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Sample records for voglibose oral disintegrating

  1. [Effect of Food Thickeners on the Disintegration, Dissolution, and Drug Activity of Rapid Oral-disintegrating Tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Kohda, Yukinao; Kudo, Kenzo

    2018-01-01

     For patients with dysphagia in medical facilities and nursing homes, food thickeners are routinely used to aid the ingestion of medicines such as tablets. However, some types of thickeners affect the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, such as rapidly-disintegrating magnesium oxide tablets and donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets. Additionally, delayed disintegration and dissolution of tablets affect a drug's efficacy. As an example, with Voglibose orally disintegrating tablets, marked differences are observed in changes in glucose levels during glucose tolerance testing. When using food thickeners to aid tablet ingestion, it is therefore necessary to select a product that has little effect on drug disintegration, dissolution, and activity.

  2. Evaluation of disintegration properties of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets using a novel disintegration tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new disintegration tester that can determine not only the disintegration time of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets (ODT), but also the disintegration behavior and mechanism. Using the tester, the disintegration properties of the tablets prepared in a previous study were examined. The purpose of this study is to confirm the utility of the tester as an instrument for evaluating the disintegration properties of ODT and determine relations among time, behavior and mechanism of the disintegration. Results demonstrated that in vitro disintegration time in the tester is similar to that in the commercial disintegration tester for ODT and is highly correlated with oral disintegration time. Observations of disintegration process revealed that a difference in disintegration behavior between tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa; the disintegration behavior of the tablets were designated immediate disintegrating type and gradual disintegrating type, respectively. The dynamic swelling profile and water absorption profile indicated that the disintegration mechanism of the tablets involved wicking action induced by swelling of the disintegrant; the disintegration time was closely related to the initial rates of swelling and water absorption. Furthermore, the mechanism of water absorption of tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa shows anomalous diffusion and case-II transport, respectively. The shift in this mechanism is consistent with differences in disintegration time and behavior between the tablets. These findings suggest that information on disintegration properties obtained by our tester is useful for understanding of disintegration phenomena of ODT.

  3. Development of a new disintegration method for orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakutani, Ryo; Muro, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tadashi

    2010-07-01

    Recently, the focus has been on the importance of assessing the oral disintegrative properties of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In particular, in the development stages and the quality control field of ODT products, a physical assessment method which easily measures oral disintegrative properties is desired. For this reason, we developed a new disintegration test method (Kyoto-model disintegration method or KYO method), which is useful to predict the oral disintegrative properties of an ODT easily, and examined the availability of the method. In the KYO method, ODT samples were classified in terms of their water permeability, and a moderate water volume was decided. Subsequently, the disintegrative properties were assessed with the newly proposed method. For 25 commercial prescription ODTs used as samples, a good correlation was shown between the results of a human sensory test by five healthy male volunteers and the results using the KYO method. Furthermore, the KYO method could evaluate time-dependent changes in ODT samples. On the other hand, no correlation was observed between the Japanese Pharmacopeia disintegration test and the human sensory test. These results suggested that the KYO method reflected the disintegration nature of the ODTs in the oral cavity, and could easily be applied to development stages and the quality control field of ODT products.

  4. Determination of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets and correlation with oral disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, G; Eouani, C; Prinderre, P; Joachim, J; Reynier, Jp; Piccerelle, Ph

    2005-03-23

    The assessment of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) is very important in the evaluation and the development of new formulations of this type. So far neither the US Pharmacopoeia nor the European Pharmacopoeia has defined a specific disintegration test for RDT; currently, it is only possible to refer to the tests on dispersible or effervescent tablets for the evaluation of RDT's disintegration capacity. In the present study, we have evaluated the disintegration profile of RDT manufactured by main commercialised technologies, using the texture analyser (TA). In order to simulate as much as possible the oral disintegration of these dosage forms, a new operating structure was developed. This structure mimics the situation in the patient's mouth and provides a gradual elimination of the detached particles during the disintegration process. The obtained time-distance profiles or disintegration profiles enabled the calculation of certain quantitative values as the disintegration onset (t1) and the total disintegration time (t2). These values were used in the characterisation of the effect of test variables as the disintegration medium and temperature on the disintegration time of RDT. Moreover, the oral disintegration time of the same products was evaluated by 14 healthy volunteers. Results obtained when artificial saliva at 37 degrees C was employed as disintegration medium were used to correlate the in vitro (t2) and oral disintegration times. Excellent correlation was found and in addition, we were able to achieve a qualitative measure of the mouthfeel by comparing the thickness of the tablets and the penetration distance obtained from the disintegration profile. This method also permitted the discrimination between different RDT, where differences in the disintegration mechanism were reflected on the disintegration profile achieved for each tablet.

  5. Development and optimization of fluoxetine orally disintegrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behnken design and has also been manufactured efficiently using direct compression technique. Keywords: Box-Behnken experimental design, Orally disintegrating tablets, Direct compression,. Antidepressant ... production of ODTs [4,5].

  6. Dissolution testing of orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Johannes; Gajendran, Jayachandar; Guillot, Alexis; Schichtel, Julian; Tuereli, Akif

    2012-07-01

    For industrially manufactured pharmaceutical dosage forms, product quality tests and performance tests are required to ascertain the quality of the final product. Current compendial requirements specify a disintegration and/or a dissolution test to check the quality of oral solid dosage forms. These requirements led to a number of compendial monographs for individual products and, at times, the results obtained may not be reflective of the dosage form performance. Although a general product performance test is desirable for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), the complexity of the release controlling mechanisms and short time-frame of release make such tests difficult to establish. For conventional oral solid dosage forms (COSDFs), disintegration is often considered to be the prerequisite for subsequent dissolution. Hence, disintegration testing is usually insufficient to judge product performance of COSDFs. Given the very fast disintegration of ODTs, the relationship between disintegration and dissolution is worthy of closer scrutiny. This article reviews the current status of dissolution testing of ODTs to establish the product quality standards. Based on experimental results, it appears that it may be feasible to rely on the dissolution test without a need for disintegration studies for selected ODTs on the market. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Clinical disintegration time of orally disintegrating tablets clinically available in Japan in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshita, Tomohiro; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Disintegration time is an important characteristic of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), and evaluation of disintegration time is a key step in formulation development, manufacturing, and clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to clarify the clinical disintegration time of ODTs that are currently used clinically, and to evaluate its correlation with the in vitro disintegration time of ODTs which was measured using Tricorptester, a newly developed disintegration testing apparatus. The clinical disintegration time of 17 ODT products was measured in healthy volunteers (n=9-10; age range, 21-28 years). A randomized single-blind trial was performed; each tablet was placed on the tongues of the participants, and it disintegrated in their oral cavities. No significant difference was observed in the clinical disintegration time of each ODT among the 3 groups to which the subjects were randomly assigned. The clinical disintegration time of the 17 ODT products was between 17.6 s and 33.8 s. The in vitro disintegration time of 26 clinically used ODT products measured using Tricorptester ranged between 4.40 s and 30.4 s. A significant positive correlation was observed between in vitro and clinical disintegration times (r=0.79; pdisintegration and that the disintegration time varied according to the product. In addition, the in vitro disintegration time of ODTs measured using Tricorptester is a good reflection of the disintegration time in the oral cavity.

  8. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  9. [Formulation optimization of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegration tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wei, Li; Chen, Ting

    2008-07-01

    To optimize the formulation of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegrating tablets. Mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose (PH 102) and lactose 80 were used as diluent. A polynomial regression algorithm was used to evaluate the relationship between the controlling factor, compacting pressure and diluent ratio, and disintegration time, tensile strength of tablets. Optimum formulation and process parameters could be determined by contrast the contour plot of tensile strength to that of disintegration time. The disintegration time and tensile strength of panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets were good, and the taste was satisfactory. Panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets achieve the goal of design and this method can be fairly used in formulation screening.

  10. Formulation studies for mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Simay; Aytekin, Eren; Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) recently have gained much attention to fulfill the needs for pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Aim of this study was to develop new ODT formulations containing mirtazapine, an antidepressant drug molecule having bitter taste, by using simple and inexpensive preparation methods such as coacervation, direct compression and to compare their characteristics with those of reference product (Remereon SolTab). Coacervation method was chosen for taste masking of mirtazapine. In vitro characterization studies such as diameter and thickness, weight variation, tablet hardness, tablet friability and disintegration time were performed on tablet formulations. Wetting time and in vitro dissolution tests of developed ODTs also studied using 900 mL 0.1 N HCl medium, 900 mL pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or 900 mL pH 4.5 acetate buffer at 37 ± 0.2 °C as dissolution medium. Ratio of Eudragit® E-100 was chosen as 6% (w/w) since the dissolution profile of A1 (6% Eudragit® E-100) was found closer to the reference product than A2 (4% Eudragit® E-100) and A3 (8% Eudragit® E-100). Group D, E and F formulations were presented better results in terms of disintegration time. Dissolution results indicated that Group E and F formulations showed optimum properties in all three dissolution media. Formulations D1, D4, D5, E3, E4, F1 and F5 found suitable as ODT formulations due to their favorable disintegration times and dissolution profiles. Developed mirtazapine ODTs were found promising in terms of showing the similar characteristics to the original formulation.

  11. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, δ and β crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the β-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of the disintegration of orally rapid disintegrating tablets by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Yamanaka, Azusa; Uchino, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Kuniko; Sadamoto, Kiyomi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To measure the rapid disintegration of Oral Disintegrating Tablets (ODT), a new test (XCT) was developed using X-ray computing tomography (X-ray CT). Placebo ODT, rapid disintegration candy (RDC) and Gaster®-D-Tablets (GAS) were used as model samples. All these ODTs were used to measure oral disintegration time (DT) in distilled water at 37±2°C by XCT. DTs were affected by the width of mesh screens, and degree to which the tablet holder vibrated from air bubbles. An in-vivo tablet disintegration test was performed for RDC using 11 volunteers. DT by the in-vivo method was significantly longer than that using the conventional tester. The experimental conditions for XCT such as the width of the mesh screen and degree of vibration were adjusted to be consistent with human DT values. Since DTs by the XCT method were almost the same as the human data, this method was able to quantitatively evaluate the rapid disintegration of ODT under the same conditions as inside the oral cavity. The DTs of four commercially available ODTs were comparatively evaluated by the XCT method, conventional tablet disintegration test and in-vivo method.

  13. A new modified wetting test and an alternative disintegration test for orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Patrick; Lasher, Jason; Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella

    2016-02-20

    Industrial manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms require quality tests, such as friability, hardness, and disintegration. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) disintegration test uses 900mL of water. However, recent studies of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have shown that this volume does not accurately portray the oral environment. In our study, various tests were conducted with a more moderate amount of water that accurately resembles the oral environment. A simulated wetting test was performed to calculate the water absorption ratio. Results showed that wetting was comparable to disintegration. Although the wetting test worked for most types of ODTs, it had limitations that produced inaccurate results. This led to the use of a modified shaking water bath test. This test was found to work for all types of ODT products and was not subject to the limitations of the wetting test. The shake test could provide disintegration times rather than water permeation times; however, it could not be used to calculate the water absorption ratio. A strong correlation was observed between the standardized shake test and the USP disintegration times for the tablets. This shake test could be used during the development stages and quality tests for ODTs with relative ease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of oral disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets using texture analyzer and computational optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, G; Zelkó, R

    2013-05-20

    One of the promising approaches to predict in vivo disintegration time of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) is the use of texture analyzer instrument. Once the method is able to provide good in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) in the case of different tablets, it might be able to predict the oral disintegration time of similar products. However, there are many tablet parameters that influence the in vivo and the in vitro disintegration time of ODT products. Therefore, the measured in vitro and in vivo disintegration times can occasionally differ, even if they coincide in most cases of the investigated products and the in vivo disintegration times may also change if the aimed patient group is suffering from a special illness. If the method is no longer able to provide good IVIVC, then the modification of a single instrumental parameter may not be successful and the in vitro method must be re-set in a complex manner in order to provide satisfactory results. In the present experiment, an optimization process was developed based on texture analysis measurements using five different tablets in order to predict their in vivo disintegration times, and the optimized texture analysis method was evaluated using independent tablets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Valeriu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are dosage forms which disintegrate in mouth within seconds without need of water. This type of quality in dosage form can be attained by addition of different varieties of excipients. Pharmaburst™ 500 is a co-processed excipient system which allows rapid disintegration and low adhesion to punches. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate 25 mg diclofenac sodium ODTs (orodispersible tablets batches by direct compression method at different compression forces 10 kN (F1 and 20 kN (F2 and directly compressible excipients used in different ratio (Avicel PH 102, magnesium stearate and coprocessed excipient Pharmaburst™ 500, 70% and 80% w/w. The obtained batches were analyzed for appearance, tablet thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and non-compendial methods (wetting time. Co-processed Pharmaburst™ 500 excipient 70% used for sodium diclofenac ODT obtaining determined good results for quality control tests evaluation.

  16. Orally Disintegrating Tablets: A Review | Hirani | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug delivery systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated as pharmaceutical scientists acquire a better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters pertinent to their performance. Over the past three decades, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have gained considerable attention as a preferred ...

  17. Development and Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    designed and manufactured by direct compression method, using microcrystalline (Avicel PH-102), mannitol ... batch (FOB-01) reflected the successful development of new formulation of orally disintegrating ... investigate the product variables that influence product quality. .... thickness was high but was within limits of ± 5 %.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Visualize Disintegration of Oral Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Louise; Hinton, Jordan; Marjoribanks, Cameron; Mirjalili, Ali; Kennedy, Julia; Svirskis, Darren

    2017-03-01

    This article demonstrates that magnetic resonance imaging can visualize the disintegration of a variety of paracetamol containing oral formulations in an in vitro setting and in vivo in the human stomach. The different formulations had unique disintegration profiles which could be imaged both in vitro and in vivo. No special formulation approaches or other contrast agents were required. These data demonstrate the potential for further use of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate and understand the disintegration behavior of different formulation types in vivo, and could potentially be used as a teaching tool in pharmaceutical and medical curricula. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of orally disintegrating clopidogrel tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Mohamed Mahrous

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent advances in drug delivery systems have aimed to achieve better patient compliance. One of these advances is the formulation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs that dissolve instantaneously, releasing drugs within a few seconds without the need of water. The main objective of this paper was to prepare and develop ODTs of clopidogrel. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression. The effect of three superdisintegrants, namely crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate, using three different disintegration times on the dissolution rate was investigated. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. Furthermore, the interaction of clopidogrel with the formulation excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. DSC studies revealed that there were no interactions between the drug and the excipients used. All tablets had hardness values in the range 4.0-5.2 kp and friability lower than 1%. The weight and drug content uniformity of all formulations was within official limits according to BP. In vitro drug release studies of the ODTs showed that more than 90% of the drug was released within ten minutes. A palatability test in human volunteers showed acceptable taste and mouth feel. Thus, the obtained results conclusively demonstrated successful rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets and acceptable palatability.

  20. Evaluation of co-processed excipients used for direct compression of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) using novel disintegration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata; Krupa, Anna; Skorka, Tomasz; Niwinski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The compendial method of evaluation of orodispersible tablets (ODT) is the same disintegration test as for conventional tablets. Since it does not reflect the disintegration process in the oral cavity, alternative methods are proposed that are more related to in vivo conditions, e.g. modified dissolution paddle apparatus, texture analyzer, rotating shaft apparatus, CCD camera application, or wetting time and water absorption ratio measurement. In this study, three different co-processed excipients for direct compression of orally disintegrating tablets were compared (Ludiflash, Pharmaburst, F-Melt). The properties of the prepared tablets such as tensile strength, friability, wetting time and water absorption ratio were evaluated. Disintegration time was measured using the pharmacopoeial method and the novel apparatus constructed by the authors. The apparatus was based on the idea of Narazaki et al., however it has been modified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied for the analysis of the disintegration mechanism of prepared tablets. The research has shown the significant effect of excipients, compression force, temperature, volume and kind of medium on the disintegration process. The novel apparatus features better correlation of disintegration time with in vivo results (R(2) = 0.9999) than the compendial method (R(2) = 0.5788), and presents additional information on the disintegration process, e.g. swelling properties.

  1. Evaluation of the palatabilities in 10 different famotidine orally disintegrating tablets by combination of disintegration device and taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Miyako; Hazekawa, Mai; Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the palatabilities of the original and nine generic versions of famotidine orally disintegrating tablets (FODTs) by means of disintegration times and bitterness intensities determined using in combination disintegration device and taste sensor comparison of human gustatory sensation tests. The disintegration times were determined using a new disintegration testing equipment for ODTs, the OD-mate and bitterness intensities were determined using the SA501C taste-sensing system. The disintegration time and bitterness of each FODT was evaluated in gustatory sensation tests. There was a good correlation between the disintegration times of 10 FODTs estimated in human gustatory testing and those found using the OD-mate. The bitterness intensities of FODTs at 10, 20 and 30 s after starting the disintegration using the OD-mate and the values determined by the taste sensor were highly correlated with the bitterness intensities determined in gustatory sensation testing. A combination of the OD-mate and the SA501C was capable of predicting the palatabilities, disintegration properties and bitterness intensity of FODTs.

  2. The practical approach to the evaluation of methods used to determine the disintegration time of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata; Pelka, Przemyslaw

    2015-09-01

    Even that orodispersible tablets (ODTs) have been successfully used in therapy for more than 20 years, there is still no compendial method of their disintegration time evaluation other than the pharmacopoeial disintegration test conducted in 800-900 mL of distilled water. Therefore, several alternative tests more relevant to in vivo conditions were described by different researchers. The aim of this study was to compare these methods and correlate them with in vivo results. Six series of ODTs were prepared by direct compression. Their mechanical properties and disintegration times were measured with pharmacopoeial and alternative methods and compared with the in vivo results. The highest correlation with oral disintegration time was found in the case of own-construction apparatus with additional weight and the employment of the method proposed by Narazaki et al. The correlation coefficients were 0.9994 (p disintegration time determination is eligible and scientifically justified.

  3. Disintegration of chemotherapy tablets for oral administration in patients with swallowing difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siden, Rivka; Wolf, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    The administration of oral chemotherapeutic drugs can be problematic in patients with swallowing difficulties. Inability to swallow solid dosage forms can compromise compliance and may lead to poor clinical outcome. The current technique of tablet crushing to aid in administration is considered an unsafe practice. By developing a technique to disintegrate tablets in an oral syringe, the risk associated with tablet crushing can be avoided. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using disintegration in an oral syringe for the administration of oral chemotherapeutic tablets. Eight commonly used oral chemotherapeutic drugs were tested. Tablets were placed in an oral syringe and allowed to disintegrate in tap water. Various volumes and temperatures were tested to identify which combination allows for complete disintegration of the tablet in the shortest amount of time. The oral syringe disintegration method was considered feasible if disintegration occurred in ≤15 min and in ≤20 mL of water and the dispersion passed through an oral syringe tip. The following tablets were shown to disintegrate within 15 min and in disintegration test. Disintegrating oral chemotherapeutic tablets in a syringe provides a closed system to administer hazardous drugs and allows for the safe administration of oral chemotherapeutic drugs in a tablet form to patients with swallowing difficulties.

  4. Evaluation of spray and freeze dried excipient bases containing disintegration accelerators for the formulation of metoclopramide orally disintegrating tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanazi, Fars K.

    2007-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) are gaining attractiveness over conventional tablets especially for patients having difficulty in swallowing such as pediatric, geriatric, bedridden and disable patients. ODT technologies render the tablets disintegrate in the mouth without chewing or additional water intake. So far there have been many patents for ODT, but only few publications are dealing with this dosage form. The aim of the present study was to formulate metoclopramide in ODT with sufficient mechanical strength and fast disintegration from bases prepared by both spray (SD) and freeze drying (FD) techniques. Different disintegration accelerators (DA) were utilized to prepare proper ODT using various super-disintegrants (Ac-Di-Sol, Kollidon and Sodium Starch glycolate), a volatilizing solvent (ethanol) and an amino acid (glycine). Metoclopramide, an antiemetic medication, was used a model drug in the formulated ODT. It was noted that the disintegration of ODT depends on utilization of DA in both SD and FD techniques to prepare tablet bases for ODT and so many other factors such as drying processes. The good disintegration property of the prepared tablets was related to the excellent wettability of the ingredients after being subjected to the drying processes. Results also showed that the addition of DA to the tablet bases before drying process results in lengthening of the disintegration time in comparison to their addition to the tablet bases after the drying process. Those findings be utilized for many drugs and they may be considered versatile in their applications. Also, the disintegration of the ODT in the buccal cavity may favor fast absorption via the mucus membrane in the oral cavity. (author)

  5. Lecithin, gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen orally disintegrating films: functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J G; Silva, A G; Cervi-Bitencourt, C M; Vanin, F M; Carvalho, R A

    2016-05-01

    Orally disintegrating films (ODFs) can transport natural active compounds such as ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). This paper aimed to investigate the effect of lecithin on different gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen (HC) polymeric matrices with addition of EEP. ODFs were prepared by casting technique and were characterized (color parameters, water content, mechanical properties, microstructure, disintegration time (DT), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle (CA), swelling degree and total phenolic content). The mechanical properties were influenced by HC. The microstructure demonstrated increased porosity and roughness in films with EEP, and the addition of lecithin resulted in an increase in the number of pores. Lecithin-gelatin and lecithin-EEP-gelatin interactions were observed by FTIR. The addition of HC and EEP reduced the DT and CA, and HC and lecithin reduced the swelling capacity. However, the swelling capacity was not affected by presence of EEP. The addition of lecithin to gelatin and HC ODFs may improve the incorporation and the oral transport of active compounds such as EEP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of low cost orally disintegrating film (ODF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordao Barrozo Heinemann

    Full Text Available Abstract Orally disintegrating films (ODF produced with a hydrophilic polymers are a thin and flexible material, wich disintegrate in contact with saliva and can vehicule bioactive materials. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize ODF formulation with potential to act as a carrier for different bioactives compounds prepared with low cost polymers. Gelatin (G, starch (S, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and their blends (G:S, CMC:S, CMC:G, and CMC:S:G were prepared by casting technique with sorbitol as a plasticizer. The formulations were characterized in terms of visual aspects, FTIR, SEM, mechanical characteristics, hygroscopicity, dissolution (in vitro and in vivo and swelling index. FTIR analysis revealed that no interaction between polymers in ODF was observed. By SEM, it was possible to observe differences on surfaces by different polymers. ODF made with CMC and CMC:G presented higher water absorption (P<0.05 and higher swelling index probably due to the higher water affinity by CMC. Formulations with G, CMC:G and CMC:S:G presented the highest values of tensile strength (P<0.05. ODF prepared with S alone presented the highest disintegration time, the others formulations showed in vitro dissolution ranging from 5.22 to 8.50 min, while in vivo dissolution time ranged from 2.15 to 3.38 min. By the formulations made with G and blend of G:S and CMC:S:G it is possible to develop a ODF of low cost with desired characteristics being an alternative vehicle to deliver functional compounds for continuous use.

  7. Evaluation of the disintegration properties of commercial famotidine 20 mg orally disintegrating tablets using a simple new test and human sensory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tsutomu; Narazaki, Ryuichi; Nagira, Shinsuke; Ohwaki, Takayuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Iwamoto, Kiyoshi

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness and broad-applicability of a simple disintegration test method for orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). Eight types of commercial famotidine 20 mg orally disintegrating tablets with different physical properties (formulation, manufacturing method, tablet weight, shape, diameter, thickness, etc.), were used. Disintegration times of these tablets were evaluated employing human sensory test, conventional disintegration test, and the new proposed disintegration test. The human sensory test was performed in 5 healthy volunteers. In the conventional disintegration test, the disintegration apparatus described in the Japanese Pharmacopeia (JP 1(st)) was used. Our proposed new test which is characterized by a rotating shaft with a low weight (10, 15 g) and rotation speed (10, 25, 50 rpm) was evaluated using tablets with and without storage under severe conditions (60 degrees C/75%RH for 1 week). The disintegration times of famotidine 20 mg orally disintegrating tablets in human sensory test varied from 9 to 32 s. In contrast, disintegration times in the conventional test were prolonged to over 300 s. Disintegration times in the new proposed test were close to those in human sensory test. Especially, when the new test was conducted with 15 or 10 g weight and 25 rpm, the slope (human sensory test vs. new proposed test) was almost 1. We were able to demonstrate that the new proposed test was useful to estimate the actual human disintegration time.

  8. Oral Solid Dosage Form Disintegration Testing - The Forgotten Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in the 1930s, disintegration testing has become an important quality control (QC) test in pharmaceutical industry, and disintegration test procedures for various dosage forms have been described by the different pharmacopoeias, with harmonization among them still not quite complete. However, because of the fact that complete disintegration does not necessarily imply complete dissolution, much more research has been focused on dissolution rather than on disintegration testing. Nevertheless, owing to its simplicity, disintegration testing seems to be an attractive replacement to dissolution testing as recognized by the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, in some cases. Therefore, with proper research being carried out to overcome the associated challenges, the full potential of disintegration testing could be tapped saving considerable efforts allocated to QC testing and quality assurance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  10. Development and evaluation of ofloxacin orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath Pralhadrao Mohite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste of ofloxacin, a broad spectrum bactericidal agent, is masked and orally disintegrating tablets were formulated. The bitter taste is masked by forming complex between drug and weak cation exchange resins, Tulsion 335 and Indion 204. Effect of pH and drug:resin ratio on the drug loading was studied. Maximum drug loading was observed at pH 6. Ratio of 1:2 of drug:resin masked almost complete bitterness of ofloxacin. Formation of complexes was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Physical characterization of taste masked complexes was carried out. Present work envisages the taste masking of ofloxacin and development of orally disintegrating tablets. The effect of pH and resin quantities on drug loading were studied to find the optimum conditions of drug loading for complete taste masking. Effect of superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and polyplasdone XL at varying level on physical parameters of compressed tablets was also assessed. The formulations containing 5 % w/w polyplasdone XL showed about 90 % of drug release within 5 minutes. No significant differences were observed in the physical parameters of resinates as well as tablets prepared from Tulsion 335 and Indion 204.O gosto amargo de ofloxacina, agente bactericida de largo espectro, é mascarado e formularam-se comprimidos dispersíveis. O sabor amargo é mascarado pela formação de complexo entre o fármaco e resinas de troca catiônica fraca, Tulsion 335 e Indion 204. Efeito do pH e da proporção fármaco: resina sobre a carga de fármaco foi estudada. Carga de fármaco máxima foi observada em pH 6. Proporção 1:2 do fármaco: resina mascarou quase completamente o gosto amargo de ofloxacina. A formação de complexos foi confirmada por espectroscopia no IV. Caracterização física dos complexos de sabor mascarado foi realizada. O presente trabalho preconiza o mascaramento do gosto de ofloxacina e desenvolvimento decomprimidos por via oral, se

  11. Gelatin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrices — Polymer interactions approach for oral disintegrating films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, Marcela P., E-mail: marcela.tedesco@usp.br; Monaco-Lourenço, Carla A., E-mail: carla.monaco@usp.br; Carvalho, Rosemary A., E-mail: rosecarvalho@usp.br

    2016-12-01

    Oral disintegrating film represents an optimal alternative for delivery system of active compounds. The choice of film-forming polymer is the first step in the development of oral disintegrating films and the knowledge of molecular interactions in this matrix is fundamental to advance in this area. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films and their blends as matrices of oral disintegrating films. The films were produced by casting technique and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical properties, contact angle, time disintegration and bioadhesive strength. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that enthalpy of fusion and melting temperatures of the blends films were lower than those of the gelatin film, which may be associated with the lack of intra-chain interactions also observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. In blends, a less compact cross-section structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images compared with isolated polymer films. The addition of HPMC increased the elongation, hydrophilicity and in vitro bioadhesive force and decreased in vitro disintegration time, important properties in the development of oral disintegrating films. Although the mixture of the polymers showed no synergistic behavior, this study may contribute to the development of new applications for polymeric matrices in the pharmaceutical industry. - Highlights: • Effect of gelatin/HPMC blend on oral disintegrating films properties. • Intramolecular interaction of films was evaluated. • Mixtures of the polymers provoked reductions in intra-chain interactions. • HPMC content affects hydrophilic of oral disintegrating films.

  12. Gelatin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrices — Polymer interactions approach for oral disintegrating films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Marcela P.; Monaco-Lourenço, Carla A.; Carvalho, Rosemary A.

    2016-01-01

    Oral disintegrating film represents an optimal alternative for delivery system of active compounds. The choice of film-forming polymer is the first step in the development of oral disintegrating films and the knowledge of molecular interactions in this matrix is fundamental to advance in this area. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films and their blends as matrices of oral disintegrating films. The films were produced by casting technique and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical properties, contact angle, time disintegration and bioadhesive strength. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that enthalpy of fusion and melting temperatures of the blends films were lower than those of the gelatin film, which may be associated with the lack of intra-chain interactions also observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. In blends, a less compact cross-section structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images compared with isolated polymer films. The addition of HPMC increased the elongation, hydrophilicity and in vitro bioadhesive force and decreased in vitro disintegration time, important properties in the development of oral disintegrating films. Although the mixture of the polymers showed no synergistic behavior, this study may contribute to the development of new applications for polymeric matrices in the pharmaceutical industry. - Highlights: • Effect of gelatin/HPMC blend on oral disintegrating films properties. • Intramolecular interaction of films was evaluated. • Mixtures of the polymers provoked reductions in intra-chain interactions. • HPMC content affects hydrophilic of oral disintegrating films.

  13. Development of Oral Fast-Disintegrating Levothyroxine Films for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... The films were evaluated for disintegration time, in vitro drug release, physical appearance, thickness, ... film is suitable for levothyroxine in the management of hypothyroidism in pediatrics.

  14. Formulation and Characterization of Acetaminophen Nanoparticles in Orally Disintegrating Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    AI-Nemrawi, Nusaiba K.

    The purpose of this study is to prepare acetaminophen loaded nanoparticles to be cast directly, while still in the emulsion form, into Orally Disintegrating Films (ODF). By casting the nanoparticles in the films, we expected to keep the particles in a stable form where the nanoparticles would be away from each other to prevent their aggregation. Once the films are applied on the buccal mucosa, they are supposed to dissolve within seconds, releasing the nanoparticles. Then the nanoparticles could be directly absorbed through the mucosa to the blood stream and deliver acetaminophen there. The oral cavity mucosa is one of the most attractive sites for systemic drug delivery due to its high permeability and blood supply. Furthermore, it is robust and shows short recovery times after stress or damage, and the drug bypasses first pass effect and avoids presystemic elimination in the GI tract. Nanoencapsulation increases drug efficacy, specificity, tolerability and therapeutic index. These Nanocapsules have several advantages in the protection of premature degradation and interaction with the biological environment, enhancement of absorption into a selected tissue, bioavailability, retention time and improvement of intracellular penetration. The most important characteristics of nanoparticles are their size, encapsulation efficiency (EE), zeta potential (surface charge), and the drug release profiles. Unfortunately, nanoparticles tend to precipitate or aggregate into larger particles within a short time after preparation or during storage. Some solutions for this problem were mentioned in literature including lyophilization and spray drying. These methods are usually expensive and give partial solutions that might have secondary problems; such as low re-dispersion efficacy of the lyophilized NPs. Furthermore, most of the formulations of NPs are invasive or topical. Few formulas are available to be given orally. Fast disintegrating films (ODFs) are rapidly gaining interest

  15. A new formulation for orally disintegrating tablets using a suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Y; Irisawa, Y; Okimoto, K; Osawa, T; Yamashita, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) that has high tablet hardness and a fast oral disintegration rate using a new preparation method. To obtain rapid disintegration granules (RDGs), a saccharide, such as trehalose, mannitol, or lactose, was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension method). As an additional disintegrant, crospovidone, light anhydrous silicic acid, or hydroxypropyl starch was also included in the suspension. The RDGs obtained possessed extremely large surface areas, narrow particle size distribution, and numerous micro-pores. When tabletting these RDGs, it was found that the RDGs increased tablet hardness by decreasing plastic deformation and increasing the contact frequency between granules. In all tablets, a linear relationship was observed between tablet hardness and oral disintegration time. From each linear correlation line, a slope (D/H value) and an intercept (D/H(0) value) were calculated. Tablets with small D/H and D/H(0) values could disintegrate immediately in the oral cavity regardless of the tablet hardness and were considered to be appropriate for ODTs. Therefore, these values were used as key parameters to select better ODTs. Of all the RDGs prepared in this study, mannitol spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (2.5:1 w/w ratio) showed most appropriate properties for ODTs; fast in vivo oral disintegration time, and high tablet hardness. In conclusion, this simple method to prepare superior formulations for new ODTs was established by spray-coating mannitol with a suspension of appropriate disintegrants.

  16. Oral Disintegration Tablets of Stavudine for HIV Management: A New Technological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, V; Ramakrishna, B; Devi, P Shalini; Karthik, S

    2012-11-01

    Stavudine oral disintegration tablets were formulated to minimize the bitter taste and to reduce the first-pass hepatic metabolism. The various precompression parameters like the angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and Hausner's ratio were determined for the powder blend. In this study, 14 formulations of stavudine oral disintegration tablet were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, percentage friability, disintegration time, hardness, wetting time and water absorption ratio. The in vitro dissolution study results of the batch S1 (stavudine+crospovidone+sodium starch glycollate) are encouraging as highest dissolution rate (99.2% in 100 min) and lowest time of disintegration (56 s) was achieved. The in vivo drug release studies were carried out in rabbits and the relative bioavailability of formulation S1 was found to be 2.83 times greater than that of conventional tablets.

  17. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and potential differences in treatment-emergent weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagianis, Jamie; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Arranz, Belen; Treuer, Tamás; Maguire, Gerald A.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Chawla, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Several papers and communications have reported possible weight reduction or less weight gain when patients start or switch to orally disintegrating olanzapine, as contrasted with standard oral olanzapine tablets. In this paper, the current literature is reviewed and hypothesized mechanisms of

  18. Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Amelian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral

  19. Application of freeze-drying technology in manufacturing orally disintegrating films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Odeniyi, Michael Ayodele; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2016-01-01

    Freeze drying technology has not been maximized and reported in manufacturing orally disintegrating films. The aim of this study was to explore the freeze drying technology in the formulation of sildenafil orally disintegrating films and compare the physical properties with heat-dried orally disintegrating film. Central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three factors, namely concentration of carbopol, wheat starch and polyethylene glycol 400 on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the film. Heat-dried films had higher tensile strength than films prepared using freeze-dried method. For folding endurance, freeze-dried films showed improved endurance than heat-dried films. Moreover, films prepared using freeze-dried methods were thicker and had faster disintegration time. Formulations with higher amount of carbopol and starch showed higher tensile strength and thickness whereas formulations with higher PEG 400 content showed better flexibility. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the freeze-dried films had more porous structure compared to the heat-dried film as a result of the release of water molecule from the frozen structure when it was subjected to freeze drying process. The sildenafil film was palatable. The dissolution profiles of freeze-dried and heat-dried films were similar to Viagra® with f2 of 51.04 and 65.98, respectively.

  20. Methylphenidate disintegration from oral formulations for intravenous use by experienced substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, G D; Johannsson, M; Magnusson, A; Rafnar, B O; Sigurdsson, E; Steingrimsson, S; Asgrimsson, V; Snorradottir, I; Bragadottir, H; Haraldsson, H M

    2017-09-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a prescription stimulant used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH is currently the preferred substance among most intravenous (i.v.) substance users in Iceland. Four types of MPH preparations were available in Iceland at the time of study: Immediate-release (IR), sustained-release (SR), osmotic controlled-release oral delivery (OROS) tablet and osmotic-controlled release (OCR). MPH OROS has previously been rated the least desirable by i.v. users and we hypothesized that this was associated with difficulty of disintegrating MPH from OROS formulation. The aim of the study was to measure the amount of MPH and the viscosity of the disintegrated solutions that were made from the four MPH formulations by four i.v.-users and non-users. A convenience sample of four i.v. substance users and 12 non-users. Non-users imitated the methods applied by experienced i.v. substance users for disintegrated MPH formulations. Both groups managed to disintegrate over 50% of MPH from IR and SR formulations but only 20% from OROS (pusers and non-users. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of viscosity and the amount of disintegrated MPH from prescription drugs for i.v. use. The results indicate that the ease of disintegration, amount of MPH and viscosity may explain the difference in popularity for i.v. use between different MPH formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, characterization and ex vivo evaluation of an orally disintegrating film formulation containing pyrazinamide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adeleke, Oluwatoyin A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vivo Evaluation of an Orally Disintegrating Film Formulation Containing Pyrazinamide O. A. Adeleke 1, P-C. Tsai 2, B. B. Michniak-Kohn 2 1 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 2 Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey Purpose...

  2. A novel and discriminative method of in vitro disintegration time for preparation and optimization of taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of carbinoxamine maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Peng; Qian, Rong; Sun, Tianyu; Fang, Fangzhi; Wang, Zonghua; Ke, Xue; Xu, Bohui

    2018-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to mask bitter taste and decrease the disintegration time of carbinoxamine maleate (CAM) orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In order to screen the prescription of ODTs, a novel modified in vitro disintegration method (MIVDM) was developed to measure the in vitro disintegration time. In this method, different concentrations of ethanol served as disintegration medium in order to delay the in vitro water absorption and disintegration process of tablets. The MIVDM demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo correlation and proved more precise and discriminative than other reported methods. In this research, ion exchange resins (IERs) were used to mask bitter taste for improving mouthfeel. The drug-resin ratio and reaction temperature were investigated to obtain the optimum carbinoxamine resin complexes (CRCs). The characterization of CRCs revealed an amorphous state. ODTs were prepared by direct compression. Superdisintegrants and diluents of ODTs were screened first. Further optimization was carried out by using Box-Behnken design. The effect of (X 1 ) mannitol/microcrystalline cellulose ratio, (X 2 ) the amount of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose and (X 3 ) the hardness was investigated for achieving the lowest (Y) in vitro disintegration time. Technological characterization, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and roughness degree were evaluated. The CRCs and ODTs proved successful taste-masking efficiency. The end product improved patients' compliance. The developed MIVDM was practical for commercial use.

  3. Evaluation of palatability of 10 commercial amlodipine orally disintegrating tablets by gustatory sensation testing, OD-mate as a new disintegration apparatus and the artificial taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takahiro; Yoshida, Miyako; Hazekawa, Mai; Haraguchi, Tamami; Furuno, Hiroyuki; Teraoka, Makoto; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the palatability of 10 formulations (the original manufacturer's formulation and nine generics) of amlodipine orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by means of human gustatory sensation testing, disintegration/dissolution testing and the evaluation of bitterness intensity using a taste sensor. Initially, the palatability, dissolution and bitterness intensity of the ODTs were evaluated in gustatory sensation tests. Second, the disintegration times of the ODTs were measured using the OD-mate, a newly developed apparatus for measuring the disintegration of ODTs, and lastly, the bitterness intensities were evaluated using an artificial taste sensor. Using factor analysis, the factors most affecting the palatability of amlodipine ODTs were found to be disintegration and taste. There was high correlation between the disintegration times of the 10 amlodipine ODTs estimated in human gustatory testing and those found using the OD-mate. The bitterness intensities of amlodipine ODTs 10, 20 and 30 s after starting the conventional brief dissolution test and the values determined by the taste sensor were highly correlated with the bitterness intensities determined in gustatory sensation testing. The OD-mate and the taste sensor may be useful for predicting the disintegration and bitterness intensity of amlodipine ODTs in the mouth. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.

  5. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika, E-mail: dr_krutikasawant@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.

  6. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Abdelbary, Maged F; Ali, Bahaa E; Aljaeid, Bader M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets) as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1), swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2), and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3). Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for pre- and post-compression characteristics. The prepared OD-mini-tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2) and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use.

  7. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Say Khalid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1, swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2, and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3. Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for preand post-compression characteristics. The prepared ODmini- tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2 and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use.

  8. Development and characterization of orally-disintegrating films for propolis delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Gonçalves Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen (HC on the properties of an orally disintegrating film containing propolis ethanol extract (PEE as an active component. The films were evaluated in terms of total phenols, mechanical properties, solubility, contact angle, disintegration time, and microstructure. The films were prepared by casting with 2 g of protein mass (gelatin and HC, 30 g of sorbitol/100 g of protein mass, and 100 g of PEE/100 g of protein mass. HC was incorporated at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, and 30 g/100 g of protein mass. It was found that increased concentrations of HC reduced tensile strength and increased elongation; however, all films showed plastic behavior. An increase in solubility at 25 ºC, a reduction in the contact angle, and disintegration time were also observed. Thus, higher concentrations of collagen led to more hydrophilic and more soluble polymeric matrices that showed shorter dissolution time, favoring the use of these materials as carriers for active compounds to be delivered in the oral cavity.

  9. Orally disintegrating olanzapine review: effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available William Montgomery1, Tamas Treuer2, Jamie Karagianis3, Haya Ascher-Svanum4, Gavan Harrison51Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 2Emerging Markets Business Unit (Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 5Asia-Pacific Medical Communications, Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Orally disintegrating olanzapine (ODO is a rapid-dissolving formulation of olanzapine which disintegrates in saliva almost immediately, developed as a convenient and adherence-enhancing alternative to the standard olanzapine-coated tablet (SOT. Clinical studies, which form the basis of this review, have shown ODO and SOT to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. However, ODO appears to have a number of advantages over SOT in terms of adherence, patient preference, and reduction in nursing burden. Overall, the existing clinical data suggests that compared to SOT, ODO is not only well-suited for difficult-to-treat, agitated, and/or nonadherent patients but, due to its potential ability to improve adherence and greater patient preference, may also be an appropriate formulation for the majority of patients for which olanzapine is the antipsychotic of choice.Keywords: orodispersible formulation, orally disintegrating, olanzapine, atypical antipsychotics, patient adherence, preference, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  10. Formulation and evaluation of a novel matrix-type orally disintegrating Ibuprofen tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Hoda; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are capable of turning quickly into a liquid dosage form in contact with the saliva, thus possessing the advantages of both the solid dosage forms particularly stability and liquid dosage forms specially ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption of drug. The aim of this study was to prepare a novel matrix-type buccal fast disintegrating ibuprofen tablet formulation using special polymers, water soluble excipients, super-disintegrants and quickly soluble granules. For this purpose different tablet formulations of ibuprofen were prepared. The amount of ibuprofen in each formulation was 100 mg. Eight groups of formulation were prepared (A-H series), accounting for a total number of 45 formulations. Formulations prepared were examined in terms of different physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Results of formulation F22a (in series F), was found to be acceptable, making it the chosen formulation for further studies. Then, by adding various flavorants and sweeteners to this formulation, complementary series of formulations, named G and H, were prepared. Following the comparison of their taste with each other through asking 10 volunteers, the most suitable formulation regarding the taste, being formulation F22s, was chosen as the ultimate formulation. This formulation had PVP, ibuprofen and croscarmellose as the intra-granular components and xylitol and saccharin as the extra-granular ingredients. Formulation F22s was found to be acceptable in terms of physicochemical tests conducted, showing quick disintegration within the buccal cavity, appropriate hardness and rather low friability. Hence formulation F22s was selected as the final formulation.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of sublingual orally disintegrating olanzapine versus oral olanzapine on body mass index: the PLATYPUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagianis, J.; Grossman, L.; Landry, J.; Reed, V. A.; de Haan, L.; Maguire, G. A.; Hoffmann, V. P.; Milev, R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have frequently reported weight gain during olanzapine treatment. Previous studies have observed a decrease in weight gain, or weight loss, in patients switching from standard olanzapine tablets (SOT) to orally disintegrating olanzapine

  12. Expedited Development of Diphenhydramine Orally Disintegrating Tablet through Integrated Crystal and Particle Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenguang; Hu, Shenye; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-10-02

    A palatable direct compression (DC) orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) product of a bitter drug, diphenhydramine (DPH), was developed using an integrated crystal and particle engineering approach. A DPH salt with a sweetener, acesulfame (Acs), DPH-Acs, was synthesized and its solid state properties were comprehensively characterized. Tablet formulation composition and compaction parameters were optimized by employing material sparing techniques. In vivo disintegration time, bitterness, and grittiness of the final ODT product, were evaluated by a taste panel. Physical stability of the ODT tablets was assessed to identify appropriate storage conditions. Phase-pure DPH-Acs exhibited significantly better tabletability and palatability than DPH-HCl. A DC formulation was designed and optimized to obtain a new ODT product with good manufacturability and excellent product characteristics, including fast in vivo disintegration, and acceptable bitterness and grittiness. A new ODT product of DPH with excellent pharmaceutical properties was successfully developed using 15 g of DPH and in two months. This example shows that integrated crystal and particle engineering is an effective approach for developing high quality ODT products using the DC process.

  13. Citric Acid Suppresses the Bitter Taste of Olopatadine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Mai; Uchida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shimako; Hakamata, Akio; Odagiri, Keiichi; Inui, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are formulated to disintegrate upon contact with saliva, allowing administration without water. Olopatadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is widely used for treating allergic rhinitis. However, it has a bitter taste; therefore, the development of taste-masked olopatadine ODTs is essential. Some studies have suggested that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of drugs. However, these experiments were performed using solutions, and the taste-masking effect of citric acid on ODTs has not been evaluated using human gustatory sensation tests. Thus, this study evaluated citric acid's taste-masking effect on olopatadine ODTs. Six types of olopatadine ODTs containing 0-10% citric acid were prepared and subjected to gustatory sensation tests that were scored using the visual analog scale. The bitterness and overall palatability of olopatadine ODTs during disintegration in the mouth and after spitting out were evaluated in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 22.8±2.2 years). The hardness of the ODTs was >50 N. Disintegration time and dissolution did not differ among the different ODTs. The results of the gustatory sensation tests suggest that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of olopatadine ODTs in a dose-dependent manner. Olopatadine ODTs with a high content of citric acid (5-10%) showed poorer overall palatability than that of those without citric acid despite the bitterness suppression. ODTs containing 2.5% citric acid, yogurt flavoring, and aspartame were the most suitable formulations since they showed low bitterness and good overall palatability. Thus, citric acid is an effective bitterness-masking option for ODTs.

  14. A dual strategy to improve psychotic patients’ compliance using sustained release quetiapine oral disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.

  15. Weight loss during therapy with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana; Jakovljević, Miro

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this article is to report weight loss in patients with schizophrenia after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In the first case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 20 mg, while in the second case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 15 mg, and weight loss was similar (14 kg vs. 15 kg). Switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained during 12 months in both case reports. Further controlled clinical investigations are necessary to evaluate change in weight during treatment with olanzapine ODT, and to improve our understanding of this change.

  16. Comparison of intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, oral risperidone solution, and intramuscular haloperidol in the management of acute agitation in an acute care psychiatric ward in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Si-Sheng; Lee, Bo-Shyan; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety among intramuscular olanzapine, intramuscular haloperidol, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution for agitated patients with psychosis during the first 24 hours of treatment in an acute care psychiatric ward. Forty-two inpatients from an acute care psychiatric ward of a medical center in central Taiwan were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatment groups (10-mg intramuscular olanzapine, 10-mg olanzapine oral disintegrating tablet, 3-mg oral risperidone solution, or 7.5-mg intramuscular haloperidol). Agitation was measured by using the excited component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression--Severity Scale during the first 24 hours. There were significant differences in the PANSS-EC total scores for the 4 intervention groups at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after the initiation of treatment. More significant differences were found early in the treatment. In the post hoc analysis, the patients who received intramuscular olanzapine or orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets showed significantly greater improvement in PANSS-EC scores than did patients who received intramuscular haloperidol at points 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after injection. These findings suggest that intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution are as effective treatments as intramuscular haloperidol for patients with acute agitation. Intramuscular olanzapine and disintegrating olanzapine tablets are more effective than intramuscular haloperidol in the early phase of the intervention. There is no significant difference in effectiveness among intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution.

  17. Evidence-based nanoscopic and molecular framework for excipient functionality in compressed orally disintegrating tablets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Khattawi

    Full Text Available The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair. Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2-10 µm2 and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale.

  18. Evidence-Based Nanoscopic and Molecular Framework for Excipient Functionality in Compressed Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2014-01-01

    The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2–10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

  19. Comparison of the effects of linagliptin and voglibose on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: a prospective, randomized, pilot study (EFFORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Taku; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hisako; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Sakuma, Masashi; Inoue, Teruo; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Node, Koichi

    2018-02-09

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to poor cardiovascular prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on endothelial function remains controversial. We sought to compare the effects of linagliptin and voglibose on endothelial function, as assessed by reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). Sixteen patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and CAD were randomized 1:1 to linagliptin (5 mg, once-daily) or voglibose (0.9 mg, thrice-daily). The RH-PAT and laboratory parameters, including 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, were measured at baseline and 3 months. Linagliptin increased serum levels of active glucagon-like peptide-1 and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. Age-, sex-, and baseline-adjusted changes in logarithmic RH-PAT index (LnRHI) after 3 months were significant between groups (linagliptin, 0.135 ± 0.097; voglibose, - 0.124 ± 0.091; P = 0.047). In the linagliptin group, change in LnRHI was positively correlated with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and negatively correlated with changes in both urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Furthermore, linagliptin treatment for 3 months reduced serum levels of both glucose and insulin at 2 h, relative to voglibose, in the age-, sex-, and baseline-adjusted model. Linagliptin improved endothelial function relative to voglibose, accompanied by amelioration of glycemic, renal, and cardiometabolic parameters, in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and CAD.Trial registration Unique Trial Number, UMIN 000029169 ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000012442 ).

  20. Formulation strategy and evaluation of nanocrystal piroxicam orally disintegrating tablets manufacturing by freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Pini, Elena; Corrias, Francesco; Perricci, Jacopo; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sinico, Chiara

    2014-06-05

    Piroxicam (PRX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug characterized by a poor water solubility and consequently by a low oral bioavailability. In this work, different nanocrystal orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared to enhance piroxicam dissolution rate and saturation solubility. PRX nanocrystals were prepared by means of high pressure homogenization technique using poloxamer 188 as stabilizer. Three different ODTs were prepared with the same nanosuspension using different excipients in order to study their effect on the PRX dissolution properties. PRX nanocrystal size and zeta potential were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Additional characterization of PRX nanocrystal ODT was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution study was performed in distilled water (pH 5.5) and compared with PRX coarse suspension ODT, PRX/poloxamer 188 physical mixture, bulk PRX samples and a PRX commercial ODT. All PRX nanocrystal ODT formulations showed a higher drug dissolution rate than coarse PRX ODT. PRX nanocrystal ODT prepared using gelatin or croscarmellose as excipient showed a higher PRX dissolution rate compared with the commercial formulation and ODT prepared using xanthan gum. Overall results confirmed that improved PRX dissolution rate is due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio due to the nanosized drug particle but also revealed the important role of different excipients used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jingping Zhao,1 Jianjun Ou,1 Haibo Xue,2 Li Liu,2 William Montgomery,3 Tamas Treuer4 1Mental Health Institute of The Second Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Province Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 4Emerging Markets Business Unit (Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. Keywords: orally disintegrating, olanzapine, Chinese, schizophrenia, patients

  2. Reduction in the volume of water for ingesting orally disintegrating tablets of solifenacin (Vesicare® OD), and the clinical disintegration time of Vesicare® OD after unit-dose packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shinya; Yoshita, Tomohiro; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2013-03-25

    This study aimed to determine the amount of water required for ingesting an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of solifenacin (Vesicare(®), VES) and VES conventional tablets (VES-CT). We measured the disintegration time of VES-ODT in the oral cavity (clinical disintegration time) before and after unit-dose packaging. Thirty healthy volunteers participated in this randomized crossover trial. The participants were asked to drink water during the intake placebos of VES and after the disintegration of placebos of VES-ODT in their oral cavity. The amounts of water required for ingesting placebos of VES-CT and of VES-ODT were 42.8±27.0 mL and 20.0±23.7 mL, respectively, which indicated that the amount of water required for ingesting ODTs was significantly lesser than that for ingesting CTs. Furthermore, 5 (16.7%) participants did not require water for ingesting the ODTs. Clinical disintegration time of VES-ODT was 21.4s in 10 healthy volunteers. This clinical disintegration time did not change significantly after unit-dose packaging or subsequent storage for 56 days. This study showed that the amount of water required for ingesting VES-ODT is lower than that for ingesting VES-CT. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. User of ordered mixtures to obtain high dose homogeneity in mini-tablets : studies of orally disintegrating systems for children

    OpenAIRE

    Løding, Fredrik Sandberg

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that homogeneity is higher in ordered mixtures compared to random mixtures. Based on this ordered mixtures should be particularly suitable for the preparation of mini-tablets. The overall aim of the study was to compare the homogeneity of ordered mixtures prepared using different particle size of carrier particles, and test their suitability for preparation of mini-tablets. The mini-tablets are intended for use as orally disintegrating systems (ODT) for children...

  4. Enhancement of Solubility of Lamotrigine by Solid Dispersion and Development of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Using 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinderpal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation deals with the preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs of lamotrigine using β-cyclodextrin and PVP-K30 as polymers for the preparation of solid dispersion which help in enhancement of aqueous solubility of this BCS CLASS-II drug and sodium starch glycolate (SSG and crospovidone as a superdisintegrating agent, to reduce disintegration time. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were developed with different ratios of superdisintegrating agents. All the formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 rpm using 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl maintained at 37°C ± 0.5°C as the dissolution medium. On the basis of evaluation parameters formulations were prepared using β-CD 1 : 1 solid dispersion. Then 32 full factorial design was applied using SSG and crospovidone in different ratios suggested by using design expert 8.0.7.1 and optimized formulation was prepared using amount of SSG and crospovidone as suggested by the software. The optimized formulation prepared had disintegrating time of 15 s, wetting time of 24 s, and % friability of 0.55.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of a montelukast sodium orally disintegrating tablet with a similar dissolution profile as the marketed product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Feng, Tingting; Li, Yong; Du, Bin; Weng, Weiyu

    2017-03-01

    A major challenge of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) development is predicting its bioequivalence to its corresponding marketed product. Therefore, comparing ODT dissolution profiles to those of the corresponding marketed product is very important. The objective of this study was to develop a 5.2-mg montelukast sodium (MS) ODT with a similar dissolution profile to that of the marketed chewable tablet. Dissolution profiles were examined in different media to screen each formulation. We found that MS dissolution from ODTs in acidic medium heavily depended on manufacturing methods. All MS ODTs prepared using direct compression rapidly disintegrated in acidic medium. However, dispersed MS powders aggregated into sticky masses, resulting in slow dissolution. In contrast, MS ODTs prepared using wet granulation had much faster dissolution rates in acidic medium with no obvious aggregation. Additionally, the optimized formulation, prepared using wet granulation, displayed similar dissolution profiles to the marketed reference in all four types of media examined (f 2  >   50). The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized ODT was 9.5 ± 2.4 s, which meets FDA requirements. In conclusion, the wet granulation preparation method of MS ODTs resulted in a product with equivalent dissolution profiles as those of the marketed product.

  6. Formulation, preparation, and evaluation of novel orally disintegrating tablets containing taste-masked naproxen sodium granules and naratriptan hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and manufacture novel freeze-dried orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for migraine therapy containing taste-masked naproxen sodium and naratriptan hydrochloride. The formulation was optimized based on freeze-drying of sucrose solutions with different binders (hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose, and gelatin) and varying amounts of Eudragit® E-coated naproxen sodium granules. Excellent product performance of the ODTs in terms of hardness and disintegration time (hydrochloride, and taste-masked naproxen sodium granules corresponding to 200 mg of naproxen were then added, and the final batches of ODTs for migraine therapy were produced. The ODTs were fully characterized, and subsequently stored for 1 month at room temperature and at 40°C. The amount of free naproxen sodium after freeze-drying and storage was below the threshold bitterness value, and the coating remained intact. Additionally, the particle size distribution of taste-masked granules was preserved, and more than 90 % naproxen sodium was released after 30 min. Naratriptan hydrochloride was dissolved immediately after disintegration, hence facilitating buccal absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Combined Effect of Synthetic and Natural Polymers in Preparation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets: Optimization by Central Composite Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Chandra Sekhar; Sahu, Prafulla Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to employ experimental design to formulate and optimize cetirizine hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by direct compression technique, using the mutual effect of synthetic croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and natural Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage (HRM) as disintegrants in the formulation. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the influence of three levels each of CCS ( X 1 ) and HRM ( X 2 ) concentrations (independent variables) for investigated responses: disintegration time (DT) ( Y 1 ), % friability ( F ) ( Y 2 ), and % cumulative drug release (DR) ( Y 3 ) (dependent variables). This face-centered second-order model's reliability was verified by the probability and adequate precision values from the analysis of variance, while the significant factor effects influencing the studied responses were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Perturbation and response surface plots were interpreted to evaluate the responses' sensitivity towards the variables. During optimization, the concentrations of the processed factors were evaluated, and the resulting values were in good agreement with predicted estimates endorsing the validity. Spectral study by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermograms from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated the drug-excipients compatibility of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation has concentrations of 9.05 mg and 16.04 mg of CCS and HRM each, respectively, and the model predicted DT of 13.271 sec, F of 0.498, and DR of 99.768%.

  8. Combined Effect of Synthetic and Natural Polymers in Preparation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets: Optimization by Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Patro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to employ experimental design to formulate and optimize cetirizine hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs by direct compression technique, using the mutual effect of synthetic croscarmellose sodium (CCS and natural Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage (HRM as disintegrants in the formulation. Central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the influence of three levels each of CCS (X1 and HRM (X2 concentrations (independent variables for investigated responses: disintegration time (DT (Y1, % friability (F (Y2, and % cumulative drug release (DR (Y3 (dependent variables. This face-centered second-order model’s reliability was verified by the probability and adequate precision values from the analysis of variance, while the significant factor effects influencing the studied responses were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Perturbation and response surface plots were interpreted to evaluate the responses’ sensitivity towards the variables. During optimization, the concentrations of the processed factors were evaluated, and the resulting values were in good agreement with predicted estimates endorsing the validity. Spectral study by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and thermograms from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC demonstrated the drug-excipients compatibility of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation has concentrations of 9.05 mg and 16.04 mg of CCS and HRM each, respectively, and the model predicted DT of 13.271 sec, F of 0.498, and DR of 99.768%.

  9. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li FQ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Qian Li1, Cheng Yan2, Juan Bi1, Wei-Lin Lv3, Rui-Rui Ji3, Xu Chen1, Jia-Can Su3, Jin-Hong Hu31Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w and loading capacity of 20% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 µm to 8 µm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics.Keywords: scopolamine hydrobromide, chitosan, nanoparticles-in-microparticles system, spray-drying, orally disintegrating tablets

  10. Comparative Study Between Different Ready-Made Orally Disintegrating Platforms for the Formulation of Sumatriptan Succinate Sublingual Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Saadya A; El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Amin, Maha M; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H

    2017-02-01

    Sumatriptan succinate (SS) is a selective serotonin receptor agonist used for the treatment of migraine attacks, suffering from extensive first-pass metabolism and low oral bioavailability (∼14%). The aim of this work is to compare the performance of different ready-made co-processed platforms (Pharmaburst®, Prosolv ODT®, Starlac®, Pearlitol Flash®, or Ludiflash®) in the formulation of SS sublingual orodispersible tablets (ODTs) using direct compression technique. The prepared SS ODT formulae were evaluated regarding hardness, friability, simulated wetting time, and in vitro disintegration and dissolution tests. Different mucoadhesive polymers-HPMC K4M, Carbopol®, chitosan, or Polyox®-were tested aiming to increase the residence time in the sublingual area. A pharmacokinetic study on healthy human volunteers was performed, using LC/MS/MS assay, to compare the optimum sublingual formula (Ph25/HPMC) with the conventional oral tablet Imitrex®. Results showed that tablets prepared using Pharmaburst® had significantly (p disintegration times of 17.17 and 23.50 s, respectively, with Q 5 min of 83.62%. HPMC showed a significant (p tablet Imitrex®. In conclusion, Pharmaburst® was chosen as the optimum ready-made co-processed platform that can be successfully used in the preparation of SS sublingual tablets for the rapid relief of migraine attacks.

  11. Quality by Design approach for studying the impact of formulation and process variables on product quality of oral disintegrating films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sonal; Pavurala, Naresh; Manda, Prashanth; Xu, Xiaoming; Cruz, Celia N; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R

    2017-07-15

    The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA). A total of 14 laboratory-scale DoE formulations were prepared and evaluated for mechanical properties (%elongation at break, yield stress, Young's modulus, folding endurance) and other CQA (dry thickness, disintegration time, dissolution rate, moisture content, moisture uptake, drug assay and drug content uniformity). The main factors affecting mechanical properties were plasticizer to film former ratio and drying temperature. Dissolution rate was found to be sensitive to air flow rate during drying and plasticizer to film former ratio. Data were analyzed for elucidating interactions between different variables, rank ordering the critical materials attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP), and for providing a predictive model for the process. Results suggested that plasticizer to film former ratio and process controls on drying are critical to manufacture LMT ODF with the desired CQA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Application of water-insoluble polymers to orally disintegrating tablets treated by high-pressure carbon dioxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-09-10

    The phase transition of pharmaceutical excipients that can be induced by humidifying or heating is well-known to increase the hardness of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). However, these conditions are not applicable to drug substances that are chemically unstable against such stressors. Here, we describe a system which enhances the hardness of tablets containing water-insoluble polymers by using high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2). On screening of 26 polymeric excipients, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) markedly increased tablet hardness (+155N) when maintained in a high-pressure CO2 environment. ODTs containing 10% AMCE were prepared and treatment with 4.0MPa CO2 gas at 25°C for 10min increased the hardness to +30N, whose level corresponded to heating at 70°C for 720min. In addition, we confirmed the effects of CO2 pressure, temperature, treatment time, and AMCE content on the physical properties of ODTs. Optimal pressure of CO2 gas was considered to be approximately 3.5MPa for an AMCE formula, as excessive pressure delayed the disintegration of ODTs. Combination of high-pressure CO2 gas and AMCE is a prospective approach for increasing the tablet hardness for ODTs, and can be conducted without additional heat or moisture stress using a simple apparatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics. PMID:21720502

  14. Taste-masked and affordable donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablet as promising solution for non-compliance in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2015-04-01

    Manufacturing process and superdisintegrants used in orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation are often time discussed. However, the effect of suitable filler for ODT formulation is not explored thoroughly. The aim of this study was to develop a novel taste masked and affordable donepezil hydrochloride ODT with fast disintegration time and stable to improve medication compliance of Alzheimer's disease patient. The ODT was manufactured using simple wet-granulation method. Crospovidone XL-10 was used as superdisintegrant and optimization was done by comparing the effect of three grades of lactose monohydrate compound as filler: Starlac®, Flowlac® and Tablettose®. Formulations containing higher amount of colloidal silicon dioxide showed increase in hardness, weight, disintegration time and wetting time after stability study. Formulation E which containing 50% of Starlac® was found with shortest in vitro disintegration time (21.7 ± 1.67 s), in vivo disintegration time (24.0 ± 1.05 s) and in vitro disintegration time in artificial salvia (22.5 ± 1.67 s). Physical stability studies at 40 °C/75% RH for 6 months, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction results showed that the formulation was stable. The drug-released profile showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 1 min. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, seven-treatment, double-blinded study involving 16 healthy human volunteers was performed to evaluate the palatability of ODT. Formulation VII containing 10 mg of ammonium glycyrrhizinate was able to mask the bitter taste of the drug. The product has the potential to be commercialized and it might serve as solution for non-compliance among the Alzheimer's disease patients.

  15. An integrated, quality by design (QbD) approach for design, development and optimization of orally disintegrating tablet formulation of carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saurabh M; Rohera, Bhagwan D

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to design and develop a formulation for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of carbamazepine using quality by design principles. The target product profile (TPP) and quality target product profile (QTPP) of ODTs were identified. Risk assessment was carried out by leveraging prior knowledge and experience to define the criticality of factors based on their impact by Ishikawa fishbone diagram and preliminary hazard analysis tool. Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to study the effect of critical factors on various attributes of ODTs. The independent factors selected were compression pressure (X 1 ), concentration of sublimating agent (volatile material) (X 2 ), disintegrant concentration (X 3 ) and the responses were tablet crushing strength, tablet porosity, disintegration time, water absorption time, tablet friability and drug dissolution. ANOVA and lack of fit test illustrated that selected independent variables had significant effect on the response variables, and excellent correlation was observed between actual and predicted values. Optimization by desirability function indicated that compression pressure, X 1 (1534 lbs), ammonium bicarbonate concentration, X 2 (7.68%) and Kollidon ® CL-SF concentration, X 3 (6%) were optimum to prepare ODT formulation of carbamazepine of desired attributes complying with QTPP. Thus, in the present study, a high level of assurance was established for ODT product quality and performance.

  16. Preparation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Powdered Tea Leaves with Enriched Levels of Bioactive Compounds by Means of Microwave Irradiation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hironori; Iwao, Yasunori; Izumikawa, Masahiro; Sano, Syusuke; Ishida, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a microwave treatment process has been applied to prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing powdered tea leaves with enriched levels of the anti-inflammatory compounds such as chafuroside A (CFA) and chafuroside B (CFB). The use of distilled water as the adsorbed and granulation solvents in this preparation process afforded tablets with a long disintegration time (more than 120 s). The CFA and CFB contents of these tablets did not also change after 4 min of microwave irradiation due to the tablet temperature, which only increased to 100°C. In contrast, the tablet temperature increased up to 140°C after 3 min of microwave irradiation when a 1.68 M Na2HPO4 solution instead of distilled water. Notably, the disintegration time of these tablets was considerably improved (less than 20 s) compared with the microwave-untreated tablets, and there were 7- and 11-fold increases in their CFA and CFB contents. In addition, the operational conditions for the preparation of the tablets were optimized by face-centered composite design based on the following criteria: tablet hardness greater than 13 N, disintegration time less than 30 s and friability less than 0.5%. The requirements translated into X1 (the amount of granulation solvent), X2 (tableting pressure) and X3 (content of the powdered tea leaves) values of 45%, 0.43 kN and 32%, respectively, and the ODTs containing powdered tea leaves prepared under these optimized conditions were found to show excellent tablet properties and contain enriched levels of CFA and CFB.

  17. Voglibose in Combination of Three Hypoglycemic Agents in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankivn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study — clinical and metabolic rationale for the selection of the third hypoglycemic agent to enhance the effectiveness of treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2, assessment of the impact of the therapy intensification due to the addition of voglibose on carbohydrate metabolism parameters, which have not reached target levels during the combination therapy with metformin and glimepiride. Materials and methods. We observed 45 patients with DM type 2, who have not reached the targets of carbohydrate metabolism under the influence of previous treatments (metformin and glimepiride. After the initial clinical examination, patients were divided into two groups. In the first group (n = 30, wе added to the treatment the drug voglibose (Voxid, production of Kusum Pharm Ltd, Ukraine 0.2 mg before breakfast, lunch and dinner for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks of treatment, the level of glycated hemoglobin (НbА1с in the first group decreased by 1.5 [1.1; 1.9] % (p  0.05. 80 % of patients achieved target levels of glycemia. The first group of patients showed a significant increase in HOMA-β index by 24.9 %, as well as a reduction of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR by 31.5 %. After 12 weeks of therapy, there was a statistically significant decrease in body weight by 2.1 kg in the first group of patients and no response in patients of the second group. Safety has been proveв in terms of the functional state of the liver and kidneys in this therapy. Conclusions. Adding voglibose for intensification of therapy in patients with type 2 DM, who had previously received metformin and glimepiride, has led to a significant improvement in carbohydrate metabolism (decrease in HbA1c by 1.5 %. Better control of carbohydrate metabolism during the combination therapy with metformin, glimepiride, and voglibose is accompanied by an increase of functional activity of pancreatic β-cells, a decrease in insulin resistance in the

  18. Development of a novel and simple method to evaluate disintegration of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Yohei; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel and simple method for evaluating the disintegration time of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) in vitro, since the conventional disintegration test described in the pharmacopoeia produces poor results due to the difference of its environmental conditions from those of an actual oral cavity. Six RDTs prepared in our laboratory and 5 types of commercial RDTs were used as model formulations. Using our original apparatus, a good correlation was observed between in vivo and in vitro disintegration times by adjusting the height from which the solution was dropped to 8 cm and the weight of the load to 10 or 20 g. Properties of RDTs, such as the pattern of their disintegrating process, can be assessed by verifying the load. These findings confirmed that our proposed method for an in vitro disintegration test apparatus is an excellent one for estimating disintegration time and the disintegration profile of RDTs.

  19. Impact of Voglibose on of Metabolic Control Indicators in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New therapeutic options to control diabetes mellitus (DM emerged with the discovery of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors which slow the absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine. The objective of the study — to investigate the effect of voglibose administration on parameters of glycemic control, lipid metabolism and tolerability in patients with DM type 1. Materials and Methods. Criteria for inclusion in the study: DM type 1, age from 26 to 48 years, the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c from 8 to 9 %. 19 patients were examined (7 men and 12 women, mean age 37.2 ± ± 3.9 years, DM duration 8.5 ± 1.4 years. Results. During the follow-up period (12 weeks, the level of HbA1c significantly decreased from 9.4 ± 0.6 % to 7.8 ± 0.4 % (p < 0.05. On the background of additional administration of voglibose, we observed a significant reduction in fasting glucose level from 10.37 ± 0.36 mmol/l to 7.39 ± 0.28 mmol/l (p < 0.01 and postprandial — from 12.29 ± 1.42 mmol/l to 8.46 ± 0.64 mmol/l (p < 0.01. At that, we have noted a significant reduction of total cholesterol (from 5.83 ± 0.11 mmol/l to 5.38 ± 0.08 mmol/l, p < 0.05, triglycerides (from 1.82 ± 0.03 mmol/l to 1.46 ± 0.03 mmol/l, p < 0.05 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 3.41 ± 0.05 mmol/l to 3.37 ± ± 0.04 mmol/l, p < 0.05. There were no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol parameters. In two surveyed persons, we have detected adverse effects (bloating, which did not require discontinuation of therapy. Conclusion. Additional administration of voglibose at a dose of 0.9 mg/day on a background of insulin therapy helps to improve glycemic control and lipid metabolism, to reduce the daily dose of exogenous insulin and hypoglycemic reactions incidence in patients with DM type 1.

  20. Long-term weight loss observed with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets in overweight patients with chronic schizophrenia. A 1 year open-label, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bharat; Luxton-Andrew, Heather

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the long-term weight loss outcomes during usual clinical practice after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In this open-label prospective study, 26 patients with schizophrenia who were clinically stable on olanzapine SOT treatment were switched to olanzapine ODT. All other aspects of treatment remained constant. Weight was recorded at 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients incurred an average weight loss of 2.7 +/- 0.7 kg (p = 0.001) after switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT at 12 months. Peak weight loss was observed at 6 months; however, significant weight loss was achieved as early as 3 months. The majority (81.9%) of patients lost weight, while 18.1% had no weight change or weight gain. Body mass index (BMI) significantly decreased by 1.0 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) (p = 0.001). Interestingly, patients treated with higher doses of olanzapine (> or = 20 mg) incurred a greater weight loss of their body weight (5.6%), compared to those treated with lower doses (< 20 mg), who lost 1.9% of their body weight (p = 0.04). This study demonstrated that, in usual clinical practice, switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained over 12 months. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Psychosocial disintegration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S

    1994-08-01

    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  2. Review of Disintegrants and the Disintegration Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-09-01

    Disintegrant is one of the most important components in a typical tablet dosage form. It is responsible for ensuring the break-up of the tablet matrix upon ingestion. Disintegrants act by different mechanisms, and a number of factors may affect their performance. It is important for formulators to understand how disintegrants function so as to be able to judiciously use disintegrants to develop optimized formulations. If the formulator is required to implement the quality by design paradigm while developing a tablet formulation, it would be important to determine the impact of component ranges and process variations on tablet performance and of particular importance, tablet disintegration. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms of disintegrants and the tablet disintegration processes can be critical to product design success. This review aims to provide an overview of tablet disintegrants and the disintegration processes with particular focus on the factors affecting the functionalities of disintegrants. An updated compendium of different techniques employed to evaluate disintegrant action and measure disintegration time is also provided. The objective of this review is to assemble the knowledge about disintegrants and the measurement of tablet disintegratability so that the information provided could be of help to tablet formulation development. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and characterization of orally-disintegrating films for propolis delivery Desenvolvimento e caracterização de filmes de desintegração para liberação oral de própolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Gonçalves Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen (HC on the properties of an orally disintegrating film containing propolis ethanol extract (PEE as an active component. The films were evaluated in terms of total phenols, mechanical properties, solubility, contact angle, disintegration time, and microstructure. The films were prepared by casting with 2 g of protein mass (gelatin and HC, 30 g of sorbitol/100 g of protein mass, and 100 g of PEE/100 g of protein mass. HC was incorporated at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, and 30 g/100 g of protein mass. It was found that increased concentrations of HC reduced tensile strength and increased elongation; however, all films showed plastic behavior. An increase in solubility at 25 ºC, a reduction in the contact angle, and disintegration time were also observed. Thus, higher concentrations of collagen led to more hydrophilic and more soluble polymeric matrices that showed shorter dissolution time, favoring the use of these materials as carriers for active compounds to be delivered in the oral cavity.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de colágeno hidrolisado nas propriedades de filmes de desintegração oral contendo extrato etanólico de própolis como componente ativo. Os filmes foram avaliados em relação aos fenóis totais, propriedade mecânica, solubilidade, ângulo de contato, tempo de desintegração e microestrutura. Os filmes foram produzidos por "casting" com concentrações de 2 g de massa proteica (gelatina e colágeno hidrolisado, 30 g de sorbitol/100 g de massa proteica e 100 g de extrato fenólico de própolis/100 g de massa proteica. Colágeno hidrolisado foi incorporado nas concentrações de 0, 10, 20 e 30 g/100 g de massa proteica. Verificou-se que o aumento da concentração de colágeno hidrolisado provocou redução na tensão de ruptura e aumento da elongação, entretanto todos os filmes

  4. A comparative study of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets and Haloperidol treatment for tic disorders%阿立哌唑口腔崩解片与氟哌啶醇治疗抽动障碍的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆梅; 李耀东; 邓良华; 谭助英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets and Haloperidol treatment in children with tic disorders. Method 61 Tourette patients were randomly divided into two groups,treatment with Aripiprazole orally disintegra-ting tablets and Haloperidol for 8 weeks. Before treatment and in the second,fourth and eighth weekend,YGTSSS and TESS were used to eval-uate efficacy and side effects. Results In the 2nd,4th and 8th weekend vocal tic,total damage and total scores of YGTSS both in Aripiprazole group and Haloperidol group significantly decreased. But in the second weekend motor tics score worse than haloperidol. In terms of safety,side effects and tolerance of Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets was better. Conclusion Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tabletsis effective for treatment of tic disorder,and high safety.%目的:比较阿立哌唑口腔崩解片和氟哌啶醇治疗抽动障碍的临床疗效和安全性。方法:将符合抽动障碍的61例儿童随机分为两组,分别接受氟哌啶醇和阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗,并在治疗2周、4周及8周末分别进行耶鲁综合抽动严重程度量表(Yale Global Tic Severity Scale,YGTSS)、不良反应量表(treatment emergent symptomscale,TESS)评估其疗效和安全性。结果:阿立哌唑口腔崩解片与氟哌啶醇组在治疗的2、4、8周末在YGTSS量表发声抽动、整体损害和YGTSS总分疗效评分上均无明显差异,在2周末运动抽动疗效评分上较氟哌啶醇差;在安全性方面,阿立哌唑口腔崩解片不良反应更小,耐受性更好。结论:阿立哌唑口腔崩解片在治疗抽动障碍上有显著的疗效,和更好地安全性。

  5. Orally disintegrating and oral standard olanzapine tablets similarly elevate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and plasma triglyceride levels in 12 healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Vlug, Pauline; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Frölich, Marijke; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-09-01

    Treatment with olanzapine is associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Reports have indicated that orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) cause less weight gain than oral standard tablets (OST). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of short-term treatment with these 2 distinct olanzapine formulations on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy men. Twelve healthy men (mean ± SEM age: 25.1 ± 5.5 years) received olanzapine ODT (10 mg od, 8 days), olanzapine OST (10 mg od, 8 days), or no intervention in a randomized crossover design. At breakfast and dinner, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), and triglyceride concentrations were measured at 10-minute intervals from 30 minutes prior to 2 hours after ingestion of standard meals. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured at 20- and 30-minute intervals, respectively, between 0000h-1200h. Physical activity was assessed with an accelerometer. Fuel oxidation was measured in fasting condition by indirect calorimetry. The study was conducted from April 2006 through September 2006. Treatment with olanzapine ODT and OST equally elevated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = .005). At breakfast, both formulations equally increased fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = .013 and P = .005, respectively) while decreasing fasting and postprandial FFA concentrations (P = .004 and P = .009, respectively). Body weight, body composition, physical activity, or fuel oxidation did not differ between treatment modalities. Eight days of treatment with both olanzapine formulations similarly increased HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and decreased FFA concentrations in response to standard meals without affecting anthropometrics or physical activity. These data suggest that olanzapine hampers insulin action via mechanistic routes other than body adiposity or physical inactivity. controlled-trials.com. Identifier: ISRCTN17632637. © Copyright

  6. Effective Therapy Using Voglibose for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Patient with Insufficient Dietary and Exercise Therapy: Exploring Other Treatment Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Nagai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old Japanese female with a 10-year history of thyroiditis presented to our institution. The laboratory data and clinical findings suggested that the patient had complicated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH with autoimmune hepatitis according to the criteria by the application of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis score. The patient could not manage by herself so dietary- and exercise-based treatment was difficult. Accordingly, ursodeoxycholic acid and ezetimibe therapy was started and continued until the performance of a liver needle biopsy to define the diagnosis. However, no improvement in liver function was observed. In addition, pathological findings indicated that the patient had NASH. The patient was finally diagnosed as having NASH. Therefore, voglibose was added to the ursodeoxycholic acid and ezetimibe therapy, and this addition of voglibose actually took effect. The patient’s serum aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels decreased dramatically. This report is the first to document other treatment possibilities of NASH in a case when dietary therapy is difficult.

  7. Evaluation of synthesized cross linked polyvinyl alcohol as potential disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluation of crosslinked poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as a potential disintegrant. Crosslinking of PVA was carried out using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker, in presence of acidic conditions. The crosslinking reaction was optimized for a) polymer: crosslinker ratio; b) temperature requirement and c) reaction duration. Certain physical parameters of the disintegrant (including sedimentation volume, hydration capacity, specific surface area and bulk and tap density) were determined and compared to the known disintegrants. Characterization was carried out using FT-IR, DSC, XRD, SEM and Photo microscopy studies. The developed excipient was also studied for acute toxicity in rats and found to be safe for oral use. Disintegration property of formed product was compared to known disintegrant (Ac-Di-Sol) and it was found to give better results. The disintegration mechanism of developed disintegrant was postulated based on results obtained from various physical evaluations including: Study of effect of disintegrant concentration, fillers, and hardness, mode of incorporation and method of granulation on disintegration activity. By changing the condition parameters of well known crosslinking reaction of PVA, we obtained a crosslinked product which had excellent disintegration activity, good flow and optimal tableting properties.

  8. Applicability of two automated disintegration apparatuses for rapidly disintegrating (mini)tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Daniel; Lazzari, Alessia; Quodbach, Julian; Pein, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Orally disintegrating (mini)tablets (OD(M)Ts) are of interest in the field of pharmaceutics. Their orodispersible character is defined by the disintegration time, which is measured with a basket apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. This method, however, lacks applicability for ODTs and especially ODMTs. New disintegration apparatuses have been described in literature, but a qualification to assess the applicability has not been described. A qualification procedure for two automated disintegration apparatuses, OD-mate and Hermes apparatus, is introduced. Aspects of the operational qualification as well as precision and accuracy regarding a performance qualification were evaluated for both apparatuses analog to the ICH guideline Q2. While the OQ study is performed separately for each apparatus, accuracy and precision were performed following the same protocol for both testers. Small RSDs (16.9% OD-mate; 15.2% Hermes compared to 32.3% for the pharmacopeial method) were found despite very fast disintegration times (1.5 s for both apparatuses). By comparing these RSDs to practical examples, the authors propose threshold values for repeatability depending on the mean disintegration time. Obtained results from the qualification were used to assess the applicability of both apparatuses.

  9. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.

    2012-02-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies.

  10. Assessment of disintegration of rapidly disintegrating tablets by a visiometric liquid jet-mediated disintegration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2013-02-14

    The aim of this study was to develop a responsive disintegration test apparatus that is particularly suitable for rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs). The designed RDT disintegration apparatus consisted of disintegration compartment, stereomicroscope and high speed video camera. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate 3 different designs of the compartment and to predict velocity and pressure patterns inside the compartment. The CFD preprocessor established the compartment models and the CFD solver determined the numerical solutions of the governing equations that described disintegration medium flow. Simulation was validated by good agreement between CFD and experimental results. Based on the results, the most suitable disintegration compartment was selected. Six types of commercial RDTs were used and disintegration times of these tablets were determined using the designed RDT disintegration apparatus and the USP disintegration apparatus. The results obtained using the designed apparatus correlated well to those obtained by the USP apparatus. Thus, the applied CFD approach had the potential to predict the fluid hydrodynamics for the design of optimal disintegration apparatus. The designed visiometric liquid jet-mediated disintegration apparatus for RDT provided efficient and precise determination of very short disintegration times of rapidly disintegrating dosage forms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Unintegration, Disintegration and Deintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a response to a review of the conference titled, "Unintegration, Disintegration and Integration", written by Cathy Urwin and Maria Rhode in the ACP Bulletin. The review mentioned Michael Fordham, noting that he referred to a "good" kind of unintegration. In this paper, I point out that this is a somewhat misleading reference to what…

  12. Neutrino disintegration of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, S.; Haxton, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the rate of both neutral- and charged-current neutrino and antineutrino disintegration of deuterium. These rates are of interest for solar 8 B and hep ( 3 He + p) spectra and supernovae neutrinos, and are relevant for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO)

  13. Development of fast disintegrating compressed tablets using amino acid as disintegration accelerator: evaluation of wetting and disintegration of tablet on the basis of surface free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Jinichi; Ozawa, Asuka; Yoshihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2005-12-01

    A fast disintegrating compressed tablet was formulated using amino acids, such as L-lysine HCl, L-alanine, glycine and L-tyrosine as disintegration accelerator. The tablets having the hardness of about 4 kgf were prepared and the effect of amino acids on the wetting time and disintegration time in the oral cavity of tablets was examined on the basis of surface free energy of amino acids. The wetting time of the tablets increased in the order of L-lysine HCl, L-alanine, glycine and L-tyrosine, whereas the disintegration time in the oral cavity of the tablets increased in the order of L-alanine, glycine, L-lysine HCl and L-tyrosine. These behaviors were well analyzed by the introduction of surface free energy. When the polar component of amino acid was large value or the dispersion component was small value, faster wetting of tablet was observed. When the dispersion component of amino acid was large value or the dispersion component was small value, faster disintegration of tablet was observed, expect of L-tyrosine tablet. The fast disintegration of tablets was explained by the theory presented by Matsumaru.

  14. Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Parkash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.

  15. Preparation of carbon-functionalized magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites for selective extraction of miglitol and voglibose in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan; Li, Yan

    2018-05-15

    In this work, magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites with carbon-functionalized pore-walls (denoted as MG@mSiO 2 -C composites) were synthesized and applied as restricted access matrix solid phase extraction (RAM-SPE) adsorbents for the determination of miglitol and voglibose in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS. The MG@mSiO 2 -C composites were synthesized by using the template (Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide, CTAB) as carbon source with sulfuric acid pretreated. The obtained nano-composites were proven to have many unique properties such as large specific surface area of 277.1 cm 2 g -1 , uniform mesopores with average pore size of 3.35 nm, and carbon-functionalized pore-walls. Taking advantage of the hydrophilic interaction between carbon and glycans, α-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol and voglibose) could be directly extracted from rat plasma with no need of other pre-treatment procedures. The SPE conditions such as the adsorbent amount, elution solvent type, adsorption time and elution time were optimized. For both miglitol and voglibose, good linearities of 10-2000 ng mL -1 were obtained with determination coefficients (R 2 ) > 0.99. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 3.3-6.9% (n = 6) and 6.0-8.0% (n = 6), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 99.9-100.4% and the sensitivities were as low as 2-2.5 ng mL -1 (LOD). This MG@mSiO 2 -C composites-based RAM-SPE method offers high extraction efficiency for the determination of α-glucosidase inhibitor in plasma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V

    2012-01-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies. (physics of our days)

  17. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    In 1908 a Viennese remedial educator Theodor Heller described six children under the name of dementia infantilis who had insidiously developed a severe mental regression between the 3rd and 4th years of life after normal mental development. Neuropathological and other medical conditions...... are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  18. Satellite disintegration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, R. R.; Kaufman, B.; Heard, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of satellite disintegration is examined in detail. Elements of the orbits of individual fragments, determined by DOD space surveillance systems, are used to accurately predict the time and place of fragmentation. Dual time independent and time dependent analyses are performed for simulated and real breakups. Methods of statistical mechanics are used to study the evolution of the fragment clouds. The fragments are treated as an ensemble of non-interacting particles. A solution of Liouville's equation is obtained which enables the spatial density to be calculated as a function of position, time and initial velocity distribution.

  19. A Single-Dose, Single-Period Pharmacokinetic Assessment of an Extended-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablet of Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Stark, Jeffrey G; McMahen, Russ; Tengler, Mark; Sikes, Carolyn

    2016-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of a proprietary formulation of methylphenidate (MPH) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a phase 1 study. Methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (MPH XR-ODTs) combine two technologies in a single-tablet formulation-an extended-release profile that was designed for once-daily dosing in an ODT that does not require water or chewing for ingestion. This was a single-dose, open-label, single-period, single-treatment study, in which 32 children with ADHD who were receiving MPH in doses of 40 or 60 mg before beginning the study each received a 60-mg dose (2 × 30 mg) of MPH XR-ODT. The following plasma PK parameters of MPH were determined for participants grouped by age (6-7, 8-9, 10-12, and 13-17 years old): maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), elimination half-life (T½), area under the curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUCinf), oral clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution in the terminal phase (Vz/F). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. A total of 32 participants received the study drug. For all participants, plasma concentration-time profiles of MPH exhibited a broad peak after administration of MPH XR-ODT through ∼8 hours, indicating extended release from the formulation, followed by an apparent first-order elimination phase. As age increased, MPH exposure decreased and mean estimates of CL/F increased; however, weight-normalized CL/F values were comparable across age groups. Similarly, mean estimates of Vz/F increased with age, but weight-normalization decreased differences across age groups, with the exception of the youngest age group, which had higher values. All adverse events (AEs) were mild. This XR-ODT formulation of MPH demonstrated weight-normalized clearance rates that were consistent across all age groups, a PK profile consistent with once-daily dosing, and an AE profile consistent with

  20. Disintegration of a Liquid Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenlein, A

    1932-01-01

    This report presents an experimental determination of the process of disintegration and atomization in its simplest form, and the influence of the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized on the disintegration of the jet. Particular attention was paid to the investigation of the process of atomization.

  1. A Novel Disintegration Tester for Solid Dosage Forms Enabling Adjustable Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Rach, Regine; Nawroth, Thomas; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A modified in vitro disintegration test device was designed that enables the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration of solid oral dosage forms. The device represents an improved derivative of the compendial PhEur/USP disintegration test device. By the application of a computerized numerical control, a variety of physiologically relevant moving velocities and profiles can be applied. With the help of computational fluid dynamics, the hydrodynamic and mechanical forces present in the probe chamber were characterized for a variety of device moving speeds. Furthermore, a proof of concept study aimed at the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration times of immediate release tablets. The experiments demonstrated the relevance of hydrodynamics for tablet disintegration, especially in media simulating the fasted state. Disintegration times increased with decreasing moving velocity. A correlation between experimentally determined disintegration times and computational fluid dynamics predicted shear stress on tablet surface was established. In conclusion, the modified disintegration test device is a valuable tool for biorelevant in vitro disintegration testing of solid oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  3. Turbine disintegration debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holecek, M.; Martinec, P.; Malotin, V.; Peleska, P.; Voldrich, J.

    1997-01-01

    The determination, evaluation and analysis of possible unacceptable consequences of the disintegration turbine (turbo-set) missiles is a part of the wide conceived project put by the company Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce (NPPM), the Slovak Republic. The aim of the project is to take measures reducing the probability of striking a target of safety importance in NPPM by a turbine (turbo-set) missile below the prescribed limit of 10 -6 per turbine year. Following the IAEA Safety Guides, all potential events leading to the generation of a missile are to be analysed. It is necessary to evaluate the probability of unacceptable consequences of such missiles and analyse each event whose probability is not acceptable low. This complex problem thus carries especially: complex analysis of fragment generation; evaluation of the probability of unacceptable events; location of strike zones of possible turbine missiles; assessment the possibility of the turbo-set casing penetration; and projection of additional design requirements if necessary

  4. Optimisation of Ondansetron Orally Disintegrating Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Methods: Different amounts of two different commercial superdisintegrants commonly used in ODT ... analysed using gene expression programming (GEP) and neuro-fuzzy logic (NFL) models. ..... analyse historical data derived from different.

  5. Development and optimization of fluoxetine orally disintegrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bahaa E Ali, Abdullah K Rabba, Mohamed H Fayed, Khalid M El-Say, Mohammad Khalid Anwer, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Ramadan Al-Shdefat, Gamal A Gabr ... The design suggested 15 formulations of different lubricant concentration (X1), lubricant mixing time (X2), and compression force (X3) and then their effect was ...

  6. Electrode for disintegrating metallic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A graphite electrode is provided for disintegrating and removing metallic material from a workpiece, e.g., such as portions of a nuclear reactor to be repaired while in an underwater and/or radioactive environment. The electrode is provided with a plurality of openings extending outwardly, and a manifold for supplying a mixture of water and compressed gas to be discharged through the openings for sweeping away the disintegrated metallic material during use of the electrode

  7. A critical review on tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors. In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence. Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well. Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process. The use of different excipients, experimental setups and manufacturing techniques, as well as the demand for original research led to a distinct patchwork of knowledge. Broader, more systematic approaches are necessary not only to structure the past but also future findings.

  8. [Stability of disintegration in health food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Dajin

    2012-11-01

    To study the change of disintegration of different formulation samples which stored in the artificial climate box or room temperature and provide the technical support for health food monitoring. According to the method of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and British Pharmacopoeia. Appendix XII A. Disintegration 2010. Disintegration of the non-accelerate, accelerated after 1, 2 and 3 months samples were determined by the disintegrator, respectively. Sample properties, the ingredients of the samples, the proportions of the capsule and treatment methods have some effect on the stability of the disintegration. The disintegration time of health food will be changed particularly after they were accelerated under the condition of (38 +/- 1) degrees C/75% RH. Especially the disintegration time of soft capsules were significantly prolonged. The composition and properties of samples were the main factors that affected the disintegration.

  9. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract

    OpenAIRE

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times we...

  10. Short-term treatment with olanzapine does not modulate gut hormone secretion: olanzapine disintegrating versus standard tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Streefland, Trea

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic drug) is frequently associated with various metabolic anomalies, including obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), which dissolve instantaneously in the mouth...

  11. The Disintegration of Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lawrence A.

    2010-01-01

    The disintegration of teacher certification programs in the united States holds an eerie similarity to the recent meltdown of American financial institutions. Similarly, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, whose purported purpose was to ensure that all students get highly qualified teachers (HQT), has had an unintentionally devastating effect on…

  12. Effect of a Disintegration Mechanism on Wetting, Water Absorption, and Disintegration Time of Orodispersible Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Pabari, RM; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablet...

  13. Application of general multilevel factorial design with formulation of fast disintegrating tablets containing croscaremellose sodium and Disintequick MCC-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaiman, Amanda; Suliman, Ammar Said; Shinde, Swapnil; Naz, Sidra; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2016-03-30

    Despite the popularity of orally fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs), their formulation can sometimes be challenging, producing tablets with either poor mechanical properties or high disintegration times. The aim of this research was to enhance the properties of FDTs produced by direct compression to have both sufficient hardness to withstand manual handling, and rapid disintegration time. General multilevel factorial design was applied to optimise and evaluate main and interaction effects of independent variables (i) disintegrant concentration, (ii) % filler (Disintequick MCC-25) to mannitol on the responses hardness, tensile strength and disintegration time. In this experiment mannitol was used as a diluent, Disintequick MCC-25 (to best of our knowledge there is no publication available yet for its use with FDTs) was termed in this study as a filler and croscaremellose sodium was used as the superdisintegrant. Seven formulations were prepared following a progressive two-stage approach. Each stage involved the change in the ratio of excipients (Mannitol:Filler) (1:0), (1:0.25), (1:0.50), (1:1), (0.50:1), (0.25:1), (0:1) w/w and concentration of superdisintegrant (1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10% w/w). All FDTs were tested for different parameters such as diameter, hardness, tensile strength, thickness, friability and disintegration time. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show a good degree of correlation between experimental (R(2):0.84, 0.94, 0.91) and predicted response (R(2):0.83, 0.96, 0.95) for hardness, tensile strength and disintegration time respectively. The optimum formulations (regarding disintegration time with acceptable hardness and friability properties) consisted of: (i) 5% w/w disintegrant and 20% w/w filler to mannitol, showing a disintegration time of 30s, a hardness of 66.6N (6.8 kg/cm(2)) and friability of 2.2%; (ii) 7% or 10% w/w disintegrant with 33.33% w/w filler to mannitol, showing disintegration time of 84 s (for 7% disintegrant) and

  14. Sub- and supercritical jet disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Shaun; Segal, Corin

    2017-04-01

    Shadowgraph visualization and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) are applied to single orifice injection in the same facility and same fluid conditions to analyze sub- to supercritical jet disintegration and mixing. The comparison includes jet disintegration and lateral spreading angle. The results indicate that the shadowgraph data are in agreement with previous visualization studies but differ from the PLIF results that provided quantitative measurement of central jet plane density and density gradients. The study further evaluated the effect of thermodynamic conditions on droplet production and quantified droplet size and distribution. The results indicate an increase in the normalized drop diameter and a decrease in the droplet population with increasing chamber temperatures. Droplet size and distribution were found to be independent of chamber pressure.

  15. Continuous Disintegrations of Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    LaGatta, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand the conditional law of a stochastic process once it has been observed over an interval. To make this precise, we introduce the notion of a continuous disintegration: a regular conditional probability measure which varies continuously in the conditioned parameter. The conditioning is infinite-dimensional in character, which leads us to consider the general case of probability measures in Banach spaces. Our main result is that for a certain quantity $M$ b...

  16. Brexit and the problem of European disintegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosamond, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The Brexit referendum provokes speculation about the likelihood of European disintegration. This article discusses how scholarship might deal with the issue of disintegration and argues that it should be thought of as an indeterminate process rather than an identifiable outcome. Within the EU...... system, Brexit is likely to unleash disintegrative dynamics, which could see the EU stagnate into a suboptimal institutional equilibrium. At the same time, EU studies needs to lift its gaze beyond the internal dynamics of the EU system to consider the disintegration of the democratic capitalist compact...

  17. In vitro disintegration and dissolution studies of once-weekly copies of alendronate sodium tablets (70 mg) and in vivo implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Richard J; Crail, Debbie J; Perkins, Alan C

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro disintegration and dissolution of 26 alendronic acid tablets (70 mg) on the market in Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom compared to the branded product (Fosamax). The disintegration and dissolution times were determined using the methods described in the United States Pharmacopeia 30 (USP 30). The disintegration of four orally disintegrating tablets (non-bisphosphonates) and branded film-coated risedronate sodium tablets were included for comparison. The mean disintegration times of the alendronic acid tablets ranged from 14 s for Pharmachemie (Netherlands) to 342 s (5.7 min) for Betapharm (Germany). The mean disintegration time of the branded product tablets ranged from 43 to 78 s. Six of the 26 companies market alendronic acid tablets with very rapid disintegration times which are similar to those of orally disintegrating tablets (non-bisphosphonates). The alendronic acid tablets with very rapid mean disintegration times are as follows: Pharmachemie (Netherlands), 14 s; Novopharm (Canada), 13-24 s; GRY-Pharma (Germany), 21 s; Juta Pharma (Germany), 30 s; APS/Teva (United Kingdom), 26 and 37 s; and Teva (UK), 14-29 s. Since there is no established disintegration time for alendronic acid tablets there can be no assurance that the copy tablets are equivalent to the branded product in terms of esophageal drug exposure. However, the in vitro disintegration times have not been correlated with in vivo disintegration and performance. The dissolution of all the bisphosphonate tablets was rapid with greater than 80% dissolved in 15 min and all products conformed to the USP 30 specification. The dissolution of all alendronic acid tablets was rapid and complete and conformed to the established USP 30 specifications which should ensure adequate drug absorption from the copy products. However, copies of alendronic acid tablets are approved based on the results of single-dose bioavailability studies in

  18. Effect of a disintegration mechanism on wetting, water absorption, and disintegration time of orodispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Rm; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablets were also measured. Results show that the DT of formulated ODTs was directly related to the WT and was a function of the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrant used. The lowest WT and DT were observed for tablets formulated using the osmotic disintegrant sodium citrate and these tablets also showed the lowest AR and porosity. The wetting and disintegration of tablets containing the highly swellable disintegrant, sodium starch glycollate, was slowest despite their high water AR and high tablet porosity. Rapid wetting and disintegration of ODTs were therefore not necessarily related to the porosity of the tablets.

  19. Improving performance through vertical disintegration: Evidence from UK manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Desyllas, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Unlike previous work on the vertical integration-performance relationship, we investigate the performance consequences of vertical disintegration. We offer a theoretical justification for the disintegration decision and we condition the disintegration effect on performance on the initial degree of firm integration, the timing and the direction of disintegration. Using a sample of UK manufacturing firms and controlling for disintegration endogeneity, we find that disintegration eventually resu...

  20. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Tablet Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaolong; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    Using the lattice-Boltzmann method, we developed a 2D model to study the tablet disintegration involving the swelling and wicking mechanisms. The surface area and disintegration profile of each component were obtained by tracking the tablet structure in the simulation. Compared to pure wicking, the total surface area is larger for swelling and wicking, which indicates that the swelling force breaks the neighboring bonds. The disintegration profiles show that the tablet disintegrates faster than pure wicking, and there are more wetted active pharmaceutical ingredient particles distributed on smaller clusters. Our results indicate how the porosity would affect the disintegration process by changing the wetting area of the tablet as well as by changing the swelling force propagation.

  1. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  2. Tarsal bone disintegration in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverson, G.; Warren, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    Tarsal bone disintegration is characterised by fragmentation and progressive collapse of one or more tarsal bones. It occurs in 10% of leprosy patients, and is responsible for many severe foot deformities associated with this disease. The main cause is micro-traumata, but sensory impairment, sepsis and osteoporosis are predisposing factors. In this series of 400 consecutive patients the talus and navicular were involved most frequently (72% of 119 tarsal lesions). Treatment, including prolonged immobilisation of the foot, results in dense sclerosis of the affected bone, and leaves a functional limb. Initial radiological features include bone fragmentation, calcified fragments in adjacent soft tissues, linear fractures, progressive compression and deformity of the affected bone, loss of density of the affected bone and flattening of the longitudinal plantar arch. Illustrative case histories are presented, and the differential diagnosis discussed. (author)

  3. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balata, Gehan F; Zidan, Ahmad S; Abourehab, Mohamad AS; Essa, Ebtessam A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 32 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT’s porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by croscarmellose sodium. On the other hand, croscarmellose sodium was most important for the initial simvastatin release. The results suggest the potential use of poloxamer 188-based SD in RDT for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble antihyperlipidemic drug, simvastatin. PMID:27757012

  4. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene-polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balata, Gehan F; Zidan, Ahmad S; Abourehab, Mohamad As; Essa, Ebtessam A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene-polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 3 2 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT's porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by croscarmellose sodium. On the other hand, croscarmellose sodium was most important for the initial simvastatin release. The results suggest the potential use of poloxamer 188-based SD in RDT for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble antihyperlipidemic drug, simvastatin.

  5. Chitin's Functionality as a Novel Disintegrant: Benchmarking Against Commonly Used Disintegrants in Different Physicochemical Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaheen, Mohammad; Soulairol, Ian; Bataille, Bernard; Yassine, Ahmad; Belamie, Emmanuel; Sharkawi, Tahmer

    2017-07-01

    Disintegrants are used as excipients to ensure rapid disintegration of pharmaceutical tablets and further ensure proper dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. This study investigates disintegration mechanisms of chitin and common disintegrants. Swelling assessment (swelling force and swelling ratio) in different media, and compaction behavior (pure or mixed with other excipients) tabletability, deformation (Heckel modeling), and compact disintegration times were investigated on the tested disintegrants (alginic acid calcium salt, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and chitin). Results show that the physicochemical properties of the disintegration medium such as pH and ionic strength, as well as other formulation ingredients, affect the disintegrant functionalities. Heckel analysis using the mean yield pressure "Py" shows that alginic acid calcium salt is the most brittle among the studied disintegrants, while crospovidone has the most plastic deformation mechanism, followed by chitin. Chitin showed good tabletability and disintegration properties that were not influenced by the physicochemical formulation environment. Chitin is largely available and easily modifiable and thus a promising material that could be used as a multifunctional excipient in tablet formulation. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cora, L A; Andreis, U; Romeiro, F G; Americo, M F; Oliveira, R B; Baffa, O; Miranda, J R A

    2005-01-01

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t 50 ) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process

  7. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cora, L A [Departamento de Fisica e BioFisica, IBB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Andreis, U [Departamento de Fisica e BioFisica, IBB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Romeiro, F G [Departamento de ClInica Medica, FMB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Americo, M F [Departamento de ClInica Medica, FMRP, USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, R B [Departamento de ClInica Medica, FMRP, USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Baffa, O [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Miranda, J R A [Departamento de Fisica e BioFisica, IBB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2005-12-07

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t{sub 50}) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 {+-} 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process.

  8. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corá, L. A.; Andreis, U.; Romeiro, F. G.; Américo, M. F.; Oliveira, R. B.; Baffa, O.; Miranda, J. R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t50) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process.

  9. Tunnel disintegration and neutron emission probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toyu; Kobayashi, Yukio.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the main features of the so-called cold fusion, that is, poor reproducibility, high t/n ratio and the energy spectrum of neutrons, can be explained by the 'tunnel disintegration' of a deuterium and the subsequent 'dipole disintegration' of a deuteron. Especially, the 2.45-MeV peak found in the energy spectrum, which has been considered to be owing to the d-d nuclear fusion, is explained by this mechanism, and therefore the observation of 2.45-MeV neutrons may not be a direct verification of the d-d nuclear fusion. (author)

  10. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balata GF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gehan F Balata,1,2 Ahmad S Zidan,2 Mohamad AS Abourehab,1,3 Ebtessam A Essa4 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Minia University, El-Minia, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Abstract: The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188 was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 32 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT’s porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by

  11. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required.

  12. ( Phaseolus lunatus ) starch as a tablet disintegrant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was evaluated. The starch from the seeds was extracted and its disintegrant ability was compared with that of maize starch BP in paracetamol based tablets at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w. The following properties of the starch ...

  13. EVALUATION OF DISINTEGRANT PROPERTIES OF Neorautanenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. Olayemi

    of Neorautanenia mitis starch (NMS) as a disintegrant in tablet formulation. Its physicochemical ... starch had lower swelling power than maize or potato starch and when .... ejection of the tablets, they were stored over silica gel for 24 h to allow ...

  14. Evaluation of tablet disintegrant properties of microcrystalline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at exploring the application of microcrystalline cellulose from cassava fermentation waste as a disintegrant in the formulation of paracetamol tablets for immediate release. Alkali delignification of the dried cassava fermentation fibres, followed by bleaching and acid depolymerisation was employed in ...

  15. Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Richard

    2016-01-01

    An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the

  16. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  17. In vitro models for the prediction of in vivo performance of oral dosage forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostewicz, E.S.; Abrahamsson, B.; Brewster, M.; Brouwers, J.; Butler, J.; Carlert, S.; Dickinson, P.A.; Dressman, J.; Holm, R.; Klein, S.; Mann, J.; McAllister, M.; Minekus, M.; Muenster, U.; Müllertz, A.; Verwei, M.; Vertzoni, M.; Weitschies, W.; Augustijns, P.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the in vivo biopharmaceutical performance of oral drug formulations is critical to efficient drug development. Traditionally, in vitro evaluation of oral drug formulations has focused on disintegration and dissolution testing for quality control (QC) purposes. The connection

  18. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge obtained in disintegrators of different constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielewicz, Ewa; Tytła, Malwina

    2015-01-01

    The ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge is placed after the mechanical thickening but before the digestion tanks in order to intensify the process of sludge stabilization. The effects obtained directly after ultrasonic disintegration depend on many factors and can be grouped in two main categories: factors affecting the quality of sludge and those associated with the construction of disintegrators and its parameters. The ultrasonic disintegration research was carried out using three types of structural solutions of disintegrators. Two of them, that is, WK-2000 ultrasonic generator (P = 400 W) working with a thin sonotrode and WK-2010 ultrasonic generator (P = 100-1000 W) working with a new type construction emitter lens sonotrode, were compared with the influence of a washer with a flat emitter. The investigations have shown that in the same sludge, using the same value of volumetric energy, the resulting effect depends on the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator, that is, design of the head and the ratio between the field of the emitter and the field of the chamber in sonicated medium.

  19. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-05

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time.

  20. Development and Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crospovidone and magnesium stearate as key excipients, and with cherry flavor and aspartame as flavor and sweetener, respectively. These formulations were then evaluated using pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial physical and chemical tests. Dissolution and assay tests were performed using USP apparatus II ...

  1. Development of Oral Fast-Disintegrating Levothyroxine Films for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical appearance, thickness, weight variation, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, The effect ... In children, hypothyroidism leads to delay in growth and .... rapid and convenient drug delivery technology for the pediatric patients. Table 3: Physical characteristics of films. Batch. Drug content. (%). Folding endurance.

  2. Functionality of disintegrants and their mixtures in enabling fast disintegration of tablets by a quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Er, Patrick Xuan Hua; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-10-01

    Investigation of the effect of disintegrants on the disintegration time and hardness of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) was carried out using a quality by design (QbD) paradigm. Ascorbic acid, aspirin, and ibuprofen, which have different water solubilities, were chosen as the drug models. Disintegration time and hardness of RDTs were determined and modeled by executing combined optimal design. The generated models were validated and used for further analysis. Sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone were found to lengthen disintegration time when utilized at high concentrations. Sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone worked synergistically in aspirin RDTs to decrease disintegration time. Sodium starch glycolate-crospovidone mixtures, as well as croscarmellose sodium-crospovidone mixtures, also decreased disintegration time in ibuprofen RDTs at high compression pressures as compared to the disintegrants used alone. The use of sodium starch glycolate in RDTs with highly water soluble active ingredients like ascorbic acid slowed disintegration, while microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone drew water into the tablet rapidly and quickened disintegration. Graphical optimization analysis demonstrated that the RDTs with desired disintegration times and hardness can be formulated with a larger area of design space by combining disintegrants at difference compression pressures. QbD was an efficient and effective paradigm in understanding formulation and process parameters and building quality in to RDT formulated systems.

  3. Theory of positive disintegration as a model of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycraft, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a conceptual model of the adolescent development based on the theory of positive disintegration combined with theory of self-organization. Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration, which was created almost a half century ago, still attracts psychologists' and educators' attention, and is extensively applied into studies of gifted and talented people. The positive disintegration is the mental development described by the process of transition from lower to higher levels of mental life and stimulated by tension, inner conflict, and anxiety. This process can be modeled by a sequence of patterns of organization (attractors) as a developmental potential (a control parameter) changes. Three levels of disintegration (unilevel disintegration, spontaneous multilevel disintegration, and organized multilevel disintegration) are analyzed in detail and it is proposed that they represent behaviour of early, middle and late periods of adolescence. In the discussion, recent research on the adolescent brain development is included.

  4. Mechanism of disintegrant action of polacrilin potassium: Swelling or wicking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula Hemant Bele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of particle size, pH of medium, and presence of lubricant on the swelling behaviour, water uptake properties and disintegrant performance of polacrilin potassium was examined. Particle size did not affect the bulk swelling of disintegrant particles when measured as settling volume, but increased the water uptake and decreased the disintegration time of tablets containing this disintegrant. An increase in the pH of the medium from acidic to neutral increased the bulk swelling of the particles, whereas it decreased water uptake and disintegrant performance. Addition of lubricant had no effect on settling volume, but decreased the water uptake rate and the disintegrant performance significantly. It is concluded that wicking, i.e. capillary action, rather than swelling, is the major factor that contributes to the disintegration behaviour of polacrilin potassium.

  5. Formation of disintegration particles in spacecraft recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnosova, L.V.; Fradkin, M.I.; Razorenov, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments performed on the spacecraft Salyut 1, Kosmos 410, and Kosmos 443 enable us to record the disintegration products of particles which are formed in the material of the detectors on board the spacecraft. The observations were made by means of a delayed coincidence method. We have detected a meson component and also a component which is apparently associated with the generation of radioactive isotopes in the detectors

  6. Sewage sludge disintegration by high-pressure homogenization: a sludge disintegration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Ma, Boqiang; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) technology was applied as a pretreatment to disintegrate sewage sludge. The effects of homogenization pressure, homogenization cycle number, and total solid content on sludge disintegration were investigated. The sludge disintegration degree (DD(COD)), protein concentration, and polysaccharide concentration increased with the increase of homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number, and decreased with the increase of sludge total solid (TS) content. The maximum DD(COD) of 43.94% was achieved at 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles for a 9.58 g/L TS sludge sample. A HPH sludge disintegration model of DD(COD) = kNaPb was established by multivariable linear regression to quantify the effects of homogenization parameters. The homogenization cycle exponent a and homogenization pressure exponent b were 0.4763 and 0.7324 respectively, showing that the effect of homogenization pressure (P) was more significant than that of homogenization cycle number (N). The value of the rate constant k decreased with the increase of sludge total solid content. The specific energy consumption increased with the increment of sludge disintegration efficiency. Lower specific energy consumption was required for higher total solid content sludge.

  7. Reduction of excess sludge production using mechanical disintegration devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strünkmann, G W; Müller, J A; Albert, F; Schwedes, J

    2006-01-01

    The usability of mechanical disintegration techniques for the reduction of excess sludge production in the activated sludge process was investigated. Using three different disintegration devices (ultrasonic homogeniser, stirred media mill, high pressure homogeniser) and different operational parameters of the disintegration, the effect of mechanical disintegration on the excess sludge production and on the effluent quality was studied within a continuously operated, laboratory scale wastewater treatment system with pre-denitrification. Depending on the operational conditions and the disintegration device used, a reduction of excess sludge production of up to 70% was achieved. A combination of mechanical disintegration with a membrane bioreactor process with high sludge age is more energy effective concerning reduction of sludge production than with a conventional activated sludge process at lower sludge ages. Depending on the disintegration parameters, the disintegration has no, or only minor, negative effect on the soluble effluent COD and on the COD-removal capacity of the activated sludge process. Nitrogen-removal was slightly deteriorated by the disintegration, whereas the system used was not optimised for nitrogen removal before disintegration was implemented.

  8. Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanbin

    2009-01-01

    A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration. PMID:20401314

  9. Application of a novel automatic disintegration apparatus for the development and evaluation of a direct compression rapidly disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Huijeong Ashley; Augsburger, Larry L

    2012-07-01

    An automatic disintegration tester was developed and used to explore disintegration mechanism and times of rapidly disintegrating tablets. DT50, the time required for a tablet to decrease in its thickness by half, allowed an unbiased determination of disintegration time. Calcium silicate concentration, Explotab® concentration, DiPac®/Xylitab® ratio as fillers, and compression pressure were evaluated using a central composite model design analysis for their DT50, tensile strength, and friability. Tablets that could reasonably be handled (friability disintegrating tablets, originally measured by Caramella et al. using force kinetics, could be determined from axial displacement data measured directly without the need to assume that disintegration force generation was indicative of changes in tablet volume. The n values of tablets containing calcium silicate, Ditab® and/or Xylitab®, magnesium stearate, and Explotab® suggested that the amount of Explotab® was not a significant factor in determining the disintegration mechanism; however, the type of disintegrant used did alter the n value. Primojel® and Explotab®, which are in the same class of disintegrants, exhibited similar DT50, n, and k. Polyplasdone® XL exhibited a much higher n, while yielding faster DT50, suggesting that its performance is more dependent on facilitating the interfacial separation of particles. AcDiSol® showed no apparent moisture sensitivity in regards to disintegration efficiency. The use of the novel apparatus proved to be useful in measuring disintegration efficiency of rapidly disintegrating tablets and in providing valuable information on the disintegration phenomena.

  10. Biohydrogen production using waste activated sludge disintegrated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • Combined alkali-irradiation treatment achieved the highest solubilization of sludge. - Abstract: The biohydrogen production using the disintegrated and dissolved sludge by gamma irradiation was studied. The experimental results showed that gamma irradiation and irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment could disintegrate and dissolve waste activated sludge for biohydrogen production. The alkali-irradiation treatment of the sludge at pH = 12 and 20 kGy achieved the highest disintegration and dissolution, i.e., it could destroy the cell walls and release organic matters (such as soluble COD, polysaccharides and protein) into the solution. The disintegrated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for biohydrogen production

  11. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Xuguang Chen; Yuan Wang; Yu Mei; Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration p...

  12. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration on sludge microbial activity and dewaterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huan; Jin Yiying; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Wang Zhiyu; Nie Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic treatment can disintegrate sludge, enhance microbial activity and improve sludge dewaterability at different energy inputs. To find their relationship, the three phenomena during ultrasonic treatment were investigated synchronously, and an experimental model was established to describe the process of ultrasonic sludge disintegration. Analysis results showed that the changes of sludge microbial activity and dewaterability were dependent on sludge disintegration degree during ultrasonic treatment. When sludge disintegration degree was lower than 20%, sludge flocs were disintegrated into micro-floc aggregates and the microbial activity increased over 20%. When sludge disintegration degree was over 40%, most cells were destroyed at different degree, and sludge activity decreased drastically. Only when sludge disintegration degree was 2-5%, sludge dewaterability was improved with the conditioning of FeCl 3 . It was also found that the sonication with low density and long duration was more efficient than sonication with high density and short duration at the same energy input for sludge disintegration, and a transmutative power function model can be used to describe the process of ultrasonic disintegration

  13. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration on sludge microbial activity and dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Li; Yiying, Jin; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Zhiyu, Wang; Yongfeng, Nie

    2009-01-30

    Ultrasonic treatment can disintegrate sludge, enhance microbial activity and improve sludge dewaterability at different energy inputs. To find their relationship, the three phenomena during ultrasonic treatment were investigated synchronously, and an experimental model was established to describe the process of ultrasonic sludge disintegration. Analysis results showed that the changes of sludge microbial activity and dewaterability were dependent on sludge disintegration degree during ultrasonic treatment. When sludge disintegration degree was lower than 20%, sludge flocs were disintegrated into micro-floc aggregates and the microbial activity increased over 20%. When sludge disintegration degree was over 40%, most cells were destroyed at different degree, and sludge activity decreased drastically. Only when sludge disintegration degree was 2-5%, sludge dewaterability was improved with the conditioning of FeCl(3). It was also found that the sonication with low density and long duration was more efficient than sonication with high density and short duration at the same energy input for sludge disintegration, and a transmutative power function model can be used to describe the process of ultrasonic disintegration.

  14. Characterising the disintegration properties of tablets in opaque media using texture analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K.H.; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T.

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration characterisation is used in pharmaceutical research, development, and quality control. Standard methods used to characterise tablet disintegration are often dependent on visual observation in measurement of disintegration times. This presents a challenge for disintegration studies of tablets in opaque, physiologically relevant media that could be useful for tablet formulation optimisation. In this study is explored an application of texture analysis disintegration testin...

  15. Deuteron photo-disintegration at large energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterveld, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Current proposals at CEBAF include the measurement of cross sections and polarization observables of exclusive photo-reactions such as deuteron photo-disintegration and pion photo-production from nucleons. At issue is the applicability of traditional meson-exchange models versus quark models of these reactions at photon energies of several GeV. Beam energies above 4 GeV at CEBAF could make possible the measurement of these reactions over a kinematic range sufficiently broad to distinguish between the models. Estimates of counting rates for a Hall-C experiment to measure the γd → pn cross section are presented

  16. Anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Gari, M.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie

    1981-01-01

    The anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron (anti ν + D → anti ν + n + p and anti νsub(e) + D → + e + + n + n) is calculated using realistic two-body states. Meson-exchange currents are considered in the one-boson-exchange limit. The results are discussed as corrections to the cross sections obtained in effective range approximations. It is shown that the ratio of the cross sections (sigma - /sigma 0 ) for reactor antineutrinos is practically independent of the nuclear physics uncertainties. (orig.)

  17. Disintegration of materials by cavitating microjets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlkvik M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented an investigation of material disintegration by cavitating microjets. Cavitating microjet develops behind the micro-orifice at high flow speeds, when local pressure drop initiates a cavitation phenomenon. Described is a method and presented are selected results of experiments. Experiments were carried out with 2 micro-orifices at different flow conditions (cavitation number, distance between sample and micro-orifice. Experiments are based on flow visualisation as well as on a character of material displacement.

  18. Disintegration of collagen fibrils by Glucono-δ-lactone: An implied lead for disintegration of fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Jayaraman; Ravikanth Reddy, R; Madhan, Balaraman; Shanmugam, Ganesh

    2018-02-01

    Excess accumulation of collagen (fibrosis) undergoes self-aggregation, which leads to fibrillar collagen, on the extracellular matrix is the hallmark of a number of diseases such as keloids, hypertrophic scars, and systemic scleroderma. Direct inhibition or disintegration of collagen fibrils by small molecules offer a therapeutic approach to prevent or treat the diseases related to fibrosis. Herein, the anti-fibrotic property of Glucono-δ-lactone (GdL), known as acidifier, on the fibrillation and its disintegration of collagen was investigated. As collagen fibrillation is pH dependent, the pH modulation property of GdL is attractive to inhibit self-association of collagen. Optical density and microscopic data indicate that GdL elicits concentration-dependent fibril inhibition and also disintegrates pre-formed collagen fibrils. The simultaneous pH analysis showed that the modulation(lowering) of pH by GdL is the primary cause for its anti-fibrotic activity. The intact triple helical structure of collagen upon treatment of GdL suggests that collagen fibril disintegration can be achieved without affecting the native structure of collagen which is essential for any anti-fibrotic agents. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR result reveals that GdL is in proximity to collagen. The present results thus suggest that GdL provides a lead to design novel anti-fibrotic agents for the pathologies related to collagen deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnjatović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the process of gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia during the second half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century. This period is characterized by an appearance of frequent usurpations of the ruling right to mint coinage by local landlords and the attempts of the rulers from Lazarević and Branković families to restore unified monetary system. Common debasements and restorations of silver coinage provoked economic instability and induced frequent turning backwards to the custom of using weighted silver instead of silver coins as commodity monetary standard. The aim of this paper is to explain the reasons for those phenomena. We apply qualitative, historical, empirical analysis where we consider money minting right holders and their decisions to debase and restore the value of silver dinars. We found that gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbian State continued until the fall of Serbian Despotate as a consequence of political instability following dissolution of medieval Serbian Empire and economic and financial exhaustion of Serbia by Ottoman suzerains.

  20. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. Results All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. Conclusions The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy. PMID:25755998

  1. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy.

  2. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose.

  3. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque SE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shaikh Ershadul Haque, Angappan Sheela Materials Chemistry Division, Centre for Nanomaterials, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met, an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7. The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: chitosan, sodium starch glycolate, microcrystalline cellulose, drug-delivery system, immediate release

  4. Disintegration of a profiled shock wave at the cumulation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliski, S.

    1978-01-01

    The disintegration at the cumulation point is analyzed of a shock wave generated with the aid of a profiled pressure. The quantitative relations are analyzed for the disintegration waves for typical compression parameters in systems of thermonuclear microfusion. The quantitative conclusions are drawn for the application of simplifying approximate calculations in problems of microfusion. (author)

  5. Acoustics aspects of technological process in the rock disintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Futó

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some results of monitoring and aspects of the acoustic signal in the rock disintegration on the drillig stand of the Institute of Geotechnics, SAS in Košice. The registration and processing of the acoustic signal is solved as a part of the research grant task within the basic research of the rock disintegration by drilling.

  6. Determination of disintegration half-life of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Keliang; Liu Guoxing; Wang Sufang; Zheng Jiwen

    1991-01-01

    The follow-up measurements have been made by using a Si(Au) detector with small solid angle geometry for α disintegration of 252 Cf. The measured half-life of disintegration is 2.638 ± 0.009 year. This value is in accordance with other previous results

  7. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to formulate metronidazole tablets using starch from Xanthosoma sagittifolium as binder and disintegrant in metronidazole tablets. Metronidazole tablets were produced by wet granulation method using X. sagittifolium starch as binder at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w, and as disintegrant ...

  8. Effects Of Physical And Chemical Modifications On The Disintegrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regardless of the mode of incorporation, Tacca starch was most efficient in effecting the disintegration of the tablets and releasing their riboflavin contents in its unmodified form. In this regard, pregelatinized Tacca starch was more effective as a disintegrant than the acid hydrolysed form of the starch. Generally, fastest ...

  9. Optimization of the formulation of fast disintegrating tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Herman Vincent van

    1987-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents general information on tableting and is an introduction to the other chapters. Chapter 2 covers the mechanism of action of tablet disintegrants, in particular modern super disintegrants. The results indicate that when the tablets contain a slightly swelling but hydrophilic

  10. Optimization of binder, disintegrant and compression pressure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was done by studying the contributions of variable factors of binder concentration, disintegrant concentration and compression pressure to tablet friability, hardness and disintegration time under factor combinations given by 23 factorial experimental designs. The effect of every factor was determined by finding the ...

  11. A Review of Disintegration Mechanisms and Measurement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel

    2017-05-01

    Pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (tablets or capsules) are the predominant form to administer active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to the patient. Tablets are typically powder compacts consisting of several different excipients in addition to the API. Excipients are added to a formulation in order to achieve the desired fill weight of a dosage form, to improve the processability or to affect the drug release behaviour in the body. These complex porous systems undergo different mechanisms when they come in contact with physiological fluids. The performance of a drug is primarily influenced by the disintegration and dissolution behaviour of the powder compact. The disintegration process is specifically critical for immediate-release dosage forms. Its mechanisms and the factors impacting disintegration are discussed and methods used to study the disintegration in-situ are presented. This review further summarises mathematical models used to simulate disintegration phenomena and to predict drug release kinetics.

  12. Mechanisms and kinetics models for ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Yong; Ji, Min

    2005-08-31

    Ultrasonic energy can be applied as pre-treatment to disintegrate sludge flocs and disrupt bacterial cells' walls, and the hydrolysis can be improved, so that the rate of sludge digestion and methane production is improved. In this paper, by adding NaHCO3 to mask the oxidizing effect of OH, the mechanisms of disintegration are investigated. In addition, kinetics models for ultrasonic sludge disintegration are established by applying multi-variable linear regression method. It has been found that hydro-mechanical shear forces predominantly responsible for the disintegration, and the contribution of oxidizing effect of OH increases with the amount of the ultrasonic density and ultrasonic intensity. It has also been inferred from the kinetics model which dependent variable is SCOD+ that both sludge pH and sludge concentration significantly affect the disintegration.

  13. The Theory of Institutional Disintegration: Conceptual Potential and Methdological Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbashin Maksim, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodological opportunities and conceptual frameworks of theory of institutional disintegration developed by the author and the implication of the theory in market studies are analyzed. The problem of institutional transformation is one of the main theoretical problems in new institutionalism. The author believes that social institutions describe acceptable and unacceptable economic behavior for economic agents, and the institutional disintegration is the result of the gradual evolution of norms and rules of behavior. Institutional disintegration starts as the result of the growth of default rules. In the paper, institutional exceptions are considered to be a product of institutional disintegration and the behavioral foundations of new markets. The theory explains how “inner” transformation of rules of behavior impacts on market development and market behavior of economic agents. Analyzing the methodological advantages and problems of such approach, the author comes to the conclusions that the theory of institutional disintegration has some methodological perspectives in institutional economics and market studies.

  14. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 < 4.2 %. The highest effect of sonolysis-an almost 30-fold increase in the COD dissolved in the supernatant-was obtained for the sludge of lowest dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface

  15. ELECTRONIC ANALOG COMPUTER FOR DETERMINING RADIOACTIVE DISINTEGRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H.P.

    1959-07-14

    A computer is presented for determining growth and decay curves for elements in a radioactive disintegration series wherein one unstable element decays to form a second unstable element or isotope, which in turn forms a third element, etc. The growth and decay curves of radioactive elements are simulated by the charge and discharge curves of a resistance-capacitance network. Several such networks having readily adjustable values are connected in series with an amplifier between each successive pair. The time constant of each of the various networks is set proportional to the half-life of a corresponding element in the series represented and the charge and discharge curves of each of the networks simulates the element growth and decay curve.

  16. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, L.

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members, limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed.

  17. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1982-01-01

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Copper alloys disintegration using pulsating water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, Jiří; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Królczyk, J. B.; Cárach, J.; Krolczyk, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, March 2016 (2016), s. 375-383 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * generation of pulses * disintegration * surface morphology * copper alloys Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224116000154/1-s2.0-S0263224116000154-main.pdf?_tid=8f8d1de6-99e9-11e6-afbc-00000aacb362&acdnat=1477314089_59912e52847e91e2030d6a1afd09e7b2

  19. Determination of Ga-67 disintegration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Katia A.; Koskinas, Maria F.; Dias, Mauro S.

    1996-01-01

    One of the consequences of the production by IPEN of new radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine, as the case of Ga-67, is the need of new standard sources of the radionuclide obtained in a fast and simple way. The Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radionuclideos at IPEN has a well-type ionization chamber system, the most suitable for this purpose. In order to calibrate this system it was necessary to standardize Ga-67 solutions by an absolute system. The present work gives details on the Ga-67 disintegration rate determination by an 4 π β-γ coincidence system, gamma spectrometry using an HPGe detector and measurements using a 1383A - type ionization chamber, in order to check the consistency in the adopted methodology. (author)

  20. Analysis of electrochemical disintegration process of graphite matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lifang; Wen Mingfen; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical method with ammonium nitrate as electrolyte was studied to disintegrate the graphite matrix from the simulative fuel elements for high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The influences of process parameters, including salt concentration, system temperature and current density, on the disintegration rate of graphite fragments were investigated in the present work. The experimental results showed that the disintegration rate depended slightly on the temperature and salt concentration. The current density strongly affected the disintegration rate of graphite fragments. Furthermore, the content of introduced oxygen in final graphite fragments was independent of the current density and the concentration of electrolyte. Moreover, the structural evolution of graphite was analyzed based on the microstructural parameters determined by X-ray diffraction profile fitting analysis using MAUD (material analysis using diffraction) before and after the disintegration process. It may safely be concluded that the graphite disintegration can be ascribed to the influences of the intercalation of foreign molecules in between crystal planes and the partial oxidation involved. The disintegration process was described deeply composed of intercalate part and further oxidation part of carbon which effected together to lead to the collapse of graphite crystals.

  1. Enhancement of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge by aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Cheng, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sonication is an effective way for sludge disintegration, which can significantly improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion to reduce and recycle use of sludge. But high energy consumption limits the wide application of sonication. In order to improve ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency and reduce energy consumption, aeration was introduced. Results showed that sludge disintegration efficiency was improved significantly by combining aeration with ultrasound. The aeration flow rate, gas bubble size, ultrasonic density and aeration timing had impacts on sludge disintegration efficiency. Aeration that used in later stage of ultrasonic irradiation with low aeration flow rate, small gas bubbles significantly improved ultrasonic disintegration sludge efficiency. At the optimal conditions of 0.4 W/mL ultrasonic irradiation density, 30 mL/min of aeration flow rate, 5 min of aeration in later stage and small gas bubbles, ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency was increased by 45% and one third of ultrasonic energy was saved. This approach will greatly benefit the application of ultrasonic sludge disintegration and strongly promote the treatment and recycle of wastewater sludge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria. ... This study seeks to assess the quality of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria by determining ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. High energy disintegration of silver and bromine nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, K.; Goswami, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    A nucleus excited by high energy projectile, disintegrates by emitting particles and fragments. The multiplicity of charged particle and fragments cnn be determined from the tracks produced in detectors like nuclear emulsion

  4. Rheological properties of disintegrated sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of the sludge provides information about the capacity and the flow, which in the case of project tasks for the hydraulic conveying installation is an important control parameter. Accurate knowledge of the rheological properties of sludge requires the designation of rheological models. Models single and multiparameter (Ostwald, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley'a, and others) allow an approximation of flow curves, and the determination of the boundaries of the flow of modified sludge allows you to control the process compaction or are dewatered sludge undergoing flow. The aim of the study was to determine the rheological parameters and rheological models of sludge conditioned by physical methods before and after the process of anaerobic digestion. So far, studies have shown that the application of conditioning in the preparation of sewage sludge increases shear stress, viscosity as well as the limits of flow in relation to the untreated sludge. Offset yield point by the application of a conditioning agent is associated with decreased flowability tested sludge, which has also been observed by analyzing the structure of the prepared samples. Lowering the yield point, and thus the shear stress was recorded as a result of the fermentation test of disintegrated sludge.

  5. Radiative corrections in neutrino-deuterium disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurylov, A.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.; Vogel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The radiative corrections of order α for the charged- and neutral-current neutrino-deuterium disintegration for energies relevant to the SNO experiment are evaluated. Particular attention is paid to the issue of the bremsstrahlung detection threshold. It is shown that the radiative corrections to the total cross section for the charged current reaction are independent of that threshold, as they must be for consistency, and amount to a slowly decreasing function of the neutrino energy E ν , varying from about 4% at low energies to 3% at the end of the 8 B spectrum. The differential cross section corrections, on the other hand, do depend on the bremsstrahlung detection threshold. Various choices of the threshold are discussed. It is shown that for a realistic choice of the threshold and for the actual electron energy threshold of the SNO detector, the deduced 8 B ν e flux should be decreased by about 2%. The radiative corrections to the neutral-current reaction are also evaluated

  6. The Theory of Institutional Disintegration: Conceptual Potential and Methdological Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Barbashin Maksim, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The methodological opportunities and conceptual frameworks of theory of institutional disintegration developed by the author and the implication of the theory in market studies are analyzed. The problem of institutional transformation is one of the main theoretical problems in new institutionalism. The author believes that social institutions describe acceptable and unacceptable economic behavior for economic agents, and the institutional disintegration is the result of the gradual evolution ...

  7. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Antesh Kumar Jha; Dipak Chetia

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating ...

  8. Fragmentation of chromatin with 125I radioactive disintegrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.N.; Nobis, P.; Dewey, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    The DNA in Chinese hamster cells was labeled first for 3 h with [ 3 H]TdR and then for 3 h with [ 125 I]UdR. Chromatin was extracted, frozen, and stored at -30 0 C until 1.0 x 10 17 and 1.25 x 10 17 disintegrations/g of labeled DNA occurred for 125 I and 3 H, respectively. Velocity sedimentation of chromatin (DNA with associated chromosomal proteins) in neutral sucrose gradients indicated that the localized energy from the 125 I disintegrations, which gave about 1 double-strand break/disintegration plus an additional 1.3 single strand breaks, selectively fragmented the [ 125 I] chromatin into pieces smaller than the [ 3 H] chromatin. In other words, 125 I disintegrations caused much more localized damage in the chromatin labeled with 125 I than in the chromatin labeled with 3 H, and fragments induced in DNA by 125 I disintegrations were not held together by the associated chromosomal proteins. Use of this 125 I technique for studying chromosomal proteins associated with different regions in the cellular DNA is discussed. For these studies, the number of disintegrations required for fragmenting DNA molecules of different sizes is illustrated

  9. INFLUENCE OF CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM AND LUTROL ON THE SWELLING INDEX AND DISINTEGRATION TIME OF BIOMUCOADHESIVE TABLETS WITH MICONAZOLE NITRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsan, Magdalena; Scutariu, Monica Mihaela; Cojocaru, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE. To develop original pharmaceutical formulation with miconazole nitrate, biomucoadhesive tablets, used in antifungal medication. The oral biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate were developed by direct compression of the excipient mixture: carboxymethylcellulose sodium and lutrol 6000, excipients used for bioadhesivity, mannitol as a sugar substitute and aerosil as a lubricant. The main goal of the study is to determine the disintegration time and the swelling index of biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate in order to estimate the time of contact with mucosa, respectively the prolongation of drug substance release. The swelling index was calculated depending on time in all the 5 formulations that included the carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Lutrol 6000 as matrix-forming, and the studied were time and association ratio between polymers. Analysing the results, we noticed that out of the four excipients we used, carboxymethylcellulose sodium had the higher influence on the swelling index and disintegration time.

  10. Disintegration of highly soluble immediate release tablets: a surrogate for dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhay; Hunt, Robert L; Shah, Rakhi B; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to investigate correlation between disintegration and dissolution for immediate release tablets containing a high solubility drug and to identify formulations where disintegration test, instead of the dissolution test, may be used as the acceptance criteria based on International Conference on Harmonization Q6A guidelines. A statistical design of experiments was used to study the effect of filler, binder, disintegrating agent, and tablet hardness on the disintegration and dissolution of verapamil hydrochloride tablets. All formulation variables, i.e., filler, binder, and disintegrating agent, were found to influence tablet dissolution and disintegration, with the filler and disintegrating agent exerting the most significant influence. Slower dissolution was observed with increasing disintegration time when either the filler or the disintegrating agent was kept constant. However, no direct corelationship was observed between the disintegration and dissolution across all formulations due to the interactions between different formulation components. Although all tablets containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the disintegrating agent, disintegrated in less than 3 min, half of them failed to meet the US Pharmacopeia 30 dissolution criteria for the verapamil hydrochloride tablets highlighting the dependence of dissolution process on the formulation components other than the disintegrating agent. The results identified only one formulation as suitable for using the disintegration test, instead of the dissolution test, as drug product acceptance criteria and highlight the need for systematic studies before using the disintegration test, instead of the dissolution test as the drug acceptance criteria.

  11. Multifragment disintegrations of expanding nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbke, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two phase transitions are expected to exist in bulk nuclear matter: a liquid-gas phase transition and a deconfinement transition to a quark-gluon plasma. In studies of nucleus-nucleus collisions, conditions similar to those pertaining to phase transitions in infinite systems can be created, but the fundamental problem yet to be solved is the identification of remnant signatures uniquely related to either of these phase transitions. Nuclear systems at densities and temperatures corresponding to the liquid-gas coexistence region can be produced in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions; they are expected to decay into many intermediate mass fragments (IMF's: Z=3-20). Recent investigations with low-threshold electronic 4π detector arrays have firmly established the occurrence of multifragment disintegrations of hot nuclear systems and allowed to challenge various theoretical approaches. In this talk, an overview of pertinent experimental results on multifragmentation will be presented and discussed. it will be shown that current microscopic transport theories designed to treat the growth of density fluctuations predict fragment multiplicities much smaller than observed experimentally. Measurements of the time scales of fragment formation are consistent with statistical model calculations for expanding hot nuclear system which indicate that fragments may form during a rather narrow time interval after the system has cooled and expanded to a density below that of normal nuclear matter. The expansion rate (and hence the fragment multiplicity) is sensitive to the equation of state (EOS). However, a number of recent results provide increasing evidence that current theoretical treatments need to be refined to allow an experimental determination of the EOS

  12. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 × 80 µm with a section thickness of only 600 µm were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the impact of disintegrant concentration were examined. Crospovidone seems to be the only disintegrant acting by a shape memory effect, whereas the others mainly swell. A higher relative density of tablets containing croscarmellose sodium leads to a more even distribution of water within the tablet matrix but hardly impacts the disintegration kinetics. Increasing the polacrilin potassium disintegrant concentration leads to a quicker and more thorough disintegration process. Real-time MRI emerges as valuable tool to visualize and investigate the process of tablet disintegration.

  13. Improvement of disintegrable properties of bone prosthetic phosphate cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Mitsumasa

    2007-01-01

    The author added a viscoelastic binder or bio-disintegrable polymer filler in αDT-cement (DTC) base, which consisting of α-tricalcium phosphate, tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, in order to examine whether disintegrable properties of the bone prosthetic materials could be improved. The additive for the former binder was hydroxypropyl-cellulose and the latter filler, poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and they were mixed in various proportions with the base. At both sides of the cranial coronary suture of Japanese white rabbit, cavities (4 in total) were made at anteroposterior sites where those prosthetic cements were filled. At 1, 2 and 4 weeks later, the operated bone region was dissected out, its soft X-ray image was taken by the machine OMC603 (OHMICRON), and three-dimensional (3D) micro-focused XCT images, by Shimadzu SMX-130CT-SV. The trabecular thickness, bone volume and tissue volume ratio were calculated from the latter images by the trabecular structural measure software TRI/3Dbon (ROTAC). Disintegration rate of the cements was tested in water. Disintegrable properties were found to affect osteogenesis by giving the space for it, and thereby the choice of the ratio of the binder and disintegrable filler in the DTC makes it possible to design the most suitable cement needed. (R.T.)

  14. Disintegration of aerobic granules induced by trans-2-decenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-Jie; Xiao, Xiang; He, Yan-Rong; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One current major hurdle to practical implementation of aerobic granule technology is the frequent occurrence of granule disintegration during long-term operation. However, the mechanism behind this is largely unclear today. Here, 2-decenoic acid, which has been previously demonstrated to be released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and disperse biofilms, was found to also induce the disintegration of aerobic granules. A comparison of the solution compositions from samples of only trans-2-decenoic acid, only aerobic granules, and granules added with trans-2-decenoic acid shows that bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were stripped from granule surface upon trans-2-decenoic acid dosing. Due to the possible toxicity of trans-2-decenoic acid at a saturation concentration, the disintegrated granules and the milky suspension in the disintegration test showed a significantly lower oxygen uptake rate than the un-integrated granules. This work suggests that trans-2-decenoic acid released by microbes might play a critical role in regulating the disintegration of aerobic granules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  16. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  17. Processing of tungsten scrap into powders by electroerosion disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominskii, L.P.; Leuchuk, M.V.; Myuller, A.S.; Tarabrina, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    Utilization of tungsten and tungsten alloy swarf and other waste and also of rejected and worn parts is a matter of great importance in view of the shortage of this metal. The authors examine the electroerosion (EE) disintegration of tungsten in water as a means of utilizing swarf and other loose waste. Unlike chemical methods, EE disintegration ensures ecological purity since there are no effluent waters or toxic discharges. Swarf and trimmings of rods of diameters up to 20 mm obtained after the lathe-turning of tungsten bars sintered from PVN and PVV tungsten powders were disintegrated in water at room temperature between tungsten electrodes. The phase composition of the powder was studied using FeK /SUB alpha/ radiation, by x-ray diffraction methods in a DRON-2 diffractometer with a graphite monochromator on the secondary beam. When tungsten is heated to boiling during EE disintegration, the impurities present in it can evaporate and burn out. Thus, tungsten powder produced by EE disintegration can be purer than the starting metal

  18. Influence of compression forces on tablets disintegration by AC Biosusceptometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corá, Luciana A; Fonseca, Paulo R; Américo, Madileine F; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Baffa, Oswaldo; Miranda, José Ricardo A

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of physical phenomena that occurs during tablet disintegration has been studied by several experimental approaches; however none of them satisfactorily describe this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of compression force on the tablets by associating the AC Biosusceptometry with consolidated methods in order to validate the biomagnetic technique as a tool for quality control in pharmaceutical processes. Tablets obtained at five compression levels were submitted to mechanical properties tests. For uncoated tablets, water uptake and disintegration force measurements were performed in order to compare with magnetic data. For coated tablets, magnetic measurements were carried out to establish a relationship between physical parameters of the disintegration process. According to the results, differences between the compression levels were found for water uptake, force development and magnetic area variation measurements. ACB method was able to estimate the disintegration properties as well as the kinetics of disintegration process for uncoated and coated tablets. This study provided a new approach for in vitro investigation and validated this biomagnetic technique as a tool for quality control for pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, using ACB will also be possible to test these parameters in humans allowing to establish an in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC).

  19. Positive Disintegration as a Process of Symmetry Breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycraft, Krystyna

    2017-04-01

    This article presents an analysis of the positive disintegration as a process of symmetry breaking. Symmetry breaking plays a major role in self-organized patterns formation and correlates directly to increasing complexity and function specialization. According to Dabrowski, a creator of the Theory of Positive Disintegration, the change from lower to higher levels of human development requires a major restructuring of an individual's psychological makeup. Each level of human development is a relatively stable and coherent configuration of emotional-cognitive patterns called developmental dynamisms. Their main function is to restructure a mental structure by breaking the symmetry of a low level and bringing differentiation and then integration to higher levels. The positive disintegration is then the process of transitions from a lower level of high symmetry and low complexity to higher levels of low symmetry and high complexity of mental structure.

  20. Development and evaluation of mathematical model to predict disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets using powder characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, H; Arora, A; Tiwary, A K; Rana, V

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a mathematical model for predicting the disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) by estimating the powder characteristics of powder blend prior to compression. A combination of chitosan-alginate complex and glycine in the ratio of 50:50 was used for preparing FDTs. The developed mathematical model allowed water sorption time (WST), effective pore radius (R(eff.p)) and swelling Index (SI) of powder mixture as well as tablet crushing strength to be successfully correlated with disintegration time (DT) of FDTs. The predicted model showed that disintegration time of FDTs to be directly correlated with powder characteristics and inversely correlated with tablet crushing strength. Furthermore, a correlation of 0.97 was obtained when DT of FDTs was compared with SI/(WST * R(eff.p)). This correlation was not affected by inclusion of water soluble (ondansetron hydrochloride or metaclopramide hydrochloride) or water insoluble (domperidone) drugs in the powder blend or FDTs. These observations indicated the versatility of the mathematical model in predicting the disintegration time of FDTs by evaluating the selected characteristics of the powder blends without actually preparing the FDTs.

  1. Centrality of collisions and total disintegration of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulejmanov, M.K.; Abdinov, O.B.; Anoshin, A.I.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The interrelation of the processes of total disintegration of nuclei with the process, characterized by the 'centrality' of collisions and a minimum flow of energy of secondary particles emitted at a zero angle in pC, dC, 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions, is investigated at 4.2 A · GeV/c. The events with total disintegration of nuclei are characterized by a high degree 'centrality' of collisions and similar to the events having a minimum flow of energy of particles emitted at a zero angle

  2. EVIDENCE FOR GAS FROM A DISINTEGRATING EXTRASOLAR ASTEROID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B.; Dufour, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report high-resolution spectroscopic observations of WD 1145+017—a white dwarf that was recently found to be transitted by multiple asteroid-sized objects within its tidal radius. We discovered numerous circumstellar absorption lines with linewidths of ∼300 km s −1 from Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, possibly from several gas streams produced by collisions among the actively disintegrating objects. The atmosphere of WD 1145+017 is polluted with 11 heavy elements, including O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V:, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni. Evidently, we are witnessing the active disintegration and subsequent accretion of an extrasolar asteroid

  3. EVIDENCE FOR GAS FROM A DISINTEGRATING EXTRASOLAR ASTEROID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles CA 90095-1562 (United States); Dufour, P., E-mail: sxu@eso.org, E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: dufourpa@astro.umontreal.ca [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes (iREx), Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2016-01-10

    We report high-resolution spectroscopic observations of WD 1145+017—a white dwarf that was recently found to be transitted by multiple asteroid-sized objects within its tidal radius. We discovered numerous circumstellar absorption lines with linewidths of ∼300 km s{sup −1} from Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, possibly from several gas streams produced by collisions among the actively disintegrating objects. The atmosphere of WD 1145+017 is polluted with 11 heavy elements, including O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V:, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni. Evidently, we are witnessing the active disintegration and subsequent accretion of an extrasolar asteroid.

  4. On Coulomb disintegration of relativistic nuclei and hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshits, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the total cross-section of excitation and disintegration of a relativistic nucleus in the Coulomb field on the energy and parameters characterizing nuclear dimensions is investigated. The analogy with the problem of atomic ionization at the passage of charged particles through matter is used. The results are applied to the description of the Coulomb dissociation of nuclei with small binding energies. An explicit expression for the effective cross-section of the Coulomb disintegration of the hypernucleus-Λ 3 H into a deuteron and Λ-particle. 12 refs

  5. Drug abuse: consequences in terms of family pathology and disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, L

    1991-01-01

    This article examines some of the consequences of drug addiction in terms of family pathology and family disintegration. It briefly elucidates the role of the family in developing and maintaining drug addiction in family members. The concept of 'secondary' sufferers of the illness of drug addiction is examined. An actual case history will be presented in order to facilitate analysis of some of the forms of pathology and disintegration so often seen in the family of the drug addict. Within the family context, the question of who, if anyone, is the victim of drug addiction, is raised.

  6. Disintegration of C60 by Xe ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, R.; Samoiloff, A.; Hoffman, A.; Uzan-Saguy, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Changes in resistivity of fullerene (C 60 ) films subject to 320 keV Xe ion irradiation are investigated as a function of ion dose. From a comparison of this dependence with similar data on other Xe irradiated C containing insulating materials and with data on C implanted fused quartz, it is concluded that upon ion impact C 60 clusters completely disintegrate. This disintegration releases about 60 C atoms which disperse amongst the remaining intact C 60 spheres giving rise to hopping conductivity between isolated C atoms. 16 refs., 3 figs

  7. Examination of formulation and process factors on the characteristics of fast dissolving and fast disintegrating tablets manufactured by a direct compression process.

    OpenAIRE

    Pabari, Ritesh M

    2010-01-01

    Oral dosage forms are the safest and most convenient dosage forms and of these tablets are the most popular with patients because of their portability, ease and convenience of dose intake and with manufacturers because of their simple and low cost manufacturing process. Fast disintegrating dissolving tablets (FDDTs), a more recent innovation, have gained a great deal of attention particularly for use in various patient groups such as the paediatric, geriatric, travelling patients and patients...

  8. Use of multiple pinhole external scintigraphy to monitor tablet disintegration in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, M.C.; Devous, M.D.; Simpson, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    External scintigraphy is useful for observing the disintegration of capsules and tablets in the gastro-intestinal tract of man and animals. The sites of disintegration, completeness of disintegration, effectiveness of coatings and rate of transition through the intestinal tract can be investigated by this technique. Gamma cameras are coupled to a digital data processor, video image processor and image magnifier, for increased resolution. Disintegration times in vitro and in vivo are compared. (U.K.)

  9. Description of disintegration in a three-body system

    CERN Document Server

    Takibaev, N Z

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of approach based on the effective potential of interaction between constituents, description of inelastic transition, in particularly, the processes of system disintegration. Relationship is shown between the approach results and those of the theory of final state interaction where coefficients of reaction gaining factor are determined. (author)

  10. Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and Giftedness: Overexcitability Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendaglio, Sal; Tillier, William

    2006-01-01

    During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability…

  11. Chemokine Signaling during Midline Epithelial Seam Disintegration Facilitates Palatal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttorp, Christiaan M.; Cremers, Niels A.; van Rheden, René; Regan, Raymond F.; Helmich, Pia; van Kempen, Sven; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Wagener, Frank A.D.T.G.

    2017-01-01

    Disintegration of the midline epithelial seam (MES) is crucial for palatal fusion, and failure results in cleft palate. Palatal fusion and wound repair share many common signaling pathways related to epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk. We postulate that chemokine CXCL11, its receptor CXCR3, and the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), which are crucial during wound repair, also play a decisive role in MES disintegration. Fetal growth restriction and craniofacial abnormalities were present in HO-2 knockout (KO) mice without effects on palatal fusion. CXCL11 and CXCR3 were highly expressed in the disintegrating MES in both wild-type and HO-2 KO animals. Multiple apoptotic DNA fragments were present within the disintegrating MES and phagocytized by recruited CXCR3-positive wt and HO-2 KO macrophages. Macrophages located near the MES were HO-1-positive, and more HO-1-positive cells were present in HO-2 KO mice compared to wild-type. This study of embryonic and palatal development provided evidence that supports the hypothesis that the MES itself plays a prominent role in palatal fusion by orchestrating epithelial apoptosis and macrophage recruitment via CXCL11-CXCR3 signaling. PMID:29164113

  12. Disintegration of fluids under supercritical conditions from mixing layer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okong'o, N.; Bellan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Databases of transitional states obtained from Direct Numerical simulations (DNS) of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for two species systems, O2/H2 and C7H16/N2, are analyzed to elucidate species-specific turbulence aspects and features of fluid disintegration.

  13. Mechanism of 238U disintegration induced by relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronenko, L.N.; Zhdanov, A.A.; Kravtsov, A.V.; Solyakin, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In heavy-nucleus disintegration induced by a relativistic projectile particle, the production of collinear massive fragments accompanied by numerous charged particles and neutrons is explained in terms of the mechanism of projectile-momentum compensation due to the emission of a particle whose mass is greater than the projectile mass

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder misdiagnosed as childhood-onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder, which is often misdiagnosed as schizophrenia, probably due to the resultant severe social impairment and withdrawn behaviour with stereotypys that could be mistaken for psychosis. We report a case of CDD that was misdiagnosed by a ...

  15. Discrete convolution-operators and radioactive disintegration. [Numerical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalla, S L; VALENTINUZZI, M E [UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE TUCUMAN (ARGENTINA). FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS EXACTAS Y TECNOLOGIA

    1975-08-01

    The basic concepts of discrete convolution and discrete convolution-operators are briefly described. Then, using the discrete convolution - operators, the differential equations associated with the process of radioactive disintegration are numerically solved. The importance of the method is emphasized to solve numerically, differential and integral equations.

  16. The Disintegration of {sup 103}Rh{sup m}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czock, K. H.; Haselberger, N.; Reichel, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1974-09-15

    A technique for determination of the disintegration rate of {sup 103}Rh{sup m} in thick foils is described. In addition values for the following parameters were determined: - total internal conversion coefficient {alpha} = 1531 {+-} 30; - K shell internal conversion coefficient {alpha}{sub K} = 127 {+-} 6; - conversion ratio R= K/L+M+..... = 0.0914 {+-} 0.0043. (author)

  17. Disintegrating perineal disease: A variant of watering-can perineum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Abrol

    www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Disintegrating perineal disease: A variant of watering-can perineum. N. Abrol. ∗. , A. Devasia. Department of Urology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Received 11 January 2014; received in revised form 11 January 2014; accepted 11 March 2014.

  18. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-15

    Sep 15, 2008 ... The gradual break–up of the bacterial cell walls limits the degradation process. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracel- lular and extracellular components are set free and are imme- diately available for biological degradation which leads to ...

  19. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMARA

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived from Xanthosoma sagittifolium in metronidazole tablets. Onyishi Ikechukwu V., Chime Salome A.* and Ugwu Jonathan C. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, ...

  20. Chemokine Signaling during Midline Epithelial Seam Disintegration Facilitates Palatal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan M. Suttorp

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration of the midline epithelial seam (MES is crucial for palatal fusion, and failure results in cleft palate. Palatal fusion and wound repair share many common signaling pathways related to epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk. We postulate that chemokine CXCL11, its receptor CXCR3, and the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase (HO, which are crucial during wound repair, also play a decisive role in MES disintegration. Fetal growth restriction and craniofacial abnormalities were present in HO-2 knockout (KO mice without effects on palatal fusion. CXCL11 and CXCR3 were highly expressed in the disintegrating MES in both wild-type and HO-2 KO animals. Multiple apoptotic DNA fragments were present within the disintegrating MES and phagocytized by recruited CXCR3-positive wt and HO-2 KO macrophages. Macrophages located near the MES were HO-1-positive, and more HO-1-positive cells were present in HO-2 KO mice compared to wild-type. This study of embryonic and palatal development provided evidence that supports the hypothesis that the MES itself plays a prominent role in palatal fusion by orchestrating epithelial apoptosis and macrophage recruitment via CXCL11-CXCR3 signaling.

  1. Interactions Of Binder, Disintegrant And Compression Pressure In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Binders, disintegrants and compression pressures play important roles in producing good tablets. The interactions between these three factors were analyzed to observe how they contribute to tablet properties. The concentration levels of the factors were determined using 23 factorial study designs by wet granulation ...

  2. Evaluation of disintegrant properties of Neorautanenia mitis starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tablet formulations containing NMS had similar hardness with those containing MS at 0.5 MT while hardness was observed to increase with increase in compression pressure. Tablets containing NMS were found to elicit faster tablet disintegration than those containing maize starch BP and also had higher t75 values.

  3. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  4. Sludge disintegration techniques - assessment of their impacts on solubilization of organic carbon and methane production

    OpenAIRE

    Fatoorehchi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    In the present thesis, ozone, sodium hydroxide and ultrasound were conducted to disintegrate the excess sludge prior to anaerobic digestion with the aim of improving methane production. The impacts of different sludge disintegration methods on the molecular size distribution of DOC solubilized after disintegration were investigated using size exclusion chromatography with online organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD).

  5. Parametrization of the cross sections for complete disintegration of nuclei at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, V.G.; Plyushchev, V.A.; Solov'eva, Z.I.

    1988-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of observations of the complete disintegration of target nuclei in emulsions in relativistic heavy-ion reactions is given. On the basis of the probability of complete disintegration obtained from the observations it is possible to determine the value of the disintegration cross sections. A parametrizatio of these inelastic cross sections is formulated

  6. AN INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED APPROACH FOR MODELING DISINTEGRATION-RELATED PHENOMENA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CARAMELLA, C.; FERRARI, F.; RONCHI, M.; Smilde, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    Two phenomena have frequently been related to tablet disintegration: water uptake and disintegrating force development. The combination of these two measures allowed a step forward to understanding disintegration mechanisms. In the present work, multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of levocetirizine dihyrochloride oral thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gunjan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was to develop a fast releasing oral polymeric film, with good mechanical properties, instant disintegration and dissolution, producing an acceptable taste when placed on tongue. Solvent casting method was used to prepare oral films. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, an antihistaminic was incorporated to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The polymers selected were HPMC E 15 and PVA. Propylene glycol was the plasticizers used. Nine batches of films with drug were prepared using different combinations of polymers and plasticizer concentration. The resultant films were evaluated for weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, thickness, surface pH, in vitro disintegration and in vitro dissolution. The optimized films which disintegrated in less than 30 sec, releasing 85-98% of drug within 2 minutes. The percentage release was varying with concentration of plasticizer and polymer. The films made with HPMC: PVA (1:2 released 96% of drug in 1 min, which was the best release amongst all.

  9. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  10. Characterising the disintegration properties of tablets in opaque media using texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Gerrard, Stephen E; Kendall, Richard A; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K H; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration characterisation is used in pharmaceutical research, development, and quality control. Standard methods used to characterise tablet disintegration are often dependent on visual observation in measurement of disintegration times. This presents a challenge for disintegration studies of tablets in opaque, physiologically relevant media that could be useful for tablet formulation optimisation. This study has explored an application of texture analysis disintegration testing, a non-visual, quantitative means of determining tablet disintegration end point, by analysing the disintegration behaviour of two tablet formulations in opaque media. In this study, the disintegration behaviour of one tablet formulation manufactured in-house, and Sybedia Flashtab placebo tablets in water, bovine, and human milk were characterised. A novel method is presented to characterise the disintegration process and to quantify the disintegration end points of the tablets in various media using load data generated by a texture analyser probe. The disintegration times in the different media were found to be statistically different (Pdisintegration times from each other in human versus bovine milk (adjusted P value 0.1685). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro disintegration studies of weekly generic alendronate sodium tablets (70 mg) available in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Richard J; Crail, Debbie J; Perkins, Alan C

    2009-02-01

    Bisphosphonates as a class have the potential to cause upper gastrointestinal irritation. Although the generic alendronate sodium tablets are bioequivalent to the branded product, a potential concern is that the pharmaceutical attributes of the various generic formulations my affect the potential for local irritation and tolerability. The in vitro disintegration times were determined using the method described in the US Pharmacopeia 30 (USP 30). The disintegration of three generic alendronate sodium tablets 70 mg available in the United States was compared to that of the branded product. The mean disintegration times of the generic alendronate sodium tablets ranged from 9 to 10 s for the Barr lots to 108 s for the Watson lot. The disintegration time of the branded product (Fosamax) was 53 s. The three Barr lots and one Teva lot had rapid disintegration times which were similar to the disintegration standards (disintegrating tablets. Since there is no established disintegration time for alendronate sodium tablets there can be no assurance that the generic tablets are equivalent to the branded product in terms of esophageal exposure. However, the in vitro disintegration times have not been correlated with in vivo disintegration performance. Copies of generic alendronate sodium tablets are approved based on the results of single-dose bioavailability studies in healthy subjects and this is not considered adequate to establish similar disintegration characteristics.

  12. Effect of sorbed water on disintegrant performance of four brands of Polacrilin Potassium NF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-03-01

    Polacrilin Potassium NF is a commonly used weak cation exchange resin disintegrant in pharmaceutical tablets. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of sorbed moisture on physical characteristics and disintegrant performance of four brands of Polacrilin Potassium NF. The disintegrants were stored in five different relative humidity chambers and their dynamic vapor adsorption-desorption analysis, effect of moisture on their compressibility, compactability, particle size, morphology, water uptake rate, and disintegration ability were studied. Moisture seemed to plasticize the disintegrants, reducing their yield pressures. However, certain optimum amount of moisture was found to be useful in increasing the compactablity of the tablets containing disintegrants. The tablets, however, lost their tensile strengths beyond this optimum moisture content. Moisture caused two brands of the disintegrants to swell; however, two other brands aggregated upon exposure to moisture. Swelling without aggregation increased the water uptake, and in turn the disintegrant performance. However, aggregation probably reduced the porosities of the disintegrants, reducing their water uptake rate and disintegrant performance. Different brands of Polacrilin Potassium NF differed in the abilities to withstand the effects of moisture on their functionality. Effect of moisture on disintegrant performance of Polacrilin Potassium NF needs to be considered before its use in tablets made by wet granulation.

  13. Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-11-20

    An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this case the upper surface of a disintegrating tablet. High-resolution real-time MRI was used to record videos of disintegrating tablets. The acquired video images were processed to depict the upper surface of the tablets and a box-counting algorithm was used to estimate the fractal dimensions. The influence of six different disintegrants, of different relative tablet density, and increasing disintegrant concentration was investigated to evaluate the performance of the novel method. Changing relative densities hardly affect the progression of fractal dimensions, whereas an increase in disintegrant concentration causes increasing fractal dimensions during disintegration, which are also reached quicker. Different disintegrants display only minor differences in the maximal fractal dimension, yet the kinetic in which the maximum is reached allows a differentiation and classification of disintegrants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Real-time microradiology of disintegration of iron ore sinteres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ryun; Kang, H.S.; Lee, Ho Jun; Je, Jung Ho; Jeong, S.K.; Tsai, W.-L.; Hsu, P.C.; Hwu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We first present real-time microradiology of disintegration of self-fluxing iron ore sinters in low temperature reduction using highly collimated synchrotron source. The experiments were performed on the 5C1 beamline at PLS (Pohang Light Source, Pohang, Korea), operating at 2.5 GeV. We used unmonochromatized ('white') light with no optical elements except beryllium windows. The images of the crack superimpose, on the two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional phenomenon, suggest that cracks are always initiated from pores in the sinters and propagate along neighboring pores. Interestingly, cracking occurs mostly on macropores (>800 μm), preferentially initiated from stress concentrated sites on pore surfaces. This dynamic study of the disintegration of sinters clearly shows that the crack initiation temperature is as low as 450 deg. C

  15. Hydrothermal Disintegration and Extraction of Different Microalgae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kröger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the disintegration and extraction of microalgae to produce lipids and biofuels, a novel processing technology was investigated. The utilization of a hydrothermal treatment was tested on four different microalgae species (Scenedesmus rubescens, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata and Arthorspira platensis (Spirulina to determine whether it has an advantage in comparison to other disintegration methods for lipid extraction. It was shown, that hydrothermal treatment is a reasonable opportunity to utilize microalgae without drying and increase the lipid yield of an algae extraction process. For three of the four microalgae species, the extraction yield with a prior hydrothermal treatment elevated the lipid yield up to six times in comparison to direct extraction. Only Scenedesmus rubescens showed a different behaviour. Reason can be found in the different cell wall of the species. The investigation of the differences in cell wall composition of the used species indicate that the existence of algaenan as a cell wall compound plays a major role in stability.

  16. Disintegration of liquid metals by low pressure water blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of disintegrating metals by a low cost system and subsequently incorporating them into grout mixtures has been demonstrated. A low pressure water blasting technique consisting of multiple nozzles and a converging-line jet stream was developed to disintegrate liquid metals and produce coarse metal powder and shot. Molten iron resulted in spherical shot, while copper, aluminum, and tin produced irregular shaped particles. The particle size was between 0.05 and 3 mm (0.002 and 0.1 in.), and about half the particles were smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in all cases. The water consumption was rather low, while the production rate was relatively high. The method proved to be simple and reliable. The coarse metal powders were suspendable in grout fluids, indicating that they are probably disposable by the shale hydrofracture technique

  17. Disintegration of rocks based on magnetically isolated high voltage discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengbing; Jiang, Jinbo; Huang, Guoliang; Liu, Jun; Li, Chengzu

    2013-02-01

    Recently, a method utilizing pulsed power technology for disintegration of rocks arouses great interest of many researchers. In this paper, an improved method based on magnetic switch and the results shown that the uniform dielectrics like plastic can be broken down in water is presented, and the feasible mechanism explaining the breakdown of solid is proposed and proved experimentally. A high voltage pulse of 120 kV, rise time 0.2 μs was used to ignite the discharging channel in solids. When the plasma channel is formed in the solid, the resistance of the channel is quiet small; even if a relatively low voltage is applied on the channel on this occasion, it will produce high current to heat the plasma channel rapidly, and eventually disintegrate the solids. The feasibility of promising industrial application in the drilling and demolition of natural and artificial solid materials by the method we presented is verified by the experiment result in the paper.

  18. Disintegration of Bone Cement by Continuous and Pulsating Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hloch, S.; Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Zeleňák, Michal; Hlaváček, Petr; Hvizdoš, P.; Kloc, J.; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Kozak, D.; Magurová, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2013), s. 593-598 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bone cement * disintegration * water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.615, year: 2013 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=157195

  19. Academic disintegrity among medical students: a randomised response technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sameh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Asghari, Fariba; Fotouhi, Akbar; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-02-01

    Medical students, as tomorrow's doctors, are responsible for their patients' health; cheating may affect their academic knowledge and clinical skills. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of and attitudes towards academic disintegrity among medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Anonymous questionnaires including questions about various types of academic disintegrity were distributed among medical students during the clerkship and internship phases of the curriculum. Randomised response technique (RRT) was used to maintain the responders' privacy. Because the study design guaranteed the confidentiality of respondents, the TUMS Institutional Review Board declared that formal ethical approval was not required. A total of 124 students were enrolled in this study, of whom 63 were in the clerkship phase and 61 were in the internship phase. Of these respondents, 29% (n = 36) were male. The most frequently reported type of academic disintegrity was found to be 'impersonating an absent student in a class' (93%) and the least frequent to be 'legitimising absences by using bribes' (5%). Only a small number of interns considered 'buying hospital shifts', 'selling hospital shifts', 'impersonating an absent student' and 'helping others to cheat in examinations' as representing academic disintegrity. Approximately one third of participants stated that the RRT increased their confidence in anonymity and 90% of students found the use of RRT not difficult. Academic integrity is widely disrespected in different ways among medical students. Effective policies and interventions are required to control these misbehaviours in future doctors in order to optimise medical practice. Almost all respondents found it not difficult to use the RRT; the technique proved to be an effective and easily applied method of eliciting truthful responses to sensitive questions and represents an alternative to conventional anonymising techniques.

  20. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. In vitro disintegration studies of weekly generic and branded risedronate sodium formulations available in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A D; Adachi, J D

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro disintegration of the five newly available Canadian generic risedronate 35 mg tablets compared to the innovator (branded) product, ACTONEL * *ACTONEL is a registered trade name of Warner Chilcott Company, LLC. (risedronate sodium) 35 mg. Tablets were inspected for colour and appearance. Disintegration times were determined using United States Pharmacopeia 33 (USP33-NF 28) methods. Disintegration onset time was also evaluated. The mean disintegration onset time values for the generic risedronate 35 mg tablets ranged from 2 to 29 seconds, and the mean disintegration completion times ranged from 81 to 260 seconds. The mean disintegration onset and completion time values for the ACTONEL 35 mg tablets were 23 and 43 seconds respectively. Four out of the five generic tablets tested had shorter disintegration onset times than the branded product; two of the generic tablet products had very fast disintegration onset times i.e. 2-3 seconds. Disintegration completion time for all five generic products tested was longer than that observed for the branded product; two generic products had disintegration completion time values five to six times longer than the branded product. Differences in the in vitro disintegration times were observed between the generic risedronate 35 mg tablets commercially available in Canada and the branded product, ACTONEL. The rapid disintegration onset times of two generic products may be important as this could increase the possibility of drug exposure in both the mouth and the esophagus during swallowing, resulting in unwanted localized irritation. However, it should be noted that an in vitro/in vivo correlation has not been established. Until such studies are completed it may be important to be aware of such in vitro disintegration differences when evaluating patients with newly presenting upper gastrointestinal complaints upon being switched from the branded product to generic formulations.

  2. Combined (alkaline+ultrasonic) pretreatment effect on sewage sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Emma; Oh, Sae-Eun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-05-01

    The individual effects of alkaline (pH 8-13) and ultrasonic (3750-45,000kJ/kg TS) pretreatments on the disintegration of sewage sludge were separately tested, and then the effect of combining these two methods at different intensity levels was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). In the combined pretreatment, ultrasonic treatment was applied to the alkali-pretreated sludge. While the solubilization (SCOD/TCOD) increase was limited to 50% in individual pretreatments, it reached 70% in combined pretreatment, and the results clearly showed that preconditioning of sludge at high pH levels played a crucial role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of the subsequent ultrasonic pretreatment. By applying regression analysis, the disintegration degree (DD) was fitted based on the actual value to a second order polynomial equation: Y=-172.44+29.82X(1)+5.30x10(-3)X(2)-7.53x10(-5)X(1)X(2)-1.10X(1)(2)-1.043x10(-7)X(2)(2), where X(1), X(2), and Y are pH, specific energy input (kJ/kg TS), and DD, respectively. In a 2D contour plot describing the tendency of DD with respect to pH and specific energy input, it was clear that DD increased as pH increased, but it seemed that DD decreased when the specific energy input exceeded about 20,000kJ/kg TS. This phenomenon tells us that there exists a certain point where additional energy input is ineffective in achieving further disintegration. A synergetic disintegration effect was also found in the combined pretreatment, with lower specific energy input in ultrasonic pretreatment yielding higher synergetic effect. Finally, in order to see the combined pretreatment effect in continuous operation, the sludge pretreated with low intensity alkaline (pH 9)/ultrasonic (7500kJ/kg TS) treatment was fed to a 3 L of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor after 70 days of control operation. CH(4) production yield significantly increased from 81.9+/-4.5mL CH(4)/g COD(added) to 127.3+/-5.0mL CH(4)/g COD(added) by pretreatment, and

  3. Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Miron, T L; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations (25-145 gDW kg(-1)) over a range of agitator speeds (6-12 m s(-1)). In all cases over 97% of cell disintegration was achieved resulting in a release of water soluble proteins. A clear optimum rate of disintegration and protein release was observed at an agitator speed of 9-10 m s(-1) regardless of the biomass concentration. Selective extraction of water soluble proteins was observed as proteins released sooner than cell disintegration took place. Proteins could be released at 85% lower energy input than for cell disintegration resulting in specific energy consumptions well below 2.5 kWh kgDW(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in In Vitro Disintegration Time among Canadian Brand and Generic Bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszynski, Wojciech P; Adachi, Jonathan D; Davison, K Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the disintegration times among Canadian-marketed brand (alendronate 70 mg, alendronate 70 mg plus vitamin D 5600 IU, and risedronate 35 mg) and generic (Novo-alendronate 70 mg and Apo-alendronate 70 mg) once-weekly dosed bisphosphonates. All disintegration tests were performed with a Vanderkamp Disintegration Tester. Disintegration was deemed to have occurred when no residue of the tablet, except fragments of insoluble coating or capsule shell, was visible. Eighteen to 20 samples were tested for each bisphosphonate group. The mean (±standard deviation) disintegration times were significantly (P disintegration of the generic tablets as compared to the brand bisphosphonates may have concerning safety and effectiveness implications for patients administering these therapies.

  5. Effect of turbulence on the disintegration rate of flushable consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadagli, Fatih; Rittmann, Bruce E; McAvoy, Drew C; Richardson, John E

    2012-05-01

    A previously developed model for the physical disintegration of flushable consumer products is expanded by investigating the effects of turbulence on the rate of physical disintegration. Disintegration experiments were conducted with cardboard tampon applicators at 100, 150, and 200 rotations per minute, corresponding to Reynold's numbers of 25,900, 39,400, and 52,900, respectively, which were estimated by using computational fluid dynamics modeling. The experiments were simulated with the disintegration model to obtain best-fit values of the kinetic and distribution parameters. Computed rate coefficients (ki) for all solid sizes (i.e., greater than 8, 4 to 8, 2 to 4, and 1 to 2 mm) increased strongly with Reynold's number or rotational speed. Thus, turbulence strongly affected the disintegration rate of flushable products, and the relationship of the ki values to Reynold's number can be included in mathematical representations of physical disintegration.

  6. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Machnicka, A; Grűbel, K; Suschka, J

    2009-01-01

    Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately available for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter and a polymer transfer ...

  7. Coherent electromagnetic excitation and disintegration of relativistic nuclei passing through crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Shirokov, A.A.; Vorobiev, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The energy dependence of electromagnetic excitation and electromagnetic disintegration cross sections for relativistic nuclei passing through crystals is investigated both theoretically and by means of computer simulation. For electromagnetic excitation, resonant peaks are found at definite energy values. An increase of electromagnetic excitation and disintegration cross sections in crystals at very high energies is found to be due to coherent addition of amplitudes. Numerical results are presented for the electric dipole excitation of fluorine nuclei and electromagnetic deuteron disintegration. (orig.)

  8. On the theory of deuteron disintegration with collective states excitation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    Differential cross sections of diffraction disintegration of deuterons with excitation of collective states in nuclei have been theoretically investigated. Effects of nucleon-nucleon interaction as well as smearing of nucleus boundary on differential characteristics of deuteron disintegration accompanying with change in state of target- nuclei have been studied. Spectra of protons liberated during the reaction of 2 + level deuteron disintegration in 114 Cd nucleus are presented [ru

  9. IHF-independent assembly of the Tn10 strand transfer transpososome: implications for inhibition of disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Barry J.; Wardle, Simon J.; Haniford, David B.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of DNA transposition in transposition systems that employ a strand transfer step may be significantly affected by the occurrence of a disintegration reaction, a reaction that reverses the strand transfer event. We have asked whether disintegration occurs in the Tn10 transposition system. We show that disintegration substrates (substrates constituting one half of the strand transfer product) are assembled into a transpososome that mimics the strand transfer intermediate. This str...

  10. Disintegration of Highly Soluble Immediate Release Tablets: A Surrogate for Dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Abhay; Hunt, Robert L.; Shah, Rakhi B.; Sayeed, Vilayat A.; Khan, Mansoor A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to investigate correlation between disintegration and dissolution for immediate release tablets containing a high solubility drug and to identify formulations where disintegration test, instead of the dissolution test, may be used as the acceptance criteria based on International Conference on Harmonization Q6A guidelines. A statistical design of experiments was used to study the effect of filler, binder, disintegrating agent, and tablet hardness on the disintegrat...

  11. Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.

    OpenAIRE

    Quodbach, J.; Moussavi, A.; Tammer, R.; Frahm, J.; Kleinebudde, P.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this c...

  12. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Quodbach, J.; Moussavi, A.; Tammer, R.; Frahm, J.; Kleinebudde, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 x 80 m with a section thickness of only 600 m were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the i...

  13. Ultrasonically enhanced disintegration. Polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, A.

    2010-05-15

    There are a great variety of potential applications of high-intensity ultrasonic energy. Of these, cleaning, plastic pounding, and at present also sludge disintegration and the remediation of contaminated soil are probably the best known and offer the most general market for high-intensity ultrasonics. All developments within the area of ultrasound applications lead to the creation of environmentally friendly processes and compounds, emphasizing the role of ultrasound in 'green chemistry'. Ultrasound technology is considered not easy to use in industrial processes, since devices providing high sonic energy are not easy to construct. This thesis investigates on a semi-pilot scale if it is possible to enhance the disintegration of three quite different samples: polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil by using ultrasound. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance the disintegration of polymers by means of ultrasonic power only when the cavitation threshold is exceeded. Above the cavitation threshold, the most extensive degradation took place at the lowest ultrasonic frequency used. The biggest decrease (from 115,000 g/mol to 30,000 g/mol) in relative molecular mass (RMM) was observed when the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was the lowest (1.0%). However, in the case of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) it was observed that when viscosity was not adjusted there is an optimum polymer concentration (1.5-2.0%) where degradation is most efficient. The thesis shows that the extent of ultrasonic depolymerization decreases with decreasing molecular mass of the CMC polymer. The study also reveals that ultrasonic irradiation causes narrowing of the molecular mass distribution. The degradation of CMC polymer proceeded linearly and the rate of ultrasonic depolymerization decreased with decreasing molecular mass. In cases where the initial dynamic viscosities of polymer solutions were not the same, the sonolytic degradation of CMC polymer mainly depended

  14. Correlation of dissolution and disintegration results for an immediate-release tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Beverly; Kong, Angela; Gerst, Paul; Kao, Shangming

    2018-02-20

    The drug release rate of a rapidly dissolving immediate-release tablet formulation with a highly soluble drug is proposed to be controlled by the disintegration rate of the tablet. Disintegration and dissolution test methods used to evaluate the tablets were shown to discriminate manufacturing process differences and compositionally variant tablets. In addition, a correlation was established between disintegration and dissolution. In accordance with ICH Q6A, this work demonstrates that disintegration in lieu of dissolution is suitable as the drug product quality control method for evaluating this drug product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the exclusive light-ion disintegration processes on the basis of a diffraction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.; Sokolov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A diffraction approach is developed for description of kinematically complete experiments on the disintegration on nuclei with diffuse edges of light, weakly bound ions consisting of one neutral and one charged cluster. The theoretical formalism is used to analyze exclusive experiments on deuteron disintegration in the region of intermediate energies and for a broad range of nuclear mass numbers with a view to studying the structural characteristics of the nuclei and the mechanisms underlying the disintegration process. The possibility of the occurrence of the Nemets effect in the case of the disintegration of other (not only deuterons) light, weakly bound ions on nuclei is discussed

  16. About factors of disintegration of nonideal plasma at explosion of the tungstic conductor in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.; Vojtenko, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Results of experimental definition of disintegration coefficient of the nonideal plasma, formed at explosion of tungsten wires in water, are resulted. Disintegration coefficient are investigated at electron density from 10 20 cm-3 to 5,5 · 10 21 cm -3 . With reduction of concentration in the indicated electron density range disintegration coefficients increase from 4 · 10 -18 to 1 · 10 -15 cm 3 /s at brightness temperature (7...10) ·10 3 K. Supposed mechanisms of increase in disintegration coefficient with reduction of electron concentration are presented.

  17. Study on exclusive processes of light ion disintegration in the framework of diffraction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.; Sokolov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A diffraction approach is developed for description of kinematically complete experiments on disintegration of light weakly-bound ions formed by two clusters (one being charged) on nuclei with diffused edge. The theoretical formalism is applied to analyze exclusive deuteron disintegration experiments at intermediate energies for a wide nuclear mass numbers. The aim of the analysis is to study structure peculiarities of nuclei and disintegration mechanisms. Possible existence of the Nemets effect is discussed for disintegration of other than deuterons weakly-bound ions by nuclei

  18. A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuet Mei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Prediction of tablets disintegration times using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a nondestructive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, M; Ghaly, Evone S

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this study are to user near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to measure the disintegration time of a series of tablets compacted at different compressional forces, calibrate NIR data vs. laboratory equipment data, develop a model equation, validate the model, and test the model's predictive ability. Seven theophylline tablet formulations of the same composition but with different disintegration time values (0.224, 1.141, 2.797, 5.492, 9.397, 16.8, and 30.092 min) were prepared along with five placebo tablet formulations with different disintegration times. Laboratory disintegration time was compared to near-infrared diffuse reflectance data. Linear regression, quadratic, cubic, and partial least square techniques were used to determine the relationship between disintegration time and near-infrared spectra. The results demonstrated that an increase in disintegration time produced an increase in near-infrared absorbance. Series of model equations, which depended on the mathematical technique used for regression, were developed from the calibration of disintegration time using laboratory equipment vs. the near-infrared diffuse reflectance for each formulation. The results of NIR disintegration time were similar to laboratory tests. The near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method is an alternative nondestructive method for measurement of disintegration time of tablets.

  20. Ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor for tyres decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Pis'menetskij, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of ozone disintegration kinetics in the chemical reactor which is developed for decomposition of tyres in the ozone-air environment are presented. Analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from parameters of the task, such as volume speed of ozone-air mixture feed on a reactor input, concentration of ozone on the input to the reactor, volume speed of output of the used mixture, reactor size, and square of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that at the same speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, with growth of ozone concentration on the input, value of stationary concentration in the reactor grows, remaining always less than concentration on the input. It is also shown that at the same ozone concentration on the input, with growth of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, value of stationary ozone concentration in the reactor also grows, remaining always less than ozone concentration on the input. The ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor in a wide range of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 m3/hour) and various ozone concentration on the input (5, 10, 15, 20 g/m3) is experimentally studied. It is shown that experimental results with good accuracy coincide with the theoretical. Direct experiment showed the essential influence of the internal surface of the reactor on the ozone disintegration kinetics.

  1. The Mechanism of Disintegration of Cement Concrete at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocius Vytautas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a composite material composed of a binder, aggregates, water and additives. Mixing of cement with water results in a number of chemical reactions known as cement hydration. Heating of concrete results in dehydration processes of cement minerals and new hydration products, which disintegrate the microstructure of concrete. This article reviews results of research conducted with Portland and alumina cement with conventional and refractory concrete aggregates. In civic buildings such common fillers as gravel, granite, dolomite or expanded clay are usually used. It is important to point out the differences between fillers because they constitute the majority of the concrete volume.

  2. Dosimetric measurement of the disintegration rate of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solymosi, J.; Nagy, L.G.; Zagyvai, P.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations on the disintegration rate of fission products of 238 U and 239 Pu are presented. The intensity of the β-and γ-radiation of fission products were measured continously in an interval of 1-1300 hours following the fission, offering the possibility for determining the general and specific characteristics of the individual fission products. A universal measuring procedure was elaborated for the rapid in situ determination of the dosimetric features of fission products, which is suitable for the accurate evaluation and prediction of external absorbed dose even in case of fission products of various origin and unknown composition. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Disintegration and dimerization of δ-tocopherol under radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska-Stepniak, A.; Gogolewski, M.; Zabielski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the work was to recognize scala changes of δ-tocopherol in model system (diluted in benzene, ethanol and ''in substantia'') after 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 kGy dose irradiation. δ-tocopherol and its mild oxidation products (dimers) after TLC separation were quantitatively determined with Emmerie-Engel method. Relations dose-effect have been defined and radiation capacity has been calculated. The results show that disintegration of δ-tocopherol diluted in ethanol is about ten times stronger the diluted in benzene. δ-tocopherol in benzene was dimerized. The most stable after irradiation was δ-tocopherol ''in substantia''. (author)

  4. Monitoring of Acoustic Emission During the Disintegration of Rock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tripathi, R.; Srivastava, M.; Hloch, Sergej; Adamčík, P.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Das, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 149 (2016), s. 481-488 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : acoustic emission * rock disintegration * waterjet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816312127

  5. Biological effects of disintegration of electrocaptured radionuclides: the role of physical characteristics of disintegration and distribution of the absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.F.

    1979-01-01

    Problems pertaining to the internal irradiation by radionuclides radiating during the disintegration according to the electron capture scheme a great amount of low-energy monoenergetic electrons (Auger electrons, internal conversion electrons) are considered. Main attention has been paid to the role of low-energy electrons and transmutation effects in the selective injury of intranuclear sensitive locuses as well as to the importance of the character of absorption dose distribution over the tissue microstructures. It is shown that very promising seems to be in principle the possibility of using electronradiating atoms for the radiotherapy purposes

  6. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  7. Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of ultrasound (mechanical) and ozone (chemical) pre-treatment on the performances of excess sludge semi-continuous digestion. Sludge solubilisation has been investigated by varying specific energy input. For each pre-treatment, long anaerobic digestion tests were carried out by two parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with untreated waste activated sludge, and the other one was fed with disintegrated sludge. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of both pre-treatments, the specific energy was maintained approximately the same. The digestion tests were carried out to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production, volatile solids removal, sludge dewaterability) and to assess the heat balance. Results obtained from the digestion of sonicated sludge at 4% disintegration degree (≈ 2500 kJ/kg TS) showed that the ultrasound pre-treatment may be effective both in increasing VS destruction (+19%) and cumulative biogas production (+26%). On the contrary, the digestion test with ozonized sludge (ozone dose of 0.05 g O(3)/g TS corresponding to ≈ 2000 kJ/kg TS) did not indicate a significant improvement on the digestion performances. By doubling the ozone dose an improvement in the organics removal and cumulative biogas production was observed. Relevant differences in terms of colloidal charge and filterability were discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Disintegration in Micro-, Meso- and Nanoscopic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos

    2008-11-01

    The electrohydrodynamic dispersion of liquids spans length scales from 1 mm to 1 nm and involves temporal variations from 1 s to 10 ps. The disintegration mechanisms are diverse and, due to the differences in the dominating forces, vary on the micro-, meso- and nanoscale extending to lower boundaries of 1 μm, 10 nm and 1 nm, respectively. Using fast imaging, spray current measurements, phase Doppler anemometry and molecular dynamics calculations, we followed the behavior of electrified liquids in the three most common geometries, spherical, pendant drop and slender jet, with dimensions ranging from 100 μm to 1 nm. Microscale disintegration involves jet ejection from conical surface deformations, jet breakup due to varicose, kink and ramified jet instabilities, and asymmetric droplet fission resulting in side jets. As the liquid dimensions shift from the microscopic dimensions where the processes are governed by the surface tension and the Maxwell stress, to the meso- and nanoscale, thermal fluctuations become increasingly important. The presence of charges in nanodroplets leads to enhanced surface fluctuations, the formation of extreme protrusions and eventually solvated ion evaporation. Charging of slender nanojets results in longer shape relaxation times along with the fission of systems charged below the Rayleigh limit. In collaboration with Jelena Lusic and Peter Nemes, George Washington University.

  9. Neuronal network disintegration: common pathways linking neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Devenney, Emma M; Irish, Muireann; Ittner, Arne; Naismith, Sharon; Ittner, Lars M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Halliday, Glenda M; Eisen, Andrew; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-11-01

    Neurodegeneration refers to a heterogeneous group of brain disorders that progressively evolve. It has been increasingly appreciated that many neurodegenerative conditions overlap at multiple levels and therefore traditional clinicopathological correlation approaches to better classify a disease have met with limited success. Neuronal network disintegration is fundamental to neurodegeneration, and concepts based around such a concept may better explain the overlap between their clinical and pathological phenotypes. In this Review, promoters of overlap in neurodegeneration incorporating behavioural, cognitive, metabolic, motor, and extrapyramidal presentations will be critically appraised. In addition, evidence that may support the existence of large-scale networks that might be contributing to phenotypic differentiation will be considered across a neurodegenerative spectrum. Disintegration of neuronal networks through different pathological processes, such as prion-like spread, may provide a better paradigm of disease and thereby facilitate the identification of novel therapies for neurodegeneration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  11. Disintegration of Nannochloropsis sp. cells in an improved turbine bead mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhidong; Huang, Ying; Wang, Yanmin; Wu, Zhiwei

    2017-12-01

    The Nannochloropsis sp. cells in aqueous solution were disintegrated in an improved bead mill with turbine agitator. The disintegration rates of cell samples disrupted under various operating parameters (i.e., circumferential speed, bead size, disintegration time, and cell concentration) were analyzed. An experimental strategy to optimize the parameters affecting the cell disintegration process was proposed. The results show that Nannochloropsis sp. cells can be effectively disintegrated in the turbine stirred bead mill under the optimum condition (i.e., circumferential speed of 2.3m/s, concentration of 15vol.%, disintegration time of 40min and bead size of 0.3-0.4mm). The disintegration mechanism was discussed via the selection and breakage functions from population balance modelling. It is revealed that the impact and compression effects of stirring beads are more effective for the disruption of coarser fraction of cells, and the shear effect dominates the production of finer fractions of disintegrated cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bio-predictive tablet disintegration: effect of water diffusivity, fluid flow, food composition and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2014-06-16

    Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents on the surface of the tablet and reduction of water diffusivity in the media as well as changes in the hydrodynamics in the surrounding media of the solid dosage form. In order to improve the predictability of food affecting the disintegration of a dosage form, tablet disintegration in various types of a liquefied meal has been studied under static vs. dynamic (agitative) conditions. Viscosity, water diffusivity, osmolality and Reynolds numbers for the different media were characterized. A quantitative model is introduced which predicts the influence of the Reynolds number in the tablet disintegration apparatus on the disintegration time. Viscosity, water diffusivity and media flow velocity are shown to be important factors affecting dosage form disintegration. The results suggest the necessity of considering these parameters when designing a predictive model for simulating the in vivo conditions. Based on these experiments and knowledge on in vivo hydrodynamics in the GI tract, it is concluded that the disintegration tester under current pharmacopoeial conditions is operated in an unphysiological mode and no bioprediction may be derived. Recommendations regarding alternative mode of operation are made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of thermo-alkaline disintegration of sewage sludge for enhanced biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Muhammad Sani; Abdul Manan, Zainuddin; Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah Wan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of thermo-alkaline disintegration of sewage sludge for enhanced biogas yield was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design of experiment. The individual linear and quadratic effects as well as the interactive effects of temperature, NaOH concentration and time on the degree of disintegration were investigated. The optimum degree of disintegration achieved was 61.45% at 88.50 °C, 2.29 M NaOH (24.23%w/w total solids) and 21 min retention time. Linear and quadratic effects of temperature are most significant in affecting the degree of disintegration. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 99.5% confirms that the model used in predicting the degree of disintegration process has a very good fitness with the experimental variables. The disintegrated sludge increased the biogas yield by 36%v/v compared to non-disintegrated sludge. The RSM with Box-Behnken design is an effective tool in predicting the optimum degree of disintegration of sewage sludge for increased biogas yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel mechanism for J/ψ disintegration in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atreya, Abidshek; Bagchi, Partha; Srivastava, Ajit M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of J/ψ disintegration due to the Z (3) domain walls that are expected to form in QGP medium. These domain walls give rise to localised color electric field which disintegrates J/ψ, on interaction, by changing the color composition and simultaneously exciting it to higher states of cc-bar system. (author)

  15. Physical disintegration of toilet papers in wastewater systems: experimental analysis and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Beytullah; Karadagli, Fatih

    2012-03-06

    Physical disintegration of representative toilet papers was investigated in this study to assess their disintegration potential in sewer systems. Characterization of toilet papers from different parts of the world indicated two main categories as premium and average quality. Physical disintegration experiments were conducted with representative products from each category according to standard protocols with improvements. The experimental results were simulated by mathematical model to estimate best-fit values of disintegration rate coefficients and fractional distribution ratios. Our results from mathematical modeling and experimental work show that premium products release more amounts of small fibers and disintegrate more slowly than average ones. Comparison of the toilet papers with the tampon applicators studied previously indicates that premium quality toilet papers present significant potential to persist in sewer pipes. Comparison of turbulence level in our experimental setup with those of partial flow conditions in sewer pipes indicates that drains and small sewer pipes are critical sections where disintegration of toilet papers will be limited. For improvement, requirements for minimum pipe slopes may be increased to sustain transport and disintegration of flushable products in small pipes. In parallel, toilet papers can be improved to disintegrate rapidly in sewer systems, while they meet consumer expectations.

  16. Diffraction scattering and disintegration of 3He nuclei by atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'chuk, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Within diffraction model framework a method of cross sections calculation for scattering and disintegration of weakly-bounded two-clustered nuclei by nuclei when both of its clusters are changed has been proposed. The experimental elastic scattering cross sections of 3 He by 40 Ca, 90 Zr and coincidence spectra of disintegration products from 28 Si( 3 He,dp) have been described

  17. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  18. Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Miron, T.L.; Olivieri, G.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations (25–145 gDW kg-1) over a range of agitator

  19. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Dan; Liang, Zhong-Yuan; Cen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, He; Han, Mei-Gui; Tian, Yun-Qiao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Da-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101), lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS). The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT), in vitro drug release (DR), thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS) on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. PMID:26640367

  20. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  1. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  2. Disintegration of excess activated sludge--evaluation and experience of full-scale applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zábranská, J; Dohányos, M; Jenícek, P; Kutil, J

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can be improved by introducing a disintegration of excess activated sludge as a pretreatment process. The disintegration brings a deeper degradation of organic matter and less amount of output sludge for disposal, a higher production of biogas and consequently energy yield, in some cases suppression of digesters foaming and better dewaterability. The full-scale application of disintegration by a lysate-thickening centrifuge was monitored long term in three different WWTPs. The evaluation of contribution of disintegration to biogas production and digested sludge quality was assessed and operational experience is discussed. Increment of specific biogas production was evaluated in the range of 15-26%, organic matter in digested sludge significantly decreased to 48-49%. Results proved that the installation of a disintegrating centrifuge in WWTPs of different sizes and conditions would be useful and beneficial.

  3. Childhood disintegrative disorder: distinction from autistic disorder and predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, N Paul; Bergia, Berta M

    2013-12-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder, a rare, relentlessly progressive neurologic disorder, first described by Heller in 1908, remains a condition of great interest. It has long been debated whether it is a discrete disorder or simply a late-onset variant of childhood autism. We have studied 6 cases of childhood disintegrative disorder, collected over 8 years, and followed for 2.5 to 22 years (mean 8.6 years). Childhood disintegrative disorder begins later in life than autism, and following a period of entirely normal development; the regression is more global and more severe than in autism; seizures are more frequent than in autism, yet demonstrable organicity in childhood disintegrative disorder is decidedly rare. Lastly, the prognosis is usually much worse than in autism, but in those cases with neither seizures nor epileptiform activity on electroencephalography (EEG), the outcome may be more favorable. Childhood disintegrative disorder should be viewed as a condition distinct from childhood autism.

  4. Investigation of the performance of the disintegration test for dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukainzi, May; Salehi, Mahnor; Araci Bou-Chacra, Nadia; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how beaker size, basket assembly, use of disk, and immersion medium impact the disintegration time of dietary supplements. The disintegration times were determined for five tablet and two capsule products. A two-station disintegration tester was used with Apparatus A or Apparatus B as described in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) chapters, and . Two beakers complying with the harmonized specifications were used, one with a volume of 1,000 mL and one with a 1,500-mL volume. The disintegration data were analyzed using ANOVA for the following factors: beaker size, equipment (App A and B) and condition (with/without disk). Two tablet products were not sensitive to any changes in the test conditions or equipment configurations. One product was only partially sensitive to the test conditions. The other products showed impact on the disintegration time for all test conditions. The results revealed that these tablet products might pass or fail current USP disintegration requirements depending on the equipment configuration. Similar results were obtained for the two investigated capsule formulations. One product might fail current USP disintegration requirements if the large beaker was used, but might pass the disintegration requirements when the small beaker was used. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose capsules were mostly influenced if sodium instead of a potassium buffer was used as the immersion medium. The results demonstrate that the current harmonized ICH specifications for the disintegration test are insufficient to make the disintegration test into reliable test for dietary supplements.

  5. Justification of disintegration testing beyond current FDA criteria using in vitro and in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebbing, Lukas; Klumpp, Lukas; Webster, Gregory K; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2017-01-01

    Drug product performance testing is an important part of quality-by-design approaches, but this process often lacks the underlying mechanistic understanding of the complex interactions between the disintegration and dissolution processes involved. Whereas a recent draft guideline by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has allowed the replacement of dissolution testing with disintegration testing, the mentioned criteria are not globally accepted. This study provides scientific justification for using disintegration testing rather than dissolution testing as a quality control method for certain immediate release (IR) formulations. A mechanistic approach, which is beyond the current FDA criteria, is presented. Dissolution testing via United States Pharmacopeial Convention Apparatus II at various paddle speeds was performed for immediate and extended release formulations of metronidazole. Dissolution profile fitting via DDSolver and dissolution profile predictions via DDDPlus™ were performed. The results showed that Fickian diffusion and drug particle properties (DPP) were responsible for the dissolution of the IR tablets, and that formulation factors (eg, coning) impacted dissolution only at lower rotation speeds. Dissolution was completely formulation controlled if extended release tablets were tested and DPP were not important. To demonstrate that disintegration is the most important dosage form attribute when dissolution is DPP controlled, disintegration, intrinsic dissolution and dissolution testing were performed in conventional and disintegration impacting media (DIM). Tablet disintegration was affected by DIM and model fitting to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation showed a growing effect of the formulation in DIM. DDDPlus was able to predict tablet dissolution and the intrinsic dissolution profiles in conventional media and DIM. The study showed that disintegration has to occur before DPP-dependent dissolution can happen. The study suggests that

  6. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  7. The role of Vatican in disintegrating of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance of Vatican primarily toward Serbs and afterwards towards Serbian state has long enduring history. This history got new impetus after the forming of Congregation for the religious propaganda. Vatican led policy against the forming of first Yugoslavia between the World Wars and worked on its destabilization especially after the forming of catholic organization named the Cruisers. During the II WW Vatican took full cooperation with Ustashi’s Independent State of Croatia. During this period Catholic church headed by the Holy Chair approved mass introduction into Catholicism of Serbs and their mass killing that became real genocide in scope. In last crisis during the nineties Vatican gave full help in disintegration of Yugoslavia in order to make easier proselytism on the East.

  8. Comparative study on novel test systems to determine disintegration time of orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Maren; Gronkowsky, Dorothee; Grytzan, Dominik; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2014-08-01

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are a promising innovative dosage form enabling drug administration without the need for water and minimizing danger of aspiration due to their fast disintegration in small amounts of liquid. This study focuses on the development of a disintegration test system for ODFs. Two systems were developed and investigated: one provides an electronic end-point, and the other shows a transferable setup of the existing disintegration tester for orodispersible tablets. Different ODF preparations were investigated to determine the suitability of the disintegration test systems. The use of different test media and the impact of different storage conditions of ODFs on their disintegration time were additionally investigated. The experiments showed acceptable reproducibility (low deviations within sample replicates due to a clear determination of the measurement end-point). High temperatures and high humidity affected some of the investigated ODFs, resulting in higher disintegration time or even no disintegration within the tested time period. The methods provided clear end-point detection and were applicable for different types of ODFs. By the modification of a conventional test system to enable application for films, a standard method could be presented to ensure uniformity in current quality control settings. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Composition, disintegrative properties, and labeling compliance of commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Rebecca R; Freeman, Lisa M; Fascetti, Andrea J; Yu, Zengshou

    2009-01-15

    To test the quality, disintegration properties, and compliance with labeling regulations for representative commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products. Evaluation study. 11 commercially available taurine and 10 commercially available carnitine products. For each product, the amount of taurine or carnitine was determined and compared with the label claim. All products were evaluated for concentrations of mercury, arsenic, and selenium. Disintegration properties of 5 taurine and 8 carnitine products were determined in vitro. Labels were evaluated for compliance with FDA guidelines. 10 of 11 taurine and 10 of 10 carnitine products were within 10% of the stated label claim. Three of 11 taurine and 6 of 10 carnitine products were within 5% of the stated label claim. The median percentage difference between laboratory analysis and label claim was -5.7% (range, -26.3% to 2.5%) for taurine and 3.6% (range, -2.6% to 8.8%) for carnitine. No substantial amount of contamination with mercury, arsenic, or selenium was found in any of the products. During disintegration testing, 1 of 5 taurine products and 5 of 8 carnitine products did not disintegrate within 45 minutes during at least 1 test. Disintegration time for those that did disintegrate ranged from 1.7 to 37.0 minutes. All product labels conformed with FDA regulations. Taurine and carnitine products evaluated in this study closely adhered to manufacturer claims and labeling guidelines. However, disintegration testing suggested high variability in some products, possibly limiting uptake and use by animals that receive them.

  10. Investigation of the Performance of the Disintegration Test for Dietary Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Almukainzi, May; Salehi, Mahnor; Araci Bou-Chacra, Nadia; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how beaker size, basket assembly, use of disk, and immersion medium impact the disintegration time of dietary supplements. The disintegration times were determined for five tablet and two capsule products. A two-station disintegration tester was used with Apparatus A or Apparatus B as described in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) chapters, and . Two beakers complying with the harmonized specifications were used, one with a volume of 1,000 mL and o...

  11. The mechanism of total disintegration of heavy nuclei by fast hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the total disintegration of atomic nuclei by fast hadrons and nuclei is considered. The passage of energetic hadrons through layers of intranuclear matter, accompanied by emission of fast nucleons with kinetic energies from about 20 up to about 500 MeV from definite local small regions in the nuclei around projectile courses in them, allows one to explain simply the occurrence of the total destruction of nuclei involved in the collisions. Light nuclei may be totally disintegrated by fast hadrons and nuclei; heavier nuclei may be totally disintegrated only in central collisions of nuclei with similar mass numbers

  12. Simulation of activational grinding for rhombic sulfur particles in a disintegrator (pinned disc mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit Urakaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theoretical studies, complete picture of a mechanical processing of sulfur in the disintegrator is given. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of elastic and inelastic collisions of particles of processed rhombic sulfur with rows of disintegrator fingers are calculated. Based on the analysis of the obtained dependency of the rotation frequency of the rotors offers, advices on selecting optimal conditions for activation milling of α-sulfur in the disintegrator are given. These results can be partially used in the processing of sulfur and in other types of shock grinding devices, in particular, jet mills.

  13. Comparative Plasma Exposure of Albendazole after Administration of Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina G. Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were (a to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  14. A laboratory scale model of abrupt ice-shelf disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Boghosian, A.; Styron, D. D.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important mode of Earth’s disappearing cryosphere is the abrupt disintegration of ice shelves along the Peninsula of Antarctica. This disintegration process may be triggered by climate change, however the work needed to produce the spectacular, explosive results witnessed with the Larsen B and Wilkins ice-shelf events of the last decade comes from the large potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and fragmentation. To gain further insight into the underlying exchanges of energy involved in massed iceberg movements, we have constructed a laboratory-scale model designed to explore the physical and hydrodynamic interactions between icebergs in a confined channel of water. The experimental apparatus consists of a 2-meter water tank that is 30 cm wide. Within the tank, we introduce fresh water and approximately 20-100 rectangular plastic ‘icebergs’ having the appropriate density contrast with water to mimic ice. The blocks are initially deployed in a tight pack, with all blocks arranged in a manner to represent the initial state of an integrated ice shelf or ice tongue. The system is allowed to evolve through time under the driving forces associated with iceberg hydrodynamics. Digitized videography is used to quantify how the system of plastic icebergs evolves between states of quiescence to states of mobilization. Initial experiments show that, after a single ‘agitator’ iceberg begins to capsize, an ‘avalanche’ of capsizing icebergs ensues which drives horizontal expansion of the massed icebergs across the water surface, and which stimulates other icebergs to capsize. A surprise initially evident in the experiments is the fact that the kinetic energy of the expanding mass of icebergs is only a small fraction of the net potential energy released by the rearrangement of mass via capsize. Approximately 85 - 90 % of the energy released by the system goes into water motion modes, including a pervasive, easily observed seich mode of the tank

  15. Development of novel fast-disintegrating tablets by direct compression using sucrose stearic acid ester as a disintegration-accelerating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Takuma; Onishi, Hiraku; Takahashi, Yuri; Uchida, Minoru; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2008-10-01

    It was attempted to produce novel furosemide (FS) fast-disintegrating tablets by direct compression. The combination of FS, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium and xylitol was used as the basic formulation, and sucrose stearic acid ester (SSE) was chosen as an additional additive. The tablets with SSE were prepared by the simple addition of SSE, using a lyophilized mixture of FS and SSE or using a FS/SSE mixture obtained by evaporation of their ethanol solution. Only the tablets, produced using the FS/SSE mixture obtained by organic solvent (ethanol) evaporation, showed hardness of more than 30 N and a disintegration time of less than 20 s, which were the properties suitable for fast-disintegrating tablets. These properties were considered to result from well-mixed and fine-powdered SSE and FS.

  16. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  17. Atrazine in sub-acute exposure results in sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab-Ali Sadrkhanloo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the detrimental effect of atrazine (ATR on germinal epitheliums (GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate (CH and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA ratio and to clarify the effect of ATR on serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin-B (INH-B. The impact of ATR exposure on total antioxidant capacity (TAC, sperm DNA packing and integrity were also investigated. Seventy two Wistar rats were used. The rats in control group received vehicle and the animals in test groups received 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW of ATR orally on daily bases for 12, 24 and 48 days. In ATR-received groups the spermatogenesis cell were presented with dense reactive sites for lipidophilic staining associated with faint cytoplasmic CH accumulation. Dissociated germinal epithelium, negative tubular and repopulation indexes were manifested. The serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and INH-B decreased by 85% after 48 days exposure to high dose of ATR. TAC was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The sperm DNA damage was marked in animals which exposed to high dose of ATR (72.50 ± 2.25% and the percentage of nuclear immature sperm increased up to 83.40 ± 0.89%. In conclusion, ATR not only induced its detrimental effect on the endocrine function of the testes and pituitary gland but also affected the cytoplasmic CH ratio and consequently leads to inadequate energy supplement in spermatogenesis cells. Therefore the imbalanced oxidative stress occurs in testicular tissue, which in turn enhances the sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity.

  18. Use of anaerobic hydrolysis pretreatment to enhance ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjin; Zhu, Tong; Shen, Yang; Chai, Tianyu; Xie, Yuanhua; You, Meiyan; Wang, Youzhao

    2016-01-01

    To improve the excess sludge disintegration efficiency, reduce the sludge disintegration cost, and increase sludge biodegradability, a combined pretreatment of anaerobic hydrolysis (AH) and ultrasonic treatment (UT) was proposed for excess sludge. Results showed that AH had an advantage in dissolving flocs, modifying sludge characteristics, and reducing the difficulty of sludge disintegration, whereas UT was advantageous in damaging cell walls, releasing intracellular substances, and decomposing macromolecular material. The combined AH-UT process was an efficient method for excess sludge pretreatment. The optimized solution involved AH for 3 days, followed by UT for 10 min. After treatment, chemical oxygen demand, protein, and peptidoglycan concentrations reached 3,949.5 mg O2/L, 752.5 mg/L and 619.1 mg/L, respectively. This work has great significance for further engineering applications, namely, reducing energy consumption, increasing the sludge disintegration rate, and improving the biochemical properties of sludge.

  19. Measurement of disintegration rates of 60Co volume sources by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to the determination of the disintegration rates of 60 Co volume sources (1.05 x 10 4 Bq, 1.05 x 10 3 Bq and 1.05 x 10 2 Bq, in 100-ml polyethylene bottles) by using a NaI(Tl) detector of a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 50 mm. The experimental results showed that decreasing the disintegration rates resulted in enlarged underestimation in comparison with the true disintegration rates. It was presumed that the underestimations of the disintegration rates determined by the sum-peak method resulted from the overestimations of the areas under the sum peaks caused by the overlap of the area under the Compton scattering of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from a naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl under the sum peaks. (author)

  20. A study of the disintegration of highly excited nuclei with the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinet, L.; Gregoire, C.; Schuck, P.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1987-01-01

    The disintegration of hot and/or compressed nuclei is studied using (i) the Vlasov equation (VE) with imposed spherical symmetry, (ii) the VE in three dimensions (3D) and (iii) the VE in three dimensions supplemented by the Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term (VUU). We find that case (ii) is slightly more unstable with respect to disintegration compared to case (i) whereas (iii) tends to make nuclei more stable. In all cases the thermal energies (15-20 MeV per nucleon) needed to totally disintegrate a nucleus seem to be higher than those found in static and hydrodynamic calculation. On the contrary, compressional energy very much helps disintegration. Some comments on the introduction of fluctuations and corresponding fragmentation are added. (orig.)

  1. Method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A novel liquid scintillation counting method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide is described which involves counting the sample at at least two different quench levels. (UK)

  2. Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Guan, Ming; Liu, Jia; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Shaw, Leo; McGuire, Allister F; Huang, Tsung-Ching; Shao, Leilai; Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-05-16

    Increasing performance demands and shorter use lifetimes of consumer electronics have resulted in the rapid growth of electronic waste. Currently, consumer electronics are typically made with nondecomposable, nonbiocompatible, and sometimes even toxic materials, leading to serious ecological challenges worldwide. Here, we report an example of totally disintegrable and biocompatible semiconducting polymers for thin-film transistors. The polymer consists of reversible imine bonds and building blocks that can be easily decomposed under mild acidic conditions. In addition, an ultrathin (800-nm) biodegradable cellulose substrate with high chemical and thermal stability is developed. Coupled with iron electrodes, we have successfully fabricated fully disintegrable and biocompatible polymer transistors. Furthermore, disintegrable and biocompatible pseudo-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) flexible circuits are demonstrated. These flexible circuits are ultrathin (<1 μm) and ultralightweight (∼2 g/m 2 ) with low operating voltage (4 V), yielding potential applications of these disintegrable semiconducting polymers in low-cost, biocompatible, and ultralightweight transient electronics.

  3. Effect of disintegration wave grinding on fractional protein and amino acid composition of chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of fractional changes and amino acid composition of proteins in the application of chickpea disintegration wave grinding. Comparative analysis of six varieties of chickpea before and after grinding.

  4. Effect of disintegration wave grinding on fractional protein and amino acid composition of chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    G. O. Magomedov; M. K. Sadigova; S. I. Lukina; V. Y. Kustov

    2013-01-01

    The study of fractional changes and amino acid composition of proteins in the application of chickpea disintegration wave grinding. Comparative analysis of six varieties of chickpea before and after grinding.

  5. Justification of disintegration testing beyond current FDA criteria using in vitro and in silico models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Uebbing,1,2,* Lukas Klumpp,1,3,* Gregory K Webster,4 Raimar Löbenberg1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Katz Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 4Global Research and Development, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Drug product performance testing is an important part of quality-by-design approaches, but this process often lacks the underlying mechanistic understanding of the complex interactions between the disintegration and dissolution processes involved. Whereas a recent draft guideline by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has allowed the replacement of dissolution testing with disintegration testing, the mentioned criteria are not globally accepted. This study provides scientific justification for using disintegration testing rather than dissolution testing as a quality control method for certain immediate release (IR formulations. A mechanistic approach, which is beyond the current FDA criteria, is presented. Dissolution testing via United States Pharmacopeial Convention Apparatus II at various paddle speeds was performed for immediate and extended release formulations of metronidazole. Dissolution profile fitting via DDSolver and dissolution profile predictions via DDDPlus™ were performed. The results showed that Fickian diffusion and drug particle properties (DPP were responsible for the dissolution of the IR tablets, and that formulation factors (eg, coning impacted dissolution only at lower rotation speeds. Dissolution was completely formulation controlled if extended release tablets were tested and DPP were not important. To demonstrate that disintegration is the most important dosage form attribute when dissolution is

  6. Systematic comparison of mechanical and thermal sludge disintegration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wett, B; Phothilangka, P; Eladawy, A

    2010-06-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison and evaluation of sewage sludge pre-treatment by mechanical and thermal techniques. Waste activated sludge (WAS) was pre-treated by separate full scale Thermo-Pressure-Hydrolysis (TDH) and ball milling facilities. Then the sludge was processed in pilot-scale digestion experiments. The results indicated that a significant increase in soluble organic matter could be achieved. TDH and ball milling pre-treatment could offer a feasible treatment method to efficiently disintegrate sludge and enhance biogas yield of digestion. The TDH increased biogas production by ca. 75% whereas ball milling allowed for an approximately 41% increase. The mechanisms of pre-treatment were investigated by numerical modeling based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) in the MatLab/SIMBA environment. TDH process induced advanced COD-solubilisation (COD(soluble)/COD(total)=43%) and specifically complete destruction of cell mass which is hardly degradable in conventional digestion. While the ball mill technique achieved a lower solubilisation rate (COD(soluble)/COD(total)=28%) and only a partial destruction of microbial decay products. From a whole-plant prospective relevant release of ammonia and formation of soluble inerts have been observed especially from thermal hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvements in centrifugal nucleon disintegration of CND reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the so-called 'Centrifugal Nucleon Disintegrator Reactor' (CND) in which it is proposed to release the binding energy between nucleons of high atomic number by applying a violent spin to the nuclei. The reactor described comprises means for producing atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons by heating to form a high temperature plasma. A number of laser beams are directed on to a cylinder having a polished bore and reflected therefrom so as to create tangentially a cylindrical wall or surface having a high concentration of photons moving unidirectionally, together with means for introducing nuclei into the cylindrical wall or surface of photons. A high electrostatic charge is applied to urge the nuclei against the cylindrical wall or surface. The nuclei are discharged into the space between the cylinder and the photon wall. Nucleons that have been separated from their nuclei are carried upwards in a flow of plasma, which can be arranged to produce an electrical output by interaction with an electromagnetic field. (U.K.)

  8. Improvements in centrifugal nuclear disintegration or 'streaked nuclei' reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the so-called 'Centrifugal Nucleon Disintegrator Reactor' (CND) in which it is proposed to release the binding energy between nucleons of high atomic number by applying a violent spin to the nuclei. The reactor described comprises means for producing atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons by heating to form a high temperature plasma. The reactor comprises an outer cylinder having a polished bore, an inner cylinder coaxial with the outer cylinder, the inner cylinder having a number of holes. A number of light beams are directed non-radially on to the bore and undergo reflections therefrom so as to create around the inner cylinder a coaxial cylindrical wall of unidirectionally moving light photons. Means are provided for introducing the nuclei into the inner cylinder, passing then out through the holes therein, and urging them against the photon wall. The direction of the light beams is slightly non-horizontal so that their reflections from the bore trace out a very closely coiled helix, extending the photon wall up the length of the inner cylinder through which the plasmatic nuclei are admitted. (U.K.)

  9. In vitro models for the prediction of in vivo performance of oral dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostewicz, Edmund S; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Brewster, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the in vivo biopharmaceutical performance of oral drug formulations is critical to efficient drug development. Traditionally, in vitro evaluation of oral drug formulations has focused on disintegration and dissolution testing for quality control (QC) purposes. The connection...... of formulations that rely on complex intraluminal processes (e.g. solubilization, supersaturation, precipitation…) remains extremely challenging. Concomitantly, the increasing demand for complex formulations to overcome low drug solubility or to control drug release rates urges the development of new in vitro...

  10. Diffusion of disintegration products of radioactive gases in circular and flat channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of steady state diffusion of the decaying products resulting from the disintegration of a radioactive gas flowing through circular and flat channels is presented. Axial diffusion is neglected and a small diffusion parameter is assumed. Results are obtained for the axial displacement and density distribution of atoms deposited on the walls when the laminar flow is Poiseuille and plug. These results can be used to determine diffusion coefficients of disintegration products. (author)

  11. Use of hydrodynamic disintegration to accelerate anaerobic digestion of surplus activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Machnicka, Alicja

    2009-12-01

    Hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge resulted in organic matter and polymers transfer from the solid phase into the liquid phase. Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation had a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. Also, addition of a part of anaerobic digested sludge containing adapted microorganisms resulted in acceleration of the process. The disruption of cells of foam microorganisms and addition to the digestion process led to an increase of biogas production.

  12. Toward a Theory of Industrial Development and Vertical Disintegration : The Case of the Semiconductor Industry

    OpenAIRE

    末永, 啓一郎

    2007-01-01

    The semiconductor industry has accomplished surprising growth, and its production basehas extended from the United States to Japan, Europe, and other Asian economies. One of thefactors of this phenomenon is the progress of vertical disintegration in the semiconductor industry.The boundaries of firms are discussed within a transaction cost framework. However, toidentify the process of long-term vertical disintegration at an industrial level, a dynamic theoryrather than a static theory is neces...

  13. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Dipil; Chauhan, Musharraf; Patel, Ravi; Patel, Jayvadan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X1), superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X2), and direct compression aid ...

  14. Disintegration of sublingual tablets: proposal for a validated test method and acceptance criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weda, M; van Riet-Nales, D A; van Aalst, P; de Kaste, D; Lekkerkerker, J F F

    2006-12-01

    In the Netherlands the market share of isosorbide dinitrate 5 mg sublingual tablets is dominated by 2 products (A and B). In the last few years complaints have been received from health care professionals on product B. During patient use the disintegration of the tablet was reported to be slow and/or incomplete, and ineffectiveness was experienced. In the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) no requirement is present for the disintegration time of sublingual tablets. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro disintegration time of products A and B, and to establish a suitable test method and acceptance criterion. A and B were tested with the Ph. Eur. method described in the monograph on disintegration of tablets and capsules as well as with 3 modified tests using the same Ph. Eur. apparatus, but without movement of the basket-rack assembly. In modified test 1 and modified test 2 water was used as medium (900 ml and 50 ml respectively), whereas in modified test 3 artificial saliva was used (50 ml). In addition, disintegration was tested in Nessler tubes with 0.5 and 2 ml of water. Finally, the Ph. Eur. method was also applied to other sublingual tablets with other drug substances on the Dutch market. With modified test 3 no disintegration could be achieved within 20 min. With the Ph. Eur. method and modified tests 1 and 2 product A and B differed significantly (p disintegration times. These 3 methods were capable of discriminating between products and between batches. The time measured with the Ph. Eur. method was significantly lower compared to modified tests 1 and 2 (p tablets the disintegration time should be tested. The Ph. Eur. method is considered suitable for this test. In view of the products currently on the market and taking into consideration requirements in the United States Pharmacopeia and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, an acceptance criterion of not more than 2 min is proposed.

  15. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  16. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  17. Biological disintegration of microalgae for biomethane recovery-prediction of biodegradability and computation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Yukesh Kannah, R; Rajesh Banu, J; Kaliappan, S; Johnson, M

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the synergistic effect of combined bacterial disintegration on mixed microalgal biomass for energy efficient biomethane generation. The rate of microalgal biomass lysis, enhanced biodegradability, and methane generation were used as indices to assess efficiency of the disintegration. A maximal dissolvable organics release and algal biomass lysis rate of about 1100, 950 and 800mg/L and 26, 23 and 18% was achieved in PA+C (protease, amylase+cellulase secreting bacteria), C (cellulase alone) and PA (protease, amylase) microalgal disintegration. During anaerobic fermentation, a greater production of volatile fatty acids (1000mg/L) was noted in PA+C bacterial disintegration of microalgal biomass. PA+C bacterial disintegration improve the amenability of microalgal biomass to biomethanation process with higher biodegradability of about 0.27gCOD/gCOD, respectively. The energy balance analysis of this combined bacterial disintegration of microalgal biomass provides surplus positive net energy (1.14GJ/d) by compensating the input energy requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  19. Radiation-induced cell disintegrations in cultured rat hepatoma cells JTC 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1979-01-01

    Disintegration of hepatoma cells of rat were recorded by time lapse cinemicrography for more than 5 days and about 1000 pedigrees were analyzed. Five generations were followed up in control and 2 or 3 generations in irradiated cells. Cells were attached on vessel wall spreading themselves in intermitotic phase while they stood up from the wall in mitotic phase taking a roun form. When a cell disintegrates in interphase the disintegration is called D sub( s) and one in mitotic period D sub( r). The frequency of D sub( s)S' is about 3 times as much as D sub( r)S'. An age of a disintegrated cell in generation 1 and 2 was measured as the previous mitosis was age 0. Generation times of the comparable generations of surviving sister branches of the same pedigrees were used as controls. Most disintegration took place at the same age with surviving sisters indicating a determined, not at random, age of cell death. A cell in an initial state flowed to any one of the following states with or without irradiation; surviving, disintegrated, end cell or escaping out of observation field. A single exposure of 400 to 900 R induced a typical reproductive death but effective extinction of clones was observed only in small pedigrees. Temporary hypothermia and hyperthermia immediately after exposure had no remarkable lethal effects on several early generations. (author)

  20. Carbon source recovery from excess sludge by mechanical disintegration for biological denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrowska-Sudol, M

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the possibility of carbon source recovery from excess sludge by mechanical disintegration for biological denitrification. The total efficiency of denitrification, unit demand for organic compounds for denitrification, unit volume of disintegrated sludge and unit cost of nitrogen removal as a function of energy density used for excess sludge disintegration (70, 140 and 210 kJ/L) were analyzed. In the study a full-scale disc disintegrator was used (motor power: 30 kWh, motor speed: 2,950 rpm). It was shown that the amounts of organic compounds released from the activated sludge flocs at all tested levels of energy density are high enough to be used to intensify the removal of nitrogen compounds from wastewater. It was also documented that the energy density provided during process of disintegration was an important factor determining the characteristics of organic compounds obtained under the disintegration for their use in order to intensify the process of denitrification. The highest value of total efficiency of denitrification (50.5 ± 3.1 mg N/L) was obtained for carbon source recovery from excess sludge at 70 kJ/L, but the lowest unit cost of nitrogen removal occurred for 140 kJ/L (0.0019 ± 0.0011 EUR/g N).

  1. Study on the Efficient Disintegration of HTGR Fuel Elements by Electrochemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Nan; Chen Ji; Xiao Cuiping; We Mingfen; Che Jing

    2014-01-01

    The spent fuel elements in High- temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) have a special structure, so the head-end process of the spent fuel reprocessing is different from the process of water reactor spent fuel. The first step of head-end process of the HTGR spent fuel reprocessing process is disintegration of the graphite matrix and separation of the coated fuel particles. Electrochemical method with nitrate solution as an electrolyte for fuel element disintegration has been conducted by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology in Tsinghua University. This method allows a total disintegration of graphite matrix, while still preserving the integrity of TRISO particles. The influences of the pretreatment methods such as heating oxidation of graphite, hydrothermal and oxidants oxidation were investigated in the present work. The experimental results showed that there were no significant effects on increasing the disintegration rate when pretreatment methods were used ahead of electrochemical disintegration. This phenomenon indicated that the fuel elements which were calcined at 1073 K and pressed under 300 MPa are too compact to be broken by these pretreatment methods. And the electrochemical disintegration is an effective but slow method in breaking the graphite matrix. (author)

  2. Effects of chemical sludge disintegration on the performances of wastewater treatment by membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young-Khee; Lee, Ki-Ryong; Ko, Kwang-Baik; Yeom, Ick-Tae

    2007-06-01

    A new wastewater treatment process combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with chemical sludge disintegration was tested in bench scale experiments. In particular, the effects of the disintegration treatment on the excess sludge production in MBR were investigated. Two MBRs were operated. In one reactor, a part of the mixed liquor was treated with NaOH and ozone gas consecutively and was returned to the bioreactor. The flow rate of the sludge disintegration stream was 1.5% of the influent flow rate. During the 200 days of operation, the MLSS level in the bioreactor with the disintegration treatment was maintained relatively constant at the range of 10,000-11,000 mg/L while it increased steadily up to 25,000 mg/L in the absence of the treatment. In the MBR with the sludge disintegration, relatively constant transmembrane pressures (TMPs) could be maintained for more than 6 months while the MBR without disintegration showed an abrupt increase of TMP in the later phase of the operation. In conclusion, a complete control of excess sludge production in the membrane-coupled bioreactor was possible without significant deterioration of the treated water quality and membrane performances.

  3. Excipient-drug pharmacokinetic interactions: Effect of disintegrants on efflux across excised pig intestinal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Gerber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical excipients were designed originally to be pharmacologically inert. However, certain excipients were found to have altering effects on drug pharmacodynamics and/or pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic interactions may be caused by modulation of efflux transporter proteins, intercellular tight junctions and/or metabolic enzyme amongst others. In this study, five disintegrants from different chemical classes were evaluated for P-glycoprotein (P-gp related inhibition and tight junction modulation effects. Bi-directional transport studies of the model compound, Rhodamine 123 (R123 were conducted in the absence (control group and presence (experimental groups of four concentrations of each selected disintegrant across excised pig jejunum tissue. The results showed that some of the selected disintegrants (e.g. Ac-di-sol® and Kollidon® CL-M increased R123 absorptive transport due to inhibition of P-gp related efflux, while another disintegrant (e.g. sodium alginate changed R123 transport due to inhibition of P-gp in conjunction with a transient opening of the tight junctions in a concentration dependent way. It may be concluded that the co-application of some disintegrants to the intestinal epithelium may lead to pharmacokinetic interactions with drugs that are susceptible to P-gp related efflux. However, the clinical significance of these in vitro permeation findings should be confirmed by means of in vivo studies. Keywords: Disintegrants, Excipient, Ex vivo, P-glycoprotein, Pharmacokinetic interactions, Rhodamine 123

  4. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Guang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  5. Formulation strategy towards minimizing viscosity mediated negative food effect on disintegration and dissolution of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Kamran; Langguth, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Food induced viscosity can delay disintegration and subsequent release of API from solid dosage form which may lead to severe reduction in the bioavailability of BCS type III compounds. Formulations of such tablets need to be optimized in view of this postprandial viscosity factor. In this study, three super disintegrants, croscarmellose sodium (CCS), cross-linked polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (CPD), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) were assessed for their efficiency under simulated fed state. Tablets containing these disintegrants were compressed at 10 and 30 KN, while taking lactose as a soluble filler. In addition to other compendial tests, disintegration force of these formulations was measured by texture analysis. Comparison of parameters derived from force - time curves revealed a direct relation of maximum disintegration force (F max ) and disintegration force development rate (DFDR) with compressional force in fasted state, whereas an inverse relationship of F max and DFDR with compressional force was observed in fed state. The gelling tendency of disintegrants influenced the rate of release of API in simulated fed and fasted states when compressional force was changed. These observations recommend the evaluation of formulations in simulated fed state, in the development stage, with an objective of minimizing the negative impact of food induced viscosity on disintegration. Use of disintegrants that act without gelling or can counteract the effect of gelling is recommended for tablet formulations with reduced disintegration time (DT) and mean dissolution time (MDT) in fed state, respectively.

  6. Influence of Prosolv and Prosolv:Mannitol 200 direct compression fillers on the physicomechanical properties of atorvastatin oral dispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Veeran; Pabari, Ritesh M; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Prosolv® and Prosolv®: Mannitol 200 direct compression (DC) fillers on the physicomechanical characteristics of oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of crystalline atorvastatin calcium. ODTs were formulated by DC and were analyzed for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution. Three disintegration time (DT) test methods; European Pharmacopoeia (EP) method for conventional tablets (Method 1), a modification of this method (Method 2) and the EP method for oral lyophilisates (Method 3) were compared as part of this study. All ODTs showed low weight variation of tablet hardness of ∼ 73 N, hardness decreased with increasing mannitol content. Friability of all formulations was 60% within 5 min despite the drug being crystalline. Prosolv® and Prosolv®:Mannitol-based ODTs are suitable for ODT formulations by DC to give ODTs with high mechanical strength, rapid disintegration and dissolution.

  7. Real-time monitoring of disintegration activity of catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase using molecular beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-wei; Zhao, Ming-ming; He, Hong-qiu; Guo, Shun-xing

    2013-09-15

    HIV-1 integrase, an essential enzyme for retroviral replication, is a validated target for anti-HIV therapy development. The catalytic core domain of integrase (IN-CCD) is capable of catalyzing disintegration reaction. In this work, a hairpin-shaped disintegration substrate was designed and validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a molecular beacon-based assay was developed for disintegration reaction of IN-CCD. Results showed that the disintegration substrate could be recognized and catalyzed by IN-CCD, and the disintegration reaction can be monitored according to the increase of fluorescent signal. The assay can be applied to real-time detection of disintegration with advantages of simplicity, high sensitivity, and excellent specificity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of alkaline and microwave pretreatment for disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, G

    2013-01-01

    Meat processing wastewater sludge has high organic content but it is very slow to degrade in biological processes. Anaerobic digestion may be a good alternative for this type of sludge when the hydrolysis, known to be the rate-limiting step of biological sludge anaerobic degradation, could be eliminated by disintegration. This investigation deals with disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge. Microwave (MW) irradiation and combined alkaline pretreatment and MW irradiation were applied to sludge for disintegration purposes. Disintegration performance of the methods was evaluated with disintegration degree based on total and dissolved organic carbon calculations (DD(TOC)), and the solubilization of volatile solids (S(VS)) in the pretreated sludge. Optimum conditions were found to be 140 degrees C and 30 min for MW irradiation using response surface methodology (RSM) and pH = 13 for combined pretreatment. While DD(TOC) was observed as 24.6% and 54.9, S(VS) was determined as 8.54% and 42.5% for MW pretreated and combined pretreated sludge, respectively. The results clearly show that pre-conditioning of sludge with alkaline pretreatment played an important role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of subsequent MW irradiation. Disintegration methods also affected the anaerobic biodegradability and dewaterability of sludge. An increase of 23.6% in biogas production in MW irradiated sludge was obtained, comparing to the raw sludge at the end of the 35 days of incubation. This increase was observed as 44.5% combined pretreatment application. While MW pretreatment led to a little improvement of the dewatering performance of sludge, in combined pretreatment NaOH deteriorates the sludge dewaterability.

  9. Development of a mathematical model for physical disintegration of flushable consumer products in wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadagli, Fatih; McAvoy, Drew C; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2009-05-01

    The processes that flushable solid products may undergo after discharge to wastewater systems are (1) physical disintegration of solids resulting from turbulence, (2) direct dissolution of water-soluble components, (3) hydrolysis of solids to form soluble components, and (4) biodegradation of soluble and insoluble components. We develop a mathematical model for physical disintegration of flushable solid consumer products and test it with two different flushable products--product A, which has 40% water soluble-content, and product B, which has no water-soluble components. We present our modeling analysis of experimental results, from which we computed disintegration rate constants and fractional distribution coefficients for the disintegration of larger solids. The rate constants for solids of product A in units of (hour(-1)) are 0.45 for > 8-mm, 2.25 x 10(-2) for 4- to 8-mm, 0.9 x 10(-2) for 2- to 4-mm, and 1.26 x 10(-2) for 1- to 2-mm solids. The rate constants for solids of product B in units of hour(-1) are 1.8 for > 8-mm, 1.8 for 4- to 8-mm, 3.6 x 10(-1) for 2- to 4-mm, and 2.25 x 10(-3) for 1- to 2-mm solids. As indicated by the rate constants, larger solids disintegrate at a faster rate than smaller solids. In addition, product B disintegrated much faster and went mostly to the smallest size range, while product A disintegrated more slowly and was transferred to a range of intermediate solid sizes.

  10. Integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in a globalized world: challenges and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Paronikian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the challenges and trends in integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in the world of globalization. Established that ethnic disintegration is inevitable consequence of ethnic integration, and its intensity depends on what method is carried Integration: voluntary or forced. What is important is the fact that in the era of globalization integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities that are inherent in the very essence of ethnicity, greatly amplified. It was found that entering to the cultural field of ethnic communities of other ethnic entities, penalized sustainable ethnic balance, contributes to the phenomenon of «rejection of other» causes of ethnic conflict and the consequent threat of disintegration of ethnic communities. Disintegration often leads to weakening of the linkages and interactions between components of the integrated system in a multi-ethnic society. However, the author concludes that the process of disintegration cannot be regarded as unambiguously negative because, on the one hand, it contributes to the weakening and decline; and sometimes division of multi-ethnic countries, but on the other hand - it contributes to the birth of the new and revival of the old nation-states, which is particularly important in conditions of transformation of the global community towards the post-industrial and information epoch in the future. In general, the integration and disintegration change each other depending on global processes and their transformations. Therefore, in the era of globalization’s challenges it is important is the effective management of these processes to prevent adverse effects.

  11. An In Vitro Analysis of Disintegration Times of Different Formulations of Olanzapine Orodispersible Tablet: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, David; Karagianis, Jamie; Treuer, Tamas; Raskin, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies. Objectives Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab® was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator. Research Design and Methods Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vit...

  12. Kozeny-Carman permeability relationship with disintegration process predicted from early dissolution profiles of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Parveen; Rathi, Pooja; Kumar, Virender; Lal, Jatin; Kaur, Harmeet; Singh, Jasbir

    2017-07-01

    This study was oriented toward the disintegration profiling of the diclofenac sodium (DS) immediate-release (IR) tablets and development of its relationship with medium permeability k perm based on Kozeny-Carman equation. Batches (L1-L9) of DS IR tablets with different porosities and specific surface area were prepared at different compression forces and evaluated for porosity, in vitro dissolution and particle-size analysis of the disintegrated mass. The k perm was calculated from porosities and specific surface area, and disintegration profiles were predicted from the dissolution profiles of IR tablets by stripping/residual method. The disintegration profiles were subjected to exponential regression to find out the respective disintegration equations and rate constants k d . Batches L1 and L2 showed the fastest disintegration rates as evident from their bi-exponential equations while the rest of the batches L3-L9 exhibited the first order or mono-exponential disintegration kinetics. The 95% confidence interval (CI 95% ) revealed significant differences between k d values of different batches except L4 and L6. Similar results were also spotted for dissolution profiles of IR tablets by similarity (f 2 ) test. The final relationship between k d and k perm was found to be hyperbolic, signifying the initial effect of k perm on the disintegration rate. The results showed that disintegration profiling is possible because a relationship exists between k d and k perm . The later being relatable with porosity and specific surface area can be determined by nondestructive tests.

  13. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Sludge reduction in a small wastewater treatment plant by electro-kinetic disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavola, Agostina; Ridolfi, Alessandra; D'Amato, Emilio; Bongirolami, Simona; Cima, Ennio; Sirini, Piero; Gavasci, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Sludge reduction in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) has recently become a key issue for the managing companies, due to the increasing constraints on the disposal alternatives. Therefore, all the solutions proposed with the aim of minimizing sludge production are receiving increasing attention and are tested either at laboratory or full-scale to evaluate their real effectiveness. In the present paper, electro-kinetic disintegration has been applied at full-scale in the recycle loop of the sludge drawn from the secondary settlement tank of a small WWTP for domestic sewage. After the disintegration stage, the treated sludge was returned to the biological reactor. Three different percentages (50, 75 and 100%) of the return sludge flow rate were subjected to disintegration and the effects on the sludge production and the WWTP operation efficiency evaluated. The long-term observations showed that the electro-kinetic disintegration was able to drastically reduce the amount of biological sludge produced by the plant, without affecting its treatment efficiency. The highest reduction was achieved when 100% return sludge flow rate was subjected to the disintegration process. The reduced sludge production gave rise to a considerable net cost saving for the company which manages the plant.

  15. Impact of influent COD/N ratio on disintegration of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disintegration of nano-embedded microparticles after deposition on mucus: A mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Christian A; Bohr, Adam; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Nicolas, Valérie; Tsapis, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias

    2016-03-01

    The conversion of colloidal drug carriers/polymeric nanoparticles into dry microparticulate powders (e.g., by spray-drying) is a prominent approach to overcome the aerodynamic limitations of these formulations for delivery via inhalation. However, to what extent such nano-embedded microparticles disintegrate into individual/intact nanoparticles after contacting relevant physiological media has so far not been addressed. Polymeric nanoparticles were spray-dried into nano-embedded microparticles (NEMs) using different amounts of trehalose as embedding matrix excipient. Formulations were characterized and then evaluated for their disintegration behavior after aerosolization onto model mucus. Although a rapid and complete aqueous redispersion was observed for specific excipient/nanoparticle weight ratios (i.e., greater than 1/1), the same formulations revealed no disintegration after deposition onto a static mucus layer. Double-labeled NEMs powders (i.e., dual color staining of polymeric nanoparticles and trehalose) demonstrated rapid matrix dissolution, while the nanoparticle aggregates persisted. When deposited onto agitated mucus, however, sufficient disintegration of NEMs into individual polymeric nanoparticles was observed. These findings indicate that mechanical forces are necessary to overcome the attraction between individual nanoparticles found within the NEMs. Thus, it remains questionable whether the lung mechanics (e.g., breathing, mucociliary clearance) acting on these formulations will contribute to the overall disintegration process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Brand to brand variation in the disintegrant functionality of Polacrilin Potassium, NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula H. Bele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current monograph for Polacrilin Potassium, NF does not specify tests that could assist in distinguishing between different brands of this disintegrant. The objective of this work was to examine the physical characteristics of four brands of Polacrilin Potassium, NF and relate the observed differences to differences in their functionality. Significant differences were observed in the particle size, true density, porosity, surface area and morphology of the samples. Functionality tests, such as settling volume, intrinsic swelling, rate and extent of water uptake were carried out. Significant differences were observed in intrinsic swelling and the initial rate of water uptake. The disintegration times of the tablets were found to be a function of the initial rate of water uptake. Since the disintegration times were shown to be significantly different despite negligible differences in settling volumes, wicking and water uptake, as opposed to the magnitude of swelling, appear to be the major mechanisms that distinguish disintegration performance between different brands of Polacrilin Potassium, NF when incorporated into insoluble tablet matrices. Thus, the measurement of the rate of water uptake may be a useful functionality test for Polacrilin Potassium in particular, and for ion exchange resin type disintegrants in general.

  18. Influence of disintegrants in different substrate physical form on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Srimanta; Ooi, Shing Ming; Liew, Celine Valeria; Tan, Bing Xun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-11-20

    This study investigated the influence of different disintegrants, present in different substrate physical forms, on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablets prepared at different compression pressures. Formulations containing model drug, metformin, (10%, w/w), different disintegrants (10%, w/w), and lactose (80%, w/w) were compressed directly or after granulation using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (1%, w/w) as binder, into tablets (350 mg, 10mm diameter) at 150, 200, and 250 N/mm(2) compression pressures. Tablets were characterized for immediate dimensional recovery (IR) after ejection from the die, latent dimensional recovery (LR) over 24 h, tensile strength, and disintegration. The IR was predominantly contributed by crystalline components whereas LR was brought about by polymeric materials. With increased compression pressure, higher degree of plastic deformation of the polymeric disintegrants resulted in tablet with lower LR and higher tensile strength. Presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone in the granules contributed considerably to plastic deformation, and the tablets produced had lower LR, higher tensile strength, and longer disintegration time. This study indicated that use of granules as the feed substrate physical form and a prudent selection of components may enable the coating of resultant tablets immediately after compression without the risk of coat damage due to LR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of disintegration behavior of biodegradable poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) copolymer mulch films in soil environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Viabhav

    Biodegradation of polymeric films used for mulch film applications in agriculture not only eliminates problems of sorting out and disposal of plastics films, but also ensures increased yields in crop growth and cost reduction. One such polymer which is completely biodegradable in the soil is poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer, which is a promising alternative to non-biodegradable incumbent polyethylene mulch films. The purpose of mulch film made of poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymers is to sustain itself during the crop growth and disintegrate and eventually biodegrade back to nature after the crop cycle is over. The disintegration phase of the biodegradation process was evaluated for poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer incorporated with no additive, antimicrobial additives, varying amount of crystallinities, another biodegradable polymer, and in different soils, with or without varying soil moisture content. The tools used for quantification were weight loss and visual observation. The test method was standardized using repeatability tests. The onset of disintegration was optimized with addition of right anti-microbial additives, higher crystallinity of film, blending with other biodegradable polymers, compared to virgin poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer film. The onset of disintegration time was reduced when soil moisture content was reduced. After the onset of disintegration, the polymer film was physically and mechanically deteriorated, withering away in soil, which is possible to tailor with the crop growth cycle.

  20. Family disintegration in Latin America: the consequences for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L

    1982-12-01

    A federal study on children conducted by Brazil's Chamber of Deputies in 1975 concluded that some 25 million children, 40% of the total population below the age of 18 years, could be classified as disadvantaged. By 1980 this figure was estimated to have grown by an additional 3 million. An estimated 11 million of the disadvantaged children were literally destitute and homeless. They have been abandoned by their impoverished parents to a precarious life on the streets of the major cities of Brazil. The parents of many such abandoned children are recent migrants from rural areas. Unable to find adequate work and too poor to partake of health and other services, such families slip slowly into a state of destitution and disarray. The children end up on the streets where they are abused, exploited, and drawn into lives of crime and violence. Abandoned children are not the only young victims of the imbalances in Brazilian society. As many as 80% of Brazil's children suffer from some degree of malnutrition. Infant mortality is 84 deaths/1000 compared to an average of 12/1000 for Western Europe. In the Western hemisphere, several nations with lower per capita incomes have made greater progress in reducing infant and child mortality. These facts point up the fallacy of confusing economic growth with development. Economic growth is quantitative, mechanical, and materialistic. Development is organic and includes social dimensions, such as the educational, nutritional, and health status of the population. The problem of the disadvantaged children in Brazil is a problem of families and of the stresses placed on them by rapid, disorienting changes in social, economic, political, and cultural systems. The loss of the traditional functions of the family in the process of technological evolution has throughout modern history placed great strains on the family. This historical tendency toward family disintegration is greatly aggravated throughout the countries of the 3rd and 4th

  1. Effect of moisture on disintegration kinetics during anaerobic digestion of complex organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the moisture content and particle size (PS) on the disintegration of complex organic matter during the wet anaerobic digestion (AD) process was investigated. A range of total solids (TS) from 5% to 11.3% and PS from 0.25 to 15 mm was evaluated using carrot waste as model complex organic matter. The experimental results showed that the methane production rate decreased with higher TS and PS. A modified version of the AD model no.1 for complex organic substrates was used to model the experimental data. The simulations showed a decrease of the disintegration rate constants with increasing TS and PS. The results of the biomethanation tests were used to calibrate and validate the applied model. In particular, the values of the disintegration constant for various TS and PS were determined. The simulations showed good agreement between the numerical and observed data.

  2. Influence of diligent disintegration on anaerobic biomass and performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyalakshmi, Palanisamy; Murugan, Devaraj; Rai, Chockalingam Lajapathi

    2017-12-01

    To enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) by increasing the surface area of cathode and diligent mechanical disintegration of anaerobic biomass. Tannery effluent and anaerobic biomass were used. The increase in surface area of the cathode resulted in 78% COD removal, with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 675 mV, 147 mA m -2 , 33 mW m -2 and 3.5%, respectively. The work coupled with increased surface area of the cathode with diligent mechanical disintegration of the biomass, led to a further increase in COD removal of 82% with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 748 mV, 229 mA m -2 , 78 mW m -2 and 6% respectively. Mechanical disintegration of the biomass along with increased surface area of cathode enhances power generation in vertical MFC reactors using tannery effluent as fuel.

  3. Comments on filament-disintegration and its relation to other aspects of solar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, H. W.; Hedeman, E. R.; Rovira De Miceli, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies of sudden disintegrations of filaments in solar cycles 19 and 20 (to 1969) indicate that such events occur frequently. Approximately 30% of all large filaments in these cycles disintegrated in the course of their transit across the solar disk. 'Major' flares occurred with above average frequency on the last day on which 141 large disappearing filaments were observed. Relationships between a disintegrating filament on July 10-11, 1959, a prior major flare, a newly formed spot, and concomitant growth of H-alpha plage are presented. Observation of prior descending prominence material apparently directed towards the location of the flare of July 15, 1959 is reported. The development of the filament-associated flare of Feb. 13, 1967 is described.

  4. Effect of Calcium Ions on the Disintegration of Enteric-Coated Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of calcium ions on the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms, disintegration testing was performed on enteric-coated aspirin tablets in the presence and absence of calcium in the test media. The results show that the presence of calcium ions retards the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms. This finding, which has not been reported in scientific literature, sheds light on the importance of conducting well-designed detailed investigations into the potential of calcium from dietary sources, calcium supplements, antacids, and/or phosphate binders affecting the absorption of drugs formulated into enteric-coated dosage forms. Moreover, it shows the necessity to investigate the potential of the occurrence of additional nutrient-excipient interactions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Superthin disintegration of 2s-level in light hydrogenlike atoms: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenbojm, S.G.; Kolachevskij, N.N.; Ivanov, V.G.; Fischer, M.; Fendel, P.; Hensch, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Peculiar combination of superthin disintegrations in hydrogen and in D 21 = 8f hfs (2s)-f hfs (1s) similar light two-particle atoms depends slightly on nucleus structure and thus enables to compare theory with experiment sensitive to the high order quantum-electrodynamic corrections. Paper presents new theoretical and experimental results. The calculations deal with hydrogen, deuterium and helium-3 ion. The experiments were performed for 2s level superthin disintegration in hydrogen and deuterium the error of which dominates in D 21 difference. Theory and experiment are in line, and their accuracy is comparable with the accuracy of verifications of the quantum-and-electrodynamic theory of superthin disintegration in lepton atoms (muonium and positronium) [ru

  6. Preferential Alignment of Hydroxyapatite Crystallites in Nanocomposites with Chemically Disintegrated Silk Fibroin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Rei; Wang Li; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Senna, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals were prepared at room temperature by a coprecipitation method from Ca(OH) 2 and H 3 PO 4 , in the presence of chemically disintegrated silk fibroin (SF). Adsorbed amounts of cations on SF and crystallinity of HAp in the composite were increased by the chemical disintegration of SF higher order structure. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystallites along the longitudinal direction of ca. 150nm SF fibril was observed. These changes due to disintegration of SF were discussed in terms of the chemical interaction between HAp and SF. The resulted composite with preferential alignment of HAp nanocrystals is a good candidate as a starting material for bone substitutes

  7. Coulomb disintegration as an information source for relevant processes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining the photodisintegration cross section using the equivalent-photon number method first deduced and employed for the Coulomb disintegration processes has been suggested. This is very interesting because there exist radioactive capture processes, related to the photodisintegration through time reversal, that are relevant in astrophysics. In this paper, the recent results of the Karlsruhe and the Texas A and M groups on the Coulomb disintegration of 6 Li and 7 Li and the problems of the method are discussed. The ideas developed in a previous paper (Nucl. Phys. A458 (1986) 188) are confirmed qualitatively. To understand the process quantitatively it is necessary to use a quantum treatment that would imply the introduction of Coulomb excitation effects of higher orders. The Coulomb disintegration of exotic secondary beams is also studied. It is particularly interesting the question about what kind of nuclear structure information, as binding energies of momentum distributions, may be obtained. (Author) [es

  8. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  9. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  10. Research studies on in vitro and ex vivo yield of the miconazole nitrate from oral biomucoadhesive tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsan, Magdalena; Cojocaru, Ileana; Scutariu, Mihaela Monica; Popovici, Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Among the various routes of drug administration, the oral mucosa is perhaps the most often preferred by patients and medical staff. However, oral administration of drugs has disadvantages, which may limit or prevent oral administration of some drugs, especially peptides and proteins, little when they are inserted in special administration systems for the colon. The disaggregation of some oral biomucoadhesive tablets and the in vitro yield of the miconazole nitrate was evaluated and in parallel with this, the evaluation of the in vivo yield of the antifungal from the pharmaceutical form. Thus, for a clear determination of the oral mucobioadhesive tablets' disintegration with miconazole nitrate, it was necessary to implement a method to simulate the conditions of the oral cavity at a flow of solution (artificial saliva) similar to that of the human one. miconazole nitrate. The determination of disintegration time according to method A (FRX); the disaggregation of oral biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate by means of simulation methods of in vitro conditions; the quantitative determination of the miconazole nitrate by means of HPLC method, after the in vitro dissolution test; the study of miconazole nitrate's yield in dynamic condition from biomucoadhesive tablets in the presence of artificial saliva (AFNOR). The yield profile of the miconazole nitrate in the disintegration solutions by means of classical method from FR X, by HPLC dosage was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the oral mucobioadhesive tablets was determined, that varies in time, depending on the type and relation of matrix forming polymers; a low yield speed of the miconazole nitrate from the tablets was determined; the yield profile of miconazole nitrate in disintegration solutions by means of the new suggested method was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the formulated biomucoadhesive tablets is of swelling and erosion.

  11. Process of diffractive scattering and disintegration of complex particles by nonspherical deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The differential and integral cross sections of diffractive elastic and inelastic scattering and of the disintegration of complex particles by axial and nonaxial deformed nuclei are investigated depending on the shape, deformability and diffuseness of nuclear boundary as well as on the structure of the incident particles and of the rescattering processes. It is shown that the complicated coincidence experiments and experimnts on inelastic scattering with excitation of the target nucleus collective states are satisfactorily described taking simultaneously into account all factors mentioned above and the final-state interaction between the disintegration products of the incident particle

  12. Diffraction scattering and disintegration of complex particles by nonspherical deformable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.; Isupov, V.Y.; Tartakovskii, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    We study the dependence of the differential and integrated cross sections for diffraction scattering and disintegration of complex particles by axially symmetric and non-axially-symmetric nuclei on the shape, deformability, and diffuseness of the nuclear surface, and also on the structure of the incident particles and rescattering processes. It is shown that when all of these factors are taken into account, as well as the interaction in the final state between the disintegration products of the incident particle, a satisfactory description of complicated coincidence experiments can be obtained, and also inelastic scattering experiments with excitation of collective states of the target nucleus

  13. The influence of mannitol on morphology and disintegration of spray-dried nano-embedded microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torge, Afra; Grützmacher, Philipp; Mücklich, Frank; Schneider, Marc

    2017-06-15

    Nano-embedded microparticles represent a promising approach to deliver nanoparticles to the lungs. Microparticles with an appropriate aerodynamic diameter enable an application by dry powder inhaler and the transport of nanoparticles into the airways. By disintegration after deposition, nanoparticles can be released to exhibit their advantages such as a sustained drug release and delivery of the drug across the mucus barrier. The use of an appropriate matrix excipient to embed the nanoparticles is essential for the necessary disintegration and release of nanoparticles. In this context we investigated the influence of mannitol on the morphology, aerodynamic properties and disintegration behavior of nano-embedded microparticles. PLGA nanoparticles and mannitol were spray dried each as sole component and in combination in three different ratios. An influence of the mannitol content on the morphology was observed. Pure mannitol microparticles were solid and spherical, while the addition of nanoparticles resulted in raisin-shaped hollow particles. The different morphologies can be explained by diffusion processes of the compounds described by the Péclet-number. All powders showed suitable aerodynamic properties. By dispersion of the powders in simulated lung fluid, initial nanoparticle sizes could be recovered for samples containing mannitol. The fraction of redispersed nanoparticles was increased with increasing mannitol content. To evaluate the disintegration under conditions with higher comparability to the in vivo situation, spray-dried powders were exposed to >90% relative humidity. The disintegration behavior was monitored by analyzing roughness values by white light interferometry and supporting SEM imaging. The exposure to high relative humidity was shown to be sufficient for disintegration of the microparticles containing mannitol, releasing morphologically unchanged nanoparticles. With increasing mannitol content, the disintegration occurred faster and to a

  14. The velocity of missiles generated by the disintegration of gas-pressurized vessels and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to describe the velocity of fragments generated when a gas-pressurized vessel disintegrates. The predictions are compared with new and existing experimental data for spherical and cylindrical vessels and are shown to be an improvement over the widely used empirical correlation developed by Moore. It is also shown that, by an appropriate definition of the energy available for doing work on the fragments, the velocity of the fragments from the disintegration of a section of gas pipeline may be predicted by the same model

  15. Covariance methodology applied to uncertainties in I-126 disintegration rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, K.A.; Koskinas, M.F.; Dias, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The covariance methodology applied to uncertainties in 126 I disintegration rate measurements is described. Two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The parameters involved in the determination of the disintegration rate in each experimental system present correlated components. In this case, the conventional statistical methods to determine the uncertainties (law of propagation) result in wrong values for the final uncertainty. Therefore, use of the methodology of the covariance matrix is necessary. The data from both systems were combined taking into account all possible correlations between the partial uncertainties. (orig.)

  16. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  17. Analysis of Off Gas From Disintegration Process of Graphite Matrix by Electrochemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lifang; Wen Mingfen; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    Using electrochemical method with salt solutions as electrolyte, some gaseous substances (off gas) would be generated during the disintegration of graphite from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements. The off gas is determined to be composed of H 2 , O 2 , N 2 , CO 2 and NO x by gas chromatography. Only about 1.5% graphite matrix is oxidized to CO 2 . Compared to the direct burning-graphite method, less off gas,especially CO 2 , is generated in the disintegration process of graphite by electrochemical method and the treatment of off gas becomes much easier. (authors)

  18. High-Throughput Synthetic Chemistry Enabled by Organic Solvent Disintegrating Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Xing, Yanjun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-17

    Synthetic chemistry remains a time- and labor-intensive process of inherent hazardous nature. Our organic solvent disintegrating tablet (O-Tab) technology has shown potential to make industrial/synthetic chemistry more efficient. As is the case with pharmaceutical tablets, our reagent-containing O-Tabs are mechanically strong, but disintegrate rapidly when in contact with reaction media (organic solvents). For O-Tabs containing sensitive chemicals, they can be further coated to insulate them from air and moisture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The velocity of missiles generated by the disintegration of gas-pressurised vessels and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1983-03-01

    A theoretical model is developed to describe the velocity of fragments generated when a gas-pressurised vessel disintegrates. The predictions are compared with new and existing experimental data for spherical and cylindrical vessels and are shown to be an improvement over the widely used empirical correlation developed by Moore. It is also shown that, by an appropriate definition of the energy available for doing work on the fragments, the velocity of the fragments from the disintegration of a section of gas pipeline may be predicted by the same model. (author)

  20. Results of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge in practice; Ergebnisse des Praxiseinsatzes der Schlammdesintegration mittels Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, E. [IWE-Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wasser und Entsorgung mbH, Radebeul (Germany); Friedrich, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Hielscher, H. [Hielscher GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Using high-performance ultrasonic sludge disintegration in different stages of sewage and sludge treatment is found to be an innovative approach for reducing the accruing amounts of sewage sludge in terms of both mass and volume. By means of practical tests with sludge disintegration at sewage treatment plants, its effects are demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Der Einsatz einer Hochleistungs-Ultraschalltechnik zur Schlammdesintegration in verschiedenen Stufen der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung zeigt sich als innovativer Loesungsweg zur weitestgehenden massenmaessigen sowie volumenmaessigen Minimierung des Klaerschlammanfalles. An Hand von Einsatzerprobungen der Desintegration in der Klaeranlagenpraxis werden die Effekte der Desintegration vorgestellt. (orig.)

  1. Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2011-01-01

    A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not

  2. A new method for assessment of the sludge disintegration degree with the use of differential centrifugal sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Daniele; Wacławek, Stanisław; Gončuková, Zuzanna; Padil, Vinod V T; Grübel, Klaudiusz; Černík, Miroslav

    2018-05-24

    A novel method for assessing the disintegration degree (DD) of waste activated sludge (WAS) with the use of differential centrifugal sedimentation method (DCS) was shown herein. The method was validated for a WAS sample at four levels of disintegration in the range of 14.4-82.6% corresponding to the median particle size range of 8.5-1.6 µm. From the several sludge disintegration methods used (i.e. microwave, alkalization, ultrasounds and peroxydisulfate activated by ultrasounds), the activated peroxydisulfate disintegration resulted in the greatest DD 83% and the smallest median particle size of WAS. Particle size distribution of pretreated sludge, measured by DCS, was in a negative correlation with the DD, determined from soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD; determination coefficient of 0.995). Based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that the DCS analysis can approximate the WAS disintegration degree.

  3. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  4. An in vitro analysis of disintegration times of different formulations of olanzapine orodispersible tablet: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, David; Karagianis, Jamie; Treuer, Tamas; Raskin, Joel

    2013-12-01

    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies. Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab(®) was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator. Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vitro for formulation composition, manufacturing method, disintegration and dissolution characteristics, and formulation differences in comparison with freeze dried Zydis(®) ODT. Automated dissolution test equipment captured ODT dissolution rates by measuring real-time release of active ingredient. A high-speed video camera was used to capture tablet disintegration times in warm simulated saliva. The main outcome measure was the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the ODT formulations. The ODT manufacturing method was associated with time to disintegrate; the fastest were freeze dried tablets, followed by soft compressed tablets and then hard/dense tablets. Olanzapine Zydis(®) was the only ODT that completely disintegrated in less than 4 s for all strengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), followed by 5-mg Prolanz FAST(®) (12 s) and then risperidone ODT 4 mg (40 s). Reasons for slow dissolution of the olanzapine generics may include low product potency, excipient binding, excipient solubility, active ingredient particle size and incomplete disintegration. Differences in the formulation and manufacturing process of olanzapine ODTs appear to have a strong influence on the disintegration time of the active compound; differences that may potentially impact their use in clinical practice.

  5. Intensification of anaerobic digestion efficiency with use of mechanical excess sludge disintegration in the context of increased energy production in wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Żubrowska-Sudoł Monika; Podedworna Jolanta; Bisak Agnieszka; Sytek-Szmeichel Katarzyna; Krawczyk Piotr; Garlicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of mechanical sludge disintegration for enhancing full scale anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge. Batch disintegration tests and lab dewatering tests were also performed aiming at determining the release of organic compounds and assessing the impact of disintegration of excess sludge before the fermentation process of mixed sludge on the dewaterability of post-fermented sludge, respectively. In the study a disc disintegrator driven by...

  6. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  7. The energy overcompensating disintegrations of residual target nuclei damaged in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Massive target nuclei damaged in hadron-nucleus collisions at high energies are used to disintegrate into nuclear fragments. In many cases such breakup is egzoergic - some portion of nuclear energy is released; this portion should be overcompensating the energy used for the nuclear damage, in some cases. 30 refs

  8. Mechanical sludge disintegration for the production of carbon source for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampas, P; Parsons, S A; Pearce, P; Ledoux, S; Vale, P; Churchley, J; Cartmell, E

    2007-04-01

    The primary driver for a successful biological nutrient removal is the availability of suitable carbon source, mainly in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Several methods have been examined to increase the amount of VFAs in wastewater. This study investigates the mechanism of mechanical disintegration of thickened surplus activated sludge by a deflaker technology for the production of organic matter. This equipment was able to increase the soluble carbon in terms of VFA and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) with the maximum concentration to be around 850 and 6530 mgl(-1), for VFA and SCOD, respectively. The particle size was reduced from 65.5 to 9.3 microm after 15 min of disintegration with the simultaneous release of proteins (1550 mgl(-1)) and carbohydrates (307 mgl(-1)) indicating floc disruption and breakage. High performance size exclusion chromatography investigated the disintegrated sludge and confirmed that the deflaker was able to destroy the flocs releasing polymeric substances that are typically found outside of cells. When long disintegration times were applied (>or=10 min or >or=9000 kJkg(-1)TS of specific energy) smaller molecular size materials were released to the liquid phase, which are considered to be found inside the cells indicating cell lysis.

  9. Determination of 129I in large soil samples after alkaline wet disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1992-01-01

    Large soil samples (up to 500 g) can conveniently be disintegrated by hydrogen peroxide in an utility tank under alkaline conditions to determine subsequently 129 I by neutron activation analysis. Interfering elements such as Br are removed already before neutron irradiation to reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel. The precision of the method is 129 I also by the combustion method. (orig.)

  10. International fragmentation af produktionen og vertikal disintegration af styringsformer i produktionskæderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    Stigende international økonomisk integration har betydet en stigende fragmentering af produktionen, hvor store dele udføres i forskellige lande. Dertil kommer en stigende disintegration af vertikale styringsformer i produktions-værdikæder (Global Value Chains). Dette konferencepaper diskutere...

  11. Ozonation of return activated sludge for disintegration and solubilisation with synthesized titanium oxide as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarif, S. F. Z. Mohd; Alias, S. S.; Ridwan, F. Muhammad; Salim, K. S. Ku; Abidin, C. Z. A.; Ali, U. F. Md.

    2018-03-01

    Ozonation of activated sludge in the present of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as catalyst to enhance the production of hydroxyl radical was evaluated in comparison to the sole ozonation process. In this process, the catalytic ozontion showed improvement in increasing ozone consumption and improving activated sludge disintegration and solubilisation. The reduction of total suspended solid (TSS), volatile suspended solid (VSS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) solubilisation was better in the catalytic ozonation system. Initial pH 7 of activated sludge was found best to disintegrate and solubilise the sludge flocs. However upon additional of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in pH adjustment enhanced the solubilisation of organic matter from the flocs and cells, making the initial pH 9 is the best condition for activated sludge solubilisation. Yet the initial pH 7 of activated sludge supernatant was the best condition to achieve SCOD solubilisation due to sludge floc disintegration, when it had stronger correlation between TSS reduction and SCOD solubilisation (R2=0.961). Lower amount of catalyst of 100 mgTiO2/gTSS was found to disintegrate and solubilise the activated sludge better with 30.4% TSS reduction and 25.2% SCOD solubilisation efficiency, compared to 200 mgTiO2/gTSS with 21.9% and 17.1% TSS reduction and SCOD solubilisation, respectively.

  12. Fenton mediated ultrasonic disintegration of sludge biomass: Biodegradability studies, energetic assessment, and its economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; IvinShaju, C D; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical disintegration of sludge through ultrasonication demands high energy and cost. Therefore, in the present study, a comprehensive investigation was performed to analyze the potential of a novel method, fenton mediated sonic disintegration (FSD). In FSD process, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of sludge was first removed via fenton treatment. It was subsequently disintegrated via ultrasonication. Energetic assessment and economic analysis were then performed using net energy and cost gain (spent) as key factor to evaluate the practical viability of the FSD process. FSD was found to be superior over sonic disintegration based on its higher sludge solubilization (34.4% vs. 23.2%) and methane production potential (0.3gCOD/gCOD vs. 0.2gCOD/gCOD). Both energy analysis and cost assessment of the present study revealed that FSD could reduce the energy demand of ultrasonication considerably with a positive net profit of about 44.93USD/Ton of sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete disintegration of heavy nuclei induced by 340 GeV negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Tariq, M.; Irfan, M.; Zafar, M.; Ahsan, M.Z.; Shafi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The total disintegration of AgBr nuclei caused by 340 GeV negative pions is investigated. The probability of this phenomena depends on the energy of the pion projectile. The angular distributions of grey and black tracks are investigated. Results for the rapidity gap correlation in these catastrophic destructions are also presented. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Multivariate analysis of sludge disintegration by microwave-hydrogen peroxide pretreatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Wei, Wang; Cheng-Min, Gui; Xiao-Tang, Ni; Mei-Xue, Chen; Yuan-Song, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microwave irradiation (with H2O2) has been shown to offer considerable advantages owing to its flexible control, low overall cost, and resulting higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD); accordingly, the method has been proposed recently as a means of improving sludge disintegration. However, the key factor controlling this sludge pretreatment process, pH, has received insufficient attention to date. To address this, the response surface approach (central composite design) was applied to evaluate the effects of total suspended solids (TSS, 2-20 g/L), pH (4-10), and H2O2 dosage (0-2 w/w) and their interactions on 16 response variables (e.g., SCODreleased, pH, H2O2remaining). The results demonstrated that all three factors affect sludge disintegration significantly, and no pronounced interactions between response variables were observed during disintegration, except for three variables (TCOD, TSSremaining, and H2O2 remaining). Quadratic predictive models were constructed for all 16 response variables (R(2): 0.871-0.991). Taking soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as an example, the model and coefficients derived above were able to predict the performance of microwave pretreatment (enhanced by H2O2 and pH adjustment) from previously published studies. The predictive models developed were able to optimize the treatment process for multiple disintegration objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dabrowski without the Theory of Positive Disintegration Just Isn't Dabrowski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillier, William

    2009-01-01

    Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (K. Dabrowski, 1964, 1967, 1970, 1972, 1973) has been the subject of a number of research projects in the gifted field over the past 20 or so years. Most of this research has focused on Dabrowski's idea of overexcitability and has not discussed the broader context or implications of his theory or…

  16. Psychiatrist Availability, Social Disintegration, and Suicide Deaths in U.S. Counties, 1990-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have found that primary care resources are associated with various health outcomes. The primary purpose of the study was to test for associations between psychiatrist availability, social disintegration and suicide rates. Data utilized were from the 2002 Area Resource File on U.S. counties (N=3080). Suicide rates were averaged…

  17. The Essential Elements of Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and How They Are Connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Cheryl M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD; Dabrowski, 1964) in a thorough and accessible manner so that those in the gifted community can better understand it and its usefulness to the field of gifted studies. The article goes beyond what has typically been presented in recent research literature…

  18. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradability potential of municipal waste activated sludge by ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Jessin Brindha, G M; Sally Gloriana, A; Rajashankar, K; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2016-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the influence of ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration on the aerobic degradability of sludge. In first phase of the study, effective floc disruption was achieved at an ultrasonic specific energy input of 2.45kJ/kg TS with 44.5mg/L of Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) release including 0.035U/mL and 0.025U/mL protease and amylase activity respectively. In second phase, experimental outcomes revealed bacterial disintegration of floc disrupted-sludge showing a maximum solubilization of about 23% and was observed to be superior to bacterially disintegrated (11%) and control (6%), respectively. The result of aerobic biodegradability of ultrasonic aided bacterially pretreated sludge showed volatile solids (VS) degradation of about 40.2%. The kinetic study of aerobic biodegradability through non linear regression modelling reveals that floc disrupted sludge showed better biodegradability with decay constant of about 0.19d(-1) relatively higher than the control (0.14d(-1)) and bacterially disintegrated (0.17d(-1)) sludges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DISINTEGRATION EFFICIENCY OF SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATES, PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE STARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ARENDSCHOLTE, AW; STUUT, GJ; DEVRIES, JA

    1994-01-01

    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  20. Numerical simulation of phenomenon on zonal disintegration in deep underground mining in case of unsupported roadway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengshan; Wu, Xinli; Li, Xia; Zhu, Dekang

    2018-02-01

    Zonal disintegration phenomenon was found in deep mining roadway surrounding rock. It seriously affects the safety of mining and underground engineering and it may lead to the occurrence of natural disasters. in deep mining roadway surrounding rock, tectonic stress in deep mining roadway rock mass, horizontal stress is much greater than the vertical stress, When the direction of maximum principal stress is parallel to the axis of the roadway in deep mining, this is the main reasons for Zonal disintegration phenomenon. Using ABAQUS software to numerical simulation of the three-dimensional model of roadway rupture formation process systematically, and the study shows that when The Direction of maximum main stress in deep underground mining is along the roadway axial direction, Zonal disintegration phenomenon in deep underground mining is successfully reproduced by our numerical simulation..numerical simulation shows that using ABAQUA simulation can reproduce Zonal disintegration phenomenon and the formation process of damage of surrounding rock can be reproduced. which have important engineering practical significance.

  1. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  2. Through the Dabrowski Lens: A Fresh Examination of the Theory of Positive Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Amanda; Cornish, Linley; Smith, Susen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration is an emotion-centered, nonontogenetic, five-level theory of personality development where the experience of all emotions is essential for the process of growth. In this article, we examine the complexities of the three factors of development, which are essential to the notion of development within the…

  3. Influence of processing parameters on disintegration of Chlorella cells in various types of homogenizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Jiří; Lívanský, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2008), s. 431-440 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV104/97/S055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : processing parameters * disintegration efficiency * chlorella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.569, year: 2008

  4. Sewage sludge disintegration by combined treatment of alkaline+high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Weifang; Wu, Hao; Ma, Boqiang

    2012-11-01

    Alkaline pretreatment combined with high pressure homogenization (HPH) was applied to promote sewage sludge disintegration. For sewage sludge with a total solid content of 1.82%, sludge disintegration degree (DD(COD)) with combined treatment was higher than the sum of DD(COD) with single alkaline and single HPH treatment. NaOH dosage ⩽0.04mol/L, homogenization pressure ⩽60MPa and a single homogenization cycle were the suitable conditions for combined sludge treatment. The combined sludge treatment showed a maximum DD(COD) of 59.26%. By regression analysis, the combined sludge disintegration model was established as 11-DD(COD)=0.713C(0.334)P(0.234)N(0.119), showing that the effect of operating parameters on sludge disintegration followed the order: NaOH dosage>homogenization pressure>number of homogenization cycle. The energy efficiency with combined sludge treatment significantly increased compared with that with single HPH treatment, and the high energy efficiency was achieved at low homogenization pressure with a single homogenization cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A model stomach system to investigate disintegration kinetics of solid foods during gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, F; Singh, R P

    2008-06-01

    Knowledge of the disintegration kinetics of food particulates in the human stomach is essential for assessing the bioaccessibility of nutrients in solid foods and understanding stomach emptying. The objective of this study was to develop a model stomach system and to investigate the kinetics of food disintegration. Our system consisted mainly of a turntable and a jacketed glass chamber containing simulated gastric juice in which plastic beads were added to simulate food particulates as well as provide a suitable mechanical destructive force on food samples. The mechanical force on the samples was simultaneously measured using the load cell of a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Cylindrical carrots and ham samples were used as representative foods. The system is capable of simulating the in vivo stomach in terms of providing a wide range of continuous and periodic forces comparable to those measured in vivo. The modified power exponential function of the form y(t)= 1 - (1 -e(-kt))(beta), where y(t) is the mass retention ratio at time t, provided a reasonable description for the disintegration performance of tested foods. The mass retention curve can be either a sigmoidal decay with an initial delay or an exponential decay, which are decided largely by the hardness of the foods during digestion and the extent of physical force acting on the foods. A good match was observed between the kinetics of food disintegration and in vivo stomach emptying.

  6. Contributions to the theory of alpha disintegration of heavy and superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnoveanu, G.I.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha disintegration of heavy and super-heavy spherical nuclei is studied. When the new calculation technique for alpha intensities dependent on the shell-model has been applied, a technique which allows the use of a more complex structure of the alpha particle, the detailed calculation of the alpha half-times is performed for both radioactive alpha nuclei in the lead area and for the super-heavy nuclei, by using the R matrix theory of alpha disintegration independent of the channel radius. The relative values of overlap integrals calculated by means of the intrinsic function for the Gauss and Moshinsky type alpha particle are presented, as well as a comparison between them and the experiment values for 8.6, 9.00 and 9.6 fm channel radii in the case of Po, Ra, Rn and Th isotopes. Original contributions to the alpha disintegration theory are represented by the generalization of the Taylor series method expressing the transformations to the centre of mass, and the relative distance from two particles to four particles in the same harmonic oscillator potential, and by the development of the R matrix theory for alpha disintegration independent of the channel radius in the case of complex structured alpha particles. (author)

  7. Differing disintegration and dissolution rates, pharmacokinetic profiles and gastrointestinal tolerability of over the counter ibuprofen formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Ingvar; Sancak, Ozgur; Crossley, Anne; Penrose, Andrew; Lanas, Angel

    2018-02-01

    Formulations of over the counter (OTC) NSAIDs differ substantially, but information is lacking on whether this alters their gastrointestinal profiles. To assess disintegration and dissolution rates and pharmacokinetics of four preparations of OTC ibuprofen and relate these with spontaneously reported gastrointestinal adverse events. Disintegration and dissolution rates of ibuprofen tablets as (a) acid, (b) sodium salt, (c) lysine salt, and (d) as a liquid gelatine capsule were assessed. Pharmacokinetic data gastrointestinal and spontaneously reported adverse events arising from global sales were obtained from files from Reckitt Benckiser. Disintegration at low pH was progressively shorter for the preparations from a-to-d with formation of correspondingly smaller ibuprofen crystals, while dissolution was consistently poor. Dissolution at a neutral pH was least rapid for the liquid gelatine capsule. Pharmacokinetic data showed a shorter t max and a higher C max for preparations b-d as compared with ibuprofen acid. Spontaneously reported abdominal symptoms were rare with the liquid gelatine preparation. The formulations of OTC ibuprofen differ in their disintegration and dissolution properties, pharmacokinetic profiles and apparent gastrointestinal tolerability. Spontaneously reported abdominal symptoms were five times lower with the liquid gelatine capsule as compared with ibuprofen acid despite a 30% increase in C max . © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Box Behnken design in the optimization of two disintegrants and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using these combinations, 17 batches of diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared by direct compression and subjected to disintegration and crushing strength tests in order to select optimal batches. Bulk formulation of granules and tablets of the optimal batches was carried out and evaluated for granule flow properties ...

  9. [Effect of food thickener on disintegration and dissolution of magnesium oxide tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Tsubouchi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that magnesium oxide tablets are excreted in a non-disintegrated state in the stool of patients when the tablets are administered after being immersed in a food thickener. Therefore we examined whether immersion in a food thickener affects the pharmacological effect in patients taking magnesium oxide tablets, and whether immersion affects its disintegration and solubility. The mean dosage (1705 mg/d) was higher for patients who took tablets after immersion in a food thickener than for those who took non-immersed tablets (1380 mg/d). The disintegration time and dissolution rate of the immersed tablets were lower than those of non-immersed tablets in vitro. Furthermore, components that constitute the food thickener and differences in composition concentrations differentially affect the disintegration and solubility of magnesium oxide tablets. This suggests that commercially available food thickeners are likely to be associated with changes in the degradation of magnesium oxide tablets, and they therefore should be carefully used in certain clinical situations.

  10. Polyols as filler-binders for disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Rexwinkel, Erik G.; Zuurman, Klaas

    Background: Although polyols are frequently used as tablet excipients in lozenges, chewing tablets, and orodisperse tablets, special directly compressible (DC) forms are recommended as filler-binder in common disintegrating tablets. Aim: In this article, DC types of isomalt, lactitol, mannitol,

  11. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  12. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  13. Multivariate analysis of sludge disintegration by microwave–hydrogen peroxide pretreatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-wei, Wang; Cheng-min, Gui; Xiao-tang, Ni; Mei-xue, Chen; Yuan-song, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of TSS, H 2 O 2 dosage, pH and interactions on MW sludge pretreatment. • Quadratic models were drawn for 16 response variables with good predictive ability. • Models could optimize the treatment process for multiple disintegration objectives. - Abstract: Microwave irradiation (with H 2 O 2 ) has been shown to offer considerable advantages owing to its flexible control, low overall cost, and resulting higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD); accordingly, the method has been proposed recently as a means of improving sludge disintegration. However, the key factor controlling this sludge pretreatment process, pH, has received insufficient attention to date. To address this, the response surface approach (central composite design) was applied to evaluate the effects of total suspended solids (TSS, 2–20 g/L), pH (4–10), and H 2 O 2 dosage (0–2 w/w) and their interactions on 16 response variables (e.g., SCOD released , pH, H 2 O 2remaining ). The results demonstrated that all three factors affect sludge disintegration significantly, and no pronounced interactions between response variables were observed during disintegration, except for three variables (TCOD, TSS remaining , and H 2 O 2 remaining ). Quadratic predictive models were constructed for all 16 response variables (R 2 : 0.871–0.991). Taking soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as an example, the model and coefficients derived above were able to predict the performance of microwave pretreatment (enhanced by H 2 O 2 and pH adjustment) from previously published studies. The predictive models developed were able to optimize the treatment process for multiple disintegration objectives

  14. Multivariate analysis of sludge disintegration by microwave–hydrogen peroxide pretreatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya-wei, Wang; Cheng-min, Gui; Xiao-tang, Ni; Mei-xue, Chen; Yuan-song, Wei, E-mail: Yswei@rcees.ac.cn

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Investigation of TSS, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, pH and interactions on MW sludge pretreatment. • Quadratic models were drawn for 16 response variables with good predictive ability. • Models could optimize the treatment process for multiple disintegration objectives. - Abstract: Microwave irradiation (with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been shown to offer considerable advantages owing to its flexible control, low overall cost, and resulting higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD); accordingly, the method has been proposed recently as a means of improving sludge disintegration. However, the key factor controlling this sludge pretreatment process, pH, has received insufficient attention to date. To address this, the response surface approach (central composite design) was applied to evaluate the effects of total suspended solids (TSS, 2–20 g/L), pH (4–10), and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage (0–2 w/w) and their interactions on 16 response variables (e.g., SCOD{sub released}, pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2remaining}). The results demonstrated that all three factors affect sludge disintegration significantly, and no pronounced interactions between response variables were observed during disintegration, except for three variables (TCOD, TSS{sub remaining}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} {sub remaining}). Quadratic predictive models were constructed for all 16 response variables (R{sup 2}: 0.871–0.991). Taking soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as an example, the model and coefficients derived above were able to predict the performance of microwave pretreatment (enhanced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and pH adjustment) from previously published studies. The predictive models developed were able to optimize the treatment process for multiple disintegration objectives.

  15. Anomalous deuteron to hydrogen ratio in naturally occuring fission reactions and the possibility of deuteron disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, M.; Ragheb, M.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented for explaining the experimentally determined anomalous D/H ratio observed in the samples from the naturally occuring fission reaction in the Oklo phenomenon. No other explanation has been given, to the best knowledge, for the large difference between the measured D/H ratio in the Oklo samples and the expected values in a fission neutron spectrum. A multicomponent system consisting of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium and helium nuclei is considered. An analytical solution is derived and solved using as boundary conditions the experimentally determined value of the D/H ratio. The solution of the rate equations for hydrogen and deuteron concentrations, assuming a pure fission process without a deuteron sink term, yields a D/H ratio of 445 ppm for a reaction in which the fluence of neutrons is 10 21 n/cm 2 . This exceeds the experimentally observed value of 127 ppm, and the naturally occuring value of 150 ppm. Solving the same rate equations accounting for a deuterium sink term using a hypothesis of deuteron disintegration, and the experimentally observed value of 127 ppm yields a deuteron disintegration constant of 7.47*10 -14 s -1 . Deuteron disintegration would provide a neutron source, in addition to the fission neutrons, driving a subcritical chain reaction over an extended period of time. Relationship of the presented hypothesis to the Vlasov theory of an annihilation meteorite impact explosion explaining the experimentally observed anomalous 235 U/ 238 U ratio, and to the suggestion of deuteron disintegration as a possible explanation of some observations of deuterium dissociation in palladium and titanium electrodes is discussed. The tritium andhelium-3 rate equations are further solved under the deuteron disintegration hypothesis and the relationship of the present work to the work by JONES et al. is discussed. (author) 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-10-22

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P < .001) higher than those between N and RD and between C and RD. There is therefore the need to carefully choose the nature (N) and concentration (C) of starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern.

  17. The impact of temporal variability of excess sludge characteristics on the effects obtained in the process of its ultrasonic disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytła, Malwina; Zielewicz, Ewa

    2017-09-13

    This paper aimed to indicate the characteristics of excess sludge, which have the greatest impact on the effects obtained during its ultrasonic disintegration (UD). The direct and technological effects observed after sludge disintegration and anaerobic digestion (AD) depend on the factors affecting the quality of its matrix and simply on the parameters of a disintegrator. Sludge samples originate from a Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Gliwice, and were collected after mechanical thickening by a monthly period. This approach allowed to observe the temporal changes of sludge characteristics, in a continuous manner. To evaluate the achieved disintegration effects, the following indicators were used: degree of disintegration (DD COD ) and the author's indicators describing the direct and technological effects of UD (ID i , IT i , IT d ), based on the changes in the sludge characteristics. Disintegration was carried out by means of an ultrasonic device equipped with a thin sonotrode. AD was conducted under mesophilic conditions for 20 days. Statistical analysis confirmed that the most important parameters of sludge, which determine obtained effects, were total and volatile solids, capillary suction time, concentration of chemical oxygen demand and pH value. The investigations have also showed that the increase in sludge temperature during its disintegration has a significant impact on the magnitude of other effects obtained in the process.

  18. Disintegration kinetics of food gels during gastric digestion and its role on gastric emptying: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Ferrua, Maria; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the disintegration and gastric emptying of foods in the stomach is important for designing functional foods. In this study, a dynamic stomach model (human gastric simulator, HGS) was employed to investigate the disintegration and subsequent emptying of two differently structured whey protein emulsion gels (soft and hard gels).The gels were mechanically ground into fragments to reproduce the particle size distribution of an in vivo gel bolus. The simulated gel bolus was prepared by mixing gel fragments and artificial saliva, and exposed to 5 hours of simulated gastric digestion in the presence and absence of pepsin. Results showed that regardless of pepsin, the soft gel always disintegrated faster than the hard gel. The presence of pepsin significantly accelerated the disintegration of both gels. In particular, it enhanced abrasion of the soft gel into fine particles (disintegration kinetics in the HGS. In the presence or absence of pepsin, the larger particles of the soft gel emptied slower than the hard one during the first 120 min of process. However, in the presence of pepsin, the soft gel emptied faster than the hard one after 120 min because of a higher level of disintegration. These findings highlight the role of food structure, bolus properties and biochemical effects on the disintegration and gastric emptying patterns of gels during gastric digestion.

  19. Correlation of Phosphorus Cross-Linking to Hydration Rates in Sodium Starch Glycolate Tablet Disintegrants Using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anuji; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Ilott, Andrew J; Good, David; Murphy, Denette; Mcnamara, Daniel; Jerschow, Alexej; Mantri, Rao V

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of tablet disintegrants is valuable in the development of pharmaceutical solid dosage formulations. In this study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to understand the hydration behavior of a series of commercial sodium starch glycolate (SSG) samples, providing robust estimates of tablet disintegration rate that could be correlated with physicochemical properties of the SSGs, such as the extent of phosphorus (P) cross-linking as obtained from infra-red spectroscopy. Furthermore, elemental analysis together with powder X-ray diffraction has been used to quantify the presence of carboxymethyl groups and salt impurities, which also contribute to the disintegration behavior. The utility of Fast Low Angle SHot magnetic resonance imaging has been demonstrated as an approach to rapidly acquire approximations of the volume of a disintegrating tablet and, together with a robust voxel analysis routine, extract tablet disintegration rates. In this manner, a complete characterization of a series of SSG grades from different sources has been performed, showing the variability in their physicochemical properties and demonstrating a correlation between their disintegration rates and intrinsic characteristics. The insights obtained will be a valuable aid in the choice of disintegrant source as well as in managing SSG variability to ensure robustness of drug products containing SSG. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Disintegrant Properties of Native Starches of Five New Cassava Varieties in Paracetamol Tablet Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kumah Adjei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The disintegrant potential of native starches of five new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. varieties developed by the Crops Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG was studied in paracetamol tablet formulations. The yield of the starches ranged from 8.0 to 26.7%. The starches were basic (pH: 8.1–9.9, with satisfactory moisture content (≤15%, swelling capacity (≥20%, ash values (0.05 to those containing maize starch BP. The disintegration times of the tablets decreased with increase in concentration of the cassava starches. The tablets passed the disintegration test (DT ≤ 15 min and exhibited faster disintegration times (p>0.05 than those containing maize starch BP. The disintegration efficiency ratio (DER and the disintegration parameter DERc of the tablets showed that cassava starches V20, V40, and V50 had better disintegrant activity than maize starch BP. The tablets passed the dissolution test for immediate release tablets (≥70% release in 45 min with dissolution rates similar to those containing maize starch BP.

  1. Determination of disintegration rates of a 60Co point source and volume sources by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    The disintegration rates of 60 Co as a point source (<2 mm in diameter on a thin plastic disc) and volume sources (10-100 mL solutions in a polyethylene bottle) are determined by the sum-peak method. The sum-peak formula gives the exact disintegration rate for the point source at different positions from the detector. However, increasing the volume of the solution results in enlarged deviations from the true disintegration rate. Extended sources must be treated as an amalgam of many point sources. (author)

  2. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  4. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  5. Direct and resonance processes of nucleus disintegration by hadrons at intermediate energies (Doppler effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, V.V.; Dolinov, V.K.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Lanskoj, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The possibilities to use coincidence method of scattered particle and daughter nucleus γ-quantum in A+a → a'+b+B[Jπ) B[Jπ) → B(J'π')+γ reaction with doppler line shape measurement to study nucleus disintegration mechanism are investigated. The main idea of the method resides in the fact that if B* state lifetime is small as compared to nucleus slowing-down time in target substance, all changes in emitted particle distributions are directly manifested in respective changes of Doppler line shape corresponding to γ-transition B[Jπ) → γ+B(J'π') in a daughter nucleus. It is concluded that investigation into Doppler line shape may become sensitive method of studying angular distribution of nucleus disintegration products and in solving problem on correlation between direct and resonance processes of nuclei disinegration

  6. Use of pressure manifestations following the water plasma expansion for phytomass disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroušek, Josef; Kwan, Jason Tai Hong

    2013-01-01

    A prototype capable of generating underwater high-voltage discharges (3.5 kV) coupled with water plasma expansion was constructed. The level of phytomass disintegration caused by transmission of the pressure shockwaves (50-60 MPa) followed by this expansion was analyzed using gas adsorption techniques. The dynamics of the external surface area and the micropore volume on multiple pretreatment stages of maize silage and sunflower seeds was approximated with robust analytical techniques. The multiple increases on the reaction surface were manifest in up to a 15% increase in cumulative methane production, which was itself manifest in the overall acceleration of the anaerobic fermentation process. Disintegration of the sunflower seeds allowed up to 45% higher oil yields using the same operating pressure.

  7. On the possibility of deuteron disintegration in electrochemically compressed D+ in a palladium cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of deuteron disintegration due to polarization in the coulomb field of a target nucleus according to an Oppenheimer-Phillips process is discussed within the context of electrochemically compressed D + in a palladium cathode. This reaction is possible between deuterons and palladium isotopes, as well as between the deuterons themselves. In the last case, the equivalent of the proton branch of the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction occurs in preference to the neutron branch. The process provides a possible explanation for the observed energy release, tritium production, and neutron suppression in the Fleischmann and Pons experiment. If such a process can be experimentally verified, analogous processes leading to the disintegration of the 9 Be nucleus may be achievable

  8. Disintegration of {sup 12}C nuclei by 700–1500 MeV photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedorezov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Angelo, A.; Bartalini, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bellini, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capogni, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Casano, L.E. [INFN – Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Castoldi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica – Università degli Studi di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Curciarello, F.; De Leo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, salita Sperone 31, I-98166 Messina (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Didelez, J.-P. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Disintegration of {sup 12}C nuclei by tagged photons of 700–1500 MeV energy at the GRAAL facility has been studied by means of the LAGRANγE detector with a wide angular acceptance. The energy and momentum distributions of produced neutrons and protons as well as their multiplicity distributions were measured and compared with corresponding distributions calculated with the RELDIS model based on the intranuclear cascade and Fermi break-up models. It was found that eight fragments are created on average once per about 100 disintegration events, while a complete fragmentation of {sup 12}C into 12 nucleons is observed typically only once per 2000 events. Measured multiplicity distributions of produced fragments are well described by the model. The measured total photoabsorption cross section on {sup 12}C in the same energy range is also reported.

  9. Disintegration of Ar2+ molecular ions under collisions with electrons in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A spectroscopic experiment is carried out for investigation of disintegration of Ar 2 + ions by plasma electrons. For the first time in the wide electron temperature range from the room one up to T e ∼ 2 eV is measured the process rate constant. At temperatures lower 0.4 eV the obtained values agree well with published data on the value and temperature dependence of the coefficient of dissociative recombination of Ar 2 + with electrons. When temperature increasing in the range of T e =0.5-2 eV is found substantial rise of the rate of molecular ions disintegration, conditioned by starting dissociation mechanism under collicions with plasma electrons

  10. Disintegration of an eruptive filament via interactions with quasi-separatrix layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Jun; Wang, YuMing

    2018-06-01

    The disintegration of solar filaments via mass drainage is a frequently observed phenomenon during a variety of filament activities. It is generally considered that the draining of dense filament material is directed by both gravity and magnetic field, yet the detailed process remains elusive. Here we report on a partial filament eruption during which filament material drains downward to the surface not only along the filament's legs, but to a remote flare ribbon through a fan-out curtain-like structure. It is found that the magnetic configuration is characterized by two conjoining dome-like quasi-sepratrix layers (QSLs). The filament is located underneath one QSL dome, whose footprint apparently bounds the major flare ribbons resulting from the filament eruption, whereas the remote flare ribbon matches well with the other QSL dome's far-side footprint. We suggest that the interaction of the filament with the overlying QSLs results in the splitting and disintegration of the filament.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of laser disintegration of amorphous aerosol particles with spatially nonuniform absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoolcraft, Tracy A.; Constable, Gregory S.; Jackson, Bryan; Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in order to provide qualitative information on the mechanisms of disintegration of aerosol particles as used in aerosol mass spectrometry. Three generic types of aerosol particles are considered: strongly absorbing particles with homogeneous composition, transparent particles with absorbing inclusion, and absorbing particles with transparent inclusion. To study the effect of the mechanical properties of the aerosol material on the disintegration process, the results for crystalline (brittle) and amorphous (ductile) particles are compared. For large laser fluences, nearly complete dissociation of the absorbing material is observed, whereas the nonabsorbing portions remain fairly intact. Because large fluences can cause photofragmentation of constituent molecules, multiple pulses at low laser fluence and/or lasers with different wavelengths are recommended for the best representative sampling of multicomponent aerosol particles in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry

  12. Drop impacts onto cold and heated rigid surfaces: Morphological comparisons, disintegration limits and secondary atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moita, A.S.; Moreira, A.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses an experimental study aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of disintegration which occur when individual water and fuel droplets impact onto heated surfaces. The experiments consider the use of a simplified flow configuration and make use of high-speed visualization together with image processing techniques to characterize the morphology of the impact and to quantify the outcome of secondary atomization in terms of droplet size and number. The results evidence that surface topography, wettability and liquid properties combine in a complex way to alter the wetting behaviour of droplets at impact at different surface temperatures. The relative importance of the dynamic vapor pressure associated with the rate of vaporization and surface roughness increases with surface temperature and becomes dominant at the film boiling regime. The analysis is aimed at giving a phenomenological description of droplet disintegration within the various heat transfer regimes

  13. Novel coherent receivers for AF distributed STBC using disintegrated channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    For a single relay network, disintegrated channel estimation (DCE), where the source-relay channel is estimated at the relay and the relay-destination channel is estimated at the destination, gives better performance than the cascaded channel estimation. We derive novel receivers for the relay network with disintegrated channel estimation. The derived receivers do not require channel estimation at the destination, as they use the received pilot signals and the source-relay channel estimate for decoding directly. We also consider the effect of quantized source-relay channel estimate on the performance of the designed receivers. Simulation results show that a performance gain of up to 2.2 dB can be achieved by the new receivers, compared with the conventional mismatched coherent receiver with DCE. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Production of Indigenous and Enriched Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Coal Briquettes: Combustion and Disintegration Strength Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M.; Khan, A.U.; Habib, U.; Memon, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan has considerable amounts of low ranked coal. However, due to the absence of any centrally administered power generation system there is a need to explore indigenous methods for effectively using this valuable energy resource. In the present study an indigenous coal briquetting technology has been developed and evaluated in terms of combustion characteristics such as moisture content, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and calorific value of the resulting coal briquette and disintegration strength using polyvinyl acetate (PVA) in combination with calcium carbonate (sample no 3 with highest disintegration strength value of 2059N). Comparison of test samples with the commercially available coal briquettes revealed improved combustion characteristics for the PVA bonded (sample no 1 and 5) coal briquettes having higher fixed carbon content and calorific value, lower ash contents as well as lower initial ignition time. (author)

  15. Diagnostic of cognitive epileptiform disintegration with autism spectrum disorders in children of early ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilova L.G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the analysis of contemporary scientific literature, presented data on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features of cognitive epileptiform disintegration — a special version of autism spectrum disorders. The authors proposed a diagnostic algorithm of this condition in children on the basis of comprehensive clinical examination using brain MRI, EEG monitoring during activity and sleep. MRI identified specific changes in brain structure (macrocephaly, cerebellar hyperplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the thalamus, and others. and specific epileptiform activity on EEG during activity and sleep (changes the focal character in the fronto-central and left temporal areas in the absence or infrequent epileptic seizures, reduction of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the blood 2–3 times. The developed methods enable timely diagnosis to diagnose cognitive epileptiform disintegration with autistic spectrum disorders and appoint pathogenetic treatment with drugs neurometabolic and neuroprotective action, and anticonvulsants.

  16. Novel coherent receivers for AF distributed STBC using disintegrated channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    For a single relay network, disintegrated channel estimation (DCE), where the source-relay channel is estimated at the relay and the relay-destination channel is estimated at the destination, gives better performance than the cascaded channel estimation. We derive novel receivers for the relay network with disintegrated channel estimation. The derived receivers do not require channel estimation at the destination, as they use the received pilot signals and the source-relay channel estimate for decoding directly. We also consider the effect of quantized source-relay channel estimate on the performance of the designed receivers. Simulation results show that a performance gain of up to 2.2 dB can be achieved by the new receivers, compared with the conventional mismatched coherent receiver with DCE. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Production of Indigenous and Enriched Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Coal Briquettes: Combustion and Disintegration Strength Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia Habib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan has considerable amounts of low ranked coal. However, due to the absence of any centrally administered power generation system there is a need to explore indigenous methods for effectively using this valuable energy resource. In the present study an indigenous coal briquetting technology has been developed and evaluated in terms of combustion characteristics such as moisture content, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and calorific value of the resulting coal briquette and disintegration strength using polyvinyl acetate (PVA in combination with calcium carbonate (sample no 3 with highest disintegration strength value of 2059N. Comparison of test samples with the commercially available coal briquettes revealed improved combustion characteristics for the PVA bonded (sample no 1 and 5 coal briquettes having higher fixed carbon content and calorific value, lower ash contents as well as lower initial ignition time.

  18. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Disintegration Test of Health Food Products Containing Ginkgo Biloba L. or Vitex Agnus-Castus L. in the Japanese Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Satoshi; Terasaki, Sachiko; Yokota, Yoichi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    For many years now, a number of Western herbs have been widely used in health food products in Japan and as pharmaceuticals in Europe. There are few or no mandated criteria concerning the quality of these herbal health food products, thus clarification is warranted. Here, we performed disintegration tests of 26 pharmaceutical and health food products containing the Western herbs ginkgo leaf and chaste tree fruit, in accord with the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All eight pharmaceutical herbal products found in the European market completely disintegrated within the defined test time, and 11 of the 18 tested herbal products distributed as health foods in Japan disintegrated. Among the incompatible products identified in the Pharmacopoeia test, some products remained intact after incubation in water for 60 min. To ensure the efficacy of Western herbal products sold as health food in Japan, quality control, including disintegration, is therefore recommended, even though these products are not regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. PMID:28930200

  20. Investigating the effect of processing parameters on pharmaceutical tablet disintegration using a real-time particle imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Arthi D; Reynolds, Gavin K; Wilson, David; Wren, Stephen; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is a fundamental parameter that is tested in vitro before a product is released to the market, to give confidence that the tablet will break up in vivo and that active drug will be available for absorption. Variations in tablet properties cause variation in disintegration behaviour. While the standardised pharmacopeial disintegration test can show differences in the speed of disintegration of different tablets, it does not give any mechanistic information about the underlying cause of the difference. With quantifiable disintegration data, and consequently an improved understanding into tablet disintegration, a more knowledge-based approach could be applied to the research and development of future tablet formulations. The aim of the present research was to introduce an alternative method which will enable a better understanding of tablet disintegration using a particle imaging approach. A purpose-built flow cell was employed capable of online observation of tablet disintegration, which can provide information about the changing tablet dimensions and the particles released with time. This additional information can improve the understanding of how different materials and process parameters affect tablet disintegration. Standard USP analysis was also carried out to evaluate and determine whether the flow cell method can suitably differentiate the disintegration behaviour of tablets produced using different processing parameters. Placebo tablets were produced with varying ratios of insoluble and soluble filler (mannitol and MCC, respectively) so that the effect of variation in the formulation can be investigated. To determine the effect of the stress applied during granulation and tableting on tablet disintegration behaviour, analysis was carried out on tablets produced using granular material compressed at 20 or 50bar, where a tableting load of either 15 or 25kN was used. By doing this the tablet disintegration was examined in terms of the

  1. Disintegration of graphite matrix from the simulative high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel element by electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lifang; Wen Mingfen; Li Linyan; Chen Jing

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical method with salt as electrolyte has been studied to disintegrate the graphite matrix from the simulative high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements. Ammonium nitrate was experimentally chosen as the appropriate electrolyte. The volume average diameter of disintegrated graphite fragments is about 100 μm and the maximal value is less than 900 μm. After disintegration, the weight of graphite is found to increase by about 20% without the release of a large amount of CO 2 probably owing to the partial oxidation to graphite in electrochemical process. The present work indicates that the improved electrochemical method has the potential to reduce the secondary nuclear waste and is a promising option to disintegrate graphite matrix from high temperature gas-cooled reactor spent fuel elements in the head-end of reprocessing.

  2. Criteria for personal dosimetry in mixed radiation fields in space. [analyzing trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The complexity of direct reading and passive dosimeters for monitoring radiation is studied to strike the right balance of compromise to simplify the monitoring procedure. Trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons are analyzed.

  3. Disintegration Test of Health Food Products Containing Ginkgo Biloba L. or Vitex Agnus-Castus L. in the Japanese Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Satoshi; Terasaki, Sachiko; Yokota, Yoichi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-04-23

    For many years now, a number of Western herbs have been widely used in health food products in Japan and as pharmaceuticals in Europe. There are few or no mandated criteria concerning the quality of these herbal health food products, thus clarification is warranted. Here, we performed disintegration tests of 26 pharmaceutical and health food products containing the Western herbs ginkgo leaf and chaste tree fruit, in accord with the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All eight pharmaceutical herbal products found in the European market completely disintegrated within the defined test time, and 11 of the 18 tested herbal products distributed as health foods in Japan disintegrated. Among the incompatible products identified in the Pharmacopoeia test, some products remained intact after incubation in water for 60 min. To ensure the efficacy of Western herbal products sold as health food in Japan, quality control, including disintegration, is therefore recommended, even though these products are not regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.

  4. Creating high yield water soluble luminescent graphene quantum dots via exfoliating and disintegrating carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangxu; Zhang, Shaowei

    2012-10-21

    We have developed an effective method to exfoliate and disintegrate multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes. With this technique, high yield production of luminescent graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield and low oxidization can be achieved.

  5. Comparison and optimization of different processes of mechanical sewage sludge disintegration; Vergleich und Optimierung verschiedener Verfahren der mechanischen Klaerschlammdesintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehne, G.; Mueller, J.; Schwedes, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    There are in principle three applications of mechanical sewage sludge disintegration within the framework of sewage treatment, which are briefly dealt with. The organic material released in the course of the disintegration process can be used as a proton donator for denitrification. In the second application, mechanical sludge disintegration improves the sedimentation properties of bulking sludge and scum. In the third application, sewage sludge disintegration enhances the anaerobic degradation behaviour of excess sludge and digester sludge. (orig.) [German] Es gibt drei prinzipielle Einsatzfaelle einer mechanischen Klaerschlammdesintegration im Rahmen des Abwasserreinigungsprozesses, auf die im folgenden kurz eingegangen wird. Das im Zuge der Desintegration freigesetzte organische Material kann als Protonendonator fuer die Denitrifikation verwendet werden. Eine weitere Anwendung der mechanischen Desintegration stellt die Verbesserung der Absetzeigenschaften von Blaeh- und Schwimmschlaemmen dar. Den dritten Einsatzfall der Klaerschlammdesintegration stellt die Verbesserung des anaeroben Abbauverhaltens von Ueberschuss- und Faulschlaemmen dar. (orig.)

  6. Disintegration-wave method of recovery of industrial waste iron and steel industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vasechkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of raw materials and waste is one of the most important factors determining the effectiveness of any processing enterprise. Industrial wastes of mining and metallurgical industries are a valuable source of many elements. However, little activity of the mineral and inconsistent chemical and phase composition of the waste reduce their attractiveness for use as a secondary raw material, and the presence of heavy metals and water-soluble compounds is a serious environmental threat. Fractional excretion of elements that make up the slag can be carried out with the help of their recovery by disintegration-wave method. The paper presents a machine-hardware circuits for the implementation of recovery process of slag and disintegrator design. In conducting research on the example of slag samples of the enterprises in Stavropol and Krasnoyarsk territories, it was found out that the observed enrichment of slags on the composition of iron takes place, its physical and chemical activity increases and persists for a long period of time. These facts were noted in the study of the microstructure and the results of spectral analysis of the initial slags and subjected to recovery by disintegration-wave method. The results analysis led to the conclusion about the possibility of waste recovery of mining and metallurgical industries with by disintegration-wave method. Resulting in the processing materials with enhanced activity of the mineral part and certain chemical and phase composition, can be used as raw material for the production of metallurgical, cement and other industries.

  7. Grey-matter network disintegration as predictor of cognitive and motor function with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koini, Marisa; Duering, Marco; Gesierich, Benno G; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Ropele, Stefan; Wagner, Fabian; Enzinger, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2018-06-01

    Loss of grey-matter volume with advancing age affects the entire cortex. It has been suggested that atrophy occurs in a network-dependent manner with advancing age rather than in independent brain areas. The relationship between networks of structural covariance (SCN) disintegration and cognitive functioning during normal aging is not fully explored. We, therefore, aimed to (1) identify networks that lose GM integrity with advancing age, (2) investigate if age-related impairment of integrity in GM networks associates with cognitive function and decreasing fine motor skills (FMS), and (3) examine if GM disintegration is a mediator between age and cognition and FMS. T1-weighted scans of n = 257 participants (age range: 20-87) were used to identify GM networks using independent component analysis. Random forest analysis was implemented to examine the importance of network integrity as predictors of memory, executive functions, and FMS. The associations between GM disintegration, age and cognitive performance, and FMS were assessed using mediation analyses. Advancing age was associated with decreasing cognitive performance and FMS. Fourteen of 20 GM networks showed integrity changes with advancing age. Next to age and education, eight networks (fronto-parietal, fronto-occipital, temporal, limbic, secondary somatosensory, cuneal, sensorimotor network, and a cerebellar network) showed an association with cognition and FMS (up to 15.08%). GM networks partially mediated the effect between age and cognition and age and FMS. We confirm an age-related decline in cognitive functioning and FMS in non-demented community-dwelling subjects and showed that aging selectively affects the integrity of GM networks. The negative effect of age on cognition and FMS is associated with distinct GM networks and is partly mediated by their disintegration.

  8. Application of dielectric constant measurement in microwave sludge disintegration and wastewater purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Petra Veszelovszki; Lemmer, Balázs; Keszthelyi-Szabó, Gábor; Hodúr, Cecilia; Beszédes, Sándor

    2018-05-01

    It has been numerously verified that microwave radiation could be advantageous as a pre-treatment for enhanced disintegration of sludge. Very few data related to the dielectric parameters of wastewater of different origins are available; therefore, the objective of our work was to measure the dielectric constant of municipal and meat industrial wastewater during a continuous flow operating microwave process. Determination of the dielectric constant and its change during wastewater and sludge processing make it possible to decide on the applicability of dielectric measurements for detecting the organic matter removal efficiency of wastewater purification process or disintegration degree of sludge. With the measurement of dielectric constant as a function of temperature, total solids (TS) content and microwave specific process parameters regression models were developed. Our results verified that in the case of municipal wastewater sludge, the TS content has a significant effect on the dielectric constant and disintegration degree (DD), as does the temperature. The dielectric constant has a decreasing tendency with increasing temperature for wastewater sludge of low TS content, but an adverse effect was found for samples with high TS and organic matter contents. DD of meat processing wastewater sludge was influenced significantly by the volumetric flow rate and power level, as process parameters of continuously flow microwave pre-treatments. It can be concluded that the disintegration process of food industry sludge can be detected by dielectric constant measurements. From technical purposes the applicability of dielectric measurements was tested in the purification process of municipal wastewater, as well. Determination of dielectric behaviour was a sensitive method to detect the purification degree of municipal wastewater.

  9. Preferential emission of photon emulsion nuclei in high energy nuclear disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Bhattacharjee, B.; Goswami, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work an effort has been made to observe such preferential emission, if any, in the CNO group of photo emulsion nuclei. Here the angle between any two slow (β b = 3,4,5 and 6. Assuming the fragments to be emitted isotropically as expected from evaporation theory, possible angles between any two tracks are computed separately for disintegrating centres with the same number of N b

  10. Time-dependent cell disintegration kinetics in lung tumors after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V; Palta, Jatinder J; Nagata, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    We study the time-dependent disintegration kinetics of tumor cells that did not survive radiotherapy treatment. To evaluate the cell disintegration rate after irradiation, we studied the volume changes of solitary lung tumors after stereotactic radiotherapy. The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of the total cell number in the tumor and (2) the cell disintegration rate is governed by the exponential decay with constant risk, which is defined by the initial cell number and a half-life T 1/2 . The half-life T 1/2 is determined using the least-squares fit to the clinical data on lung tumor size variation with time after stereotactic radiotherapy. We show that the tumor volume variation after stereotactic radiotherapy of solitary lung tumors can be approximated by an exponential function. A small constant component in the volume variation does not change with time; however, this component may be the residual irregular density due to radiation fibrosis and was, therefore, subtracted from the total volume variation in our computations. Using computerized fitting of the exponent function to the clinical data for selected patients, we have determined that the average half-life T 1/2 of cell disintegration is 28.2 days for squamous cell carcinoma and 72.4 days for adenocarcinoma. This model is needed for simulating the tumor volume variation during radiotherapy, which may be important for time-dependent treatment planning of proton therapy that is sensitive to density variations

  11. Effects of different sludge disintegration methods on sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    A key step in sludge treatment is sludge dewatering. However, activated sludge is generally very difficult to be dewatered. Sludge dewatering performance is largely affected by the sludge moisture distribution. Sludge disintegration can destroy the sludge structure and cell wall, so as change the sludge floc structure and moisture distribution, thus affecting the dewatering performance of sludge. In this article, the disintegration methods were ultrasound treatment, K2FeO4 oxidation and KMnO4 oxidation. The degree of disintegration (DDCOD), sludge moisture distribution and the final water content of sludge cake after centrifuging were measured. Results showed that three disintegration methods were all effective, and K2FeO4 oxidation was more efficient than KMnO4 oxidation. The content of free water increased obviously with K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidations, while it decreased with ultrasound treatment. The changes of free water and interstitial water were in the opposite trend. The content of bounding water decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and increased slightly with KMnO4 oxidation, while it increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. The water content of sludge cake after centrifuging decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and did not changed with KMnO4 oxidation, but increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment deteriorated the sludge dewaterability, while K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidation improved the sludge dewaterability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Inclusion of inhomogeneous deformation and strength characteristics in the problem on zonal disintegration of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyshev, AI; Belousova, OE

    2018-03-01

    The authors determine stress and deformation in a heterogeneous rock mass at the preset displacement and Cauchy stress vector at the boundary of an underground excavation. The influence of coordinates on Young’s modulus, shear modulus and ultimate strength is shown. It is found that regions of tension and compression alternate at the excavation boundary—i.e. zonal rock disintegration phenomenon is observed.

  13. Endoscopic assessment and prediction of prostate urethral disintegration after histotripsy treatment in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, George R; Styn, Nicholas R; Hall, Timothy L; Roberts, William W

    2012-02-01

    Histotripsy is a nonthermal focused ultrasound technology that uses acoustic cavitation to homogenize tissue. Previous research has demonstrated that the prostatic urethra is more resistant to histotripsy effects than prostate parenchyma, a finding that may complicate the creation of transurethral resection of the prostate-like treatment cavities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the endoscopic appearance of the prostatic urethra during and after histotripsy treatment and to identify features that are predictive of urethral disintegration. Thirty-five histotripsy treatments were delivered in a transverse plane traversing the prostatic urethra in 17 canine subjects (1-3/prostate ≥1 cm apart). Real-time endoscopy was performed in the first four subjects to characterize development of acute urethral treatment effect (UTE). Serial postprocedure endoscopy was performed in all subjects to assess subsequent evolution of UTE. Endoscopy during histotripsy was feasible with observation of intraurethral cavitation, allowing characterization of the real-time progression of UTE from normal to frank urethral disintegration. While acute urethral fragmentation occurred in 3/35 (8.6%) treatments, frank urethral disintegration developed in 24/35 (68.5%) within 14 days of treatment. Treating until the appearance of hemostatic pale gray shaggy urothelium was the best predictor of achieving urethral fragmentation within 14 days of treatment with positive and negative predictive values of 0.91 and 0.89, respectively. Endoscopic assessment of the urethra may be a useful adjunct to prostatic histotripsy to help guide therapy to ensure urethral disintegration, allowing drainage of the homogenized adenoma and effective tissue debulking.

  14. Mechanism of disintegration of sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U nuclei by relativistic projectiles

    CERN Document Server

    Andronenko, L N; Kravtsov, A V; Solyakin, G E

    2002-01-01

    The sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U nuclei disintegration through the 16 GeV energy protons and sup 3 He 2 GeV energy nuclei are considered. The pulse mechanism compensation is proposed to explain the formation of collinear mass fragments accompanied by a large amount of charged secondaries and neutrons flying on the m sub 1 relativistic particle heavy nuclei on the account of the particle emission with the mass m sub 2 > m sub 1

  15. Radioactivity handbook. Volume 2: radioactive disintegrations, radiations-matter interactions, applications of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.; Bonfand, E.; Rimbert, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the second one of a group of three. The first one exposed nuclides, with neutrons and protons in a stable building: atomic nucleus. Here is the second one with unstable, radioactive nucleus. After the description of different kinds of disintegrations, it is justified to follow radiations in matter and modifications attached to them; different uses of radioactivity are developed in medicine, age determination, industrial utilization and biology

  16. Disintegration constant of uranium-238 by spontaneous fission redetermined by glass track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Medeiros, E. de.

    1978-01-01

    The disintegration constant of U 238 by spontaneous fission using glass as fission fragment detector was redetermined. A film of natural uranium (UO 3 ) prepared by chemical methods on the glass lamina was used in a long time experience of exposure (about 16 years). The good conditions of sample preparation and storage allow to observe, after chemical etching, fission fragment tracks. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Time-dependent cell disintegration kinetics in lung tumors after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V; Palta, Jatinder J [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: chvetsov@ufl.edu

    2008-05-07

    We study the time-dependent disintegration kinetics of tumor cells that did not survive radiotherapy treatment. To evaluate the cell disintegration rate after irradiation, we studied the volume changes of solitary lung tumors after stereotactic radiotherapy. The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of the total cell number in the tumor and (2) the cell disintegration rate is governed by the exponential decay with constant risk, which is defined by the initial cell number and a half-life T{sub 1/2}. The half-life T{sub 1/2} is determined using the least-squares fit to the clinical data on lung tumor size variation with time after stereotactic radiotherapy. We show that the tumor volume variation after stereotactic radiotherapy of solitary lung tumors can be approximated by an exponential function. A small constant component in the volume variation does not change with time; however, this component may be the residual irregular density due to radiation fibrosis and was, therefore, subtracted from the total volume variation in our computations. Using computerized fitting of the exponent function to the clinical data for selected patients, we have determined that the average half-life T{sub 1/2} of cell disintegration is 28.2 days for squamous cell carcinoma and 72.4 days for adenocarcinoma. This model is needed for simulating the tumor volume variation during radiotherapy, which may be important for time-dependent treatment planning of proton therapy that is sensitive to density variations.

  18. Atomic Nuclei Utter Disintegration into Nucleons by High Energy Nuclear Projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The disintegration process of atomic nuclei by high energy nuclear projectiles is described. The physical basis for this process is the passage of hadrons through layers of intranuclear matter accompanied by the nucleon emission from the target nuclei observed in experiments; kinetic energies of the nucleons are from about 20 up to about 400 MeV - in the target nucleus reference system. 22 refs., 3 tabs

  19. INTEGRATION OF TRADE AND DISINTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feenstra

    2003-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they have all increased since the 1970s. He also considers the implications of globalization for employ...

  20. Measuring procedure of experimental data acquisition and data evaluation of acoustic emission in rock disintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ivaničová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of measurements of acoustic signal arising in rock disintegration on the drilling standof the Institute of Geotechnics SAS in Košice. The acoustic signal was registered with sonometer Mediator 2238. Registrationand processing of the acoustic signal is solved as a part of the research grant task within the basic research of the rock disintegrationby drilling.

  1. Pilot tests in enhanced ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge; Pilotversuche zur Intensivierung der Schlammfaulung durch Klaerschlammdesintegration mit Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, K.; Tiehm, A.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abwasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The work has the objective to optimize ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge in permant routine operation. Anaerobic degradation of disintegrated crude and excess sludge was investigated on a pilot scale at a municipal sewage treatment plant. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Optimierung der Klaerschlammdesintegration mit Ultraschall im praktischen Dauerbetrieb. Der anaerobe Abbau von desintegriertem Roh- und Ueberschussschlamm wurde im Pilotmassstab vor Ort auf einer kommunalen Klaeranlage untersucht. (orig.)

  2. A procedure of experimental data acquisition for an evaluation of the acoustic emission in the rock disintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Krepelka

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some results of the monitoring of acoustic signal in the rock disintegration on the drillig stand of the Institute of Geotechnics, SAS, in Košice. The acoustic signal has been registered. The registration and processing of the acoustic signal is solved as a part of the research grant task within the basic research of the rock disintegration by drilling.

  3. Role of Water Sorption in Tablet Crushing Strength, Disintegration, and Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, M; Teerakapibal, R; Kim, K; Elder, E J

    2017-08-01

    Drugs formulated as tablets are subjected to accelerated stability conditions with the goal of identifying a stable formulation that will exhibit a sufficiently long shelf life. Water sorption at a condition such as 40°C/75% RH can result in significant changes in tablet properties such as a decrease in dissolution rate, the cause of which may be difficult to interpret, given the complex nature of ingredients and their interactions in a tablet. In this research, three drugs, displaying a wide range of physicochemical properties, were formulated with commonly used diluents, disintegrants, and binders, using a design of experiments approach. The tablets were stored at accelerated conditions and assessed for content, dissolution, disintegration, and crushing strength, as well as other properties. The research demonstrated many water-induced effects in tablet properties. Due to the experimental design approach that revealed many interactions, it was possible to interpret all of the changes observed in tablet crushing strength, disintegration, and dissolution for the drugs using a common set of physical principles. Specifically, the relevant factors considered were (1) mechanical properties of materials, (2) water sorption surface effects in surface diffusion and capillary condensation, (3) water sorption bulk effects for amorphous materials such as viscous flow/spreading, and (4) water-induced stress on interparticle bonding arising from volume expansion. These physical principles enable a comprehensive interpretation of the complex changes observed in tablet properties, which should be valuable in the design of tablet formulations that will be stable to accelerated storage conditions.

  4. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed . It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production. - Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • The hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed .

  5. Profitable ultrasonic assisted microwave disintegration of sludge biomass: Modelling of biomethanation and energy parameter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2018-04-01

    In this study, microwave irradiation has been employed to disintegrate the sludge biomass profitably by deagglomerating the sludge using a mechanical device, ultrasonicator. The outcomes of the study revealed that a specific energy input of 3.5 kJ/kg TS was found to be optimum for deagglomeration with limited cell lysis. A higher suspended solids (SS) reduction and biomass lysis efficiency of about 22.5% and 33.2% was achieved through ultrasonic assisted microwave disintegration (UMWD) when compared to microwave disintegration - MWD (15% and 20.9%). The results of biochemical methane potential (BMP) test were used to estimate biodegradability of samples. Among the samples subjected to BMP, UMWD showed better amenability towards anaerobic digestion with higher methane production potential of 0.3 L/g COD representing enhanced liquefaction potential of disaggregated sludge biomass. Economic analysis of the proposed method of sludge biomass pretreatment showed a net profit of 2.67 USD/Ton respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation for waste-activated sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovšek, Martin; Mlakar, Matej; Levstek, Marjetka; Stražar, Marjeta; Širok, Brane; Dular, Matevž

    2015-09-01

    The disintegration of raw sludge is very important for enhancement of the biogas production in anaerobic digestion process as it provides easily degradable substrate for microorganisms to perform maximum sludge treatment efficiency and stable digestion of sludge at lower costs. In the present study the disintegration was studied by using a novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (RGHC). At the first stage the analysis of hydrodynamics of the RGHC were made with tap water, where the cavitation extent and aggressiveness was evaluated. At the second stage RGHC was used as a tool for pretreatment of a waste-activated sludge (WAS), collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In case of WAS the disintegration rate was measured, where the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and soluble Kjeldahl nitrogen were monitored and microbiological pictures were taken. The SCOD increased from initial 45 mg/L up to 602 mg/L and 12.7% more biogas has been produced by 20 passes through RGHC. The results were obtained on a pilot bioreactor plant, volume of 400 L. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the “comic effect” of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized. PMID:26960247

  8. Disintegration of the agricultural by-product wheat bran under subcritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Michael; Tirpanalan, Özge; Pruksasri, Suwattana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Novalin, Senad

    2018-02-10

    The disintegration of destarched wheat bran in water and sulfuric acid (pH 3) under subcritical conditions (275-300 °C) and at short reaction times (1-4 min) was investigated. A cascade process comprising a stepwise separation of the liquid was applied to reduce the formation of undesired degradation products. The highest degree of biomass disintegration (67% dry mass solubilization) was achieved by application of a cascade process at 275 °C (pH 3). Regarding the dissolution of carbohydrates (monomeric and oligomeric form), the total glucose yields remained below 60%, while the total xylose and arabinose yields were about 76% and 67%. Approximately 74% of the protein and 95% of the mineral fraction could be extracted. The application of the cascade process enabled a substantially reduced formation of degradation products. When operating hydrothermally and subcritically in order to avoid some problematic aspects of a biorefinery, an extensive disintegration and monomerization of wheat bran and its constituents remains difficult even under the tested conditions (300 °C, pH 3). However, the applied cascade process proved to be useful to increase the yields and to substantially reduce the formation of undesired degradation products. Despite this fact, increased water consumption has to be conceded. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Long-term program for research and development of group separation and disintegration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, the basic guidelines state that high-level radioactive wastes released from reprocessing of spent fuel should be processed into stable solid material, followed by storage for cooling for 30-50 years and disposal in the ground at a depth of several hundreds of meters. The Long-Term Program for Research and Development of Group Separation and Disintegration Techniques is aimed at efficient disposal of high-level wastes, reutilization of useful substances contained, and improved safety. Important processes include separation of nuclides (group separation, individual nuclide separation) and conversion (disintegration) of long-lived nuclides into short-lived or non-radioactive one. These processes can reduce the volume of high-level wastes to be left for final disposal. Research and development projects have been under way to provide techniques to separate high-level waste substances into four groups (transuranic elements, strontium/cesium, technetium/platinum group elements, and others). These projects also cover recovery of useful metals and efficient utilization of separated substances. For disintegration, conceptual studies have been carried out for the application of fast neutron beams to conversion of long half-life transuranium elements into short half-life or non-radioactive elements. (N.K.)

  10. Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.; Nascimento, T.S.; Yamazaki, I.M.; Dias, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35 S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them. - Highlights: ► 35 S disintegration rate measured in Liquid Scintillator system using CIEMAT/NIST method. ► Covariance methodology applied to the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. ► Monte Carlo simulation was applied to determine 35 S activity in the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system

  11. Some biological consequences of disintegration of 3H and 14C incorporated in an influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokudina, E.N.; Semenova, N.P.; Yamnikova, S.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    An influenza virus labeled with 3 H-uridine losses its infectiousness when stored for a long time. It is suggested that disintegration of tritium incorporated into virus RNA causes lethal intramolecular modifications therein. At the same time, the antigenic activity of virus nucleoprotein decreases perhaps due to the direct effect of tritium. The comparison of the degree of inactivation of various antigenic sites of the nucleoprotein within a virus, labeled with 3 H-uridine, suggests that they are located at different distances from RNA. A long-term action of 3 H disintegration on RNA of a maturing virus decreased the yield probably due to the injury of the intracellular virus RNA during the infections process. Upon storage of the influenza virus labelle with 14 C-amino acids the antigenic properties are reduced by the nucleoprotein while the infectiousness remains unaffected. The long-term effect of 14 C disintegration on proteins of the maturing virus does not lead to fatal outcome

  12. Role of superporous hydrogel particles as a superdisintegrant in fast disintegrating tablet of Glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh V Chavda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Superporous hydrogel (SPH swells very rapidly in a shorter period of time to an equilibrium size and contains highly porous structure. The literature survey reflects the preparation of SPHs and its composite, but its application as an excipient in a drug delivery system is not well focused. Aim: Efforts were made to develop fast disintegrating tablets of Glipizide using superporous hydrogel particles (SPHPs as a wicking agent, which act as a superdisintegrant to decrease disintegration time. Materials and Methods: The SPH of poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid was prepared by solution polymerization and characterized. Prepared tablets were evaluated for concerned parameters. Formulation optimization was carried out using 3 2 full factorial design and analysis of variance. Results: Scanning electron microscopy pictures clearly confirmed the superporous structure of hydrogel. Batch F 4 containing 4% w/w of SPH of poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid as a superdisintegrant showed extremely fast wicking effect and lesser disintegration time compared with other potential superdisintegrants. Drug release was good compared with conventional immediate release marketed product. Conclusion: It can be concluded that SPHPs can be used as a potential superdisintegrant in tablet formulation.

  13. Effect of potassium ferrate on disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fenxia; Ji, Haizhuang; Ye, Yangfang

    2012-06-15

    The activated sludge process of wastewater treatment results in the generation of a considerable amount of excess activated sludge. Increased attention has been given to minimization of waste activated sludge recently. This paper investigated the effect of potassium ferrate oxidation pretreatment on the disintegration of the waste activated sludge at various dosages of potassium ferrate. The results show that potassium ferrate pretreatment disintegrated the sludge particle, resulting in the reduction of total solid content by 31%. The solubility (SCOD/TCOD) of the sludge increased with the increase of potassium ferrate dosage. Under 0.81 g/g SS dosage of potassium ferrate, SCOD/TCOD reached 0.32. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations in the solution all increased significantly after potassium ferrate pretreatment. The sludge particles reduced from 116 to 87 μm. The settleability of the sludge (SVI) was enhanced by 17%, which was due to the re-flocculation by the by-product, Fe(III), during potassium ferrate oxidation and the decrease of the viscosity. From the result of the present investigations, it can be concluded that potassium ferrate oxidation is a feasible method for disintegration of excess activated sludge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The disintegration and vaporization of plastic targets irradiated by high-power laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greig, J.R.; Pechacek, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    We have studied the disintegration of polyethylene and polystyrene targets irradiated by 100-J 40-nsec Nd/glass laser pulses. At power densities of approximately-less-than10 12 W/cm 2 relatively massive targets (6 x 10 -5 to 5 x 10 -4 cm 3 ) are totally disintegrated to produce finely divided target material and un-ionized vapor. Both the size of the target and the presence or absence of a laser prepulse strongly influence the proportions of finely divided target material and un-ionized vapor, especially within the first few microseconds after peak laser power. This disintegration is always preceded by the emission of a hot fully ionized plasma, but only 1% of the target material is contained in the hot plasma. Typically, (1--3) x 10 19 atoms of un-ionized vapor are released as a slowly expanding (vapprox.10 5 cm/sec) cold dense gas cloud (n/sub o/>10 19 cm -3 ) surrounding the initial target position. This cloud of target material has subsequently been heated by absorption of a 300-J 100-nsec CO 2 laser pulse to produce an approximately fully ionized plasma

  15. Effects of disintegration on anaerobic degradation of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, M; Krüger, M; Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2000-01-01

    The effects of mechanical disintegration on anaerobic digestibility of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film (DSFF) digesters were investigated on laboratory scale. Mechanical pretreatment using a high pressure homogenizer led to significantly enhanced concentrations of soluble proteins and carbohydrates in the feed sludge. Using DSFF digesters with two different tubular plastic media as support material it was shown that a stable digestion process could be achieved at hydraulic retention times (HRT) down to 5 days. Compared to conventional digesters at 10 d and 15 d HRT respectively, the degradation of volatile solids was enhanced up to 25%, also resulting in a higher specific biogas production. Further investigations on degradation of soluble proteins and carbohydrates showed that a slowly degradable fraction of carbohydrates was released via disintegration. Using the distribution of chain length and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids as process parameters, the dependability on the HRT and the degree of disintegration (the release of soluble COD) predominated the effects of specific surface area of the support media.

  16. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the “comic effect” of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized.

  17. Integrating or disintegrating effects of customised care: the role of professions beyond NPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liff, Roy; Andersson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the integrating and disintegrating effects of professional actions in customised care. Using a qualitative case study, the authors examine the work practices and cultures of three Swedish child and adolescent psychiatric care units (CAP) charged with providing customised care in collaboration with other organisations. The authors conducted 62 interviews, made 11 half-day observations, and shadowed employees for two days. The social embeddedness of action is crucial to understanding the professions' integrating/disintegrating activities. In the internal social context of CAP, the professions adapt to productivity-enhancing new public management (NPM) principles, resulting in integrating effects between the different professions and administrative management in the CAP units. However, CAP exercises professional dominance over the cooperating organisations. Thus, in the external social context, CAP's resistance to customised care principles exacerbates the disintegration problems among the different organisations. The study concludes that, contrary to findings in many other studies, neither the professional logic nor NPM/customised care reforms determine the actions of professionals. In this case, the institutionalisation of some NPM methods blocks the adoption of customised care practices. Contrary to the widely accepted idea that resource restriction is a main source of conflict between management and the professions, the professions accept and adapt to resource restrictions, even at the expense of de-emphasising the practices of customised care. Thus, since professionals choose different operational strategies depending on the social context, the success of a normative reform measure may depend in part on its social context.

  18. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  19. Important operational parameters of membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system for zero excess sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon

    2003-04-01

    In order to prevent excess sludge production during wastewater treatment, a membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system has been introduced, where the disintegrated sludge is recycled to the bioreactor as a feed solution. In this study, a mathematical model was developed by incorporating a sludge disintegration term into the conventional activated sludge model and the relationships among the operational parameters were investigated. A new definition of F/M ratio for the MBR-SD system was suggested to evaluate the actual organic loading rate. The actual F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M ratio in MBR-SD. The kinetic parameters concerning the biodegradability of organics hardly affect the system performance. Instead, sludge solubilization ratio (alpha) in the SD process and particulate hydrolysis rate constant (k(h)) in biological reaction determine the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is related with the overall economics of the MBR-SD system. Under reasonable alpha and k(h) values, SDN would range between 3 and 5 which means the amount of sludge required to be disintegrated would be 3-5 times higher for preventing a particular amount of sludge production. Finally, normalized sludge disintegration rate (q/V) which is needed to maintain a certain level of MLSS in the MBR-SD system was calculated as a function of F/V ratio.

  20. Esophageal transit and in vivo disintegration of branded risedronate sodium tablets and two generic formulations of alendronic acid tablets: a single-center, single-blind, six-period crossover study in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alan C; Blackshaw, P Elaine; Hay, Peter D; Lawes, Simon C; Atherton, Clare T; Dansereau, Richard J; Wagner, Leigh K; Schnell, Dan J; Spiller, Robin C

    2008-05-01

    Delayed esophageal transit or disintegration of oral bisphosphonate tablets before they enter the stomach may be of concern with respect to iatrogenic complications among patients receiving longterm treatment. Different formulations of generic bisphosphonate tablets meeting regulatory requirements may have substantial differences in pharmaceutical attributes from the branded product that may result in different characteristics during esophageal transit. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare esophageal transit times and in vivo disintegration of 3 bisphosphonate formulations, one branded and the others generic, that are commercially available in Canada and the United Kingdom. This was a single-center, randomized, singleblind, 6-period crossover study in healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. Each subject received a single oral dose of a branded risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet and 2 generic formulations of alendronic acid 70-mg tablets (Novopharm Limited, Toronto, Canada, and Teva UK Limited, Morley, United Kingdom) in both the erect and semisupine (45 degrees ) positions. Although the products are labeled to be taken in the erect position, the semisupine position was included to simulate dosing in bedridden patients. Subjects took tablets with 30 mL of water in the morning after an overnight fast. The tablets were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ion-exchange resins to enable visualization and measurement of esophageal transit time and disintegration using a gamma camera. Dynamic scintigraphic images were obtained for a total of 10 minutes: 2 images per second for the first 30 seconds and 1 image every 15 seconds for 9.5 minutes. This was a mechanistic study and tolerability was not assessed. The study was conducted in 20 healthy white female subjects with a mean age of 62 years (range, 51-77 years). The effect of body position was statistically significant (P = 0.043), with the estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 indicating longer

  1. Thiomers for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Hoffer, Martin H; Kafedjiiski, Krum

    2004-11-01

    In recent years thiolated polymers (thiomers) have appeared as a promising new tool in oral drug delivery. Thiomers are obtained by the immobilisation of thio-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By the formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of thiomers are up to 130-fold improved compared with the corresponding unmodified polymers. Owing to the formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, matrix tablets and particulate delivery systems show strong cohesive properties, resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled drug release. The permeation of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs through the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa can be improved by the use of thiomers. Furthermore, some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards GI peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in oral drug delivery has been demonstrated by various in vivo studies. A pharmacological efficacy of 1%, for example, was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Furthermore, tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Low-molecular-weight heparin embedded in thiolated polycarbophil led to an absolute bioavailability of > or = 20% after oral administration to rats. In these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. These results indicate drug carrier systems based on thiomers appear to be a promising tool for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs.

  2. Tablet fragmentation without a disintegrant: A novel design approach for accelerating disintegration and drug release from 3D printed cellulosic tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Basel; Wojsz, Magdalena; Isreb, Abdullah; Forbes, Robert T; Isreb, Mohammad; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Tawfiq; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2018-06-15

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing has shown the most immediate potential for on-demand dose personalisation to suit particular patient's needs. However, FDM 3D printing often involves employing a relatively large molecular weight thermoplastic polymer and results in extended release pattern. It is therefore essential to fast-track drug release from the 3D printed objects. This work employed an innovative design approach of tablets with unique built-in gaps (Gaplets) with the aim of accelerating drug release. The novel tablet design is composed of 9 repeating units (blocks) connected with 3 bridges to allow the generation of 8 gaps. The impact of size of the block, the number of bridges and the spacing between different blocks was investigated. Increasing the inter-block space reduced mechanical resistance of the unit, however, tablets continued to meet pharmacopeial standards for friability. Upon introduction into gastric medium, the 1 mm spaces gaplet broke into mini-structures within 4 min and met the USP criteria of immediate release products (86.7% drug release at 30 min). Real-time ultraviolet (UV) imaging indicated that the cellulosic matrix expanded due to swelling of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) upon introduction to the dissolution medium. This was followed by a steady erosion of the polymeric matrix at a rate of 8 μm/min. The design approach was more efficient than a comparison conventional formulation approach of adding disintegrants to accelerate tablet disintegration and drug release. This work provides a novel example where computer-aided design was instrumental at modifying the performance of solid dosage forms. Such an example may serve as the foundation for a new generation of dosage forms with complicated geometric structures to achieve functionality that is usually achieved by a sophisticated formulation approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  4. Imaging of odor perception delineates functional disintegration of the limbic circuits in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciumas, Carolina; Lindström, Per; Aoun, Bernard; Savic, Ivanka

    2008-01-15

    Metabolic and neuro-receptor abnormalities within the extrafocal limbic circuits are established in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, very little is known about how these circuits process external stimuli. We tested whether odor activation can help delineate limbic functional disintegration in MTLE, and measured cerebral blood flow with PET during birhinal smelling of familiar and unfamiliar odors, using smelling of odorless air as the baseline condition. Patients with MTLE (13 left-sided, 10 right-sided) and 21 controls were investigated. In addition to odor activation, the analysis included functional connectivity, using right and left piriform cortex as seed regions. Healthy controls activated the amygdala, piriform, anterior insular, and cingulate cortices on both sides. Smelling of familiar odors engaged, in addition, the right parahippocampus, and the left Brodmann Area (BA) 44, 45, 47. Patients failed to activate the amygdala, piriform and the anterior insular cortex in the epileptogenic hemisphere. Furthermore, those with left MTLE did not activate the left BA 44, 45 and 47 with familiar odors, which they perceived as less familiar than controls. Congruent with the activation data each seed region was in patients functionally disconnected with the contralateral amygdala+piriform+insular cortex. The functional disintegration in patients exceeded the reduced activation, and included the contralateral temporal neocortex, and in subjects with right MTLE also the right orbitofrontal cortex. Imaging of odor perception may be used to delineate functional disintegration of the limbic networks in MTLE. It shows an altered response in several regions, which may underlie some interictal behavioral problems associated with this condition.

  5. Accurate disintegration-rate measurement of 55Fe by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.; Oberholzer, P.; Botha, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A method involving liquid scintillation counting is described for the accurate measurement of disintegration rate of 55 Fe. The method is based on the use of calculated efficiency functions together with either of the nuclides 54 Mn and 51 Cr as internal standards for measurement of counting efficiencies by coincidence counting. The method was used by the NAC during a recent international intercomparison of radioactivity measurements, and a summary of the results obtained by nine participating laboratories is presented. A spread in results of several percent is evident [af

  6. Women's self-employment: An act of institutional (dis)integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, Kim; Nielsen, Suna Løwe; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the extent to which gender equality disintegrates women's self-employment choice (compared to that for men) and whether this is contingent upon a country's development stage and industries. We rely on symbolic interactionism to argue that employment choices emerge from...... an interactive conversation between individual and social institutional processes. Using data from 61 countries, we find that overall gender equality is associated with the gender gap in men's and women's self-employment choices and that this association depends upon the country's development stage...

  7. Processes, spheres of use and importance of sewage sludge disintegration; Verfahren, Einsatzgebiete und Bedeutung der Klaerschlammdesintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    The paper gives an overview of results attained by means of mechanical sludge disintegration methods and compares them with thermal and ozone treatment. The objective is to describe in scientific as well as application-oriented terms the opportunities held and limits to this process step of sludge treatment. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Beitrags wird eine Uebersicht ueber die mit mechanischen Verfahren der Schlammdesintegration erreichten Ergebnisse und ein Vergleich mit der Waerme- und der Ozonbehandlung gegeben. Ziel des Beitrages ist es, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen dieses Prozessschrittes der Schlammbehandlung aus wissenschaftlicher wie aus anwendungsorientierter Sicht darzustellen. (orig.)

  8. Effect of NaCl induced floc disruption on biological disintegration of sludge for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the influence of NaCl mediated bacterial disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS) was evaluated in terms of disintegration and biodegradability of WAS. Floc disruption was efficient at 0.03 g/g SS of NaCl, promoting the shifts of extracellular proteins and carbohydrates from inner layers to extractable--soluble layers (90 mg/L), respectively. Outcomes of sludge disintegration reveal that the maximum solubilization achieved was found to be 23%, respectively. The model elucidating the parameter evaluation, explicates that floc disrupted--bacterially disintegrated sludge (S3) showed superior biodegradability of about 0.23 (gCOD/gCOD) than the bacterially disintegrated (S2) and control (S3) sludges of about 0.13 (gCOD/gCOD) and 0.05 (gCOD/gCOD), respectively. Cost evaluation of the present study affords net profits of approximately 2.5 USD and -21.5 USD in S3 and S2 sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing tablet disintegration characteristics of a highly water-soluble high-drug-loading formulation by granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Levins, Christopher; Pafiakis, Steve; Zacour, Brian; Bindra, Dilbir S; Trinh, Jade; Buckley, David; Gour, Shruti; Sharif, Shasad; Stamato, Howard

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of a highly water-soluble tablet matrix by altering the manufacturing process. A high disintegration time along with high dependence of the disintegration time on tablet hardness was observed for a high drug loading (70% w/w) API when formulated using a high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) process. Keeping the formulation composition mostly constant, a fluid-bed granulation (FBG) process was explored as an alternate granulation method using a 2 (4-1) fractional factorial design with two center points. FBG batches (10 batches) were manufactured using varying disingtegrant amount, spray rate, inlet temperature (T) and atomization air pressure. The resultant final blend particle size was affected significantly by spray rate (p = .0009), inlet T (p = .0062), atomization air pressure (p = .0134) and the interaction effect between inlet T*spray rate (p = .0241). The compactibility of the final blend was affected significantly by disintegrant amount (p disintegration times than the HSWG batches, and mercury intrusion porosimetry data revealed that this was caused by the higher internal pore structure of tablets manufactured using the FBG batches.

  10. Measurement of disintegration rates of small [60Co]Co sources in lead containers by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to determine the disintegration rates of two small [ 60 Co]Co sources (30 and 350 kBq) in lead containers with several thickness by using a NaI(Tl) detector. The experimental results showed that the sum-peak method was perfectly effective for the determination of the disintegration rates (unrelated to the thicknesses of the containers) of the 350 kBq source. The sum-peak method was also absolutely effective for the 30 kBq source in the case of containers with thicknesses of 15 mm and less, but in the cases of those with thicknesses of 21, 27 and 33 mm, the disintegration rates were under-estimated and the deviations from the true disintegration rate increased rapidly with increasing thicknesses of the containers. We presume that the under-estimation of the disintegration rates was the result of the over-estimation of the areas under the sum peaks, caused by the interference of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from the naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl. (author)

  11. Modulation of the wettability of excipients by surfactant and its impacts on the disintegration and release of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baixue; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiuxiao; Li, Sanming

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the modulation of the wettability of excipients by different types of surfactants and its impacts on the disintegration of tablets and drug release. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactants, including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and polysorbate (Tween-20 and Tween-80), was obtained using the platinum ring method. Contact angles of surfactant solutions on the excipient compacts and double-distilled water on the mixture of surfactant and the other excipient (magnesium stearate (MgSt) or sodium alginate (SA)) were measured by the sessile drop technique. Besides, surface free energy of excipients was calculated by the Owens method. Finally, the disintegration of tablets and in vitro dissolution testing were performed according to the method described in USP. The wettability of excipients could be enhanced to different extent with low concentration of surfactant solutions and maintained stable basically after CMC. For MgSt (hydrophobic excipient), the shorter the hydrophobic chain (C 12 , including SDS and DTAB), the better the wettability with the addition of surfactant in the formulation, leading to the shorter disintegration time of tablets and higher drug release rate. In contrast, the wettability of SA (hydrophilic excipient) was reduced by adding surfactant, resulting in the longer disintegration time of tablets and lower release rate. The modulation of the wetting of pharmaceutical excipients by surfactant had changed the disintegration time of tablets and drug release rate to a greater extent.

  12. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  13. Application of a Compact Magnetic Resonance Imaging System with 1.5 T Permanent Magnets to Visualize Release from and the Disintegration of Capsule Formulations in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Keizo; Okazaki, Shoko; Shinada, Kyosuke; Shibamoto, Yuma

    2017-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential in assessments of formulations, few studies have been conducted because of the size and expense of the instrument. In the present study, the processes of in vitro and in vivo release in a gelatin capsule formulation model were visualized using a compact MRI system with 1.5 T permanent magnets, which is more convenient than the superconducting MRI systems typically used for clinical and experimental purposes. A Gd-chelate of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N″,N″-pentaacetic acid, a contrast agent that markedly enhances proton signals via close contact with water, was incorporated into capsule formulations as a marker compound. In vitro experiments could clearly demonstrate the preparation-dependent differences in the release/disintegration of the formulations. In some preparations, the penetration of water into the formulation and generation of bubbles in the capsule were also observed prior to the disintegration of the formulation. When capsule formulations were orally administered to rats, the release of the marker into the stomach and its transit to the duodenum were visualized. These results strongly indicate that the compact MRI system is a powerful tool for pharmaceutical studies.

  14. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  15. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  16. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  17. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Suarez-Garcia, E; Safi, C; Yonathan, K; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3-1mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order kinetics. The process is selective towards proteins over carbohydrates during early stages of milling. In general, smaller beads led to higher kinetic rates, with a minimum specific energy consumption of ⩽0.47kWhkg DW -1 for 0.3mm beads. After analysis of the stress parameters (stress number and stress intensity), it appears that optimal disintegration and energy usage for all strains occurs in the 0.3-0.4mm range. During the course of bead milling, the native structure of the marker protein Rubisco was retained, confirming the mildness of the disruption process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined thermo-chemo-sonic disintegration of waste activated sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Yukesh Kannah, R; Yeom, Ick Tae; Do, Khac-Uan; Banu, J Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, there was an investigation about the impact of a new combined thermo-chemo-sonic disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS) on biodegradability. The outcome of sludge disintegration reveals that maximum Suspended Solids (SS) reduction and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilization effectuated at a specific energy input of 5290.5kJ/kgTS, and was found to be 20%, 16.4%, 15% and 27%, 22%, and 20%, respectively for the three alkalis (NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2). The conversion coefficient of the Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) to product Soluble COD (SCOD), calculated by nonlinear regression modeling, was found to be 0.5530gSCOD/gVSS, 0.4587gSCOD/gVSS, and 0.4195gSCOD/gVSS for NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2, respectively. In the biodegradability studies, the parameter evaluation provides an estimate of parameter uncertainty and correlation, and elucidates that there is no significant difference in biodegradability (0.413gCOD/gCOD, 0.367gCOD/gCOD, and 0.342gCOD/gCOD) for three alkalis (NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of municipal sludge and grease co-digestion using disintegration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchy, L; Pérez, A; Camacho, P; Rubio, P; Silvestre, G; Fernández, B; Cano, R; Polanco, M; Díaz, N

    2012-01-01

    Many drivers tend to foster the development of renewable energy production in wastewater treatment plants as many expectations rely upon energy recovery from sewage sludge, for example through biogas use. This paper is focused on the assessment of grease waste (GW) as an adequate substrate for co-digestion with municipal sludge, as it has a methane potential of 479-710 LCH(4)/kg VS, as well as the evaluation of disintegration technologies as a method to optimize the co-digestion process. With this objective three different pre-treatments have been selected for evaluation: thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment. Results have shown that co-digestion processes without pre-treatment had a maximum increment of 128% of the volumetric methane productivity when GW addition was 23% inlet (at 20 days of HRT and with an OLR of 3.0 kg COD/m(3)d), compared with conventional digestion of sewage sludge alone. Concerning the application of the selected disintegration technologies, all pre-treatments showed improvements in terms of methane yield (51.8, 89.5 and 57.6% more for thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment, respectively, compared with non-pretreated wastes), thermal hydrolysis of GW and secondary sludge being the best configuration as it improved the solubilization of the organic matter and the hydrodynamic characteristics of digestates.

  20. Improving the biogas production performance of municipal waste activated sludge via disperser induced microwave disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Vinoth Kumar, J; Rajkumar, M

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of disperser induced microwave pretreatment was investigated to analyze the proficiency of floc disruption on subsequent disintegration and biodegradability process. Initially, the flocs in the sludge was disrupted through disperser at a specific energy input of 25.3kJ/kgTS. The upshot of the microwave disintegration presents that the solids reduction and solubilization of floc disrupted (disperser induced microwave pretreated) sludge was found to be 17.33% and 22% relatively greater than that achieved in microwave pretreated (9.3% and 16%) sludge alone. The biodegradability analysis, affords an evaluation of parameter confidence and correlation determination. The eventual biodegradability of microwave pretreated, and floc disrupted sludges were computed to be 0.15(gCOD/gCOD) and 0.28(gCOD/gCOD), respectively. An economic assessment of this study offers a positive net profit of about 104.8USD/ton of sludge in floc disrupted sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fate of return activated sludge after ozonation: an optimization study for sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ozlem; Filibeli, Ayse

    2012-09-01

    The effects of ozonation on sludge disintegration should be investigated before the application of ozone during biological treatment, in order to minimize excess sludge production. In this study, changes in sludge and supernatant after ozonation of return activated sludge were investigated for seven different ozone doses. The optimum ozone dose to avoid inhibition of ozonation and high ozone cost was determined in terms of disintegration degree as 0.05 g O3/gTS. Suspended solid and volatile suspended solid concentrations of sludge decreased by 77.8% and 71.6%, respectively, at the optimum ozone dose. Ozonation significantly decomposed sludge flocs. The release of cell contents was proved by the increase of supernatant total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP). While TN increased from 7 mg/L to 151 mg/L, TP increased from 8.8 to 33 mg/L at the optimum ozone dose. The dewaterability and filterability characteristics of the ozonated sludge were also examined. Capillary suction time increased with increasing ozone dosage, but specific resistance to filtration increased to a specific value and then decreased dramatically. The particle size distribution changed significantly as a result of floc disruption at an optimum dose of 0.05 gO3/gTS.

  2. Ultrasonic assisted production of starch nanoparticles: Structural characterization and mechanism of disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufi, Sami; Bel Haaj, Sihem; Magnin, Albert; Pignon, Frédéric; Impéror-Clerc, Marianne; Mortha, Gérard

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the disintegration of starch (waxy and standard starch) granules into nanosized particles under the sole effect of high power ultrasonication treatment in water/isopropanol is investigated, by using wide methods of analysis. The present work aims at a fully characterization of the starch nanoparticles produced by ultrasonication, in terms of size, morphology and structural properties, and the proposition of a possible mechanism explaining the top-down generation of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) via high intensity ultrasonication. Dynamic light scattering measurements have indicated a leveling of the particle size to about 40nm after 75min of ultrasonication. The WAXD, DSC and Raman have revealed the amorphous character of the SNPs. FE-SEM. AFM observations have confirmed the size measured by DLS and suggested that SNPs exhibited 2D morphology of platelet-like shapes. This morphology is further supported by SAXS. On the basis of data collected from the different characterization techniques, a possible mechanism explaining the disintegration process of starch granules into NPs is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ozone decay in chemical reactor for ozone-dynamical disintegration of used tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Pismenetskii, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.; Benitskaja, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ozone decay kinetics in the chemical reactor intended for used tyres disintegration is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ozone was synthesized in barrierless ozonizers based on the streamer discharge. The chemical reactor for tyres disintegration in the ozone-air environment represents the cylindrical chamber, which feeds from the ozonizer by ozone-air mixture with the specified rate of volume flow, and with known ozone concentration. The output of the used mixture, which rate of volume flow is also known, is carried out through the ozone destructor. As a result of ozone decay in the volume and on the reactor walls, and output of the used mixture from the reactor, the ozone concentration in the reactor depends from time. In the paper, the analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from the parameters of a problem such as the volumetric feed rate, ozone concentration on the input in the reactor, volume flow rate of the used mixture, the volume of the reactor and the area of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that experimental results coincide with good accuracy with analytical ones.

  4. Generation of fine hydromagmatic ash by growth and disintegration of glassy rinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    The deposits of mafic hydromagmatic eruptions are more fine grained and variable in vesicularity than dry magmatic deposits. Blocky, equant shapes of many hydromagmatic clasts also contrast with droplet, thread, and bubble wall morphology of dry magmatic fragments. Small (disintegration of glassy rinds on pyroclast surfaces as they deform within turbulent flows. This process, termed "turbulent shedding", may occur during the expansion phase of vapor explosions or during turbulent but nonexplosive mixing of magma with water, steam, or water sprays. The occurrence of turbulent shedding and the resulting fragment sizes depend on the timescale for rind growth and the timescale between disturbances that remove or disintegrate glassy rinds. Turbulent shedding is directly observable in some small littoral jets at Kilauea. Calculations suggest that, in the presence of liquid water or water sprays, glassy rinds having a thickness of microns to millimeters should form in milliseconds to seconds. This is similar to the timescale between turbulent velocity fluctuations that can shred lava globules and remove such rinds. The fraction of a deposit consisting of fine ash should increase with the duration of this process: Large-scale Surtseyan jets generate hundreds or thousands of shedding events; bubble bursts or tephra jets at Kilauea's coast may produce only a few.

  5. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: jrodriguez@masdar.ac.ae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  6. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-01-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440–3450, 2015 PMID:26073446

  7. The production of lithium oxide microspheres from the disintegration of a liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ubaidi, M.R.; Anno, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    Microspheres of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) were produced from in-flight solidification of droplets formed by the disintegration of an acoustically driven, mechanically vibrated cylindrical liquid jet of molten LiOH. The molten material at 470 to 480 degrees C was fed through a 25-gauge (0.0267-cm bore diameter) nozzle, interiorly electroplated with silver, under ∼27.6-kPa (4-psig) pressure, and at a mechanical vibration frequency of 10 Hz. The resulting jet issued into a 5.5-cm-diam vertical glass drop tube entraining a 94.5 cm 3 /s (12 ft 3 /h) argon gas stream at 75 degrees C. The 100-cm-long drop tube was sufficient to allow the droplets of molten LiOH resulting from jet disintegration to solidify in-flight without catastrophic thermal shock, being then collected a solid microspheres. These LiOH microspheres were then vacuum processed to lithium oxide (Li 2 O). Preliminary experiments resulted in microspheres with diameters varying from 120 to 185 μm, but with evidence of impurity contamination occurring during the initial stages of the process

  8. Controlled precipitation for enhanced dissolution rate of flurbiprofen: development of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ebtessam A; Elmarakby, Amira O; Donia, Ahmed M A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of controlled precipitation of flurbiprofen on solid surface, in the presence or absence of hydrophilic polymers, as a tool for enhanced dissolution rate of the drug. The work was extended to develop rapidly disintegrated tablets. This strategy provides simple technique for dissolution enhancement of slowly dissolving drugs with high scaling up potential. Aerosil was dispersed in ethanolic solution of flurbiprofen in the presence and absence of hydrophilic polymers. Acidified water was added as antisolvent to produce controlled precipitation. The resultant particles were centrifuged and dried at ambient temperature before monitoring the dissolution pattern. The particles were also subjected to FTIR spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The FTIR spectroscopy excluded any interaction between flurbiprofen and excipients. The thermal analysis reflected possible change in the crystalline structure and or crystal size of the drug after controlled precipitation in the presence of hydrophilic polymers. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The modulation in the crystalline structure and size was associated with a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen. Optimum formulations were successfully formulated as rapidly disintegrating tablet with subsequent fast dissolution. Precipitation on a large solid surface area is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate with the presence of hydrophilic polymers during precipitation process improving the efficiency.

  9. Dis-integration of communication in healthcare education: Workplace learning challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Marcy E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper, based on a 2016 Heidelberg International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) plenary presentation, is to examine a key problem in communication skills training for health professional learners. Studies have pointed to a decline in medical students' communication skills and attitudes as they proceed through their education, particularly during their clinical workplace training experiences. This paper explores some of the key factors in this disintegration, drawing on selected literature and highlighting some curriculum efforts and research conducted at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine as a case study of these issues. Five key factors contributing to the disintegration of communication skills and attitudes are presented including: 1) lack of formal communication skills training during clinical clerkships; 2) informal workplace teaching failing to explicitly address learner clinical communication skills; 3) emphasizing content over process in relation to clinician-patient interactions; 4) the relationship between ideal communication models and the realities of clinical practice; and 5) clinical teachers' lack of knowledge and skills to effectively teach about communication in the clinical workplace. Within this discussion, potential practical responses by individual clinical teachers and broader curricular and faculty development efforts to address each of these factors are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The accurate measurement of the disintegration rate of 55Fe using an internal liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    As the well-known 4πX-γ-coincidence method cannot be used directly to find the disintegration rate of 55 Fe, another method was developed in which a tracer nuclide, possessing coincident gamma radiation, was used. It was now possible to determine the disintegration rate indirectly by the coincidence method using an internal liquid scintillation counter. 54 Mn and 51 Cr which lie in the immediate vicinity of iron in the series of nuclides, are suitable tracers. They are also electron capture nuclides, but decaying to an excited state, were counted by the 4πX-γ-coincidence method. A mixed source, containing 55 Fe and the tracer, was also counted by the coincidence method so that the 4π-counting rate of 55 Fe was obtained as function of the tracer's counting efficiency. It was also essential to find a relationship between the counting efficiencies of the liquid scintillation counter for 55 Fe and the tracer. This relationship is called the effeciency function. Efficiency functions were calculated for 55 Fe and 54 Mn as well as for 55 Fe and 51 Cr. Finally the radioactive concentration of a solution of 55 Fe had been carefully determined by using 54 Mn and 51 Cr tracers. The results for the two different tracers agreed within the statistical uncertainty of 0,4%. The systematic uncertainty on the final results was estimated as 0,17%

  11. Severe complications caused by dissolution of latex with consequent self-disintegration of esophageal plastic tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, C

    2000-09-01

    A case of decisive material degeneration of an esophageal Celestin tube is described: a 50-year-old man with adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus received a Celestin tube for palliative endoscopic treatment and 8 months later presented with suddenly occurring complete dysphagia. Dissolution of the latex layer in the proximal as well as the distal part of the tube had caused self-disintegration of the Celestin tube and had liberated the monofilament nylon coil which completely obstructed the lumen of the tube. Endoscopic tube removal was only possible by careful attachment of a balloon catheter and peroral extraction after insufflation with contrast medium up to 5 atm. A Medline-based review of the literature revealed different but predominantly severe complications (perforation, hemorrhage, obstruction, and peritonitis) based on material fatigue of the latex layer in esophageal Celestin tubes. At least 6 months after placement of a Celestin tube, regular fluoroscopic controls should be performed to detect early disintegration of the tube. Indication for the placement of Celestin tubes in patients with benign esophageal strictures and longer life expectancy should be assessed very critically.

  12. Fast Disintegrating Quercetin-Loaded Drug Delivery Systems Fabricated Using Coaxial Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS distributed in the core and sheath part of nanofibres, respectively, were successfully generated, and the drug content in the nanofibres was able to be controlled simply through manipulating the core fluid flow rates. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images demonstrated that the nanofibres prepared from the single sheath fluid and double core/sheath fluids (with core-to-sheath flow rate ratios of 0.4 and 0.7 have linear morphology with a uniform structure and smooth surface. The TEM images clearly demonstrated the core-sheath structures of the produced nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD results verified that quercetin and SDS were well distributed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP matrix in an amorphous state, due to the favourite second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the core-sheath composite nanofibre mats could disintegrate rapidly to release quercetin within 1 min. The study reported here provides an example of the systematic design, preparation, characterization and application of a new type of structural nanocomposite as a fast-disintegrating drug delivery system.

  13. Curcumin Inhibits Tau Aggregation and Disintegrates Preformed Tau Filaments in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Jitendra Subhash; Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Panda, Dulal

    2017-01-01

    The pathological aggregation of tau is a common feature of most of the neuronal disorders including frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The inhibition of tau aggregation is considered to be one of the important strategies for treating these neurodegenerative diseases. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic molecule, has been reported to have neuroprotective ability. In this work, curcumin was found to bind to adult tau and fetal tau with a dissociation constant of 3.3±0.4 and 8±1 μM, respectively. Molecular docking studies indicated a putative binding site of curcumin in the microtubule-binding region of tau. Using several complementary techniques, including dynamic light scattering, thioflavin S fluorescence, 90° light scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, curcumin was found to inhibit the aggregation of tau. The dynamic light scattering analysis and atomic force microscopic images revealed that curcumin inhibits the oligomerization of tau. Curcumin also disintegrated preformed tau oligomers. Using Far-UV circular dichroism, curcumin was found to inhibit the β-sheets formation in tau indicating that curcumin inhibits an initial step of tau aggregation. In addition, curcumin inhibited tau fibril formation. Furthermore, the effect of curcumin on the preformed tau filaments was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and 90° light scattering. Curcumin treatment disintegrated preformed tau filaments. The results indicated that curcumin inhibited the oligomerization of tau and could disaggregate tau filaments.

  14. Screening of anionic-modified polymers in terms of stability, disintegration, and swelling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffleur, Flavia; Ijaz, Muhammad; Menzel, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to screen the stability, disintegration, and swelling behavior of chemically modified anionic polymers. Investigated polymers were well-known and widely used staples of the pharmaceutical and medical field, namely, alginate (AL), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polycarbophil (PC), and hyaluronic acid (HA). On the basis of amide bond formation between the carboxylic acid moieties of anionic polymers and the primary amino group of the modification ligand cysteine (CYS), the modified polymers were obtained. Unmodified polymers served as controls throughout all studies. With the Ellman's assay, modification degrees were determined of synthesized polymeric excipients. Stability assay in terms of erosion study at physiological conditions were performed. Moreover, water uptake of compressed polymeric discs were evaluated and further disintegration studies according to the USP were carried out to define the potential ranking. Results ranking figured out PCCYS > CMCCYS > HACYS > ALCYS in terms of water uptake capacity compared to respective controls. Cell viability assays on Caco-2 cell line as well as on RPMI 2650 (ATTC CCL30) proved modification not being harmful to those. Due to the results of this study, an intense screening of prominent anionic polymer derivate was performed in order to help the pharmaceutical research for the best choice of polymeric excipients for developments of controlled drug release systems.

  15. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-10-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440-3450, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. An introduction to fast dissolving oral thin film drug delivery systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, Harsha; Gupte, Aasavari

    2013-12-01

    Many pharmaceutical companies are switching their products from tablets to fast dissolving oral thin films (OTFs). Films have all the advantages of tablets (precise dosage, easy administration) and those of liquid dosage forms (easy swallowing, rapid bioavailability). Statistics have shown that four out of five patients prefer orally disintegrating dosage forms over conventional solid oral dosages forms. Pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, emetic patients and those with Central Nervous System disorders, have difficulty in swallowing or chewing solid dosage forms. Many of these patients are non-compliant in administering solid dosage forms due to fear of choking. OTFs when placed on the tip or the floor of the tongue are instantly wet by saliva. As a result, OTFs rapidly hydrate and then disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the medication for local and/or systemic absorption. This technology provides a good platform for patent non- infringing product development and for increasing the patent life-cycle of the existing products. The application of fast dissolving oral thin films is not only limited to buccal fast dissolving system, but also expands to other applications like gastroretentive, sublingual delivery systems. This review highlights the composition including the details of various types of polymers both natural and synthetic, the different types of manufacturing techniques, packaging materials and evaluation tests for the OTFs.

  17. Recent dynamic changes on Fleming Glacier after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Peter; Seehaus, Thorsten C.; Wendt, Anja; Braun, Matthias H.; Höppner, Kathrin

    2018-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the world's regions most affected by climate change. Several ice shelves have retreated, thinned or completely disintegrated during recent decades, leading to acceleration and increased calving of their tributary glaciers. Wordie Ice Shelf, located in Marguerite Bay at the south-western side of the Antarctic Peninsula, completely disintegrated in a series of events between the 1960s and the late 1990s. We investigate the long-term dynamics (1994-2016) of Fleming Glacier after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf by analysing various multi-sensor remote sensing data sets. We present a dense time series of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) surface velocities that reveals a rapid acceleration of Fleming Glacier in 2008 and a phase of further gradual acceleration and upstream propagation of high velocities in 2010-2011.The timing in acceleration correlates with strong upwelling events of warm circumpolar deep water (CDW) into Wordie Bay, most likely leading to increased submarine melt. This, together with continuous dynamic thinning and a deep subglacial trough with a retrograde bed slope close to the terminus probably, has induced unpinning of the glacier tongue in 2008 and gradual grounding line retreat between 2010 and 2011. Our data suggest that the glacier's grounding line had retreated by ˜ 6-9 km between 1996 and 2011, which caused ˜ 56 km2 of the glacier tongue to go afloat. The resulting reduction in buttressing explains a median speedup of ˜ 1.3 m d-1 ( ˜ 27 %) between 2008 and 2011, which we observed along a centre line extending between the grounding line in 1996 and ˜ 16 km upstream. Current median ice thinning rates (2011-2014) along profiles in areas below 1000 m altitude range between ˜ 2.6 to 3.2 m a-1 and are ˜ 70 % higher than between 2004 and 2008. Our study shows that Fleming Glacier is far away from approaching a new equilibrium and that the glacier dynamics are not primarily controlled by the loss of the

  18. Accelerating the sludge disintegration potential of a novel bacterial strain Planococcus jake 01 by CaCl2 induced deflocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Saranya, T; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the impacts of phase separated disintegration through CaCl2 (calcium chloride) mediated biosurfactant producing bacterial pretreatment. In the initial phase of the study, the flocs were disintegrated (deflocculation) with 0.06g/gSS of CaCl2. In the subsequent phase, the sludge biomass was disintegrated (cell disintegration) through potent biosurfactant producing new novel bacteria, Planococcus jake 01. The pretreatment showed that suspended solids reduction and chemical oxygen demand solubilization for deflocculated - bacterially pretreated sludge was found to be 17.14% and 14.14% which were comparatively higher than flocculated sludge (treated with bacteria alone). The biogas yield potential of deflocculated - bacterially pretreated, flocculated, and control sludges were observed to be 0.322(L/gVS), 0.225(L/gVS) and 0.145(L/gVS) respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present the thorough knowledge of biogas production potential through a novel phase separated biosurfactant bacterial pretreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a novel electric field-assisted modified hydrodynamic cavitation system for disintegration of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Cha, Min-Jung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this current study, we present a modified hydrodynamic cavitation device that combines an electric field to substitute for the chemical addition. A modified HC system is basically an orifice plate and crisscross pipe assembly, in which the crisscross pipe imparts some turbulence, which creates collision events. This study shows that for maximizing disintegration, combining HC system, which called electric field-assisted modified orifice plate hydrodynamic cavitation (EFM-HC) in this study, with an electric field is important. Various HC systems were compared in terms of disintegration of WAS, and, among them, the EFM-HC system exhibited the best performance with the highest disintegration efficiency of 47.0±2.0% as well as the destruction of WAS morphological characteristics. The experimental results clearly show that a conventional HC system was successfully modified. In addition, electric field has a great potential for efficient disintegration of WAS for as a additional option in a combination treatment. This study suggests continued research in this field may lead to an appropriate design for commercial use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic dynamic viscoelasticity measurements for chitin nanofibers prepared with various concentrations, disintegration times, acidities, and crystalline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Shin; Osada, Mitsumasa

    2018-04-17

    Dynamic viscoelasticities were measured for chitin nanofiber (ChNF) dispersions prepared with various concentrations, disintegration times, acidities, and crystalline structures. The 0.05 w/v% dispersions of pH neutral ChNFs continuously exhibited elastic behavior. The 0.05 w/v% dispersions of acidified ChNFs, on the other hand, transitioned from a colloidal dispersion to a critical gel and then exhibited elastic behavior with increasing ChNF concentration. A double-logarithmic chart of the concentration vs. the storage modulus was prepared and indicated the fractal dimension and the nanostructure in the dispersion. The results determined that the neutral α- and β-ChNFs were dispersed but showed some remaining aggregations and that the acidified β-ChNFs were completely individualized. In addition, the α-chitin steadily disintegrated with increasing disintegration time, and the aspect ratio of the β-chitin decreased as a result of the exscessive disintegration. The storage moduli of the ChNFs were greater than those of chitin solutions, nanorods, and nanowhiskers with the same solids concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.