atomized by using a free-fall atomizer operating by nitrogen gas at the pressure of 1.1 MPa and the sub-300 {mu}m of the produced powder was used as a base of comparison. The SAMD produced powders of diameter above 53 {mu}m were mostly spherical while powders less than 53 {mu}m showed various elongated shapes. No evidence was found for satelliting of small particles on to large ones or agglomerated particles. While gas atomized particles in the +53 {mu}m sieve size range showed some signs of porosity, the SAMD particles were dense and did not show any signs of internal porosity in any of the sieve fractions investigated. Comparison of the microstructure of the SAMD and gas-atomized powders revealed that for the same size powder of A356 alloy, the former exhibited a coarser microstructure as a result of a slower cooling rate.

  2. Comparison of reduction disintegration characteristics of TiO2-rich burdens prepared with sintering process and composite agglomeration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-wei; Li, Guang-hui; Liu, Chen; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Zhi-wei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    To reveal the impact of the composite agglomeration process (CAP) on the reduction disintegration properties of TiO2-rich ironmaking burden for a blast furnace, the reduction disintegration indices (RDIs), mineral constituents, and microstructure of the products prepared by the CAP and the traditional sintering process (TSP) were investigated. The results showed that, compared to the sinter with a basicity of 2.0 prepared by the TSP, the RDI+6.3 and the RDI+3.15 of the CAP product with the same basicity increased by 28.2wt% and 13.7wt%, respectively, whereas the RDI-0.5 decreased by 2.7wt%. The analysis of the mineral constituents and microstructure of the products indicated that the decreasing titanohematite content decreased the volume expansion during reduction. Meanwhile, the decreasing perovskite content decreased its detrimental effect on the reduction disintegration properties. In addition, the higher silicoferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) content improved the strength of the CAP product. Together, these factors result in an improvement of the RDI of the CAP products. In addition, compared to the sinter, the reduced CAP products clearly contained fewer cracks, which also led to mitigation of reduction disintegration.

  3. Percolation theory and the role of maize starch as a disintegrant for a low water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Go; Puchkov, Maxim; Betz, Gabriele; Leuenberger, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the presence or absence of a critical concentration of maize starch according to the percolation theory for a truly ternary system with respect to a minimum disintegration time. The results of this study show that the application of percolation theory is not limited to the study of binary systems. In this work it is shown how it can be used to analyze the behavior of binary and ternary systems for caffeine and mefenamic acid formulations containing a starch-based disintegrant. The percolation threshold p(c) can be described by the volumetric ratio of the disintegrant to the drug substance being equal to p(c) = 0.2 (v/v) in in which both components have similar average particle sizes. In addition, the behavior of the disintegration time in the neighborhood of the percolation threshold can be mathematically modeled with the basic equation of the percolation theory yielding a critical exponent q = 0.28 +/- 0.06.

  4. How Deformation Behavior Controls Product Performance After Twin Screw Granulation With High Drug Loads and Crospovidone as Disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the quantitative influence of 12 different materials (active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients as surrogate active pharmaceutical ingredients) on the critical quality attributes of twin screw granulated products and subsequently produced tablets. Prestudies demonstrated the significant influence of the chosen model materials (in combination with crospovidone) on the disintegration behavior of the resulting tablets, despite comparable tablet porosities. This study elucidates possible reasons for the varying disintegration behavior by investigating raw material, granule, and tablet properties. An answer could be found in the mechanical properties of the raw materials and the produced granules. Through compressibility studies, the materials could be classified into materials with high compressibility, which deform rather plastically under compression stress, and low compressibility, which display breakages under compression stress. In general, and apart from (pseudo)-polymorphic transformations, brittle materials featured excellent disintegration performance, even at low resulting tablet porosities <8%, whereas plastically deformable materials mostly did not reveal any disintegration. These findings must be considered in the development of simplified formulations with high drug loads, in which the active pharmaceutical ingredient predominantly defines the deformation behavior of the granule.

  5. Comparison of reduction disintegration characteristics of TiO2-rich burdens prepared with sintering process and composite agglomeration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-wei Yu; Guang-hui Li; Chen Liu; Feng Zhou; Zhi-wei Peng; Tao Jiang

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the impact of the composite agglomeration process (CAP) on the reduction disintegration properties of TiO2-rich iron-making burden for a blast furnace, the reduction disintegration indices (RDIs), mineral constituents, and microstructure of the products pre-pared by the CAP and the traditional sintering process (TSP) were investigated. The results showed that, compared to the sinter with a ba-sicity of 2.0 prepared by the TSP, the RDI+6.3 and the RDI+3.15 of the CAP product with the same basicity increased by 28.2wt%and 13.7wt%, respectively, whereas the RDI−0.5 decreased by 2.7wt%. The analysis of the mineral constituents and microstructure of the products indicated that the decreasing titanohematite content decreased the volume expansion during reduction. Meanwhile, the decreasing perovskite content decreased its detrimental effect on the reduction disintegration properties. In addition, the higher silicoferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) content improved the strength of the CAP product. Together, these factors result in an improvement of the RDI of the CAP products. In addition, compared to the sinter, the reduced CAP products clearly contained fewer cracks, which also led to mitigation of reduction disintegration.

  6. Effects of the KIF2C neck peptide on microtubules: lateral disintegration of microtubules and β-structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Youské; Shimizu, Takashi; Nara, Masayuki; Kikumoto, Mahito; Kojima, Hiroaki; Morii, Hisayuki

    2013-04-01

    Members of the kinesin-13 sub-family, including KIF2C, depolymerize microtubules. The positive charge-rich 'neck' region extending from the N-terminus of the catalytic head is considered to be important in the depolymerization activity. Chemically synthesized peptides, covering the basic region (A182-E200), induced a sigmoidal increase in the turbidity of a microtubule suspension. The increase was suppressed by salt addition or by reduction of basicity by amino acid substitutions. Electron microscopic observations revealed ring structures surrounding the microtubules at high peptide concentrations. Using the peptide A182-D218, we also detected free thin straight filaments, probably protofilaments disintegrated from microtubules. Therefore, the neck region, even without the catalytic head domain, may induce lateral disintegration of microtubules. With microtubules lacking anion-rich C-termini as a result of subtilisin treatment, addition of the peptide induced only a moderate increase in turbidity, and rings and protofilaments were rarely detected, while aggregations, also thought to be caused by lateral disintegration, were often observed in electron micrographs. Thus, the C-termini are not crucial for the action of the peptides in lateral disintegration but contribute to structural stabilization of the protofilaments. Previous structural studies indicated that the neck region of KIF2C is flexible, but our IR analysis suggests that the cation-rich region (K190-A204) forms β-structure in the presence of microtubules, which may be of significance with regard to the action of the neck region. Therefore, the neck region of KIF2C is sufficient to cause disintegration of microtubules into protofilaments, and this may contribute to the ability of KIF2C to cause depolymerization of microtubules.

  7. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  8. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  9. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  12. Correlations between the disintegration of melt and the measured impulses in steam explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, G.; Linca, A.; Schindler, M. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    To find our correlations in steam explosions (melt water interactions) between the measured impulses and the disintegration of the melt, experiments were performed in three configurations i.e. stratified, entrapment and jet experiments. Linear correlations were detected between the impulse and the total surface of the fragments. Theoretical considerations point out that a linear correlation assumes superheating of a water layer around the fragments of a constant thickness during the fragmentation process to a constant temperature (here the homogeneous nucleation temperature of water was assumed) and a constant expansion velocity of the steam in the main expansion time. The correlation constant does not depend on melt temperature and trigger pressure, but it depends on the configuration of the experiment or of a scenario of an accident. Further research is required concerning the correlation constant. For analysing steam explosion accidents the explosivity is introduced. The explosivity is a mass specific impulse. The explosivity is linear correlated with the degree of fragmentation. Knowing the degree of fragmentation with proper correlation constant the explosivity can be calculated and from the explosivity combined with the total mass of fragments the impulse is obtained which can be used to an estimation of the maximum force.

  13. The imbalance of glaciers after disintegration of Larsen-B ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The outlet glaciers to the embayment of the Larsen-B Ice Shelf started to accelerate soon after the ice shelf disintegrated in March 2002. We analyse high resolution radar images of the TerraSAR-X satellite, launched in June 2007, to map the motion of outlet glaciers in detail. The frontal velocities are used to estimate the calving fluxes for 2008/2009. As reference for pre-collapse conditions, when the glaciers were in balanced state, the ice fluxes through the same gates are computed using ice motion maps derived from interferometric data of the ERS-1/ERS-2 satellites in 1995 and 1999. Profiles of satellite laser altimetry from ICESat, crossing the terminus of several glaciers, indicate considerable glacier thinning between 2003 and 2007/2008. This is taken into account for defining the calving cross sections. The difference between the pre- and post-collapse fluxes provides an estimate on the mass imbalance. For the Larsen-B embayment the 2008 mass deficit is estimated at 4.34 ± 1.64 Gt a−1, significantly lower than previously published values. The ice flow acceleration follows a similar pattern on the various glaciers, gradually decreasing in magnitude with distance upstream from the calving front. This suggests stress perturbation at the glacier front being the main factor for acceleration. So far there are no signs of slow-down indicating that dynamic thinning and frontal retreat will go on.

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder with seasonal total mutism: A rare clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Shirazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD is a rare autistic-like clinical condition with unknown etiology, in that previously acquired age-appropriate language, social and adaptive abilities deteriorate significantly in 2-10-year-old healthy children, although physical and neurological evaluations display no observable abnormality. Our case is a 22-year-old female born of a consanguineous marriage, with the appearance of CDD symptoms in her fifth year of age following normal mental and physical development during her initial four years of life. Without any precipitating factor, she gradually lost her language abilities, social relational skills, affectionate behavior, adaptive capacities, peer play and meaningful interest in her surrounding, friends and family members over a period of 4 years, reaching a plateau in her ninth year of age. The unique special clinical symptom in this case is a seasonal total mutism, which after the beginning of her CDD symptoms is revealing every year covering the spring. As no additional physical or psychological change accompanies her total seasonal speech loss, it cannot be attributed to any mental condition known as having a seasonal pattern. Because in the literature CDD is presented mostly as case reports with lacking of advanced research data, describing any new case is recommended to improve the knowledge about this rare condition, especially if it displays some new unusual signs, not reported till now.

  15. Disintegration and dissolution of spent radioactive cationic exchange resins using Fenton-like oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Zhong; Xu, Lejin [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jianlong, E-mail: wangjl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Radioactive Wastes Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The spent radioactive resins could be oxidized by Fenton-like process. • The influencing factors on resin oxidation were evaluated. • Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction rate was more than 99%. • SEM and Raman spectrum were used to analyze the resins morphological change. - Abstract: The treatment and disposal of the spent radioactive resins is essential for the sustainable development of the nuclear industry. In this paper, the disintegration and dissolution of spent cationic resins were studied by Fenton-like process. The influencing factors on resin dissolution, such as pH, temperature, type and concentration of catalysts were evaluated. The results showed that the spent resins could be effectively dissolved at pH < 1, [Fe{sup 2+}] = 0.2 M and T = 97 ± 2 °C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction rate was more than 99%. The scanning electron microscopy and the Raman spectrum were used to observe the morphological changes of the spent resins during the dissolution process. Fenton-like oxidation is an efficient method for the volume reduction and stabilization of the spent resins before further immobilization.

  16. THE PROJECT “SKOPJE 2014”: BETWEEN SOCIAL COHESION AND SOCIAL DISINTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Georgievska-Jakovleva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall posit that the "Skopje 2014" Project, proposed and realized by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, is one form of reaction to the efforts made to dispute the Macedonian identity and as such has direct effect on Macedonia's strategic goal to join EU and NATO as an equal member. In a situation of “threatened identity”, the Project aims, through “collecti-on of memory” and its spatial integration, to recreate Macedonian identity through the construction of a nar-rative about its continuity from antiquity to the present day. The strategies for “a top down”implementation of the“politics of memory” is to promote the idea of the “glorious and heroic past” of the Macedonian nation. Ha-ving in mind that the Project is being implemented in the very centre of Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Ma-cedonia, its realisation concerns not only the local popu-lation but the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia in general. Havin in mind that the Project very controver-sial reception goal of research is to define the issues that make this so provocative and, by that, atttempt to answer the question if the “Skopje 2014” Project contributes to social cohesion or social disintegration.

  17. Design of a double diaphragm shock tube for fluid disintegration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Ingo; Lamanna, Grazia; Hettrich, Harald; Weigand, Bernhard; Steelant, Johan

    2008-12-01

    A double diaphragm shock tube facility for studying liquid-spray atomization and combustion-related phenomena at elevated pressures and temperatures is described. The present shock tube is specifically intended for the investigation of fundamental processes related to fluid disintegration and mixing under realistic engine conditions. Special features of the facility include a variable-area driver section to compensate for shock attenuation, a square test section to allow flow visualization in the postshock region, a skimmer to dispose part of the boundary layer, a heated, fast-response injector, a fully automated gas-filling system, and a new control system and electronics. Test times of the order of 2-5 ms are possible with reflected shock pressures up to 50 bar and temperatures of 2000 K. Details on the setup design, construction and operation are given. Particular emphasis is placed on the accuracy and reproducibility of the test conditions. To that aim, qualification tests have been performed to assess the shock tube performance in terms of effectiveness of the skimmer concept, the capability to compensate for boundary layer effects and the generation of uniform and reproducible test and injection conditions.

  18. Multiwavelength Transit Observations of the Candidate Disintegrating Planetesimals Orbiting WD 1145+017

    CERN Document Server

    Croll, Bryce; Vanderburg, Andrew; Eastman, Jason; Rappaport, Saul; DeVore, John; Bieryla, Allyson; Muirhead, Philip S; Han, Eunkyu; Latham, David W; Beatty, Thomas G; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T; Johnson, John Asher; McCrady, Nate

    2015-01-01

    We present multiwavelength, multi-telescope, ground-based follow-up photometry of the white dwarf WD 1145+017, that has recently been suggested to be orbited by up to six or more, short-period, low-mass, disintegrating planetesimals. We detect 9 significant dips in flux of between 10% and 30% of the stellar flux from our ground-based photometry. We observe transits deeper than 10% on average every ~3.6 hr in our photometry. This suggests that WD 1145+017 is indeed being orbited by multiple, short-period objects. Through fits to the multiple asymmetric transits that we observe, we confirm that the transit egress timescale is usually longer than the ingress timescale, and that the transit duration is longer than expected for a solid body at these short periods, all suggesting that these objects have cometary tails streaming behind them. The precise orbital periods of the planetesimals in this system are unclear from the transit-times, but at least one object, and likely more, have orbital periods of ~4.5 hours....

  19. Effects of alga polysaccharide capsule shells on in-vivo bioavailability and disintegration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ting; GUO Shuju; MA Lin; YUAN Yi; HAN Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin has been used in hard capsule shells for more than a century,and some shortcomings have appeared,such as high moisture content and risk of transmitting diseases of animal origin to people.Based on available studies regarding gelatin and vegetable shells,we developed a new type of algal polysaccharide capsule (APPC) shells.To test whether our products can replace commercial gelatin shells,we measured in-vivo plasma concentration of 12 selected volunteers with a model drug,ibuprofen,using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),by calculating the relative bioavailability of APPC and Qualicaps(R) referenced to gelatin capsules and assessing bioequivalence of the three types of shells,and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters with the software DAS 2.0 (China).The results show that APPC shells possess bioequivalence with Qualicaps(R) and gelatin shells.Moreover,the disintegration behavior of four types of shells (APPC,Vegcaps(R),Qualicaps(R) and gelatin shells) with the content of lactose and radioactive element (99mTc) was observed via gamma-scintigraphic images.The bioavailability and gamma-scintigraphic studies showed that APPC was not statistically different from other vegetable and gelatin capsule shells with respect to in-vivo behavior.Hence,it can be concluded that APPCs are exchangeable with other vegetable and gelatin shells.

  20. Multiwavelength Observations of the Candidate Disintegrating sub-Mercury KIC 12557548b

    CERN Document Server

    Croll, Bryce; DeVore, John; Gilliland, Ronald L; Crepp, Justin R; Howard, Andrew W; Star, Kimberly M; Chiang, Eugene; Levine, Alan M; Jenkins, Jon M; Albert, Loic; Bonomo, Aldo S; Fortney, Jonathan J; Isaacson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    We present multiwavelength photometry, high angular resolution imaging, and radial velocities, of the unique and confounding disintegrating low-mass planet candidate KIC 12557548b. Our high angular resolution imaging, which includes spacebased HST/WFC3 observations in the optical, and groundbased Keck/NIRC2 observations in K'-band, allow us to rule-out background and foreground candidates at angular separations greater than 0.2 arcsec that are bright enough to be responsible for the transits we associate with KIC 12557548. Our radial velocity limit from Keck/HIRES allows us to rule-out bound, low-mass stellar companions to KIC 12557548 on orbits less than 10 years, as well as placing an upper-limit on the mass of the candidate planet of 1.2 Jupiter masses; therefore, the combination of our radial velocities, high angular-resolution imaging, and photometry are able to rule-out most false positive interpretations of the transits. Our precise multiwavelength photometry includes two simultaneous detections of the...

  1. Effects of alga polysaccharide capsule shells on in-vivo bioavailability and disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Guo, Shuju; Ma, Lin; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin has been used in hard capsule shells for more than a century, and some shortcomings have appeared, such as high moisture content and risk of transmitting diseases of animal origin to people. Based on available studies regarding gelatin and vegetable shells, we developed a new type of algal polysaccharide capsule (APPC) shells. To test whether our products can replace commercial gelatin shells, we measured in-vivo plasma concentration of 12 selected volunteers with a model drug, ibuprofen, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by calculating the relative bioavailability of APPC and Qualicaps® referenced to gelatin capsules and assessing bioequivalence of the three types of shells, and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters with the software DAS 2.0 (China). The results show that APPC shells possess bioequivalence with Qualicaps® and gelatin shells. Moreover, the disintegration behavior of four types of shells (APPC, Vegcaps®, Qualicaps® and gelatin shells) with the content of lactose and radioactive element (99mTc) was observed via gamma-scintigraphic images. The bioavailability and gamma-scintigraphic studies showed that APPC was not statistically different from other vegetable and gelatin capsule shells with respect to in-vivo behavior. Hence, it can be concluded that APPCs are exchangeable with other vegetable and gelatin shells.

  2. Disintegration of lysosomes mediated by GTPgammaS-treated cytosol: possible involvement of phospholipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Y; Matsuda, T; Arai, K; Ohkuma, S

    1998-04-01

    We showed previously that cytosol treated with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gammaS) disintegrated lysosomes in vitro [Sai, Y. et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198, 869-877] in time-, temperature-, and dose-dependent manners. This also requires ATP, however, the latter can be substituted with deoxy-ATP, ADP, or ATPgammaS, suggesting no requirement of ATP hydrolysis. The lysis was inhibited by several chemical modifiers, including N-ethylmaleimide, 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and by various phospholipase inhibitors (trifluoperazine, p-bromophenacyl bromide, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, W-7, primaquine, compound 48/80, neomycin, and gentamicin), but not by ONO-RS-082, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. The reaction was also inhibited by phospholipids (phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylcholine) and diacylglycerol. Among the phospholipase A2 hydrolysis products of phospholipids, unsaturated fatty acids (oleate, linoleate, and arachidonate) and lysophospholipid (lysophosphatidylcholine) by themselves broke lysosomes down directly, whereas saturated fatty acids (palmitate and stearate) had little effect. We found that GTPgammaS-stimulated cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity was highly sensitive to ONO-RS-082. These results suggest the participation of phospholipase(s), though not cytosolic phospholipase A2, in the GTPgammaS-dependent lysis of lysosomes.

  3. Characteristics of disintegration of different emulsion nuclei by relativistic 28Si nuclei at 3.7 A GeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashwini Kumar; A Prakash; Ashok Kumar; R K Jain; B K Singh

    2015-04-01

    An analysis of the data based on 924 inelastic interaction events induced by 28 Si nuclei in a nuclear emulsion is presented. The nuclear fragmentation process is studied by analysing the total charge () distribution of the projectile spectators for different emulsion target groups along with the comparison of Monte Carlo Glauber model results. Probability distributions for total disintegrated events as a function of different projectile masses are shown and compared with cascade evaporation model results at same energy per nucleon. Further, mean multiplicities of different charged secondaries for different classes of events are presented and for each event, variation of mean multiplicities as a function of total charge () is also presented. The pseudorapidity distributions and normalized pseudorapidity distributions of the produced charged particles in nucleus–nucleus collisions at 3.7 A GeV are analysed for total disintegration (TD) as well as minimum-bias events.

  4. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on disintegrating spherical fuel elements of high temperature gas-cooled reactor by a electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lifang; Wen, Mingfen; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Spherical fuel elements of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor were disintegrated through a electrochemical method with NaNO3 as electrolyte. The X-ray diffraction spectra and total carbon contents of the graphite fragments were determined, and the results agreed with those from simulated fuel elements. After conducting the characterization analysis and the leaching experiment of coated fuel particles, the uranium concentrations of leaching solutions and spent electrolyte were found to be at background levels. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved electrochemical method with NaNO3 as electrolyte in disintegrating the unirradiated fuel elements without any damage to the coated fuel particles. Moreover, the method avoided unexpected radioactivity contamination to the graphite matrix and spent electrolyte.

  6. Women's self-employment: An act of institutional (dis)integration? A multilevel, cross-country study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, K.; Nielsen, Suna Løwe; Evald, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the extent to which gender equality disintegrates women's self-employment choice (compared to that for men) and whether this is contingent upon a country's development stage and industries. We rely on symbolic interactionism to argue that employment choices emerge fro...... and industries. Contributions are made to women's entrepreneurship and institutional theory. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......In this paper we investigate the extent to which gender equality disintegrates women's self-employment choice (compared to that for men) and whether this is contingent upon a country's development stage and industries. We rely on symbolic interactionism to argue that employment choices emerge from...... an interactive conversation between individual and social institutional processes. Using data from 61 countries, we find that overall gender equality is associated with the gender gap in men's and women's self-employment choices and that this association depends upon the country's development stage...

  7. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

  8. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria is parasitic nematodes of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally via vectors. Its occurrence in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The most frequent presentation of human dirofilariasis is a single submucosal nodule without signs of inflammation. We hereby, report a case of human dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa in a 32-year-old farmer caused by D. repens.

  9. Oral leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, D D; Neville, B W

    1979-04-01

    Oral leiomyomas are considered to be rare neoplasms, but they may be encountered more frequently than generally believed. Three types of leiomyomas are commonly described: solid leiomyomas, angiomyomas, and epithelioid leiomyomas. Three cases of solid leiomyoma are presented, all of which occurred in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold. Leiomyomas can be easily confused with other spindle-cell tumors. The necessity of using special stains, especially Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, is discussed.

  10. Effect of protective coating of aspirin tablets with acrylatemethacrylate copolymers on tablet disintegration times and dissolution rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okor R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tablets of aspirin (a moisture degradable drug have been film coated with two analogous Eudragit RL and RS copolymers designated here as A and B which differ only in their cation content in the ratio 2:1 (A:B. A, is therefore more hydrophilic than B. The tablets were film coated with ethanol solutions of these two polymers. Film coating with either A or B significantly reduced the moisture uptake potentials of the tablets but caused an increase in the disintegration times of the tablets and retarded dissolution rates. The mean disintegration times were 0.5±0.1 min (uncoated tablets, 16±2.5 min (tablets coated with A and 115±3.6 min (tablets coated with B. The corresponding dissolution rates % h -1 were 28.3 for uncoated, 16.6, coated with A and 14.8, coated with B, respectively. Thus, coating with polymer B considerably impaired the disintegration and dissolution properties of the tablets.

  11. Fast Disintegrating Combination Tablet of Taste Masked Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium: Formulation Design, Development, and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare fast disintegrating combination tablet of taste masked Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Montelukast sodium by using direct compression method. To prevent bitter taste and unacceptable odour of the Levocetrizine dihydrochloride drug, the drug was taste masked with ion exchange resins like Kyron-T-104 and Tulsion-412. Among the two resins, Kyron-T-104 was selected for further studies because of high drug loading capacity, low cost, and better drug release profile. An ion exchange resin complex was prepared by the batch technique and various parameters; namely, resin activation, drug: resin ratio, pH, temperature, and stirring time, and swelling time were optimized to successfully formulate the tasteless drug resin complex (DRC. The tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH 102 as diluent along with crospovidone (CP, croscarmellose sodium (CCM, and sodium starch glycolate (SSG as a superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time (DT, and dissolution study and it was concluded that the tablet formulation prepared with 2% SSG + CCS showed better disintegration time in comparison with other formulation and good drug release. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results.

  12. IMPROVING SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION FOR MECHANICAL MIXING OF THE FEEDSTOCK IN A BIOGAS FERMENTER BY MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass particles in biogas fermenter batch either sediment towards vessel bottom or rise towards batch surface, where they float and form a compact thick scum. These processes have primarily the negative influence on batch homogeneity, on evenness of batch temperature field, on removal of produced biogas bubbles out of liquid batch and also on mass transfer among microorganisms. These facts result in non-effective usage of biomass energy-potential that entails in low biogas yields. Therefore, good mixing of bioreactor batch is very important in order to stabilize anaerobic digestion process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the impact of wheat straw disintegration and its hydration on hydrodynamic behaviour and on specific power consumption for mechanical mixing of wheat straw-water suspension. Based on experimental results, it was concluded that both hydration and mechanical disintegration of lignocellulosic biomass significantly improve homogeneity and pump-ability of biomass-water batches. Wheat straw hydration itself decreases specific power consumption for batch mixing by 60 % towards untreated straw. Moreover, mechanical disintegration itself decreases specific power consumption by 50 % at least towards untreated hydrated straw.

  13. Formulation development of fast releasing oral thin films of levocetrizine dihydrochloride with Eudragit® Epo and optimization through Taguchi orthogonal experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a fast releasing oral polymeric film, prepared using the solvent casting method, with good mechanical properties, instant disintegration and dissolution, an acceptable taste in the oral cavity. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, an antihistamine, was incorporated to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Four batches of films with drug were prepared using different combinations of polymers and plasticizers Eudragit; EPO, HPMC E 5 LV, and PVA were the selected polymers. Glycerin, dibutyl phthalate, propylene glycol, and PEG 400 were the selected plasticizers. The resultant films were evaluated for weight variation, assay, content uniformity, folding endurance, thickness, tensile strength, percent elongation, surface pH, in vitro disintegration and in vitro dissolution. The formulations from the preliminary trial were analyzed using Taguchi OA experimental design, which was applied to optimize the type of polymers, concentration of polymers, plasticizer, and sweetener based on their disintegration data at three different levels. The optimized films disintegrated in less than 30s, releasing 70-90% of drug within 2 mins. The percentage release varied with the type of polymer and concentration of polymer. The films made with EPO released 96% of drug in 2 mins, which was the best release among all.

  14. Non-destructive Determination of Disintegration Time and Dissolution in Immediate Release Tablets by Terahertz Transmission Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Sauerwein, Johanna; Goodwin, Daniel J; van den Ban, Sander; Zeitler, J Axel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of terahertz (THz) transmission measurements to accurately measure and predict the critical quality attributes of disintegration time and the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) dissolved after 15, 20 and 25 min for commercial tablets processed at production scale. Samples of 18 batches of biconvex tablets from a production-scale design of experiments study into exploring the design space of a commercial tablet manufacturing process were used. The tablet production involved the process steps of high-shear wet granulation, fluid-bed drying and subsequent compaction. The 18 batches were produced using a 4 factor split plot design to study the effects of process changes on the disintegration time. Non-destructive and contactless terahertz transmission measurements of the whole tablets without prior sample preparation were performed to measure the effective refractive index and absorption coefficient of 6 tablets per batch. The disintegration time (R (2) = 0.86) and API dissolved after 15 min (R (2) = 0.96) linearly correlates with the effective refractive index, n eff, measured at terahertz frequencies. In contrast, no such correlation could be established from conventional hardness measurements. The magnitude of n eff represents the optical density of the sample and thus it reflects both changes in tablet porosity as well as granule density. For the absorption coefficient, α eff, we observed a better correlation with dissolution after 20 min (R (2) = 0.96) and a weaker correlation with disintegration (R (2) = 0.83) compared to n eff. The measurements of n eff and α eff provide promising predictors for the disintegration and dissolution time of tablets. The high penetration power of terahertz radiation makes it possible to sample a significant volume proportion of a tablet without any prior sample preparation. Together with the short measurement time (seconds), the potential to

  15. Formulation design and optimization of fast disintegrating lorazepam tablets by effervescent method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirsand S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast disintegrating tablets of lorazepam were prepared by effervescent method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3΂ full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid (effervescent material on in vitro dispersion time. Crospovidone (2-8% w/w was used as superdisintegrant and mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid (6-18% w/w was used as effervescent material, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13 s; the formulation containing 8% w/w crospovidone and 18% w/w mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables (concentrations of crospovidone and effervescent material on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design check point formulations. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablet for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly eleven-fold faster drug release (t 50% 2.8 min compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t 50% >30 min. Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05.

  16. Poetics of Disintegration in Laure’s “Poems before the summer of 1936”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ann Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines issues of grammatical gender and symbol in the poetry of Colette Laure Lucienne Peignot. I have focused on the poetics of disintegration in the section entitled "Poems before the summer of 1936," in which we encounter a number of poems written in free verse that reflect different aspects of Laure's notion of the poetic sacred. The poetic sacred, for Laure, relates to the moment when the eternal part of a human being becomes actualized via the engagement of fulfilling a goal while simultaneously being aware of the "weight of death." For Laure, if a person cannot or can no longer experience this emotion, then the person's life is deprived of meaning, deprived of the sacred. Many of the poems in "Poems before the summer of 1936" recount journeys that the speaker, or statement subject "I," embarks upon. Great attention is paid to the grammatical gender of the statement subjects in these poems, although, at times, grammatical gender can be difficult to determine. Sometimes grammatical gender can be discerned in the past tense forms of verbs in the French language, and other times it can be determined by Laure's use of masculine or feminine rhymes in her work. But often, Laure conceals the gender of her statement subjects, choosing instead to focus on represent a rejection of traditional gender roles in her poetry. Ultimately, this article seeks to posit Laure among France's best known writers and thinkers in the early part of the twentieth century, to help close the huge gap in the canon left by the absence of women writers and thinkers between the years 1880-1930.

  17. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste.

  18. An introduction to fast dissolving oral thin film drug delivery systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, Harsha; Gupte, Aasavari

    2013-12-01

    Many pharmaceutical companies are switching their products from tablets to fast dissolving oral thin films (OTFs). Films have all the advantages of tablets (precise dosage, easy administration) and those of liquid dosage forms (easy swallowing, rapid bioavailability). Statistics have shown that four out of five patients prefer orally disintegrating dosage forms over conventional solid oral dosages forms. Pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, emetic patients and those with Central Nervous System disorders, have difficulty in swallowing or chewing solid dosage forms. Many of these patients are non-compliant in administering solid dosage forms due to fear of choking. OTFs when placed on the tip or the floor of the tongue are instantly wet by saliva. As a result, OTFs rapidly hydrate and then disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the medication for local and/or systemic absorption. This technology provides a good platform for patent non- infringing product development and for increasing the patent life-cycle of the existing products. The application of fast dissolving oral thin films is not only limited to buccal fast dissolving system, but also expands to other applications like gastroretentive, sublingual delivery systems. This review highlights the composition including the details of various types of polymers both natural and synthetic, the different types of manufacturing techniques, packaging materials and evaluation tests for the OTFs.

  19. Oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  20. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  1. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  2. Oral amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A amiloidose é uma doença complexa rara de difícil diagnóstico que ocorre devido à deposição de substância amilóide no meio extracelular. Ao ser diagnosticado na cavidade bucal, deve-se monitorar o paciente a fim de avaliar possíveis complicações sistêmicas da doença. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente estudo é relatar um caso de amiloidose oral em uma paciente do gênero feminino de 72 anos de idade. Baseado nos sinais clínicos observados, a hipótese diagnóstica foi de fibroma traumático. Após realização de biópsia e exame histopatológico, o diagnóstico foi de amiloidose oral, o que foi confirmado com a coloração do espécime com o reagente vermelho congo. Depósitos de amilóide foram encontrados no tecido conjuntivo, na avaliação através da luz polarizada, que apresentou birrefringência. Tal achado foi preocupante, já que a amiloidose geralmente acomete diversos tecidos levando a comprometimentos sistêmicos. Por essa razão a paciente foi encaminhada a procurar atendimento médico. No entanto, houve abandono do tratamento e a mesma veio a óbito 6 meses após o diagnóstico da doença. Lesões orais aparentemente simples podem revelar doenças raras e de difícil tratamento. O diagnóstico preciso e acompanhamentos médicos são fundamentais na sobrevida do paciente.

  3. Multiwavelength observations of the candidate disintegrating sub-Mercury KIC 12557548B , ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croll, Bryce; Rappaport, Saul; Levine, Alan M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); DeVore, John [Visidyne, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA 93105 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L.; Star, Kimberly M. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chiang, Eugene [Departments of Astronomy and of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California at Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Albert, Loic [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bonomo, Aldo S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Isaacson, Howard, E-mail: croll@space.mit.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    We present multiwavelength photometry, high angular resolution imaging, and radial velocities of the unique and confounding disintegrating low-mass planet candidate KIC 12557548b. Our high angular resolution imaging, which includes space-based Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) observations in the optical (∼0.53 μm and ∼0.77 μm), and ground-based Keck/NIRC2 observations in K' band (∼2.12 μm), allow us to rule out background and foreground candidates at angular separations greater than 0.''2 that are bright enough to be responsible for the transits we associate with KIC 12557548. Our radial velocity limit from Keck/HIRES allows us to rule out bound, low-mass stellar companions (∼0.2 M {sub ☉}) to KIC 12557548 on orbits less than 10 yr, as well as placing an upper limit on the mass of the candidate planet of 1.2 Jupiter masses; therefore, the combination of our radial velocities, high angular resolution imaging, and photometry are able to rule out most false positive interpretations of the transits. Our precise multiwavelength photometry includes two simultaneous detections of the transit of KIC 12557548b using Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/Wide-field InfraRed Camera (CFHT/WIRCam) at 2.15 μm and the Kepler space telescope at 0.6 μm, as well as simultaneous null-detections of the transit by Kepler and HST/WFC3 at 1.4 μm. Our simultaneous HST/WFC3 and Kepler null-detections provide no evidence for radically different transit depths at these wavelengths. Our simultaneous CFHT/WIRCam detections in the near-infrared and with Kepler in the optical reveal very similar transit depths (the average ratio of the transit depths at ∼2.15 μm compared with ∼0.6 μm is: 1.02 ± 0.20). This suggests that if the transits we observe are due to scattering from single-size particles streaming from the planet in a comet-like tail, then the particles must be ∼0.5 μm in radius or larger, which would favor that KIC 12557548b is a sub

  4. POSSIBLE DISINTEGRATING SHORT-PERIOD SUPER-MERCURY ORBITING KIC 12557548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaport, S.; El Mellah, I.; Kotson, M.; Tran, K. [37-602B, M.I.T. Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Levine, A.; Kalomeni, B. [37-575, M.I.T. Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chiang, E. [Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Jenkins, J. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kite, E. S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, UC Berkeley, 307 McCone Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Nelson, L. [Department of Physics, Bishop' s University, 2600 College St., Sherbrooke, Quebec, QC J1M 1Z7 (Canada); Rousseau-Nepton, L., E-mail: sar@mit.edu, E-mail: aml@space.mit.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: ielmelah@ens-cachan.fr, E-mail: Jon.M.Jenkins@nasa.gov, E-mail: belinda.kalomeni@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: ekite@caltech.edu, E-mail: lnelson@ubishops.ca, E-mail: laurie.r-nepton.1@ulaval.ca [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2012-06-10

    We report on the discovery of stellar occultations, observed with Kepler, which recur periodically at 15.685 hr intervals, but which vary in depth from a maximum of 1.3% to a minimum that can be less than 0.2%. The star that is apparently being occulted is KIC 12557548, a V = 16 mag K dwarf with T{sub eff,s} {approx_equal} 4400 K. The out-of-occultation behavior shows no evidence for ellipsoidal light variations, indicating that the mass of the orbiting object is less than {approx}3 M{sub J} (for an orbital period of 15.7 hr). Because the eclipse depths are highly variable, they cannot be due solely to transits of a single planet with a fixed size. We discuss but dismiss a scenario involving a binary giant planet whose mutual orbit plane precesses, bringing one of the planets into and out of a grazing transit. This scenario seems ruled out by the dynamical instability that would result from such a configuration. We also briefly consider an eclipsing binary, possibly containing an accretion disk, that either orbits KIC 12557548 in a hierarchical triple configuration or is nearby on the sky, but we find such a scenario inadequate to reproduce the observations. The much more likely explanation-but one which still requires more quantitative development-involves macroscopic particles escaping the atmosphere of a slowly disintegrating planet not much larger than Mercury in size. The particles could take the form of micron-sized pyroxene or aluminum oxide dust grains. The planetary surface is hot enough to sublimate and create a high-Z atmosphere; this atmosphere may be loaded with dust via cloud condensation or explosive volcanism. Atmospheric gas escapes the planet via a Parker-type thermal wind, dragging dust grains with it. We infer a mass-loss rate from the observations of order 1 M{sub Circled-Plus} Gyr{sup -1}, with a dust-to-gas ratio possibly of order unity. For our fiducial 0.1 M{sub Circled-Plus} planet (twice the mass of Mercury), the evaporation timescale may

  5. Hard photo-disintegration of proton pairs in 3He nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Ishay [Tel Aviv Univ., Ramat Aviv (Israel)

    2011-09-01

    Extensive studies of high-energy deuteron photodisintegration over the past two decades have probed the limits of meson-baryon descriptions of nuclei and nuclear reactions. At high energies, photodisintegration cross sections have been shown to scale as a power law in s (the total cm energy squared), which suggests that quarks are the relevant degrees of freedom. In an attempt to more clearly identify the underlying dynamics at play, JLab/Hall A experiment 03-101 measured the hard photodisintegration of 3He into p-p and p-d pairs at θ c.m. = 90° and Eγ = 0.8 - 4.7 GeV. The basic idea is that the measurement should be able to test theoretical predictions for the relative size of pp versus pn disintegrations. This document presents data for the energy dependence of the high energy 90°c.m. photodisintegration of 3He: dσ/dt(γ + 3He → p + p + nspectator), and dσ/dt(γ + 3He → p + d). The cross sections were observed to scale as a function of s-n where n was found to be 11.1±0.1 and 17.4±0.5 for the two reactions respectively. The degree of scaling found for d σ/dt (γ + 3He → p + d) is the highest degree of scaling ever observed in a nuclear process. The onset of the observed scaling are at photon energy of 2.2 GeV for the pp breakup and 0.7 GeV for the pd breakup. The magnitude of the invariant cross section for pp pair breakup was found to be dramatically lower than for the breakup of pn pairs and theoretical predictions. At energies below the scaling region, the scaled cross section was found to present a strong energy-dependent structure not observed in the pn breakup. The data indicate a transition from three-nucleon hadronic photodisintegration processes at low energies to two-nucleon quark-dominated photodisintegration processes at high energies.

  6. Sewage sludge disintegration - a review of current processes; Klaerschlammdesintegration - Ueberblick ueber verschiedene Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, K. [ULTRAWAVES Wasser- und Umwelttechnologien GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abwasserwirtschaft

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic stabilisation is an established technology for reducing sewage sludge volumes, but it has the drawback of low conversion rates. The speed of the process is determined by the hydrolysis of the solid fraction of the sludge. According to the current state of knowledge, exoenzymes produced by the fermenting microorganisms attack the particulate material and dissolve monomers. Production of exoenzymes is an energy-consuming process for the microorganisms; it reduces the energy gain and slows down cell growth. The same bacteria are responsible for aerobic and anaerobic hydrolysis. Therefore, the process of sludge destabilisation can be intensified considerably by making the whole organic fraction biologically available, i.e. by replacing the slow stage of enzymatic sludge hydrolysis by a chemical, thermal or mechanical stage. Sludge disintegration by one of these processes would intensify anaerobic degradation, reduce sludge volumes and enhance biogas production. (orig.) [German] Die anaerobe Stabilisierung ist anerkannte Regel der Technik und fuehrt zu einem teilweisen Abbau der organischen Bestandteile des Rohschlammes. Eine Verminderung der zu entsorgenden Schlammmasse geht damit einher. Wesentlicher Nachteil der anaeroben Klaerschlammstabilisierung ist die geringe Umsatzleistung dieses Prozesses. Dem Aufschluss der Feststoffe/grossen Molekuele des Schlammes kommt eine Schluesselrolle zu: die Hydrolyse der Rohschlammfeststoffe stellt den geschwindigkeitsbestimmenden Teilschritt des aneroben Abbauprozesses dar. Nach den gegenwaertigen Vorstellungen greifen von den fermentierenden Mikroorganismen produzierte Exoenzyme das partikulaere Material an und loesen Monomere heraus. Die Herstellung der Exoenzyme ist fuer die Mikroorganismen energetisch sehr aufwendig und vermindert den Energiegewinn und damit das Zellwachstum. Die Hydrolyse ist unabhaengig davon, ob sie aerob oder anaerob erfolgt, sie wird von denselben Bakterien bewerkstelligt. Man kann sich demnach

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  9. Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  10. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems Over ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  12. Ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma in a young woman with hemorrhagic shock due to tumor disintegration: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Takahashi; Sabine Kajita; Yuki Tazo; Haruko Iwase; Toshihide Matsumoto; Miki Hashimura; Makoto Saegusa

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen secondary to ovarian carcinoma is rare, especially in a young woman. A 28-year-old obese woman underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy as emergency surgery. The specimen from the right ovarian adenocarcinoma was fragmented because the tumor had disintegrated. The largest fragment measured 14 × 8 × 2.5 cm. The left ovary had a solid adenocarcinomatous tumor measuring 6 × 5 × 3 cm. In addition, there were disseminated lesions in the greater omentum, peritoneum, p...

  13. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  14. Effect of different doses of slow-disintegrating fertilizer on the quality of impatiens' seedlings (Impatiens walleriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the effect of applying different doses of slow disintegrating fertilizer 'Scotts' ( Osmocote Exact of the formulation 15:9:9:MgO + Me to the quality of impatiens seedlings. The impatiens' seedlings were produced in poly-styrene containers ( speedling system and poly-propylene pots ( pot system . During the seedlings' production, the fertilizer was added in different doses (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4g/l . The obtained results have shown that the dose of 4 g/l of fertilizer significantly influences on the qualitative features of the impatiens' seedlings.

  15. [Preparation and characterization of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed oral fast dissolving film and antitumor activity study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Xiao, Yun-Zhi; Xun, Ping-Hua; Dai, Ling; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-Long

    2014-05-01

    A novel drug delivery system combining oral fast dissolving film with sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid mixed micelles was prepared to increase the absorption of cucurbitacin B that is a poor aqueous solubility substance. Encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity coefficient, investigated the morphology, disintegration time of oral fast dissolving film and the pharmacodynamic properties of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles before and after solidified in mice were evaluated and compared. The oral fast dissolving film prepared in this study showed a homogeneous pale yellow and could completely disintegrated in the 30 s. It could meet the requirements of rapidly disintegrating fully. The encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity coefficient of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles loaded in oral fast dissolving film were (43.36 +/- 2.12)%, (108.82 +/- 5.2) nm, (-34.18 +/- 1.07) mV, 0.088 +/- 0.012, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity coefficient of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles in solution were (41.26 +/- 2.22)%, (181.82 +/- 4.48) nm, (-30.67 +/- 0.81) mV, 0.092 +/- 0.012, respectively. The difference of pharmacodynamics among film of cucurbitacin B-loaded micelles, cucurbitacin B-loaded micelles and free cucurbitacin B in vivo was compared. Solubility of cucurbitacin B loaded in sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles has also been greatly improved. The tumor inhibition rate of cucurbitacin B loaded in sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles was significantly improved and did not change significantly before and after solidified. These showed that the sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles could enhance the antitumor activities of cucurbitacin B and the stability of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles was improved

  16. The use of natural product-papaya pulp powder as a disinte-grant in tablet formulation and their invitro evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Chandrasekhar; Saraswathy R; Krishnan.N.V

    2009-01-01

    Objective:An attempt was made to study the use of papaya pulp powder as a disintegrant in tablet formula-tions.The objective of the present work is to identify a natural binding and disintegrating agent for formulating tablets and to study the effect of disintegrating agents and binding agents on the dissolution of the formulation containing paracetamol.Methods:Papaya pulp powder is obtained from unripe papaya fruit.The fruit was screened for its physical and chemical characteristics and used in tablet formulations.In order to find out the percentage that could be used to formulate a product containing good disintegrating and dissolution characteris-tics,several formulations (Paracetamol)with different concentrations of 8%,10%,12%,15%,20%,25% &30% were prepared.As a comparison,an already established disintegrant,sodium starchgylcolate was select-ed and several formulations containing similar concentrations,were also prepared.The invitro evaluation of the formulations were undertaken,and the results compared.In the present study preformulation studies on the pu-rity,development of calibration curve of the drug and the compatibility between the drug and excepients were carried out.The fruits were cut into small pieces,grated,dried and powdered,passed through different sieves and made into fine powder.Fine powder of papaya was mixed with required amount of drug and sodium starch-gylcolate individually in different concentrations along with other additives &binding agents.The dried gran-ules were compressed into tablets and all the formulated dosage forms of paracetamol tablets were subjected to quality control tests like hardness disintegration and dissolution.Results:From the results it was observed that formulations S1 and P7 containing 8% of sodium starchgylcolate and 30% of papaya pulp powder showed good disintegration and dissolution characteristics.Conclusion:Since the tablet formulation P7 containing 30% of papaya pulp powder shows good disintegration and

  17. Design Optimization and In Vitro-In Vivo Evaluation of Orally Dissolving Strips of Clobazam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Rajni; Khanna, Sushil; Pawar, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Clobazam orally dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting method. A full 32 factorial design was applied for optimization using different concentration of film forming polymer and disintegrating agent as independent variable and disintegration time, % cumulative drug release, and tensile strength as dependent variable. In addition the prepared films were also evaluated for surface pH, folding endurance, and content uniformity. The optimized film formulation showing the maximum in vitro drug release, satisfactory in vitro disintegration time, and tensile strength was selected for bioavailability study and compared with a reference marketed product (frisium5 tablets) in rabbits. Formulation (F6) was selected by the Design-expert software which exhibited DT (24 sec), TS (2.85 N/cm2), and in vitro drug release (96.6%). Statistical evaluation revealed no significant difference between the bioavailability parameters of the test film (F6) and the reference product. The mean ratio values (test/reference) of Cmax (95.87%), tmax (71.42%), AUC0−t (98.125%), and AUC0−∞ (99.213%) indicated that the two formulae exhibited comparable plasma level-time profiles. PMID:25328709

  18. Design Optimization and In Vitro-In Vivo Evaluation of Orally Dissolving Strips of Clobazam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Bala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clobazam orally dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting method. A full 32 factorial design was applied for optimization using different concentration of film forming polymer and disintegrating agent as independent variable and disintegration time, % cumulative drug release, and tensile strength as dependent variable. In addition the prepared films were also evaluated for surface pH, folding endurance, and content uniformity. The optimized film formulation showing the maximum in vitro drug release, satisfactory in vitro disintegration time, and tensile strength was selected for bioavailability study and compared with a reference marketed product (frisium5 tablets in rabbits. Formulation (F6 was selected by the Design-expert software which exhibited DT (24 sec, TS (2.85 N/cm2, and in vitro drug release (96.6%. Statistical evaluation revealed no significant difference between the bioavailability parameters of the test film (F6 and the reference product. The mean ratio values (test/reference of Cmax (95.87%, tmax (71.42%, AUC0−t (98.125%, and AUC0−∞ (99.213% indicated that the two formulae exhibited comparable plasma level-time profiles.

  19. Chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate as disintegrant in microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets elaborated by extrusion-spheronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Souto, Consuelo; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón

    2013-02-01

    The usefulness of a coprecipitate of chitosan and kaolin as disintegrant in the pellets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) (as a model of poorly water-soluble drug) produced by extrusion-spheronization was evaluated in this study. The effectiveness of chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate to increase the dissolution rate was compared with that of kaolin and chitosan. A possible synergy effect was also evaluated between the coprecipitate, kaolin or chitosan and sorbitol, added to the pellets as a very water-soluble diluent. The chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate, the kaolin or the chitosan allowed pellets to be obtained of adequate size, roundness, mechanical strength and flow properties. Furthermore, the incorporation of chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate or chitosan significantly increased the dissolution rate of HCT independently of the sorbitol content. The effects on the dissolution of HCT derived from the incorporation of coprecipitate to the pellets can be attributed to its content of chitosan. However, the addition of kaolin into the pellets did not significantly affect the HCT dissolution process. The pellets incorporating coprecipitated chitosan-kaolin or chitosan and the maximum proportion of sorbitol (50%) led to the highest HCT dissolution rate and experienced a rapid and complete disintegration in the dissolution medium.

  20. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Juneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates.

  1. Electrochemical pretreatment of waste activated sludge: effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration degree and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Caihong; Yuan, Haiping; Dai, Xiaohu; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-11-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) requires a long digestion time because of a rate-limiting hydrolysis step - the first phase of anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreatment can be used prior to AD to facilitate the hydrolysis step and improve the efficiency of WAS digestion. This study evaluated a novel application of electrochemical (EC) technology employed as the pretreatment method prior to AD of WAS, focusing on the effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration and subsequent AD process. A superior process condition of EC pretreatment was obtained by reaction time of 30 min, electrolysis voltage of 20 V, and electrode distance of 5 cm, under which the disintegration degree of WAS ranged between 9.02% and 9.72%. In the subsequent batch AD tests, 206 mL/g volatile solid (VS) methane production in EC pretreated sludge was obtained, which was 20.47% higher than that of unpretreated sludge. The AD time was 19 days shorter for EC pretreated sludge compared to the unpretreated sludge. Additionally, the EC + AD reactor achieved 41.84% of VS removal at the end of AD. The analysis of energy consumption showed that EC pretreatment could be effective in enhancing sludge AD with reduced energy consumption when compared to other pretreatment methods.

  2. Ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma in a young woman with hemorrhagic shock due to tumor disintegration: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Takahashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen secondary to ovarian carcinoma is rare, especially in a young woman. A 28-year-old obese woman underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy as emergency surgery. The specimen from the right ovarian adenocarcinoma was fragmented because the tumor had disintegrated. The largest fragment measured 14 × 8 × 2.5 cm. The left ovary had a solid adenocarcinomatous tumor measuring 6 × 5 × 3 cm. In addition, there were disseminated lesions in the greater omentum, peritoneum, pouch of Douglas and the serosal surface of the uterus. Microscopically, the specimen was a Grade 3 poorly differentiated ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with focal cyst-like structures. Several moderately dilated follicular cysts were seen in addition to the adenocarcinomas but no definite endometriosis was identified in the noncancerous areas of the bilateral ovaries. The endometrium was atrophic and there was endometriosis in the serosa of the uterus, which was resected 3 months later during a second-look operation. These observations suggest that the acute abdomen in this case was caused by disintegration and bleeding right ovarian cancer. The risk factors for ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma in this case might have been obesity and possibly endometriosis.

  3. Possible retrogenesis observed with fiber tracking: an anteroposterior pattern of white matter disintegrity in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Cheung, Raymond Tak-Fai; Lee, Tatia M C; Chu, Leung-Wing; Chan, Ying-Shing; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Zhang, John X; Qiu, Deqiang; Fung, Germaine; Cheung, Charlton

    2011-01-01

    Retrogenesis refers to the phenomenon by which degenerative processes in aging reverse the sequence of acquisition in development. Although there has been some evidence for brain retrogenesis in abnormal aging, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), it has not been explicitly addressed in the normal aging. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tractography, we explored the effects of normal and abnormal aging on the integrity of white matter (WM) in fifty participants, including 18 AD patients, 17 normal elderly, and 15 normal young adults. Compared with young adults, the traditional voxel-based analysis, and the quantitative fiber tracking methods revealed lower fractional anisotrophy (FA) for both normal elderly and AD patients, indicating WM disintegrity in the anterior part of the brain with developmentally late-myelinating fiber bundles. Furthermore, AD patients showed lower FA in the posterior part of the brain with relatively early-myelinating fiber bundles. Additional analysis on axial diffusion and radial diffusion measures suggest that demyelination may be the main mechanism underlying the observed microstructural impairments. Consistent with a proposal of retrogenesis, our results demonstrate an anteroposterior pattern of white matter disintegrity in both normal aging and AD, with the pattern being more salient in the latter than in the former.

  4. Multiwavelength Observations of the Candidate Disintegrating Sub-Mercury KIC 12557548b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Bryce; Rappaport, Saul; DeVore, John; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Star, Kimberly M.; Chiang, Eugene; Levine, Alan M.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Albert, Loic; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Isaacson, Howard

    2014-05-01

    We present multiwavelength photometry, high angular resolution imaging, and radial velocities of the unique and confounding disintegrating low-mass planet candidate KIC 12557548b. Our high angular resolution imaging, which includes space-based Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) observations in the optical (~0.53 μm and ~0.77 μm), and ground-based Keck/NIRC2 observations in K' band (~2.12 μm), allow us to rule out background and foreground candidates at angular separations greater than 0.''2 that are bright enough to be responsible for the transits we associate with KIC 12557548. Our radial velocity limit from Keck/HIRES allows us to rule out bound, low-mass stellar companions (~0.2 M ⊙) to KIC 12557548 on orbits less than 10 yr, as well as placing an upper limit on the mass of the candidate planet of 1.2 Jupiter masses; therefore, the combination of our radial velocities, high angular resolution imaging, and photometry are able to rule out most false positive interpretations of the transits. Our precise multiwavelength photometry includes two simultaneous detections of the transit of KIC 12557548b using Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/Wide-field InfraRed Camera (CFHT/WIRCam) at 2.15 μm and the Kepler space telescope at 0.6 μm, as well as simultaneous null-detections of the transit by Kepler and HST/WFC3 at 1.4 μm. Our simultaneous HST/WFC3 and Kepler null-detections provide no evidence for radically different transit depths at these wavelengths. Our simultaneous CFHT/WIRCam detections in the near-infrared and with Kepler in the optical reveal very similar transit depths (the average ratio of the transit depths at ~2.15 μm compared with ~0.6 μm is: 1.02 ± 0.20). This suggests that if the transits we observe are due to scattering from single-size particles streaming from the planet in a comet-like tail, then the particles must be ~0.5 μm in radius or larger, which would favor that KIC 12557548b is a sub-Mercury rather than super

  5. Disintegration of sedimentary rocks used as building material: evaluation and quantification in 4D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; de Kock, T.; Cnudde, V.; Boone, M. N.; de Witte, Y.; Pieters, K.; van Loo, D.; van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.

    2009-04-01

    Many natural building stones are subject to weathering processes that may lead to their disintegration. When rocks are exposed to extreme exogenous factors such as a combination of water and freeze-thaw cycles, they can deteriorate and cause problems concerning the maintenance of the structure. Some rock types are more susceptible to weathering processes than others, in which fluctuating environmental factors as well as the position of the stone in the building and the endogenous or geological parameters of the stone itself play an important role. In order to determine the influencing geological parameters (pore structure and interconnectivity, mineralogy, cementation…) several techniques are available. One of the techniques mainly focused on in this study is X-ray computed tomography (CT). This rapid and easy-to-use method enables to visualize internal rock structures in a non-destructive way and without any sample preparation. The obtained and afterwards processed digital information enables a better understanding in the 3D geometric rock properties. To obtain a CT-scan of the stone, the sample rotates 360˚ while digital radiographs are taken. In this study 800 radiographs were reconstructed (using the Octopus software package) to create virtual cross-sections through the object. Although X-ray CT is a very valuable technique for 3D reconstruction, the single radiographs also contain a lot of information. They can e.g. be used to measure the contact angle of a drop of water and thus be compared to traditional optical contact angle measurement systems. As the sample stays fixed on the rotational stage of the CT-scanner, a drop of water is released onto the stone's surface. Capillary processes change the drop shape changes during time. After the subtraction of the initial dry state from the wet state, the contact angle of the water drop can be calculated. The advantage of this approach is that also the impregnation depth of the water inside the stone can

  6. Effect of applying different rates of slow - disintegrating fertilizer on the quality of marigold (Tagetes patula L. and scarlet sage seedlings (Salvia splendens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of applying different rate of slow disintegrating fertilizer Scotts (Osmocot Exact with the formula 15:9:9:MgO+Me to the quality of seedlings of marigold and scarlet sage. The marigold and scarlet sage seedlings were grown in poly-propylene containers (speedling system and poly-propylene pots (pot system. Slow disintegrating fertilizer rate have been applied to the seedlings in the course of their growing (0, 1, 2, 3, i 4 g/l. The obtained data show that the 4g/l substrate rate of slow disintegrating fertilizer has significant effects on the studied parameters of seedlings quality of studied species.

  7. pH-Dependent Formation and Disintegration of the Influenza A Virus Protein Scaffold To Provide Tension for Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishchev, O V; Shilova, L A; Kachala, M V; Tashkin, V Y; Sokolov, V S; Fedorova, N V; Baratova, L A; Knyazev, D G; Zimmerberg, J; Chizmadzhev, Y A

    2015-10-14

    Influenza virus is taken up from a pH-neutral extracellular milieu into an endosome, whose contents then acidify, causing changes in the viral matrix protein (M1) that coats the inner monolayer of the viral lipid envelope. At a pH of ~6, M1 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) in a putative priming stage; at this stage, the interactions of the M1 scaffold coating the lipid envelope are intact. The M1 coat disintegrates as acidification continues to a pH of ~5 to clear a physical path for the viral genome to transit from the viral interior to the cytoplasm. Here we investigated the physicochemical mechanism of M1's pH-dependent disintegration. In neutral media, the adsorption of M1 protein on the lipid bilayer was electrostatic in nature and reversible. The energy of the interaction of M1 molecules with each other in M1 dimers was about 10 times as weak as that of the interaction of M1 molecules with the lipid bilayer. Acidification drives conformational changes in M1 molecules due to changes in the M1 charge, leading to alterations in their electrostatic interactions. Dropping the pH from 7.1 to 6.0 did not disturb the M1 layer; dropping it lower partially desorbed M1 because of increased repulsion between M1 monomers still stuck to the membrane. Lipid vesicles coated with M1 demonstrated pH-dependent rupture of the vesicle membrane, presumably because of the tension generated by this repulsive force. Thus, the disruption of the vesicles coincident with M1 protein scaffold disintegration at pH 5 likely stretches the lipid membrane to the point of rupture, promoting fusion pore widening for RNP release. Influenza remains a top killer of human beings throughout the world, in part because of the influenza virus's rapid binding to cells and its uptake into compartments hidden from the immune system. To attack the influenza virus during this time of hiding, we need to understand the physical forces that allow the internalized virus to infect the cell. In

  8. Sudden disintegration of ice in the glacial-proglacial transition zone of the largest glacier in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Avian, Michael; Hirschmann, Simon; Lieb, Gerhard Karl; Seier, Gernot; Sulzer, Wolfgang; Wakonigg, Herwig

    2017-04-01

    Rapid deglaciation does not only reveal a landscape which is prone to rapid geomorphic changes and sediment reworking but also the glacier ice itself might be in a state of disintegration by ice melting, pressure relief, crevasse formation, ice collapse or changes in the glacier's hydrology. In this study we considered the sudden disintegration of glacier ice in the glacial-proglacial transition zone of Pasterze Glacier. Pasterze Glacier is a typical alpine valley glacier and covers currently some 16.5 km2 making it to the largest glacier in Austria. This glacier is an important site for alpine mass tourism in Austria related to a public high alpine road and a cable car which enable access to the glacier rather easily also for unexperienced mountaineers. Spatial focus in our research is given on two particular study areas where several ice-mass movement events occurred during the 2015- and 2016-melting seasons. The first study area is a crevasse field at the lower third of the glacier tongue. This lateral crevasse field has been substantially modified during the last two melting seasons particularly because of thermo-erosional effects of a glacial stream which changed at this site from subglacial (until 2015) to glacier-lateral revealing a several tens of meters high unstable ice cliff prone to ice falls of different magnitudes. The second study area is located at the proglacial area. At Pasterze Glacier the proglacial area is widely influenced by dead-ice bodies of various dimensions making this area prone to slow to sudden geomorphic changes caused by ice mass changes. A particular ice-mass movement event took place on 20.09.2016. Within less than one hour the surface of the proglacial area changed substantially by tilting, lateral shifting, and subsidence of the ground accompanied by complete ice disintegration of once-debris covered ice. To understand acting processes at both areas of interest and to quantify mass changes we used field observations, terrain

  9. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea plantain starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more

  10. TeV gamma-rays from photo-disintegration/de-excitation of nuclei in Westerlund 2

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Butt, Yousaf M; Goldberg, Haim; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Weiler, Thomas J; Wesolowski, Justin

    2007-01-01

    TeV gamma-rays can result from the photo-de-excitation of PeV cosmic ray nuclei after their parents have undergone photo-disintegration in an environment of ultraviolet photons. This process is proposed as a candidate explanation of the recently discovered HESS source at the edge of Westerlund 2. The UV background is provided by Lyman-alpha emission within the rich O and B stellar environment. The HESS flux results if there is efficient acceleration at the source of lower energy nuclei. The requirement that the Lorentz-boosted ultraviolet photons reach the Giant Dipole resonant energy (~ 20 MeV) implies a strong suppression of the gamma-ray spectrum compared to an E_\\gamma^{-2} behavior at energies below about 1 TeV. This suppression is not apparent in the lowest-energy Westerlund 2 datum, but will be probed by the upcoming GLAST mission.

  11. Disintegration of the continental margin of northwestern Gondwana: Late Devonian of the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jobst

    1985-11-01

    The Devonian early Carboniferous sequence in the eastern Anti-Atlas represents a complete record of the last stage of the depositional and tectonic evolution along the northwestern margin of Gondwana. As a consequence of early Variscan block faulting, a platform and basin topography was established during the Middle and Late Devonian. Platforms were covered by condensed cephalopod limestones; sedimentation in the basins was mainly argillaceous with calcareous and turbiditic intercalations. In the latest Famennian/early Tournaisian the whole area was covered by delta deposits in the south passing into turbidites and olistostromes toward a continental slope farther north. This sedimentary and structural evolution reflects the gradual foundering and disintegration of the northwestern continental margin of Gondwana prior to the collisional stage in the late Visean/late Carboniferous.

  12. Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder: New-Onset Autistic Regression, Dementia, and Insomnia in Older Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Gordon; Crissman, Blythe G; Cadogan, Emily; Milleson, Christie; Adkins, Deanna W; Kishnani, Priya S

    2015-08-01

    Over a 10-year period in a Down syndrome Clinic, 11 children and adolescents were encountered with a history of new-onset (8) or worsening (3) autistic characteristics. Ten of the 11 (91%) had cognitive decline to a dementia-like state and 9 of the 11 (82%) new-onset insomnia. The mean age at which symptoms developed was 11.4 years (standard deviation = 3.6 years; range 5-14 years), an older age than usual for autistic regression in Down syndrome. Ten of 11 cases (91%) had elevated ("positive") thyroperoxidase antibody titers compared to only 5 of 21 (23%) age-matched control subjects with Down syndrome (P Down syndrome disintegrative disorder seems an appropriate name for this newly recognized clinical association, which may be due to autoimmunity.

  13. Intensive evaporation and boiling of a heterogeneous liquid droplet with an explosive disintegration in high-temperature gas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The using of the high-speed (not less than 105 frames per second video recording tools (“Phantom” and the software package ("TEMA Automotive" allowed carrying out an experimental research of laws of intensive vaporization with an explosive disintegration of heterogeneous (with a single solid nontransparent inclusion liquid droplet (by the example of water in high-temperature (500-800 K gases (combustion products. Times of the processes under consideration and stages (liquid heat-up, evaporation from an external surface, bubble boiling at internal interfaces, growth of bubble sizes, explosive droplet breakup were established. Necessary conditions of an explosive vaporization of a heterogeneous droplet were found out. Mechanisms of this process and an influence of properties of liquid and inclusion material on them were determined.

  14. Results from CEBAF experiment E89-012: Measurements of deuteron photo-disintegration up to 4 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Miller; David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Chris Armstrong; John Arrington; K. A. Assamagan; Oliver K. Baker; S. P. Barrow; D. P. Beatty; D. H. Beck; S. Y. Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; J. E. Belz; 0 C. W. Bochna; Peter Bosted; Ed Brash; Herbert Breuer; R. V. Cadman; Larry Cardman; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; G. Collins; C. Cothran; W. J. Cummings; Samuel Danagoulian; F. A. Duncan; J. A. Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Bradley Filippone; Tony A. Forest; H. T. Fortune; Valera V. Frolov; Haiyan Gao; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Jens-Ole Hansen; M. Harvey; Wendy Hinton; R. J. Holt; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; M. A. Khandaker; Ed Kinney; Andi Klein; 0 Doug Koltenuk; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Allison Lung; David Mack; Richard Madey; Pete Markowitz; Kenneth McFarlane; Robert McKeown; David Meekins; Z-E. Meziani; J. H. Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; R. M. Mohring; James Napolitano; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O' Neill; B. R. Owen; S. Pate; Dave Potterveld; John Price; G. L. Rakness; Ronald Ransome; Juerg Reinhold; Paul Rutt; G. Savage; Ralph Segel; N. Simicevic; Paul Stoler; Riad Suleiman; Liguang Tang; B. P. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; Bill Vulcan; S. E. Williamson; Michael Witkowski; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Ben Zeidman

    1997-05-01

    The first measurements of differential cross sections for deuteron photo-disintegration at photon energies up to 4 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility early in 1996. Cross section results for D(gamma,p)n at proton center of mass angle of 35{sup o}, 53{sup o} and 90{sup o} will be presented. These results are in good agreement with previous measurements at low energy and extend to higher energies where data were previously unavailable. The 90{sup o} degree data show behavior consistent with the constituent counting rules up to 4 GeV and are also in fair agreement with the asymptotic meson exchange model. The 37{sup o} and 53{sup o} data do not show clear signs of counting rule behavior, although a threshold in transverse momentum for the onset of scaling cannot be excluded.

  15. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  16. Correlation between disintegration, dissolution and in vivo absorption rate in the case of compounds with benzyl-isoquinoline structures and its pharmacokinetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, S; Szentmiklósi, P; Rácz, I

    1984-01-01

    Investigations have proved that in the case of po preparations disintegration time, dissolution rate and in vivo absorption rate are closely interrelated. These correlations described by adequate mathematical formulas are valid in the case of papaverine, drotaverine and Depogen--compounds with benzyl-isoquinoline structure.

  17. Comparative study of ion-exchange resin Indion 204 and Indion 214 for the taste masking of metoclopramide hydrochloride and formulation of rapid-disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahima Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of metoclopramide hydrochloride and to formulate a rapid-disintegrating tablet of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by complexing the drug with ion exchange resin, Indion 204 and Indion 214, in different ratios. The complex loading process was optimized for the concentration of resin, swelling time, stirring time, pH, and temperature for maximum drug loading. Drug-resin complexes (DRC were tested for flow properties, drug content, in-vitro release in simulated salivary fluid, and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, taste evaluation by the panel method. Taste evaluation of DRC revealed considerable taste masking with the degree of bitterness below threshold value (40 μg/ml in 0 to 5 min. Complex of both Indion 204 and Indion 214 masked the taste, but on the basis of the comparative study, resin 214 was selected for taste masking property. Disintegrant croscarmellose (5% wt/wt gave the minimum disintegration time in comparison to crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate. The batch of tablet containing Pearlitol SD and Avicel (PH102 in the ratio 60:40 and 5% (wt/wt Croscarmellose showed faster disintegration i.e. 32 s, as compare to marketed tablet. It also revealed rapid drug release (t 80 , 6 min in SGF compared with marketed formulation (t 80 , 9 min.

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Deadlines Grant Application Forms Application Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  19. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your sleep doctor may schedule you for a sleep study to verify treatment success. Follow-Up Visits Follow-up visits with your dentist will be needed to ensure the optimal fit of the oral appliance. Effective oral appliances ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892-2190 301-496-4261 NIH… ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings ... of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that ... any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  9. Inflammation and disintegration of intestinal villi in an experimental model for Vibrio parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jennifer M; Rui, Haopeng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Iida, Tetsuya; Kodoma, Toshio; Ito, Susuma; Davis, Brigid M; Bronson, Roderick T; Waldor, Matthew K

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in many parts of the world, but there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis of V. parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea. The absence of an oral infection-based small animal model to study V. parahaemolyticus intestinal colonization and disease has constrained analyses of the course of infection and the factors that mediate it. Here, we demonstrate that infant rabbits oro-gastrically inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus develop severe diarrhea and enteritis, the main clinical and pathologic manifestations of disease in infected individuals. The pathogen principally colonizes the distal small intestine, and this colonization is dependent upon type III secretion system 2. The distal small intestine is also the major site of V. parahaemolyticus-induced tissue damage, reduced epithelial barrier function, and inflammation, suggesting that disease in this region of the gastrointestinal tract accounts for most of the diarrhea that accompanies V. parahaemolyticus infection. Infection appears to proceed through a characteristic sequence of steps that includes remarkable elongation of microvilli and the formation of V. parahaemolyticus-filled cavities within the epithelial surface, and culminates in villus disruption. Both depletion of epithelial cell cytoplasm and epithelial cell extrusion contribute to formation of the cavities in the epithelial surface. V. parahaemolyticus also induces proliferation of epithelial cells and recruitment of inflammatory cells, both of which occur before wide-spread damage to the epithelium is evident. Collectively, our findings suggest that V. parahaemolyticus damages the host intestine and elicits disease via previously undescribed processes and mechanisms.

  10. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  11. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  12. Full factorial design, physicochemical characterization of phenylephrine HCl loaded oral thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Bonde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules. The primary objective of the present research work was to optimize oral thin film (OTF formulation of phenylephrine HCl, a water soluble drug with three loading concentrations: High, medium and low and also to evaluate their effect on the final product attributes. The OTF was prepared by solvent casting method. All the formulations were evaluated for film forming properties, appearance, thickness, folding endurance, tensile strength, percent moisture absorption, surface morphology, in vitro and in vivo disintegration. Formulations containing low and medium loading concentration gave acceptable results while formulation with higher loading concentration resulting poor film forming properties. Hence, another objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of anti-tacking agent namely magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS, microcrystalline cellulose and colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD by applying 2 3 full factorial design on improving the film properties of high concentration phenylephrine HCl. Formulation containing microcystalline cellulose and CSD at low level and MAS at high level was found to be suitable for film formation with desirable physicochemical properties, faster disintegration and optimum in vitro release.

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications ...

  14. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

  16. Improvement of Meloxicam Solubility Using a β-Cyclodextrin Complex Prepared via the Kneading Method and Incorporated into an Orally Disintegrating Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ainurofiq

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Incorporation of the MEL/β-CD complex during ODT formulation using the QbD approach serves as a model for ODT product development, with optimal product performance based on the specification of quality target product profiles. To understand more specific phenomena, one point in the middle of the design for each factor should be added to more powerfully estimate this effect and avoid the lack of estimate due to an inadequate equation.

  17. 牛蒡子口腔崩解片的处方研究%Design of Rapidly Disintegrating Oral Tablet with Arctium lappa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚又明; 刘利根; 赵浩如; 高妮

    2006-01-01

    目的确定牛蒡子口腔崩解片的处方.方法采用正交设计法选择牛蒡子口腔崩解片的处方.结果确定牛蒡子口腔崩解片处方中主要的成分配比为:交联聚乙烯吡咯烷酮8%,微晶纤维素25%,α-乳糖25%.结论确定了牛蒡子口腔崩解片的处方,但是此片剂口感一般,须进一步研究.

  18. Studying On Dissolution Test Method Of Ibuprofen Orally Disintegrating Tablet%布洛芬口腔崩解片溶出度测定法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋万新

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究布洛芬口腔崩解片的溶出介质,建立高效液相色谱法测定布洛芬口腔崩解片的溶出度.方法:以磷酸盐缓冲液(pH=7.2)900mL为溶出介质,桨法,转速为75rpm,30min时取样,取样后采用HPLC法测定.结果:布洛芬在74.92~174.82μg/mL的范围内呈现良好的线性关系(r=0.9998),其平均回收率为98.6%(RSD=0.3%),溶出曲线表明在30min内,布洛芬溶出度可达75%以上,限度为80%.结论:3批样品的溶出度均符合规定.

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Orally Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets Containing Taste-Masked Particles Using One-Step Dry-Coated Tablets Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Ozeki, Yuichi; Ando, Masaki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    ...) containing functional (taste masking or controlled release) coated particles, such as the low compactability of coated particles and the rupture of coated membrane during compression, a novel ODT containing taste-masked coated particles (TMP...

  20. Study of Bioequivalence of Ambroxol Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets%盐酸氨溴索口腔崩解片的生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛洪源; 杨汉煜; 贺文涛; 王宇奇; 贾丽霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究盐酸氨溴索口腔崩解片的人体生物利用度和生物等效性.方法 采用随机交叉试验设计,20例健康男性志愿者单剂量口服试验制剂盐酸氨溴索口腔崩解片和参比制剂盐酸氨溴索片各60 mg,用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定血浆中氨溴索的浓度,计算两药的药动学参数.结果 单剂量口服试验制剂和参比制剂后氨溴索的Cmax分别为(84.7±29.3)和(81.2±28.2) ng·mL-1,tmax分别为(1.7±0.5)和(1.8±0.4) h,t1/2分别为(7.9±0.9)和(8.3±1.0) h,AUC0~24 h分别为(638.7±180.8)和(591.4±148.3) ng·h·mL-1,试验制剂的相对生物利用度为(108.2±16.5)%.结论 试验制剂与参比制剂具有生物等效性.

  1. Preparation of Rizatriptan benzoate fast disintegrating oral tablet%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦口腔速崩片的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东升; 产运霞; 耿玉先; 辛正洪; 宋梦薇

    2007-01-01

    目的 制备苯甲酸利扎曲普坦口腔速崩片.方法 选用微晶纤维素(MCC)和低取代羟丙基纤维素(LHPC)作为崩解剂,通过粉末直接压片工艺制备口腔速崩片.考察速崩片的性质.结果 当MCC/LHPC的比例为9:1时,其体外崩解时间在20 s以内,体内崩解时间在30 s以内.结论 所制片剂口感良好,优化的工艺可以工业化生产.

  2. Preparation of tramadol hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets%盐酸曲马多口腔崩解片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪轩; 刘伟芬; 牛江秀; 王艳丽

    2008-01-01

    目的:利用固体分散体技术,制备盐酸曲马多口腔崩解片.方法:以水不溶性材料为载体,用溶剂挥发法制备盐酸曲马多固体分散体,采用粉末直接压片法制备口腔崩解片.结果:以水不溶性材料作载体制得的盐酸曲马多口腔崩解片在体外崩解时间不超过40 s,在水中的体外溶出度试验表明药物在10 min内完全溶出.结论:该口腔崩解片工艺简单,适合于工业大生产.

  3. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  4. Inflammation and disintegration of intestinal villi in an experimental model for Vibrio parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Ritchie

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in many parts of the world, but there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis of V. parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea. The absence of an oral infection-based small animal model to study V. parahaemolyticus intestinal colonization and disease has constrained analyses of the course of infection and the factors that mediate it. Here, we demonstrate that infant rabbits oro-gastrically inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus develop severe diarrhea and enteritis, the main clinical and pathologic manifestations of disease in infected individuals. The pathogen principally colonizes the distal small intestine, and this colonization is dependent upon type III secretion system 2. The distal small intestine is also the major site of V. parahaemolyticus-induced tissue damage, reduced epithelial barrier function, and inflammation, suggesting that disease in this region of the gastrointestinal tract accounts for most of the diarrhea that accompanies V. parahaemolyticus infection. Infection appears to proceed through a characteristic sequence of steps that includes remarkable elongation of microvilli and the formation of V. parahaemolyticus-filled cavities within the epithelial surface, and culminates in villus disruption. Both depletion of epithelial cell cytoplasm and epithelial cell extrusion contribute to formation of the cavities in the epithelial surface. V. parahaemolyticus also induces proliferation of epithelial cells and recruitment of inflammatory cells, both of which occur before wide-spread damage to the epithelium is evident. Collectively, our findings suggest that V. parahaemolyticus damages the host intestine and elicits disease via previously undescribed processes and mechanisms.

  5. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  6. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  7. 本社区卫生服务中心2011-2013年口服降糖药的应用分析%Analysis of the application of oral hypoglycemic agents in a community health service center during 2011-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭琴

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解本社区卫生服务中心口服降糖药的应用情况和趋势。方法:对本社区卫生服务中心2011-2013年口服降糖药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、限定日费用(DDC)等进行分类统计、综合分析。结果:口服降糖药销售总金额逐年上升,α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂3年来均占据销售金额排名第1位,格列齐特缓释片和二甲双胍片连续3年DDDs居第一、第二,DDC最大的3位依次是阿卡波糖片、伏格列波糖片、瑞格列奈片。结论:本中心口服降糖药应用合理,需求量逐年增加,主要以磺酰脲类为主。安全、有效、良好的依从性是糖尿病治疗药物发展的必然趋势。%Objective: To know the usage and trend of oral hypoglycemic agents in our hospital during 2011-2013. Methods: The main species, sales, DDDs and DDC of oral hypoglycemic agents were statistically classiifed and their utilization was comprehensively analyzed.Results: The sales for oral hypoglycemic agents had been increased year by year during 2011-2013 and α-glucosidase inhibitors were ranked number 1. Metformin was ranked ifrst and gliclazide zyban second in DDDs, and the largest three tablets in DDC were acarbose, voglibose and repaglinide.Conclusion: Use of oral hypoglycemic agents was basically reasonable in our hospital. Their demand has been increasing year by year. Sulfonylurea is a mainly used oral antidiabetic drug. The drugs with safety, effectiveness and good compliance are an inevitable development trend for diabetes therapy.

  8. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  9. A novel transferrin receptor-targeted hybrid peptide disintegrates cancer cell membrane to induce rapid killing of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamoto Megumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transferrin receptor (TfR is a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein involved in the cellular uptake of iron and the regulation of cell growth. Recent studies have shown the elevated expression levels of TfR on cancer cells compared with normal cells. The elevated expression levels of this receptor in malignancies, which is the accessible extracellular protein, can be a fascinating target for the treatment of cancer. We have recently designed novel type of immunotoxin, termed "hybrid peptide", which is chemically synthesized and is composed of target-binding peptide and lytic peptide containing cationic-rich amino acids components that disintegrates the cell membrane for the cancer cell killing. The lytic peptide is newly designed to induce rapid killing of cancer cells due to conformational change. In this study, we designed TfR binding peptide connected with this novel lytic peptide and assessed the cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro: We assessed the cytotoxicity of TfR-lytic hybrid peptide for 12 cancer and 2 normal cell lines. The specificity for TfR is demonstrated by competitive assay using TfR antibody and siRNA. In addition, we performed analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy and apoptosis assay by Annexin-V binding, caspase activity, and JC-1 staining to assess the change in mitochondria membrane potential. In vivo: TfR-lytic was administered intravenously in an athymic mice model with MDA-MB-231 cells. After three weeks tumor sections were histologically analyzed. Results The TfR-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in 12 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values as low as 4.0-9.3 μM. Normal cells were less sensitive to this molecule, with IC50 values > 50 μM. Competition assay using TfR antibody and knockdown of this receptor by siRNA confirmed the specificity of the TfR-lytic hybrid peptide. In addition, it was revealed that this molecule can disintegrate the cell membrane of T47

  10. Analysis of flow development in centrifugal atomization: Part II. Disintegration of a non-fully spreading melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y.

    2004-09-01

    Centrifugal atomization of metal melts is a cost-effective process for powder production and spray deposition. The properties of the as-produced powder and deposit are determined primarily by the characteristics of the atomized droplets, which in turn are largely dependent on the flow development of the melt on the atomizer. This paper develops a model for analysing the flow development of a non-fully spreading melt on the atomizing cup. The model shows that the melt can disintegrate prematurely before reaching the edge of the cup when the dynamic contact angle of the melt exceeds a critical contact angle. The critical contact angle is very small for a flat disc but increases markedly with increasing slope angle of a cup. The critical contact angle also increases with increasing melt flow rate and cup rotation speed. The model gives a good insight into the atomization mechanism and explains well the phenomena observed in centrifugal atomization, including the conditions of the occurrence of the three atomization modes and the existence of an optimum melt flow rate, cup radius, cup slope angle and cup rotation speed for achieving small droplet sizes.

  11. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I-Wen Peter

    2016-07-25

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm(2), which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 10(4) accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 10(4) s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization.

  12. Comparison of the Effects of Thermal Pretreatment, Steam Explosion and Ultrasonic Disintegration on Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Dallos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand of the corn-based bioethanol production could be reduced using the agricultural byproducts as bioenergy feedstock for biogas digesters. The release of lignocellulosic material and therefore the acceleration of degradation processes can be achieved using thermal and mechanical pretreatments, which assist to hydrolyze the cell walls and speed the solubilization of biopolymers in biogas feedstock. This study is focused on liquid hot water, steam explosion and ultrasonic pretreatments of corn stover. The scientific contribution of this paper is a comprehensive comparison of the performance of the pretreatments by fast analytical, biochemical, anaerobic digestibility and biomethane potential tests, extended by energy consumptions and energy balance calculations.The effectiveness of pretreatments was evaluated by means of soluble chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and by the biogas and methane productivities. The results have shown that the thermal pretreatment, steam explosion and ultrasonic irradiation of biogas feedstock disintegrated the lignocellulosic structure, increased and accelerated the methane production and increased the cumulative biogas and methane productivity of corn stover in reference to the control during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.The energy balance demonstrated that there is an economical basis of the application of the liquid hot-compressed water pretreatments in a biogas plant. However, the steam explosion and ultrasonication are energetically not profitable for corn stover pretreatment.

  13. Numerical modelling of disintegration of basin-scale internal waves in a tank filled with stratified water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stashchuk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of numerical experiments performed with the use of a fully non-linear non-hydrostatic numerical model to study the baroclinic response of a long narrow tank filled with stratified water to an initially tilted interface. Upon release, the system starts to oscillate with an eigen frequency corresponding to basin-scale baroclinic gravitational seiches. Field observations suggest that the disintegration of basin-scale internal waves into packets of solitary waves, shear instabilities, billows and spots of mixed water are important mechanisms for the transfer of energy within stratified lakes. Laboratory experiments performed by D. A. Horn, J. Imberger and G. N. Ivey (JFM, 2001 reproduced several regimes, which include damped linear waves and solitary waves. The generation of billows and shear instabilities induced by the basin-scale wave was, however, not sufficiently studied. The developed numerical model computes a variety of flows, which were not observed with the experimental set-up. In particular, the model results showed that under conditions of low dissipation, the regimes of billows and supercritical flows may transform into a solitary wave regime. The obtained results can help in the interpretation of numerous observations of mixing processes in real lakes.

  14. Social disintegration and the spread of AIDS--II. Meltdown of sociogeographic structure in urban minority neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R

    1993-10-01

    An elementary model of sociogeographic network structure in an urban minority community suggests externally applied stress, particularly that which triggers frequent individual or family moves of increasing distance, may cause a sudden 'phase change' resulting in disconnection of previously integrated subgroups from the community. Such 'community meltdown' would seriously disrupt mechanisms for social control, economic opportunity and socialization of youth, while intensifying substance abuse and indiscriminate and frequent sexual activity, particularly among the very young. 'Phase change' of this nature would seem to preclude success of programs to control spread of HIV infection, particularly in heterosexual populations. The possibility is explored that programs of 'community recrystalization' in disintegrated urban area might likewise need to exceed some threshold of investment and organizing activity before becoming effective. However, if supported to levels above threshold, this work implies such programs might have very great impact in a very short time. The possibility of interaction between behavioral pathologies resulting from the initial meltdown and further consequent deterioration in sociogeographic network structure leads to speculation that the threshold for recrystalization may become significantly and progressively greater than for meltdown. Implications of these matters for diffusion of HIV into the general population are discussed.

  15. World tendencies in the disintegration of the electric systems; Las tendencias mundiales a la desintegracion de los sistemas electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viqueira Landa, Jacinto [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the organizational changes of the electric industry, accomplished or in the process of being implemented in various countries encompassing from the modality of the independent power producers with which the competitiveness at production level is pretended to be introduced, until the total disintegration of the electric systems by means of the separation of the generation, transmission and distribution functions and the intent of implementing the access of third parties to the transmission network. Finally, the risks that these reforms imply from the stand point of service quality and the environmental protection are pointed out [Espanol] En esta ponencia se describen los cambios de organizacion de la industria electrica, realizados o en vias de implantarse en varios paises, abarcando desde la modalidad de las empresas generadoras independientes con la que se pretende introducir la competencia al nivel de la produccion, hasta la desintegracion total de los sistemas electricos mediante la separacion de las funciones de generacion, transmision y distribucion, y la pretension de implantar el acceso de terceros a la red de transmision. Finalmente se senalan los riesgos que implican estas reformas desde el punto de vista de la calidad del servicio y de la preservacion del medio ambiente

  16. High-speed photometry of the disintegrating planetesimals at WD1145+017: evidence for rapid dynamical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensicke, B T; Marsh, T R; Dhillon, V S; Sahman, D I; Veras, Dimitri; Farihi, J; Chote, P; Ashley, R; Arjyotha, S; Rattanasoon, S; Pollacco, D; Burleigh, M R

    2016-01-01

    We obtained high-speed photometry of the disintegrating planetesimals orbiting the white dwarf WD1145+017, spanning a period of four weeks. The light curves show a dramatic evolution of the system since the first observations obtained about seven months ago. Multiple transit events are detected in every light curve, which have varying durations(~3-12min) and depths (~10-60%). The shortest-duration transits require that the occulting cloud of debris has a few times the size of the white dwarf, longer events are often resolved into the superposition of several individual transits. The transits evolve on time scales of days, both in shape and in depth, with most of them gradually appearing and disappearing over the course of the observing campaign. Several transits can be tracked across multiple nights, all of them recur on periods of ~4.49h, indicating multiple planetary debris fragments on nearly identical orbits. Identifying the specific origin of these bodies within this planetary system, and the evolution l...

  17. Effects of disintegration on in vitro fermentation and conversion patterns of wheat aleurone in a metabolical colon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Natalia N; Aura, Anna-Marja; Saulnier, Luc; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Poutanen, Kaisa; Micard, Valérie

    2013-06-19

    This work aimed to elucidate the effect of wheat aleurone integrity on its fermentability, i.e., the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbial phenolic metabolites, in an in vitro model using human faecal microbiota as an inoculum. The structure of aleurone was modified by mechanical (dry grinding) or enzymatic (xylanase with or without feruloyl esterase) treatments in order to increase its physical accessibility and degrade its complex cell-wall network. The ground aleurone (smaller particle size) produced slightly more SCFA than the native aleurone during the first 8 h but a similar amount at 24 h (102.5 and 101 mmol/L, respectively). Similar colonic metabolism of ferulic acid (FA) was observed for native and ground aleurone. The enzymatic treatments of aleurone allowed a high solubilization of arabinoxylan (up to 82%) and a high release of FA in its conjugated and free forms (up to 87%). The enzymatic disintegration of aleurone's structure led to a higher concentration and formation rate of the colonic metabolites of FA (especially phenylpropionic acids) but did not change significantly the formation of SCFA (81 mmol/L for enzyme treated versus 101 mmol/L for the native aleurone).

  18. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  19. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  20. Crisis of sociocultural identity of a personality as a consequence of a sociocultural disintegration of a society: the social and philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Аксьонова, В. І.

    2014-01-01

    It reveals the crisis of socio-cultural identity of the personality as a result of social and cultural disintegration of society, resulting in a pathological state of society characterized by disorder between culture and social relations, and cultural collapse of he universal principles of social reproduction; substantiates the nature and importance of general management, covering the whole society, which is called societal, the ways and directions of social and cultural reproduction of socie...

  1. Application and optimization of electric field-assisted ultrasonication for disintegration of waste activated sludge using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Cha, Min-Jung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an electric field is applied in order to disintegrate waste activated sludge (WAS). As a preliminary step, feasibility tests are investigated using different applied voltages of 10-100V for 60min. As the applied voltage increases, the disintegration degrees (DD) are gradually enhanced, and thereby the soluble N, P, and carbohydrate concentrations increase simultaneously due to the WAS decomposition. Subsequently, an optimization process is conducted using a response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The total solid concentration, applied voltage, and reaction time are selected as independent variables, while the DD is selected as the response variable. The overall results demonstrate that the BBD with an experimental design can be used effectively in the optimization of the electric field treatment of WAS. In the confirmation test, a DD of 10.26±0.14% is recorded, which corresponds to 99.1% of the predicted response value under the statistically optimized conditions. Finally, the statistic optimization of the combined treatment (electric field+ultrasonication) demonstrated that even though this method is limited to highly disintegrated WAS when it is applied individually, a high DD of 47.28±0.20% was recorded where the TS concentration was 6780mg/l, the strength of ultrasonication was 8.0W, the applied voltage was 68.4V, and the reaction time was 44min. E-SEM images clearly revealed that the application of the electric field is a significant alternative method for the combined treatment of WAS. This study was the first attempt to increase disintegration using the electric field for a combined treatment with ultrasonication.

  2. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  3. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  4. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) ... Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships ... Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  7. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  8. Reduction of excess sludge in a sequencing batch reactor by lysis-cryptic growth using quick lime for disintegration under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Song, Ju-Sheng; Li, Ji; Zhai, Kun

    2016-10-06

    In the present study, quick-lime-based thermal-alkaline sludge disintegration (SD) under low temperature was combined with cryptic growth to investigate the excess sludge reduction efficiency in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The optimized condition of SD was as follows: T = 80℃, pH = 11, t = 180 min, and the SD rate was about 42.1%. With 65.6% of excess sludge disintegrated and returned to the SBR, the system achieved sludge reduction rate of about 40.1%. The lysis-cryptic growth still obtained satisfactory sludge reduction efficiency despite the comparative low SD rate, which suggested that disintegration rate might not be the decisive factor for cryptic-growth-based sludge reduction. Lysis-cryptic growth did not impact the effluent quality, yet the phosphorus removal performance was enhanced, with effluent total phosphorus concentration decreased by 0.3 mg/L (33%). Crystal compounds of calcium phosphate precipitate were detected in the system by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which indicated the phosphorus removal potential of SD using lime. Moreover, endogenous dehydrogenase activity of activated sludge in the lysis-cryptic system was enhanced, which was beneficial for sludge reduction. SD and cryptic growth in the present study demonstrates an economical and effective approach for sludge reduction.

  9. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology. PMID:28231119

  10. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Nordlund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology.

  11. An Alternative Perspective on the Interfirm Labor Division and Product Development Capabilities under Vertical Disintegration : The Case of the Dissemination of System Knowledge in the Global Mobile Phone Handset Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Masanori, Yasumoto; Shiu, Jing-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The study proposes an alternative perspective to elucidate interfirm labor division under vertical disintegration in order to explore product development capabilities in open environments, drawing on the case of the global mobile handset industries. Product modularization with the birth of supply chain of standardized components/technologies is regarded as the major force to enhance vertical disintegration. Nevertheless, a product developer, particularly a firm without sufficient experiences ...

  12. Sarcoidosis: Oral and extra-oral manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, which is usually associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues and organs. It is mostly present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular, and cutaneous lesions. Oral manifestations of this disease are relatively rare. The present case report shows a 40-year-old male with lesions in the soft tissue of oral cavity (buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established following hematological, biochemical and pulmonary function tests, chest radiograph, and histopathological investigation.

  13. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mankaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics. PMID:25810924

  14. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics.

  15. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...

  16. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and ...

  18. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  19. Epilepsy and oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole

    2002-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.

  20. Oral environment and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  1. Genomics of oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Margaret J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects for oral bacteria and their non-oral-pathogen relatives. This review describes features of several oral bacterial genomes, and emphasizes the themes of species relationships, comparative genomics, and lateral gene transfer. Genomics is having a broad impact on basic research in microbial pathogenesis, and will lead to new approaches in clinical research and therapeutics. The oral microbiota is a unique community especially suited for new challenges to sequence the metagenomes of microbial consortia, and the genomes of uncultivable bacteria.

  2. Oral syringe use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F

    1980-09-01

    Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.

  3. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  4. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  5. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus with oral hypoglycemic drugs in Shunde district%顺德地区2型糖尿病患者口服降糖药的成本-效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪周艳; 张丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objechve: To finish the pharmacoeconomics evaluation on oral hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes meUitus, with reasonably selecting high titer oral hypoglycemic agents to control blood glucose level, for the sake of having a safe, effective, reasonable and economic effect to relief Lhe burdens of patients and society.Methods: The study group and control groups were set up to be researched.400 patients who were diagnosed type 2 diabetes according to the diabetes diagnostic criteria made by American Diabetes Society in 2003 were selected to participate in experiment.They were separated to 1 group as study group (group A) and 3 control groups as control group B.C, D with each goup 100 persons Group A was treated by Gliciazide combined with Metformin (voglibose was used instead of Gibenclami in patients who had significant hypoglycemic reaction).Group B was treated by Rosiglitazone combined with Voglibose.Croup C was treated by Acarbose combined with Repaglinide.Group D was treated by Glimepinde combined with Voglibose.The blood glucose level of patients in each group was regulady monitored.When the experiment ended, the Pharmacoeconomics Evaluation was carried on.Results: It was found that drug cost per day of group A and.total drug cost were obviously lower than that of group B, C, D (P<0.001).But the measuring of FBG, 2hPBG and Glycosylated hemoglobin, in the 4 groups was almost the same and the Hypoglycemia average month incidence and the incidence of advrerse reaction of experiment group by diabetes education didn't have significant difference than that of observation group (P>0.05).Conclusion: The treatment method of group A is the most safe and effective.It was also superior in economy than other three groups%目的:通过对2型糖尿病患者口服降糖药物的药物经济学评价,选择成本效果比最小的给药方案,达到安全、有效、合理、经济用药的效果,减轻患者和社会的负担.方法:在根据2003

  7. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  8. Pulsatile drug delivery to ileo-colonic segments by structured incorporation of disintegrants in pH-responsive polymer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, R.C.A.; Stellaard, F.; Mitrovic, D.; Stuurman, F.E.; Kosterink, J.G.W.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pH-responsive coatings used for oral drug delivery to the lower parts of the gastro-intestinal tract often show a poor performance. A new system for site-specific pulsatile delivery in the ileo-colonic regions is described. The system is based on the non-percolating incorporation of dis

  9. Preparation and characterization of solid oral dosage forms containing soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela R. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones have been extensively used for menopausal symptoms and prevention of hormone-related cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Commercially available forms of isoflavones include supplements, capsules and tablets. However, the non-standardization of soy isoflavones extracts and different dissolution profiles of these solid dosage forms highlight the need of additional studies on the development of well characterized pharmaceutical dosage forms of isoflavones. In this work, immediate release oral tablets of soy isoflavones were obtained and evaluated. Genistein and daidzein, were the main constituents of the dried soy extract. Preparation of the tables was accomplished in a rotary tableting machine following either a dry mixture for direct compression or wet granulation with different excipients. Powder, granules and tablets were evaluated for several parameters, including flow properties, Carr and Hausner indexes, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release profile. Also, a fast and validated HPLC analytical method for both genistein and daidzein was developed. Formulations containing sodium croscarmellose and sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in better flowability as indicated by the flow rate and angle of repose, faster disintegration time and immediate release dissolution profile.

  10. Oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, G W

    1994-03-01

    The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders.

  11. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  12. Microbioma oral humano

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Joana Pinto Oliveira e

    2016-01-01

    O microbioma oral humano é constituído por um vasto conjunto de microrganismos presentes na cavidade oral. Analisando a cavidade oral podemos verificar que nela existem mais de 700 espécies de bactérias responsáveis pelo domínio de parte do microbioma humano, tornando-a um importante local de estudo. É um dos habitats com maior diversidade no corpo humano onde esses microrganismos se apresentam de forma organizada e estruturada. Estes habitats estão intimamente relacionados ...

  13. A disintegrating cosmic string

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, J B

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple sandwich gravitational wave of the Robinson-Trautman family. This is interpreted as representing a shock wave with a spherical wavefront which propagates into a Minkowski background minus a wedge. (i.e. the background contains a cosmic string.) The deficit angle (the tension) of the string decreases through the gravitational wave, which then ceases. This leaves an expanding spherical region of Minkowski space behind it. The decay of the cosmic string over a finite interval of retarded time may be considered to generate the gravitational wave.

  14. Unity and Disintegration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Serbia and Montenegro had been linked since 1918, when Serbians, Croatians and Slovenians formed a kingdom after the end of World WarⅠ. When the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was born in 1929, Serbia and Montenegro were part of it. The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was founded in 1945, after the victory against Fascists during World WarⅡ, and comprised the six constituent republics of Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. In 1963, the country was renamed the Socialist...

  15. Amiloidosis oral nodular Oral nodular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La amiloidosis constituye una entidad marcada por el depósito de amiloide en diferentes tejidos. En la cavidad oral se manifiesta habitualmente en forma de macroglosia, y más raramente, como nódulos dispuestos en la superficie. Caso clínico. Varón afecto de Mieloma Múltiple, que comienza con lesiones nodulares en labio inferior y lengua. A raíz de estas lesiones, mediante estudio histológico, es diagnosticado de Amiloidosis Sistémica. Discusión. Los nódulos amiloideos en la cavidad oral, constituyen una manifestación rara de la amiloidosis sistémica. Su aparición conlleva la necesidad de realizar un diagnostico diferencial con otras entidades y el diagnostico de certeza se obtiene mediante el análisis histológico.Introduction. Amyloidosis is a condition characterized by the deposit of amyloid in different tissues. In the oral cavity it is usually manifested as macroglossia and, more rarely, as nodules on the surface. Clinical case. A man had multiple myeloma that began with nodular lesions of the lower lip and tongue. As a result of these lesions, the patient was diagnosed of systemic amyloidosis by histological study. Discussion. Amyloid nodules in the oral cavity are a rare manifestation of systemic amyloidosis. Its appearance entails the necessity to make I diagnose differential with other organizations and I diagnose of certainty is obtained by means of the histological analysis.

  16. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... site’s privacy policy when you follow the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  2. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are ... dental treatment trigger a hypersensitivity reaction? A: Some dental materials used by the dentist can cause a hypersensitivity ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Skip to Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  5. Leucoplasia oral: Conceptos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escribano-Bermejo

    Full Text Available La leucoplasia es la lesión premaligna más frecuente de la cavidad oral. La Organización Mundial de la Salud la define clínicamente como una lesión predominantemente blanca de la mucosa oral que no puede caracterizarse como ninguna otra lesión conocida y con una elevada tendencia a convertirse en un cáncer oral. El objetivo de esta revisión es hacer un repaso al conocimiento actual acerca de la leucoplasia oral prestando especial atención a su nomenclatura, su etiología, su potencial maligno y su tratamiento.

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes ... Browse Studies by Topic NIDCR-Sponsored Clinical Trials Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  10. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs bet

  11. Oral Cancer Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shown to participate in their development. These include lichen planus, an inflammatory disease of the oral soft ... at an uncontrolled rate, is unable to repair DNA damage within itself, or refuses to self destruct ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College ... signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College ... signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. ...

  14. Probiotics and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Pavitra; Saini, Himani; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Rameshwari

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics utilize the naturally occurring bacteria to confer health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and are being mainly utilized for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease; however, recently, several studies have suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to understand the potential mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize their observed effects wi...

  15. Oral Somatosensory Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    De Boer, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Oral somatosensory awareness refers to the somatic sensations arising within the mouth, and to the information these sensations provide about the state and structure of the mouth itself, and objects in the mouth. Because the oral tissues have a strong somatosensory innervation, they are the locus of some of our most intense and vivid bodily experiences. The salient pain of toothache, or the habit of running one's tongue over one's teeth when someone mentions "dentist", provide two very differ...

  16. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  17. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  18. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  19. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  20. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  1. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  2. Melatonin and oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  3. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat İnanç Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  4. Personality and oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  5. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Blasting Disintegration Engineering in City%城市拆除爆破工程风险评价与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 陈建宏; 江时雨

    2014-01-01

    In order to make dynamic analysis of blasting disintegration engineering in City,the blasting disintegration engi-neering risk evaluation system in city was established.1 6 evaluation indexes were put forward in four aspects,the blasting environment,safety management,design safety and construction safety.Analytic hierarchy process (AHP)and matter-ele-ment analysis were used to determine the index weight of synthesis.With the five-element connection number as assessment tool,the comprehensive evaluation and prediction model of blasting disintegration engineering in City was constructed and applied to make comprehensive evaluation of risks involved with a certain blasting disintegration engineering in City.The re-sults show that in the comprehensive evaluation and prediction model,the static risk assessment and dynamic risk assess-ment are combined;and the results can conform to the experts thought.The model is operable in practice.%为实现对城市拆除爆破工程风险的动态分析,构建城市拆除爆破安全评价指标体系,从爆区环境、安全管理、设计安全及施工安全4个方面提出16个评价指标;结合物元分析与层次分析法(AHP)进行合成,确定各评价指标权重,并以五元联系数作为评价工具,构建城市拆除爆破工程安全评价预测模型;最后,以某城市拆除爆破工程为例,进行评价和预测分析。结果表明:基于物元分析和五元联系数的城市拆除爆破工程安全评价预测模型实现了安全评价时静态与动态的结合,评价结果符合专家思维,在实际应用中具有可操作性。

  6. HPV-associated oral warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

  7. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...... is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work...

  8. Compression and evaluation of extended release matrix pellets prepared by the extrusion/spheronization process into disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendra Pai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel approach for compression of matrix pellets into disintegrating tablets has been studied in an attempt to overcome the issues pertaining to rupture of polymer coat during compression of reservoir-type pellets. Extended release matrix pellets were prepared by the extrusion/spheronization technique using commercially available aqueous dispersions of ethyl cellulose, acrylic polymers and sodium alginate at 10%, 20% and 30%w/w levels. Sertraline hydrochloride was used as the model drug and an in vitro release profile of 12 h was targeted. Tablets containing matrix pellets were prepared by the direct compression process. Acceptance Value, a pharmacopeial test, was applied to study the uniformity of drug distribution. Effect of compression force (2-6 kN, extrusion screen aperture size, diluent blend composition and pellet percentage on drug release and acceptance value were studied. As polymer is uniformly distributed within each pellet, the drug release pattern from uncompressed pellets was comparable to compressed tablets. Surface morphological changes due to calcium chloride treatment were observed using Scanning electron microscopy. The pellet segregated from the surface of the tablet was found to be flattened in the direction of applied compression force with minor deformities. In conclusion, matrix pellets can constitute an alternative approach to reservoir-type pellets in obtaining disintegrating tablets for extended delivery of drugs.Nesse trabalho, estudou-se nova abordagem para a compressão de matrizes de péletes em comprimidos desintegrantes, com o intuito de resolver os problemas relativos à ruptura do polímero de revestimento durante a compressão dos péletes do tipo reservatório. Matrizes de péletes de liberação estendida foram preparadas pela técnica de extrusão/esferonização, utilizando dispersões aquosas comercialmente disponíveis de etil celulose, polímeros acrílicos e alginato de sódio a 10

  9. Preparation of multiparticulate systems for oral delivery of a micronized or nanosized poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerea, Matteo; Pattarino, Franco; Foglio Bonda, Andrea; Palugan, Luca; Segale, Lorena; Vecchio, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare multiparticulate drug delivery systems for oral administration of a poorly soluble drug such as itraconazole. Multiparticulate systems were prepared by extrusion/spheronization technique using a mix of crospovidone, low viscosity hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, micronized drug and water. In order to improve the release performance of the multiparticulate systems, the micronized drug was suspended in water with polysorbate 20 and nanonized by a high-pressure homogenization. The suspension of drug nanoparticles was then spray-dried for enabling an easy handling of the drug and for preventing the over-wetting of the powders during extrusion/spheronization processing. Both multiparticulate units prepared with micronized or nanonized drug showed acceptable disintegrating properties. The nanosizing of micronized drug powder provided a significant improvement of drug dissolution rates of the multiparticulates.

  10. Development of Zingiber officinale in oral dissolving films: Effect of polymers on in vitro, in vivo parameters and clinical efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar S Daud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules, etc. Zingiber officinale, has been used for medicinal purpose since antiquity to treat motion sickness, pregnancy, and cancer-chemotherapy-induced vomiting, mild stomach upset, cough, chronic bronchial problems, and low-grade infections of all kinds and anorexia condition. This work investigates the possibility of developing Zingiber officinale oral dissolving films allowing fast, reproducible dissolution in oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. The oral dissolving films were prepared by solvent-casting method. Prepared films were evaluated for film-forming properties, physico-mechanical properties, palatability, microbial limit test, accelerated stability studies, and clinical efficacy test. The different polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 5cps, maltodextrin, pullulan, and polyvinyl alcohol were explored individually and in combination with each other for the formation of film. Among all polymers, maltodextrin and HPMC 5 cps alone and in combination showed excellent film-forming properties as well as very good physico-mechanical properties. The films resulted into excellent palatability along with least disintegrating time. But at accelerated stability studies, only HPMC 5 cps was found to be stable when compared with other formulations. So, it was concluded that HPMC 5 cps is the best film forming as well as stable polymer with respect to Zingiber officinale oral dissolving film.

  11. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    D. Antunes Freitas; C.I. Vergara Hernández; A. Díaz Caballero; G. Moreira

    2012-01-01

    La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM) o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un infrecuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccid...

  13. Effects of titanium dioxide mediated dairy waste activated sludge deflocculation on the efficiency of bacterial disintegration and cost of sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godvin Sharmila, V; Kavitha, S; Rajashankar, K; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2015-12-01

    This investigation explores the influence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in deflocculating (removal of extracellular polymeric substance - EPS) the sludge and subsequent biomass disintegration by bacterial pretreatment. The EPS removed at an optimized TiO2 dosage of 0.03g/g of SS of TiO2 and a solar radiation exposure time of 15min to enhance the subsequent bacterial disintegration. The outcomes of the bacterial pretreatment reveal SS reduction and COD solubilization for the deflocculated (EPS removed and bacterially pretreated) sludge was observed to be 22.8% and 22.9% which was comparatively greater than flocculated (raw sludge inoculated with bacteria) and control (raw) sludge. The higher methane production potential of about 0.43(gCOD/gVSS) was obtained in deflocculated sludge than the flocculated (0.20gCOD/gVSS) and control (0.073gCOD/gVSS). Economic assessment of this study provides a net profit of about 131.9USD/Ton in deflocculated sludge.

  14. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  15. Oral pregnancy tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh M Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manifesting as small, red erythematous growth on a pedunculated or sometimes sessile base, which is usually hemorrhagic. Although excisional surgery is the treatment of choice , some other treatment protocols such as the use of Nd:YAG laser, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, cryosurgery, intralesional injection of ethanol or corticosteroids, and sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy have been proposed. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman with large oral pyogenic granuloma.

  16. Oral heparin: status review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Orellana Isabel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

  17. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fi elds of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fl uorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fl uoride......The discovery during the fi rst half of the 20th century of the link between natural fl uoride, adjusted fl uoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fl uoride in improving oral health...... including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fl uorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision...

  18. [Oral problems in divers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  19. Oral myiasis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058

  20. Oral environment and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it...

  1. Oral myiasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

    2012-04-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

  2. Oral myiasis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H Raghunath Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

  3. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  4. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  5. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  6. Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Antunes Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un infrecuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, que afecta principalmente la piel, los ganglios linfáticos, los pulmones y membranas mucosas oral, nasal y gastrointestinal. Dependiendo de la inmunidad específica del huésped, la infección puede asumir muchas formas y afecta a uno o varios órganos, llegando a ser una enfermedad grave y potencialmente fatal. Es muy importante para los profesionales de la salud de todo el mundo tener conocimiento acerca de la Paracoccidioidomicosis porque a veces la enfermedad sólo se manifiesta muchos años después de que haya abandonado la zona endémica. Para proporcionar información útil sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad se presenta caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 48 años de edad procedente de una zona rural de Juramento Brasil, por presentar múltiples úlceras dolorosas en encía y paladar de 3 meses de evolución; refiere antecedentes de fumador crónico, al examen clínico extraoral se descartan lesiones en otros órganos y al examen intraoral se observan múltiples úlceras con fondo necrótico y granulomatoso localizadas en encía y paladar. Se realizó una biopsia incisional de la lesión y el material fue enviado para estudio anatomopatológico. El informe histopatológico confirmó la impresión clínica de Paracoccidioidomicosis. El paciente fue tratado con el uso de sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima - 800/60 mg/día, vía oral, cada 12 horas durante 30 días. Las lesiones bucales desaparecieron

  7. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay; Aparna; Kriti Bagri

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots) is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the m...

  8. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  9. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  10. Fossilization of Oral Comoetence and Enlightenments on Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马桂花

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is going m demonstrate the fossilized or fossilizing tendency in oral productions, to explore its underlying causes and to probe possible approaches to postpone or defossilize these phenomena in oral language training and teaching so that the overall level of oral competence for English learners can be further promoted.

  11. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of ‘Fluoride and Oral Health’ has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fl uoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published...

  12. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  13. Oral Manifestations of Menopause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oral manifestations may vary for each patient in the form of burning mouth syndrome .... as chlorhexidine aids in reduction of the accumulation of dental plaque.[5,10 ... women with missing teeth may have a higher risk of hypertension and ...

  14. Imaging in oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeta Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

  15. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  16. The new oral anticoagulants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation oral anticoagulation with the vitamin K antagonists acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon and warfarin reduces the risk of stroke by more than 60%, whereas single or double antiplatelet therapy is much less effective and sometimes associated with a similar ble

  17. History of oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  18. Improving your oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kylafree

    2005-01-01

    The most common question my students ask is ""How can I improve my oral English?"" My answer is always the same: practice. There is no quick way to learn another language. You cannot magically learn new words and have perfect pronunciation. The only way to improve is with practice and patience.

  19. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Sorted by ... > OlderAdults Older Adults and Oral Health Main Content ​ Is dry mouth a natural part ... from fiction by reading this web page about oral health and growing older. Having the right information can ...

  20. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.