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Sample records for vocally trained women

  1. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  2. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  3. [Biofeedback in young singer vocal training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Paula; Ciochină, Al D; Burlui, Ada; Zaharia, D

    2007-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a learning process that is based on "operant conditioning" techniques. To estimate the significance of biofeedback to an accurate and faster control of singing voice emission. Significantly, it was discovered that professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theatre repertoire with regard to the visual-kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affect vocal timbre. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for youth singer vocal training, may be useful to these singers.

  4. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    OpenAIRE

    Louzada,Talita; Beraldinelle,Roberta; Berretin-Felix,Giédre; Brasolotto,Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: F...

  5. MOTIVATIONAL AND ADAPTATIVE ASPECT OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL TRAINING

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    Lin Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with motivational and adaptive direction of vocal training of the Art Faculty students of the Pedagogical University. Motivational and adaptive phase consisted in identifying the real state of prospective music teachers’ readiness to work with educational vocal choirs. The criterion of formation of motivational and adaptive component is defined as personal motivation in acquiring high-quality vocal and choral training. The author developed an experimental technique that involves a number of empirical research methods: special and long-term monitoring of the content and progress of the educational process; analysis, control and objectivity of teaching methods; testing; perform creative tasks; test activities; conversations and interviews that were conducted among students, faculty and trainers professional disciplines teaching practice.The mentioned criterion implies that Chinese students have sustained professional focus on improving their own vocal and choral training, awareness of the importance and prospects of this profession in their practical activities in educational conditions in China. Motivation in learning vocal and choral activities, Chinese students made the so-called "immunity" to the difficulties related with the new learning environment in universities Ukraine increases the desire to intensify and optimize the process of conducting and choral training, there is awareness of the need for new development knowledge, skills, new experience and carry it into practice national music and teacher education.

  6. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Talita; Beraldinelle, Roberta; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP) Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax). The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when pwomen (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63%) compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%). Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and studies of this ability in individuals with communication disorders must be intensified.

  7. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

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    Talita Louzada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax. The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP and jitter of period (JittP average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63% compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%. Conclusion: Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and

  8. Effects of vocal training in a musicophile with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbiks, Jonathan M P; Vuvan, Dominique T; Girard, Pier-Yves; Peretz, Isabelle; Russo, Frank A

    2016-12-01

    Congenital amusia is a condition in which an individual suffers from a deficit of musical pitch perception and production. Individuals suffering from congenital amusia generally tend to abstain from musical activities. Here, we present the unique case of Tim Falconer, a self-described musicophile who also suffers from congenital amusia. We describe and assess Tim's attempts to train himself out of amusia through a self-imposed 18-month program of formal vocal training and practice. We tested Tim with respect to music perception and vocal production across seven sessions including pre- and post-training assessments. We also obtained diffusion-weighted images of his brain to assess connectivity between auditory and motor planning areas via the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Tim's behavioral and brain data were compared to that of normal and amusic controls. While Tim showed temporary gains in his singing ability, he did not reach normal levels, and these gains faded when he was not engaged in regular lessons and practice. Tim did show some sustained gains with respect to the perception of musical rhythm and meter. We propose that Tim's lack of improvement in pitch perception and production tasks is due to long-standing and likely irreversible reduction in connectivity along the AF fiber tract.

  9. The Effect of Vocal Training Methods on Improving Turkish Accent Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Kivanc; Evren, Gul Fahriye

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Despite analyses of how vocal training methods can correct or improve Turkish-language accent defects, for most voice educators, the most important methods continue to be breathe management control and correct vocalization exercises. We therefore sought to demonstrate the relationship of song lyrics to breathe control, accent…

  10. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Mand Training by Staff and Unprompted Vocal Mands by Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro-Bruzzi, Darlene; Sturmey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a training package, including instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, for training staff members to conduct mand training with children. Experimenters collected data on staff performance on each step of a task analysis of mand training and on unprompted child vocal mands. Training resulted in increases in staff…

  11. Effectiveness of a Voice Training Program for Student Teachers on Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Bernhard; Nusseck, Manfred; Spahn, Claudia; Echternach, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of a preventive training program on vocal health for German student teachers was investigated on specific vocal parameters. The voice quality as described by the Dysphonia Severity Index of 204 student teachers (training group: n = 123; control group: n = 81) was measured at the beginning and at the end of the student teachers training period (duration 1.5 years). Additionally, for investigating the voice-carrying capacity, a vocal loading test (VLT) was performed. Finally, participants had to provide a subjective judgment of a possible Voice Handicap Index. The training program improved the voice quality of the trained group compared with that of the control group, whose voice quality declined. The trained group was also able to better sustain their voice quality across the VLT than the control group. Both groups, however, reported a similar increase in subjective vocal strain. The presented training program clearly showed a positive impact on the voice quality and the vocal capacity. The results maintain the importance of such a training program to be integrated in the education and occupational routine of teachers. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. UPDATING THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY IN FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL AND CHORAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Haiye

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to characterizing features of implementing project technology into future music teachers’ vocal and choral training. The analysis of scientific papers of outstanding scientists in philosophy, psychology, and art education, which deal with modern directions of using project technology, highlight its role in art education process. A methodological base is supported by considering contemporary scientific researches, in particular the theory and methodology of musical studies in accordance with forming students’ independence in the process of solving educational problems by means of project technology; developing principles of students’ professional training optimization on the basis of project activity; innovative development of future music teachers’ professional training that gives to the presented material novelty and presentable appearance. Studying future music teachers’ vocal and choral training as a process of constructing that has a special purpose of improving the quality descriptions of educational vocal and choral collective sound functioning, the author of the article discloses the basic principles of implementing project technology into future music teachers’ vocal and choral training. The author of the article pays the special attention to revealing specific features and maintenance of project technology in vocal and choral training of future leaders of child's art groups. An emphasis is made on the following basic factors that influence development of students’ creative individuality: constructing projects of their own becoming; setting aims, tasks, strategies and facilities of vocal and choral work; directing to the result; independent creative activity; presentation, reflection and correction of a project. On the basis of the obtained data the following principles of project technology are put forward in future music teachers’ vocal and choral training: principle of independence; principle of

  13. Evidence to suggest that copulatory vocalizations in women are not a reflexive consequence of orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Hendrie, Colin A

    2011-06-01

    The current studies were conducted in order to investigate the phenomenon of copulatory vocalizations and their relationship to orgasm in women. Data were collected from 71 sexually active heterosexual women (M age = 21.68 years ± .52) recruited from the local community through opportunity sampling. The studies revealed that orgasm was most frequently reported by women following self-manipulation of the clitoris, manipulation by the partner, oral sex delivered to the woman by a man, and least frequently during vaginal penetration. More detailed examination of responses during intercourse revealed that, while female orgasms were most commonly experienced during foreplay, copulatory vocalizations were reported to be made most often before and simultaneously with male ejaculation. These data together clearly demonstrate a dissociation of the timing of women experiencing orgasm and making copulatory vocalizations and indicate that there is at least an element of these responses that are under conscious control, providing women with an opportunity to manipulate male behavior to their advantage.

  14. A Comparison of Written, Vocal, and Video Feedback When Training Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kally M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Wu, Wai-Ling; Dupuis, Danielle L.; Hussein, Louisa A.

    2018-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of and preference for different feedback strategies when training six special education teachers during a 5-day summer training program. In Experiment 1, teachers received written or vocal feedback while learning to implement two different types of preference assessments. In Experiment 2, we compared either written or…

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Vocal Folds in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Virilized Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Ulrika; Isberg, Bengt; Arver, Stefan; Hertegård, Stellan; Södersten, Maria; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) may develop a virilized voice due to late diagnosis or suboptimal suppression of adrenal androgens. Changes in the vocal folds due to virilization have not been studied in vivo. The purpose was to investigate if the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is affected by virilization and correlate…

  16. Computerized Attention Training Program and Vocal Ensemble Classes – means of Adolescent Attention Focusing Ability Development

    OpenAIRE

    Trubina, Irēna; Sīle, Maruta; Vaļēviča, Evita; Voita, Daina

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays adolescents encounter difficulties focusing on particular, effective and long-term activities. These difficulties depend on their age group development regularities. The aim of the research is to evaluate computer attention training software in comparison with vocal ensemble classes on the subject of adolescent attention focusing ability development. Participants – 24 adolescents (both sexes, average age 14 ± 0,87 years) were divided into three experimental groups – experimental grou...

  17. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

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    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  18. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.

  19. The Effects of Gesture and Movement Training on the Intonation of Children's Singing in Vocal Warm-Up Sessions

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    Liao, Mei-Ying; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gesture and movement training for beginning children's choirs with regard to improving intonation. It was a between-subjects design with one independent variable Training Technique (TT). One dependent variable was measured: intonation in the singing of vocal pattern warm-up…

  20. Training process for foreign women.

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    Carlotta Malfone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses some strategies for the training process of foreign women. Several establishments must cooperate in this process (universities, unions, industrial associations, local councils not only to support job seeking initiatives but also to help these women move up towards more qualified work. The projects aimed at this are sporadic and marginal, lacking in finances because they are entirely focussed on job seeking schemes, and do not aim at helping women overcome their initial disadvantage. The result is not a qualifying training experience but merely a basic duty. Foreign women do not aspire just to dignified work but above all they wish to reach social recognition in order to benefit from all citizen rights yet maintain their personal identity through and through. We find basic fault already in the fact that the receiving country does not take into consideration the education of these women acquired in their countries. Actually, we do not find attempt to check, evaluate and improve the women’s starting qualifications. In the Italian job market, it is still impossible to ratify the qualifications of each new foreign woman. It is therefore necessary to act in many different ways in order to take care of the cultural needs of each ethnic group, so that these women could have options between different ways of life in order to get a positive introduction into the “new” country. It is necessary to create careful flexible courses for each need. Since women immigrants come from different nations, have different levels of instruction, have had different jobs, homes and relations with justice, our model of professional training must be reorganised in order to meet the real needs of these women. To this end, the education and re-training strategies must follow a careful analysis of the women’s living and working conditions, not only in consideration of their bureaucratic needs, but above all in consideration of the addressee

  1. Vocal reporting of echolocation targets: dolphins often report before click trains end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S H; Elsberry, W R; Blackwood, D J; Kamolnick, T; Todd, M; Carder, D A; Chaplin, Monica; Cranford, T W

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) wore opaque suction cups over their eyes while stationing behind an acoustically opaque door. This put the dolphins in a known position and orientation. When the door opened, the dolphin clicked to detect targets. Trainers specified that Dolphin S emit a whistle if the target was a 7.5 cm water filled sphere, or a pulse burst if the target was a rock. S remained quiet if there was no target. Dolphin B whistled for the sphere. She remained quiet for rock and for no target. Thus, S had to choose between three different responses, whistle, pulse burst, or remain quiet. B had to choose between two different responses, whistle or remain quiet. S gave correct vocal responses averaging 114 ms after her last echolocation click (range 182 ms before and 219 ms after the last click). Average response for B was 21 ms before her last echolocation click (range 250 ms before and 95 ms after the last click in the train). More often than not, B began her whistle response before her echolocation train ended. The findings suggest separate neural pathways for generation of response vocalizations as opposed to echolocation clicks. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  2. Contemporary Commercial Music Singing Students-Voice Quality and Vocal Function at the Beginning of Singing Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Olszowska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-10-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the voice quality and the vocal tract function in popular singing students at the beginning of their singing training at the High School of Music. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 45 popular singing students (35 females and 10 males, mean age: 19.9 ± 2.8 years). They were assessed in the first 2 months of their 4-year singing training at the High School of Music, between 2013 and 2016. Voice quality and vocal tract function were evaluated using videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, the perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Twenty-two percent of Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with vocal nodules. Palpation of the vocal tract structure showed in 50% correct motions and tension in speaking and in 39.3% in singing. Perceptual voice assessment showed in 80% proper speaking voice quality and in 82.4% proper singing voice quality. The mean vocal fundamental frequency while speaking in females was 214 Hz and in males was 116 Hz. Dysphonia Severity Index was at the level of 2, and maximum phonation time was 17.7 seconds. The Voice Handicap Index and the SVHI remained within the normal range: 7.5 and 19, respectively. Perceptual singing voice assessment correlated with the SVHI (P = 0.006). Twenty-two percent of the Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with organic vocal fold lesions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Circles of Women: Professional Skills Training with American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.

    This manual is a resource guide for organizing leadership training workshops for American Indian women at various levels of professional training. The resources and ideas for training were supplied by American Indian women who participated in such workshops. Section 1 of the manual presents an overview of critical issues in the professionalization…

  4. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Musical Training in Bel Canto Vocal Technique: A Brief History and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Christine Wondolowski

    This paper offers a brief history and philosophy of the origins of bel canto vocal style and describes the pedagogical methods used to achieve bel canto ideals in singing. The document discusses the adoption and development of this technique and how it developed over long periods of preparation in the foregoing centuries before the Baroque era.…

  6. A Comparison of Vocal Mand Training Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Vitale, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Skinner's classification of verbal behavior, the mand is the first and most advantageous verbal operant to develop. Deficits in vocal mand repertoires are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and can lead to decreased social interaction and increased problem behavior. The present investigation compared the effects of…

  7. Training spatial skills in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Bersted, Kyle; Smetter, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that even short-term video game training may transfer to other cognitive tasks. With the popularity of the Nintendo Wii with women, more of them might be exposed to the games that will increase their mental rotation skills. Because performance on mental rotation tests (MRT) has been linked to math performance in women, and thus may ultimately contribute to the under representation of women in STEM fields, it is important to continue to explore ways to decrease or eliminate the robust sex difference in mental rotation. The present study of 30 men and 30 women provides additional evidence that women may benefit from short-term (1 hour) training on either a Nintendo Wii™ or GameCube console to increase their mental rotation skills. One hour of video game training not only increased women's MRT scores to a level similar to men's scores, but also produced greater average improvement for women, even when controlling for experiential factors such as spatial and masculine childhood activities that could contribute to the sex difference in spatial ability.

  8. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  9. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  10. Hearing of note: an electrophysiologic and psychoacoustic comparison of pitch discrimination between vocal and instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2008-11-01

    Cortical auditory evoked potentials of instrumental musicians suggest that music expertise modifies pitch processing, yet less is known about vocal musicians. Mismatch negativity (MMN) to pitch deviances and difference limen for frequency (DLF) were examined among 61 young adult women, including 20 vocalists, 21 instrumentalists, and 20 nonmusicians. Stimuli were harmonic tone complexes from the mid-female vocal range (C4-G4). MMN was elicited by multideviant paradigm. DLF was obtained by an adaptive psychophysical paradigm. Musicians detected pitch changes earlier and DLFs were 50% smaller than nonmusicians. Both vocal and instrumental musicians possess superior sensory-memory representations for acoustic parameters. Vocal musicians with instrumental training appear to have an auditory neural advantage over instrumental or vocal only musicians. An incidental finding reveals P3a as a sensitive index of music expertise.

  11. Vocal parameters and voice-related quality of life in adult women with and without ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Pablo Rodrigo Rocha; Bertoldo, Simão Veras; Costa, Luanne Gabrielle Morais; Serra, Emmeliny Cristini Nogueira; Silva, Eduardo Magalhães; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptual and acoustic parameters of voice in adult women with and without ovarian function and its impact on quality of life related to voice. Cross-sectional and analytical study with 106 women divided into, two groups: G1, with ovarian function (n=43) and G2, without physiological ovarian function (n=63). The women were instructed to sustain the vowel "a" and the sounds of /s/ and /z/ in habitual pitch and loudness. They were also asked to classify their voices and answer the voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. The perceptual analysis of the vocal samples was performed by three speech-language pathologists using the GRBASI (G: grade; R: roughness; B: breathness; A: asthenia; S: strain; I: instability) scale. The acoustic analysis was carried out with the software VoxMetria 2.7h (CTS Informatica). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the perceptual analysis, both groups showed a mild deviation for the parameters roughness, strain, and instability, but only G2 showed a mild impact for the overall degree of dysphonia. The mean of fundamental frequency was significantly lower for the G2, with a difference of 17.41Hz between the two groups. There was no impact on V-RQOL in any of the V-RQOL domains for this group. With the menopause, there is a change in women's voices, impacting on some voice parameters. However, there is no direct impact on their quality of life related to voice. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Training of support afferentation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kholodina, N V; Nikolenko, E D; Payet, J

    2017-12-01

    We have recently shown a diminishing of the Menopause Index in old-aged women who underwent special training directed at the enhancement of support afferentation by increasing the plantar forefoot sensitivity (Bazanova et al., 2015). Based on these results we hypothesized, that purposeful training of support afferentation through stimulation of plantar graviceptors by Aikido practice will decrease excessive postural and psychoemotional tension not only in rest condition, but during cognitive and manual task performance too. Fluency of cognitive and motor task performance, EEG alpha power as an index of neuronal efficiency of cognitive control, amount of alpha power suppression as a visual activation measure and EMG power of forehead muscles as a sign of psychoemotional tension were compared in three groups of post-menopausal women: i) 8years training with forefeet support afferentation with Aikido practice (A), ii) 8years fitness training (F) and iii) no dedicated fitness training for past 8years (N). Simultaneous stabilometry, EEG, and frontal EMG recording were performed in sitting and standing up position in eyes closed and eyes open condition. Recording done at rest and while performing cognitive and finger motor tasks. We compared studied parameters between groups with one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc two-tailed unpaired t-tests. The fluency of tasks performance, EMG and alpha-EEG-activity displayed similar values in all groups in a sitting position. Center of pressure (CoP) sway length, velocity and energy demands for saving balance increased when standing up, more in group N than in groups F and A (all contrasts p values0.89). Post hoc t-tests showed increased fluency in standing in both Aikido (p0.77). Fluency in motor task and alpha EEG power decreased, but frontal EMG power increased in response to standing in untrained women (group N) and did not change in F group

  13. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  14. Understanding the Effect of Skills Training on Women's Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will evaluate the impact of skills training on women's livelihoods in rural ... returns on training and reduce barriers to women's financial well-being. ... The PSDF is a joint UK Department for International Development-Pakistan and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  15. Training and Generalization of Peer-Directed Mands with Non-Vocal Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Paden, Amber; Dickes, Nitasha

    2012-01-01

    The current investigation evaluated the effects of extinction and prompts on training and generalization of peer-directed mands for preferred items using a picture exchange communication system with 2 children diagnosed with autism. Results showed that independent mands with a peer increased during treatment for both participants, generalized to a…

  16. Effect of Spinning Cycling Training on Body Composition in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Fatih; Nar, Dilek; Erzeybek, Mustafa Said

    2018-01-01

    In this study the effects of a 6 week spinning cycling training on the body composition of women were investigated. Twelve sedentary women (32-47 years old) voluntarily participated in this study. The 6-week training program consisted of exercise sessions on 3 days per week. The intensity of the training program that was kept low in the beginning…

  17. What makes a voice masculine: physiological and acoustical correlates of women's ratings of men's vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartei, Valentina; Bond, Rod; Reby, David

    2014-09-01

    Men's voices contain acoustic cues to body size and hormonal status, which have been found to affect women's ratings of speaker size, masculinity and attractiveness. However, the extent to which these voice parameters mediate the relationship between speakers' fitness-related features and listener's judgments of their masculinity has not yet been investigated. We audio-recorded 37 adult heterosexual males performing a range of speech tasks and asked 20 adult heterosexual female listeners to rate speakers' masculinity on the basis of their voices only. We then used a two-level (speaker within listener) path analysis to examine the relationships between the physiological (testosterone, height), acoustic (fundamental frequency or F0, and resonances or ΔF) and perceptual dimensions (listeners' ratings) of speakers' masculinity. Overall, results revealed that male speakers who were taller and had higher salivary testosterone levels also had lower F0 and ΔF, and were in turn rated as more masculine. The relationship between testosterone and perceived masculinity was essentially mediated by F0, while that of height and perceived masculinity was partially mediated by both F0 and ΔF. These observations confirm that women listeners attend to sexually dimorphic voice cues to assess the masculinity of unseen male speakers. In turn, variation in these voice features correlate with speakers' variation in stature and hormonal status, highlighting the interdependence of these physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effects of laryngeal manual therapy (LMT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in vocal folds diadochokinesis of dysphonic women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus; Carneiro, Christiano Giácomo; Behlau, Mara

    2017-05-15

    To verify and compare the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and laryngeal manual therapy (LMT) on laryngeal diadochokinesis (DDK) of dysphonic women. Twenty women with bilateral vocal nodules participated and were equally divided into: LMT Group - LMT application; TENS Group - TENS application; both groups received 12 sessions of treatment, twice a week, with a duration of 20 minutes each, applied by the same therapist. The women were evaluated as to laryngeal DDK at three moments: diagnostic, pre-treatment, and post-treatment, which produced three groups of measurements. The DDK recording was performed with intersected repetition of vowels /a/ and / i/. The analysis of vowels was performed by the program Motor Speech Profile Advanced (MSP)-KayPentax. The DDK parameters of the three evaluations were compared by means of the paired t-test (p≤0.05). The measurements of laryngeal DDK parameters were similar in the phase without treatment, indicating no individual variability over time. There was no change with respect to the speed of DDK after intervention, but after LMT, DDK of the vowel /i/ was more stable in terms of the duration of the emissions and intensity of emissions repeated. These results show improved coordination of vocal folds movement during phonation. There were no changes in the DDK parameters following TENS. LMT provides greater regularity of movement during laryngeal diadochokinesis in dysphonic women, which extends knowledge on the effect of rebalancing the larynx muscles during phonation, although TENS does not impact laryngeal diadochokinesis.

  19. Phonation Quotient in Women: A Measure of Vocal Efficiency Using Three Aerodynamic Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashwini; Watts, Christopher R

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine measures of vital capacity and phonation quotient across three age groups in women using three different aerodynamic instruments representing low-tech and high-tech options. This study has a prospective, repeated measures design. Fifteen women in each age group of 25-39 years, 40-59 years, and 60-79 years were assessed using maximum phonation time and vital capacity obtained from three aerodynamic instruments: a handheld analog windmill type spirometer, a handheld digital spirometer, and the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS), Model 6600. Phonation quotient was calculated using vital capacity from each instrument. Analyses of variance were performed to test for main effects of the instruments and age on vital capacity and derived phonation quotient. Pearson product moment correlation was performed to assess measurement reliability (parallel forms) between the instruments. Regression equations, scatterplots, and coefficients of determination were also calculated. Statistically significant differences were found in vital capacity measures for the digital spirometer compared with the windmill-type spirometer and PAS across age groups. Strong positive correlations were present between all three instruments for both vital capacity and derived phonation quotient measurements. Measurement precision for the digital spirometer was lower than the windmill spirometer compared with the PAS. However, all three instruments had strong measurement reliability. Additionally, age did not have an effect on the measurement across instruments. These results are consistent with previous literature reporting data from male speakers and support the use of low-tech options for measurement of basic aerodynamic variables associated with voice production. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Training and capacity building for the empowerment of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, D

    1997-01-01

    Because training is a powerful way to promote the intellectual and professional growth of people and the process of behavioral change, the International Labor Organization Training Center in Turin has engaged in hundreds of training activities to enhance the socioeconomic status of women over the past 17 years. An emphasis on the human rights of females in accord with International Labor Standards has led the Center to create an information kit on "Women Workers Rights" that has been disseminated worldwide through training programs. The shortage of remunerated jobs has meant that improving socioeconomic conditions for many women depends upon creating a supportive environment for women's entrepreneurship and self-employment. Therefore, the Center adopted the interventionist strategy of offering training activities that considered policies and strategies to develop women's entrepreneurship. The Center has also collaborated with many other organizations in the production of multimedia modular training packages that deal with such topics as 1) women and new and renewable sources of energy; 2) women, environmental management, and sustainable development; 3) the eradication of female sexual mutilation; 4) a socioeconomic gender analysis; and 5) the rights of women workers. The Center will also contribute to the advancement of women as it undertakes management of the UN Staff College and continues to support implementation of the recommendations of the Fourth World Conference on Women.

  1. Vocal Tract Adjustments of Dysphonic and Non-Dysphonic Women Pre- and Post-Flexible Resonance Tube in Water Exercise: A Quantitative MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Rosiane; Murano, Emi Z; Gebrim, Eloisa; Hachiya, Adriana; Montagnoli, Arlindo; Behlau, Mara; Tsuji, Domingos

    2017-07-01

    To compare vocal tract (VT) adjustments of dysphonic and non-dysphonic women before and after flexible resonance tube in water exercise (FRTWE) at rest and during phonation using magnetic resonance imaging. Prospective study. Twenty women, aged 20-40 years, 10 dysphonic with vocal nodules (VNG) and 10 controls (CG), underwent four sets of sagittal VT MRI: two pre-FRTWE, at rest and during phonation, and two post-FRTWE, during phonation and at rest. The subjects performed 3 minutes of exercise. Nine parameters at rest and 21 during phonation were performed. Pre-FRTWE, eight significant differences were found, three at rest and five during phonation: at rest - laryngeal vestibule area, distance from epiglottis to pharyngeal posterior wall (PPW) and interarytenoid complex length were smaller in the VNG; during phonation - laryngeal vestibule area, angle between PPW and vocal fold (VF), epiglottis to PPW, and anterior commissure of the larynx to laryngeal posterior wall were smaller in the VNG; tongue area was larger in the VNG. Post-FRTWE, only three significant differences were found, two during phonation and one at rest: during phonation - angle between PPW and VF and the membranous portion of the VF length were smaller in the VNG; at rest - distance from epiglottis to PPW was smaller in the VNG. Results suggest that the habitual VT adjustments of dysphonic and non-dysphonic women are different at rest and during phonation. The FRTWE promoted positive VT changes in the VNG, reducing the intergroup differences. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Training Needs of Farm Women Towards Entrepreneurial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatesan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study revealed that majority (45.83% of the Farm women had medium training need and 30.83 per cent of them had high training need in case of homestead vegetable production. In term of training need in nursery establishment, about 45.00 per cent of the Farm women fell under medium training need category while 35.00 per cent of them fell under high training need category. As regards to their training needs in livestock & poultry rearing, the majority (49.17% of the Farm women had high training needs compared to 35.00 per cent of them having medium training needs. A big share (40.83% of the Farm women had high training needs in food processing, while 33.33 per cent of them had medium training needs. Farmers’ education, farm size, annual income, organizational participation and agricultural knowledge showed negative significant correlation, while fatalism had significant positive association with the training needs. The major problems faced by the Farm women in carrying out their EDPs were: lack of capital/credit, lack of irrigation water, lack of land, lack of knowledge about insect/disease control, marketing & communication facilities and attack of birds/animals, etc.

  3. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    of approximately one training session per week. RESULTS: In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo......INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training...... frequency. METHODS: Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency...

  4. Survey of trained scientific women power | Women in Science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Women in Science Panel (WiS) of Indian Academy of Sciences has ... of women scientists in India from various sectors mentioned above and find ... may be, because they have seen few role models of their gender in such establishment.

  5. Income Generation and Money Management: Training Women as Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sheila

    Based on a workshop in Gambia in 1989, this manual was developed to help Peace Corps workers to develop training techniques for teaching women to run businesses producing and selling local products and to manage money. Topics covered include the following: (1) the role of the facilitator in adult learning; (2) problems women face in controlling…

  6. Maximal fat oxidation rates in endurance trained and untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, A.B.; Stougaard, O.; Langfort, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in fat oxidation between endurance trained (ET) and untrained (UT) women. Eight ET and nine UT women performed a progressive cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. The rate of fat oxidation was similar at low work rates (...

  7. Assertion Training and Cognitive Restructuring With College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Marilyn J.

    The process of assertive behavior change of college women who received assertion training (AT) and cognitive restructuring was examined to assess the relative effects of different durations of exposure to cognitive restructuring. Undergraduate and graduate women students (N=27) at a state university volunteered and were screened for AT groups.…

  8. The Jump Training Program. In Season Conditioning for Women's Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Sue; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Women athletes have been successful in maintaining and/or increasing their conditioning and vertical jump levels when they participate in the in-season circuit training program described in this article. An exercise guide, sample individual score card, and photos of women practicing the exercises are included. (IAH)

  9. Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Vocal Fold Paralysis On this page: What is vocal fold ... Where can I get additional information? What is vocal fold paralysis? Structures involved in speech and voice production ...

  10. Women's empowerment in India: assessment of women's confidence before and after training as a lay provider

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Storm; Alan Xi; Ayesha Khan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gender is the main social determinant of health in India and affects women's health outcomes even before birth. As women mature into adulthood, lack of education and empowerment increases health inequities, acting as a barrier to seeking medical care and to making medical choices. Although the process of women's empowerment is complex to measure, one indicator is confidence in ability. We sought to increase the confidence of rural Indian women in their abilities by training them a...

  11. Women's Leadership Development Training for [Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelinsky, Lia R.; Anderson, James C., II

    2016-01-01

    Hoyt and Kennedy (2008) asserted that women deal with messages related to appearance, behavior, and leadership identity that promote a loss of voice starting at a young age. More specifically, these societal messages and expectations convey constructs of effective leadership that are often associated with men (Eagly & Carli, 2003; Eagly &…

  12. Endurance training and GH administration in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F

    2001-01-01

    and after completion of the training program. Similarly, no effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was observed when combining endurance training with rhGH administration. However, in both the placebo and the GH groups, fat oxidation was significantly increased during exercise performed......In the present study, the effect of endurance training alone and endurance training combined with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was investigated. Sixteen healthy women [age 75 +/- 2 yr (mean +/- SE)] underwent a 12-wk...... endurance training program on a cycle ergometer. rhGH was administered in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was estimated by means of microdialysis combined with measurements of subcutaneous abdominal...

  13. [Clinical analysis of vocal fold firbrous mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sun, Jing Wu; Wan, Guang Lun; Hu, Yan Ming

    2018-03-01

    To explore the character of laryngoscopy finding, voice, and therapy of vocal fold fibrous mass. Clinical data, morphology, voice character, surgery and pathology of 15 cases with vocal fold fibrous mass were analyzed. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Laryngoscopy revealed shuttle line appearance, smoothness and decreased mucosal wave of vocal fold. These patients were invalid for voice training and might be improved by surgery, but recovery is slow. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Conservative treatment is ineffective for this disease, and surgery might improve. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  14. The Use of Stress-Management Training for Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Daniel; Del Porto, Delbert

    Stress management training contributes to weight loss, maintenance of weight loss and improved social and occupational functioning in obese women. Data from the Beck Depression Inventory and the Assertiveness Questionnaire indicate that obese persons have poor self-concepts which result in depression which is inversely related to assertiveness.…

  15. IDENTITY AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN TRAINING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Delgado-Piña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyze the processes the identity changes and of empowerment in the case of a concrete experience of a group of women in the empowerment project, 2004, in Celaya, Guanajuato. The objective was to know the bond establish between both processes. For this analysis was used information provided through interviews, life stories and observation with seven promoter women who participate in the workshops in Celaya, Guanajuato, who were in the program of state trust fund ZUMAR-FIDEPO (Marginated urban areas-Trust fund for popular development. This program helps people who live in urban marginalized areas through the identification of their needs and problems, by means of community promoters. The Women institute of Guanajuato (IMUG, the United Nations for women fund (UNIFEM, and ZUMAR-FIDEPO were the institutions that were involved in the empowerment project in order to strengthen the process through the implementation of training workshops for the promoters training. In the study were included seven from twenty women who participate in the workshops, which remains in the state program making various activities such as: training in various activities, management of productive projects and they are community promoters. The analysis was carried out based on the speech of the promoters, what they say of themselves and the changes they detect in their identity taking into account the changes in self-esteem, in the auto-concept and the exercise of alternative forms to the authoritarian power.

  16. Strength training and body composition in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrup, Rachelle; Tucker, Larry A; LE Cheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2018-01-01

    Strength training is a sound method to improve body composition. However, the effect of age, diet, menopause, and physical activity on the relationship between strength training and body composition in women remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the intricacies of the relationship between strength training and body composition in 257 middle-age women and to quantify the effect of these factors on the association. The study was cross-sectional. Five variables were used to index strength training participation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by 7-day weighed food records, and physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. There were 109 strength trainers in the sample. For each day per week of strength training, body fat was 1.3 percentage points lower (F=14.8, Pdevote to strength training, the lower their body fat and the higher their fat-free mass tend to be. A significant portion of the differences in body composition seems to result from lifters participating in more physical activity than non-lifters. Menopause status also contributes significantly to the relationship.

  17. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  18. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  19. Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, F R; Corazza, A V; Paolillo, A R; Borghi-Silva, A; Arena, R; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (1) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (2) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (3) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate, which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Quadriceps performance was measured during isokinetic exercise testing at 60°/s and 300°/s. Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (∆ = 21 ± 6 W and ∆ = 634 ± 156 J, p women.

  20. Barriers and motivators for strength training among women of color and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Dallman, Amber; Turcotte, Lucie; Patterson, Joan; Napolitano, Melissa A; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined factors associated with adherence to a strength training (ST) intervention in a randomized controlled intervention trial testing whether twice-weekly strength training over 2 years could prevent age-associated increases in body fat in 80 overweight to mildly obese women, aged 25-44 years. Two sets of focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 25 women of color and 24 Caucasian participants, representing 60% of intervention participants. Fifty-five percent of FG participants had low adherence (defined as motivators.

  1. Training needs of farm women in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgga Rani V. And Subhadra M.R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Thrissur taluk of Thrissur district to assess the training needs of farm women engaged in dairy farming. It was found that out of the five major farm operations studied, the farm women needed training the most in housing. The minor operations preferred the most for knowledge need were proper design of cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, vaccination and banking and insurance. As for skill need, construction of scientific low cost cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, symptoms of common diseases and banking and insurance were preferred the most. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 221-223

  2. "BELTEK" Project for the Training and Employability of Women in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Erisen; Nadir, Celikoz; Mehmet, Sahin; Kurtkan, Kapicioglu M. Osman; Sait, Atas; Cemal, Akyol; Cagla, Girgin

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study based on BELTEK, which is a training organisation under Ankara metropolitan Municipality in Turkey. BELTEK is one of the initiatives aiming to train women and help to boost their employability. In this descriptive study, the goals, structure, training activities for the training and employability of women are put under…

  3. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  4. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  5. Injuries in women associated with a periodized strength training and running program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, K L; Harman, E A; Worsham, R E; Sykes, M B; Frykman, P N; Backus, V L

    2001-02-01

    Forty-five women participated in a 24-week physical training program designed to improve lifting, load carriage, and running performance. Activities included weightlifting, running, backpacking, lift and carry drills, and sprint running. Physicians documented by passive surveillance all training-related injuries. Thirty-two women successfully completed training program. Twenty-two women (48.9%) suffered least 1 injury during training, but only 2 women had to drop out of the study because of injuries. The rate of injury associated with lost training time was 2.8 injuries per 1,000 training hours of exposure. Total clinic visits and days lost from training were 89 and 69, respectively. Most injuries were the overuse type involving the lower back, knees, and feet. Weightlifting accounted for a majority of the lost training days. A combined strength training and running program resulted in significant performance gains in women. Only 2 out of 45 participants left the training program cause of injuries.

  6. The vocal quality in female student teachers during the 3 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Claeys, S; Dhaeseleer, E; Deley, S; Derde, K; Herregods, I; Strybol, I; Wuyts, F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the objective vocal quality and the vocal characteristics (vocal risk factors, vocal and corporal complaints) in 143 female student teachers during the 3 years of study. The objective vocal quality was measured by means of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Perceptual voice assessment, the Voice Handicap Index, questionnaires addressing vocal risks, and vocal and corporal complaints during and/or after voice usage were performed. Student teachers have a normal perceptual and objective vocal quality corresponding with a DSI% of 76. The analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement of the vocal quality between the first and the third year of study. No psychosocial handicapping effect of the voice was observed, though there are some vocal complaints and almost all student teachers reported the presence of corporal pain during and/or after speaking. Especially sore throat and headache were mentioned as the most present corporal pain symptoms. Due to the decreased awareness and the multifactorial genesis of the potential vocal risk factors, the student teachers are at risk for developing an occupational dysphonia during their teaching career. Because teaching is a high-risk profession for the development of voice problems, the incorporation of a direct vocal training technique to increase vocal endurance during teaching together with a vocal hygiene program, dietetics, and a stress management training program during the 3 years of study is needed to prevent occupational dysphonia. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Functional dysphonia and vocal cord nodules in teachers in Navarra, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino Moreno, María Prado; Hoyo Rodríguez, Asier; García López, Vega; Losantos Martínez, Juan Tomás

    2013-01-01

    To describe teachers treated for dysphonia and vocal cord nodules by the public health system in Navarra (Spain), to describe associated factors and to identify the proportion of these cases registered as occupational diseases. Cases of dysphonia occurring in persons between the age of 18 and 65 years, registered between May 2010 and June 2011, and treated in a specific unit (Speech Unit) of Otorhinolaryngology Services were identified. Information on occupation, sex and clinical diagnosis was collected. For teachers, additional information was obtained on smoking habits, teaching level and prior training in speech disorders and their prevention. Cases declared as occupational diseases were identified from the official Register of Occupational Diseases of Navarra. 135 teachers (18% of all dysphonia patients in the sample) were treated for dysphonia in the Speech Unit (87% women). Being female was 3-fold higher among teachers than other occupations (crude prevalence odds ratio = 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 2.1-5.9). Female teachers were also 6.5 years (95%CI, 1.7-11.4) younger than male teachers. No association was found between smoking and risk of vocal cord nodules or dysphonia. Only 20% of teachers treated had received training on speech disorders and their prevention. Nine out of 83 cases of vocal cord nodules diagnosed in professional voice users were officially declared as occupational diseases; in all cases, these were teachers. Dysphonia in teachers is a frequent reason for visiting a specialty clinic. Among these professionals, women showed a higher risk of suffering from vocal cord nodules. Most cases of vocal cord nodules in our sample were not reported as occupational diseases. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  8. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  9. Using the Women's Community Education Approach to Deliver Community Employment Training: A Case Study from Longford Women's Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lorne; Dowd, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The recent economic downturn and surge in unemployment has focused attention on education and training as a strategic response to Ireland's socio-economic crisis. However, that attention has been concentrated on training through statutory institutions, particularly FAS and the VECs. Longford Women's Link, a Women's Community Education centre in Co…

  10. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  11. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  12. Dynamics of general and specially trained of women-weightlifters at the stage of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Slobodyanuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the dynamics of the general and special training of women-weightlifters different groups weight categories for annual macrocycle at the stage of specialized basic training. Materials and Methods: indexes long jump, running 30 meters, push-ups, jumps on how Abalakova index and wrist strength athletes different schools of Ukraine. Results: found dynamic indicators of general and special training of women-weightlifters different groups weight categories at the stage of basic training six specialized schools in Ukraine. Conclusions: the results of the study provide an opportunity to consider certain indicators in planning differentiated training programs to improve the training process athletes for women-weightlifters at the stage of specialized basic training different groups weight categories in the annual macrocycle.

  13. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  14. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  15. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  16. Vocal Health Education and Medical Resources for Graduate-Level Vocal Performance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Katherine; Messing, Barbara; Bidlack, Melissa; Merritt, Samantha; Zhou, Xian; Akst, Lee M

    2017-03-01

    Most agree that education about vocal health and physiology can help singers avoid the development of vocal disorders. However, little is known about how this kind of education is provided to singers as part of their formal training. This study describes the amount of instruction in these topics provided through graduate-level curricula, who provides this instruction, and the kinds of affiliations such graduate singing programs have with medical professionals. This is an online survey of music schools with graduate singing programs. Survey questions addressed demographics of the programs, general attitudes about vocal health instruction for singers, the amount of vocal health instruction provided and by whom it was taught, perceived barriers to including more vocal health instruction, and any affiliations the voice program might have with medical personnel. Eighty-one survey responses were received. Instruction on vocal health was provided in 95% of the schools. In 55% of the schools, none of this instruction was given by a medical professional. Limited time in the curriculum, lack of financial support, and lack of availability of medical professional were the most frequently reported barriers to providing more instruction. When programs offered more hours of instruction, they were more likely to have some of that instruction given by a medical professional (P = 0.008) and to assess the amount of instruction provided positively (P = 0.001). There are several perceived barriers to incorporating vocal health education into graduate singing programs. Opportunity exists for more collaboration between vocal pedagogues and medical professionals in the education of singers about vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Differences in the Reporting of Vocal Fatigue in Teachers as Quantified by the Vocal Fatigue Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Banks, Russell E

    2017-12-01

    Occupational voice users report higher instances of vocal health problems. Women, who are more likely than men to report voice problems, are the largest members of some occupational voice users, such as teachers. While a common complaint among this population is vocal fatigue, it has been difficult to quantify. Therefore, the goal of this study is to quantify vocal fatigue generally in school teachers and investigate any related gender differences. Six hundred forty (518 female, 122 male) teachers were surveyed using an online questionnaire consisting in part of the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI), an index specifically designed to quantify vocal fatigue. Compared to vocally healthy adults, the teachers surveyed were 3 times as likely to report vocal tiredness or vocal avoidance and over 3 times as likely to report physical voice discomfort. Additionally, female teachers were more likely to have scores approaching those with dysphonia. The VFI quantified elevated levels of vocal fatigue in teachers, with a significant prevalence of symptoms reported among females compared to males. Further, because the VFI indicated elevated complaints (between normal and dysphonic) in a population likely to be elevated, the VFI might be used to identify early indications of voice problems and/or track recovery.

  18. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of concurrent training on health aspects of elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Leandro Peres Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Training programs that include aerobics and strength exercises, either at the same session or alternate days are defined as concurrent training (CT. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of a CT program on biochemical parameters,cardiovascular fitness, body composition and neuromuscular aspects. Twenty two elderly women physically active were randomly allocated to one of the five groups: AS (aerobic exercises followed by strength training; n=5, SA (strength activities followed by aerobics exercises; n=5, AG (aerobics exercise only;n=5, SG (strength activities only; n=4, CG (control group; n=3. The program lasted 12 weeks. Tests of dynamic and static strength, flexibility, aerobic power, body composition and biochemical parameters were conducted. In the aerobics power test, AS and SA groups showed differences in the post-test compared to the CG. In dynamic strength test of upper limbs, the groups S, SA, AS showed statistical differences from the CG in the post-test (p=0.009, 0.006 and 0.002 respectively. Only the AS group presented some difference from the pre to post-tests (P=003. AG, SG, SA, AS showed differences in the post-test inrelation to the CG for the lower limbs strength test (p<0.001. From pre to post-test within the same group, the groups SG, SA and AS showed differences (p=0.001, 0.03, 0.02. Stretching, static strength, biochemical factors and body composition showed no association with any of the groups. We concluded that CT was equivalent to the strength and aerobics exercises performed exclusively.

  20. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    Elite women volleyball players (n=25; age; 19±5 yrs, height; 171±7 cm, weight; 63±10 kg; means±SD) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high intensity training group (HIT; n=13) and a control group (CON; n=12). In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT...... women volleyball players....

  1. Effect of Strength Training on Rate of Force Development in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjao, Andre Luiz Demantova; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Carneiro, Nelson Hilario; Goncalves, Raquel; Ferreira de Moura, Rodrigo; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of an 8-week strength training (ST) program on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromyographic activity (EMG) in older women. Seventeen women (M age = 63.4 years, SD = 4.9) without previous ST experience were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 10) group. A leg-press isometric test was…

  2. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    vocal behavior of popular singers, according to gender and professional and amateur categories. METHOD: interview with 47 singers, 25 men and 22 women. RESULTS: there were statistical significance differences in the following findings: MALE - microphone during rehearsal, absence of diagnosed voice problems, lack of assistance on vocal hygiene, pain or discomfort after singing, but no allergies or respiratory problems; FEMALES - singing lessons and awareness of posture; AMATEUR - no dancing while singing, no imitating voices, lack of otolaryngological evaluation (ENT, no diagnosed vocal problems, lack of speech-language therapy, absence of guidelines on vocal anatomy/physiology and without alcohol consumption during the rehearsals; PROFESSIONAL- hoarseness, knowledge about articulation, alcohol consumption during performance, excess throat clearing, pain after singing. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between genders showed male singers were using microphone in rehearsals, did not have respiratory or allergic problems, nor voice problems were diagnosed, but they had pain sensation or discomfort after singing and did not have vocal hygiene, and female singers had singing lessons and followed posture guidelines. The comparison between amateurs and professionals showed that amateur singers did not dance while singing, did not imitate voices, did not consume alcohol during rehearsals, and did not have diagnosed voice problems, but they did not have ENT evaluation, nor did they engage in speech-language therapy, and had no awareness of vocal anatomy/physiology; and the professional singers complained of hoarseness, excess throat clearing and pain after singing, and they consumed alcohol during singing, despite having knowledge about articulation.

  3. Is voice therapy effective for the treatment of dysphonic patients with benign vocal fold lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Inohara, Hidenori

    2017-08-22

    To update our knowledge regarding the effectiveness of voice therapy for the treatment of vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions, including vocal polyps, nodules and cysts, and for determining the utility of voice therapy in treating organic voice disorders, while highlighting problems for the future development of this clinical field. We conducted a review of the most recent literature on the therapeutic effects of voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or direct vocal training on vocal quality, the lesion appearance and discomfort felt by patients due to the clinical entity of benign vocal fold mass lesions. Although voice therapy is principally indicated for the treatment of functional dysphonia without any organic abnormalities in the vocal folds, a number of clinicians have attempted to perform voice therapy even in dysphonic patients with benign mass lesions in the vocal folds. The two major possible reasons for the effectiveness of voice therapy on vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions are hypothesized to be the regression of lesions and the correction of excessive/inappropriate muscle contraction of the phonatory organs. According to the current literature, a substantial proportion of vocal polyps certainly tend to shrink after voice therapy, but whether or not the regression results from voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or a natural cure is unclear at present due to the lack of controlled studies comparing two groups with and without interventions. Regarding vocal nodules, no studies have investigated the effectiveness of voice therapy using proper experimental methodology. Vocal cysts are difficult to cure by voice therapy without surgical excision according to previous studies. Evidences remains insufficient to support the use of voice therapy against benign vocal fold lesions. Evidences at present is therefore still insufficient to support the use of voice therapy for the treatment of benign vocal fold

  4. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  5. Functional results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Denk, Doris-Maria; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    A persistent insufficiency of glottal closure is mostly a consequence of a unilateral vocal fold movement impairment. It can also be caused by vocal fold atrophy or scarring processes with regular bilateral respiratory vocal fold function. Because of consequential voice, breathing, and swallowing impairments, a functional surgical treatment is required. The goal of the study was to outline the functional results after medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant according to Friedrich. In the period of 1999 to 2001, an external vocal fold medialization using the titanium implant was performed on 28 patients (12 women and 16 men). The patients were in the age range of 19 to 84 years. Twenty-two patients had a paralysis of the left-side vocal fold, and six patients, of the right-side vocal fold. Detailed functional examinations were executed on all patients before and after the surgery: perceptive voice sound analysis according to the "roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness" method, judgment of the s/z ratio and voice dysfunction index, voice range profile measurements, videostroboscopy, and pulmonary function tests. In case of dysphagia/aspiration, videofluoroscopy of swallowing was also performed. The respective data were statistically analyzed (paired t test, Wilcoxon-test). All patients reported on improvement of voice, swallowing, and breathing functions postoperatively. Videostroboscopy revealed an almost complete glottal closure after surgery in all of the patients. All voice-related parameters showed a significant improvement. An increase of the laryngeal resistance by the medialization procedure could be excluded by analysis of the pulmonary function test. The results confirm the external medialization of the vocal folds as an adequate method in the therapy of voice, swallowing, and breathing impairment attributable to an insufficient glottal closure. The titanium implant offers, apart from good tissue tolerability, the

  6. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  7. Determining the optimal pelvic floor muscle training regimen for women with stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Chantale; Glazener, Cathryn; Jenkinson, David

    2011-06-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training has received Level-A evidence rating in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women, based on meta-analysis of numerous randomized control trials (RCTs) and is recommended in many published guidelines. However, the actual regimen of PFM training used varies widely in these RCTs. Hence, to date, the optimal PFM training regimen for achieving continence remains unknown and the following questions persist: how often should women attend PFM training sessions and how many contractions should they perform for maximal effect? Is a regimen of strengthening exercises better than a motor control strategy or functional retraining? Is it better to administer a PFM training regimen to an individual or are group sessions equally effective, or better? Which is better, PFM training by itself or in combination with biofeedback, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and/or vaginal cones? Should we use improvement or cure as the ultimate outcome to determine which regimen is the best? The questions are endless. As a starting point in our endeavour to identify optimal PFM training regimens, the aim of this study is (a) to review the present evidence in terms of the effectiveness of different PFM training regimens in women with SUI and (b) to discuss the current literature on PFM dysfunction in SUI women, including the up-to-date evidence on skeletal muscle training theory and other factors known to impact on women's participation in and adherence to PFM training. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  9. 'Am I being over-sensitive?' Women's experience of sexual harassment during medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Susan W

    2004-01-01

    Despite larger numbers of women in medicine and strong statements against gender discrimination in written policies and the medical literature, sexual harassment persists in medical training. This study examines the everyday lives of women and men resident physicians to understand the context within which harassment unfolds. The narratives explored here reveal how attention is deflected from the problem of sexual harassment through a focus on women's 'sensitivity'. Women resist by refusing to name sexual harassment as problematic, and by defining sexual harassment as 'small stuff' in the context of a rigorous training program. Ultimately, both tactics of resistance fail. Closer examination of the relations shaping everyday actions is key, as is viewing the rigid hierarchy of authority and power in medical training through a gender lens. I conclude with a discussion of how reforms in medical education must tend to the gendered, everyday realities of women and men in training.

  10. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  11. Evaluating vocational training program for women in Brazil | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -economic status and well-being of women and to building gender equality. ... of Education and the Association of Canadian Community Colleges. ... up in 2011 and is expected to benefit 100,000 women by the end of 2014.

  12. Training Mental Health Professionals on Violence against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela; Grining, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Counselors, social workers, and psychologists in Illinois reported their training regarding female victims of violence. Results show 56% had training on sexual assault, 59% on domestic violence, 36% on sexual harassment, and 78% on childhood sexual abuse/incest. The ways in which training was obtained are discussed. Recommendations for future…

  13. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  14. Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Pilla, Carmen; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Barreto, Michelle Flores; Vieiro, Priscila Azevedo; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia. Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval…

  15. Occupational Vocal Health of Elite Sports Coaches: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katie L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Oates, Jennifer M

    2015-07-01

    To explore the occupational voice use and vocal health of elite football coaches. This pilot study explored coaches' voice use patterns and vocal demands across workplace environments. Each coach's experiences of voice symptoms and voice problems were also investigated. Twelve Australian professional football coaches participated in a mixed-methods data collection approach. Data were collected through acoustic voice measurement (Ambulatory Phonation Monitor), semistructured interviews, and a voice symptom questionnaire (Voice Capabilities Questionnaire). Acoustic measures suggested heavy vocal loads for coaches during player training. All participants reported experiencing voice symptoms. They also suggested that the structure of their working week, workplace tasks, and vocal demands impacted on their voices. Despite this, participants reported little previous reflection or awareness of what impacted on their voices. Coaches typically did not consider how to support their voices during daily work and discussed experiencing voice symptoms as an inevitable part of their jobs. This study demonstrates that occupational vocal demands may negatively impact on sports coaches' vocal health. This is particularly important, considering coaches' heavy vocal loads across coaching tasks and reported negative occupational vocal health experience. Furthermore, coaches' limited insight into voice use and vocal health management may impact on their vocal performance and health. Given the exploratory nature of this study, further research into coaches' occupational vocal health is warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Failure of operant control of vocal learning in budgerigars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Seki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Budgerigars were trained by operant conditioning to produce contact calls immediately after hearing a stimulus contact call. In Experiments 1 and 2, playback stimuli were chosen from two different contact call classes from the bird’s repertoire. Once this task was learned, the birds were then tested with other probe stimulus calls from its repertoire, which differed from the original calls drawn from the two classes. Birds failed to mimic the probe stimuli but instead produced one of the two call classes as in the training sessions, showing that birds learned that each stimulus call served as a discriminative stimulus but not as a vocal template for imitation. In Experiment 3, birds were then trained with stimulus calls falling along a 24-step acoustic gradient which varied between the two sounds representing the two contact call categories. As before, birds obtained a reward when the bird’s vocalization matched that of the stimulus above a criterion level. Since the first step and the last step in the gradient were the birds’ original contact calls, these two patterns were easily matched. Intermediate contact calls in the gradient were much harder for the birds to match. After extensive training, one bird learned to produce contact calls that had only a modest similarity to the intermediate contact calls along the gradient. In spite of remarkable vocal plasticity under natural conditions, operant conditioning methods with budgerigars, even after extensive training and rigorous control of vocal discriminative stimuli, failed to show vocal learning.

  17. Physical Training Strategies for Military Women's Performance Optimization in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    The physiological differences, particularly of upper-body strength and power, between women and men, and the rigors of combat-centric occupational demands would seem to place women at a significant disadvantage, as the U.S. military opens up previously closed combat-arms military occupational specialties (MOSs) to women. This inherent disadvantage can be significantly mitigated by implementing effective and comprehensive physical training (PT) regimens for women targeting those fitness components most critical for those tasks considered most essential for solider warfighting duties (i.e., strength and power). Regrettably, the military historical and legacy overemphasis on aerobic fitness and on "field expediency" as the major criteria for implementing training have limited the extent to which the military has fully operationalized state-of-the-science PT policies. This continued legacy approach could be problematic regarding fully enhancing women's abilities to perform physically demanding combat-centric occupations and could place the successful integration of women into ground combat MOSs at significant risk. Seminal studies from the literature indicate that (a) a minimum of 6 months of periodized combined resistance/endurance training preparedness is recommended for untrained women considering entering combat-arms MOS training; (b) any comprehensive PT program should incorporate and emphasize progressive load carriage training; (c) a greater emphasis on upper body on strength/power development in military women is needed; (d) heavy resistance training in the range of 3-8 repetition maximum sets should be incorporated into training programs to target type II motor units and muscle fibers (those fibers that produce the most force and have the greatest capacity to hypertrophy); (e) low-volume, high-intensity interval training should be considered as a time-efficient training method to improve aerobic fitness while protecting against lower-body musculoskeletal

  18. Feedback or biofeedback to augment pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herderschee, Roselien; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Herbison, G. Peter; Roovers, Jan Paul; Heineman, Maas Jan

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is an effective treatment for stress urinary incontinence in women. Whilst most of the PFMT trials have been done in women with stress urinary incontinence, there is also some trial evidence that PFMT is effective for urgency urinary incontinence and mixed urinary

  19. Vocational Training for Liushou Women in Rural China: Development by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongxia; Liu, Zhiwen; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    As industrialisation and urbanisation aggressively take hold in China, all possible labour pools are being tapped to meet the market demands. Liushou women, or women who stay behind in rural areas as their spouses join the massive migrant workforce, are one such labour pool. Vocational training has been adopted by the Chinese state as a…

  20. Business and Management Development Training Program for Hispanic Women. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.

    A program was conducted to develop and motivate minority women, in particular Hispanic origin women, in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to participate in business ownership and management. Offered at no cost to participants, the training program sought to equip potential managers with information and techniques in the fundamental…

  1. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  2. Leadership Characteristics and Training Needs of Women and Men in Charge of Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Marita; López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results obtained by two consecutive enquiries into the leadership styles and training needs of women and men leading higher education organisations. It compares the findings of the first stage of two studies, based on ad hoc questionnaires responded to by 136 women and 129 men. Results showed only subtle differences…

  3. Sexual Objectification of Women: Clinical Implications and Training Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Carr, Erika R.; Moffitt, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implications of theory and empirical research on the sexual objectification of women. Drawing largely from the American Psychological Association's 2007 "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Girls and Women," the 2007 "Report of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls,"…

  4. Improvement of systolic and diastolic heart function after physical training in sedentary women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Hansen, Peter Riis; Søgaard, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiac effects of football training and running for inactive pre-menopausal women by standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to two training groups (football: FG; n=19; running; RG; n=18) training 1 h with equal.......0+/-1.3 mm (PRight ventricle diameter increased by 12% in FG and 10% in RG (P

  5. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...

  6. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral infections. Some viral infections, such as Lyme disease, Epstein-Barr and herpes, can cause inflammation and damage directly to the nerves in the larynx. Neurological conditions. If you have certain ... disease, you may experience vocal cord paralysis. Risk factors ...

  7. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  8. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  9. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, M; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M; Nielsen, H P; Mortensen, J; Weihe, P; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21; FTG) and a control group (n = 20; CON). FTG performed 45 ± 1 1-h small-sided football training sessions during the 15-week intervention period. BP, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. After 15 weeks, systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, were lowered more (P endurance level 1 test performance increased more (P training resulted in a marked reduction in BP and induced multiple improvements in fitness and cardiovascular health profile of untrained, premenopausal women with mild hypertension. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.......1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20.......7 ± 1.9 and 2.4 ± 2.9 %, respectively, in SOC, with a greater (P soccer training with sedentary middle-aged women caused marked increases in bone...

  11. Safety of strength training in premenopausal women: musculoskeletal injuries from a two-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Meghan; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-01-01

    The health benefits of strength training must be weighed against risks, including injuries. A prior study observed 4.2 injuries that limited usual activities for a day per 1000 strength training sessions among men and women. The analysis herein explores the incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries from strength training in women. Randomized controlled trial. SETTING; Free-living community. A total of 163 injury-free, overweight, sedentary, premenopausal women aged 25 to 44 years. Two years of strength training (n = 81) or standard care (n = 82). The intervention followed published guidelines (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) with hypothesized injury prevention strategies. An injury survey was administered at years 1 and 2. Injury was defined as physical activity or strength training associated injuries that limited daily activities for 1 week or more. Denominators for rate calculation were accelerometer-measured physical activity and strength training attendance (strength training only). The between-group probability of injuries was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Injury incidence rates were higher in strength training compared with standard care. In strength training, the injury rates were 3.6 per 1000 strength training sessions (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.8 per 1000) for physical activity-related injuries, and 2.6 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6 per 1000) for strength training-related injuries. Injury rates varied by definition and denominator. Strength training had lower injury rates than previously reported, providing preliminary support for the prevention strategies. The finding of strength training injuries underscores the need for balancing the benefits against the potential risks of this exercise modality.

  12. Whole-body vibration exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Kalfon, Roy; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Wong, Alexei

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise training on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), blood pressure (BP), and leg muscle function in postmenopausal women. Twenty-five postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension (mean [SE]; age, 56 [1] y; systolic BP, 139 [2] mm Hg; body mass index, 34.7 [0.8] kg/m2) were randomized to 12 weeks of WBV exercise training (n = 13) or to the no-exercise control group. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, carotid-femoral PWV, brachial-ankle PWV, femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV), leg lean mass, and leg muscle strength were measured before and after 12 weeks. There was a group-by-time interaction (P exercise training compared with no change after control. Heart rate decreased (-3 [1] beats/min, P exercise training, but there was no interaction (P > 0.05). Leg lean mass and carotid-femoral PWV were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by WBV exercise training or control. Our findings indicate that WBV exercise training improves systemic and leg arterial stiffness, BP, and leg muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. WBV exercise training may decrease cardiovascular and disability risks in postmenopausal women by reducing legPWV and increasing leg muscle strength.

  13. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  14. Effects of multidimensional pelvic floor muscle training in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasz, Helena; Kalchschmid, Elisabeth; Kofler, Markus; Lechleitner, Monika

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional and interventional study to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in healthy young nulliparous women and to determine the effects of a 3-month PFM training program with emphasis on co-contraction of PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscles and on correctly performed coughing patterns. PFM function was assessed by digital vaginal palpation in 40 volunteers and graded according to the 6-point Oxford grading scale. The PFM training program was comprised theoretical instruction, as well as verbal feedback during hands-on instruction and repeated training sessions focussing on strengthening PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscle co-contraction during forced expiration and coughing. At baseline, 30 women (75%) were able to perform normal PFM contractions at rest (Oxford scale score ≥ 3); only 4 of them (10%) presented additional involuntary PFM contractions before and during coughing. The remaining 10 women (25%) were unable to perform voluntary or involuntary PFM contractions. Mean Oxford scale score in the whole group was 3.3 ± 1.7. After completing the PFM training program, 29 women (72.5%) performed cough-related PFM contractions and group mean Oxford scale score increased significantly to 4.2 ± 1.0. The study shows that PFM dysfunction may be detected even in healthy young women. Multidimensional training, however, may significantly improve PFM function.

  15. Aerobic Training Improves Quality of Life in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eduardo Caldas; de Sá, Joceline Cássia Ferezini; Stepto, Nigel Keith; Costa, Ingrid Bezerra Barbosa; Farias-Junior, Luiz Fernando; da Nóbrega Tomaz Moreira, Simone; Soares, Elvira Maria Mafaldo; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura; Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Azevedo, George Dantas

    2018-02-13

    To investigate the effects of a supervised aerobic exercise training intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL), cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic profile, and affective response in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-seven overweight/obese inactive women with PCOS (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m; aged from 18 to 34 years) were allocated into an exercise group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 13). Progressive aerobic exercise training was performed three times per week (~150 min/week) over 16 weeks. Cardiorespiratory fitness, HRQL, and cardiometabolic profile were evaluated before and after the intervention. Affective response (i.e., feeling of pleasure/displeasure) was evaluated during the exercise sessions. The exercise group improved 21 ± 12% of cardiorespiratory fitness (p exercise group decreased BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol level (p positive affective response) in an exercise intensity dependent manner during the exercise training sessions. Progressive aerobic exercise training improved HRQL, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiometabolic profile of overweight/obese women with PCOS. Moreover, the participants reported the exercise training sessions as pleasant over the intervention. These results reinforce the importance of supervised exercise training as a therapeutic approach for overweight/obese women with PCOS.

  16. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Caldwell, Lydia K; Post, Emily M; Beeler, Matthew K; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2017-05-01

    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  18. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a voice training program for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizolato, Raquel Aparecida; Beltrati Cornacchioni Rehder, Maria Inês; dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; de Castro Meneghim, Marcelo; Bovi Ambrosano, Glaúcia Maria; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of a voice education program to teachers on vocal function exercise and voice hygiene and compare a pre- and post-vocal exercise for the teacher's voice quality. A random sample of 102 subjects was divided into two groups: experimental group (29 women and seven men) with vocal hygiene and training exercises and control group (52 women and 14 men) with vocal hygiene. Two sessions were held about voice hygiene for the control group and five sessions for the experimental group, one being with reference to the vocal hygiene habit and four vocal exercise sessions. Acoustic analysis of the vowel [i] was made pre- and post-vocal exercise and for the situations of initial and final evaluation of the educational program. Student t test (paired) and Proc MIXED (repeated measures) were used for analyses with level of significance (α = 0.05). The training exercises, posture and relaxation cervical, decreased the mean of fundamental frequency (f(0)) for men (P = 0.04), and for the phonation, intensity, and frequency exercises, there was a significant increase for f(0) in woman (P = 0.02) and glottal to noise excitation ratio (P = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference intergroup evaluations after 3 months. The control group presented increased mean voice intensity in the final evaluation (P = 0.01). Voice training exercises showed a positive and immediate impact on the teacher's quality of voice, but it was not sustained longitudinally, suggesting that actions for this purpose should be continued at schools. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Rojiani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While recent literature has shown that mindfulness training has positive effects on treating anxiety and depression, there has been virtually no research investigating whether effects differ across genders—despite the fact that men and women differ in clinically significant ways. The current study investigated whether college-based meditation training had different effects on negative affect for men and women.Methods: Seventy-seven university students (36 women, age = 20.7 ± 3.0 years participated in 12-week courses with meditation training components. They completed self-report questionnaires of affect, mindfulness, and self-compassion before and after the course.Results: Compared to men, women showed greater decreases in negative affect and greater increases on scales measuring mindfulness and self-compassion. Women’s improvements in negative affect were correlated to improvements in measures of both mindfulness skills and self-compassion. In contrast, men showed non-significant increases in negative affect, and changes in affect were only correlated with ability to describe emotions, not any measures of experiential or self-acceptance.Conclusion: These findings suggest that women may have more favorable responses than men to school-based mindfulness training, and that the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions may be maximized by gender-specific modifications.

  1. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chiun-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  2. Motivations and reasons for women attending a breast self-examination training program: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rea-Jeng; Huang, Lian-Hua; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chung, Ue-Lin; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Bih, Herng-Dar

    2010-07-10

    Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  3. Effect of 12-Week Pilates Trainning on EDSS in Women Suffering fromMultiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Z Shanazari; SM Marandi; S Samie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease that strikes the immune system. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease which debilitates the nervous system. The study was evaluated the effects of Pilates exercise on women with physical disabilities suffering from multiple sclerosis for 12 weeks .The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of Pilates trainning on EDSS of women suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) for 12 weeks. Methods: In the pres...

  4. High Intensity Interval Training Reduces the Levels of Serum Inflammatory Cytokine on Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, F M; Farinha, J B; Santos, D L D; Bresciani, G; Mortari, J A; Stefanello, S T; Courtes, A A; Duarte, T; Duarte, M M M F; Moresco, R N; Cardoso, M S; Soares, F A A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives: This study investigate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) and 2 weeks of detraining in functional and body composition parameters, lipoproteins, glucose metabolismand inflammation markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: 17 untrained women with MS underwent a HIIT program for 12 weeks. Methods: The training was performed in treadmills, 3 days per week, with intensity ranging from 70-90% of the maximum heart rate (HR max ) and 2 weeks untrained (inactive). Functional and body composition parameters were evaluated before and after the training, while maximal oxygen uptake, lipoprotein and inflammation markers were analyzed before, after training and also in detraining. Results: The HITT program resulted in changesparameters as glucose, HbA1cand NOx after training. In addition, a reduction in pro-inflammatory interleukins and an increase in IL-10 after the HIIT program were found. However, an increase in plasma levels of lipoprotein was found and body composition parameters remain unaltered.Besides, only 2 weeks of detraining are able to revert the effects on inflammatory parameters afforded by the HIIT program. Conclusions: The HIIT program used here positively affected inflammatory profile and other parameters, as glucose, HbA1cand NOx, on postmenopausal women with MS. Moreover, 2 weeks of detraining can reverse the beneficial effects of HIIT program. Our results point out the necessity to aply acontinuous HITT program, in order maintain the benefits detected, to post menopausal women with MS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  6. The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fusková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Title: The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation. Aim: The aim of this thesis is the comparison of the results of stress tests carried out preparatory period before and after the preparation period and whether the results were influenced by the applied training process. Methods: In this thesis was used background research of professional publications, content analyzes of documents and comparison of the results of stress tests and c...

  7. Determination of Nutritional Training for the Prevention of Anemia on Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Aytug Kanber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anemia seen during the period of gestation affects the health of the mother as well fetus. Nutrition education which given in pregnancy may prevent the development of anemia. Our research was carried out to determine the effect of nutritional training for the prevention of anemia due to iron defiency. Method: The training and the control group each having 30 people in our research received a total of 60 pregnant women. All of the pragnant women was administered questionnaire during the 3rd and 9th month of pregnancy to ascertain the participants sociodemographik features and level of knowledge and hemoglobin values were recorded. A nutritional training were given to the pregnant women in the Training group when they are in the 3rd months of their pregnancy and this pregnant women were reminded that they should pay attention to nutrition subjects them once a month by telephone until 9th months of pregnancy. To analyze the data chi-square, Mann- Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used. Results: During the 3rd month of gestation, the mean values for Hb was 12.5±1,6gr/dL in Training group and 12,6±1,0gr/dL in Control Group (P=0,893. It was also seen an increase in the level of nutritional knowledge for the women in the Training group (P<0,001, while there was not any significant difference in the other group (Control Group with a P value of (P=0,850. When the decrease in the Hb is considered during the 9th month of pregnancy, 0,6±1,1g/dL reduction was observed in group Training group and 0,8±1,5g/dL in Control Group group on average. However, there was not any XI significant difference in terms of decrease in Hb level in group Training group versus group Training group (P=0,387. Conclusion: It was observed that the training given to the pregnant women had a positive effect on their level of knowledge, whereas it was not sufficient to prevent Anemia in our research. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 45-52

  8. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  9. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  10. Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2012-09-01

    Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation.

  11. Parenting training for women in residential substance abuse treatment. Results of a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J M; Finkelstein, N

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents findings on the impact of implementing a parenting component in two urban residential treatment programs in Massachusetts for pregnant and parenting chemically-dependent women. The parenting component consisted of multiple services for both women and their infants while they were in residential treatment as well as aftercare services after discharge from treatment. Findings presented focus on: (a) the characteristics of the 170 pregnant and parenting women who participated in the parenting component during its 48 months of implementation; (b) changes in the parenting skills and self-esteem of women who completed parenting training; (c) the quality of mother-child interaction; and (d) the participants' perceptions about the impact of the parenting training. Women in both programs made dramatic improvements in self-esteem and experienced significant gains in parenting knowledge and attitudes. The participants were also overwhelmingly positive about the impact of the parenting training on their lives. Study findings underline the importance of parenting services for pregnant and parenting women in residential substance abuse treatment.

  12. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    frontend is used to measure the electroglottograph signal which reflects the opening and closing pattern of the vocal folds. The measurements were carried out for all four modes (Neutral, Curbing, Overdrive and Edge) for the vowel [a] in three different pitches: C3(131 Hz), G3 (196 Hz) and C4 (262Hz......The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from...... the soft levels of the Neutral mode to the high levels of the fully ‘metallic’ Edge mode. The acoustic impedance of vocal tract as seen from the mouth opening is measured via a microphone placed close to the mouth when exciting the system with a volume velocity source [2]. At the same time a Laryngograph...

  13. Bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles after 6-week biofeedback training in nulliparous continent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Smykla, Agnieszka; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Sobota, Grzegorz; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program on pelvic floor muscle activity in young continent women. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Biofeedback training was continued for 6 weeks, 3 times a week. Muscle strenghtening and endurance exercises were performed alternately. SEMG (surface electromyography) measurements were recorded on four different occasions: before training started, after the third week of training, after the sixth week of training, and one month after training ended. A 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program significantly decreased the resting activity of the pelvic floor muscles in supine lying and standing. The ability to relax the pelvic floor muscles after a sustained 60-second contraction improved significantly after the 6-week training in both positions. SEMG-biofeedback training program did not seem to affect the activity of the pelvic floor muscles or muscle fatigue during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions. SEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training might be recommended for physiotherapists to improve the effectiveness of their relaxation techniques.

  14. Domestic Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris are Sensitive to the “Human” Qualities of Vocal Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gibson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, domestic dogs have been recognized for their ability to utilize human communicative gestures in choice tasks, as well as communicate with humans through visual and auditory means. A few dogs have even demonstrated the capacity to learn hundreds to thousands of human words and object labels with extensive training. However less is known about dogs‟ understanding or perception of human vocalizations in the absence of explicit training. This study was conducted to determine what aspects of human scolding vocalizations dogs would be most responsive to when presented with a choice to consume or avoid available food items. Variables included the gender, authenticity, word clarity and the human quality of the vocal commands. Our results suggest that dogs are generally cautious about novel sounds produced in the proximity of food. However they are most likely to avoid consumption when hearing a vocalization originally produced by a scolding human, suggesting awareness of vocal qualities common to human speech.

  15. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  16. The Effect of Selective Hata Yoga Training on Balance of Elderly Women

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    Sepideh Jannati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of current study was to determine the effects of Hata yoga training on dynamic and static balances of elderly women in Mashhad. Methods and Materials: The present study enjoys the semi-experimental design. The statistical population of the study, which has been carried out in 2009, were elderly women of Mashhad who were voluntarily invited to participate in the research. 29 healthy elderly women aged 56-72 years old have been selected who haven’t had any disease history during the last one year such as: advanced osteoporosis, hip replacement, glaucoma, Parkinson’s disease, common occurrences of dizziness, or any surgery. Before and after doing the Hata yoga training program which was performed in 3- sessions of 1- hour during 8 weeks Dynamic and static balances were evaluated by fall risk test and postural stability test respectively by Biodex Balance System. Finally data were analyzed by using Variance analysis (GLM-repeated measures and Dependent T-test and the significance of results was α=0.05. Results: The effects of 24 sessions of Hata yoga training were significant on static balance: overall (P=0.001, anterior-posterior (P=0.002, medial-lateral (P=0.006 and dynamic balance of elderly women (P=0.00. Conclusion: Considering the positive influence of Hata yoga training on dynamic and static balances, it is concluded that Hata yoga training has led to the improvement muscle strength among elderly women particularly endurance and strength of muscles in lower extremity and may increase the efficiency of neuro- motor system and improve somatosensory of muscles and joints by ameliorating the existed balance and decreasing fall risk in elderly women.

  17. Improved postural control after dynamic balance training in older overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Farina, Felicia; Palma, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported a greater frequency of falls among older women than men in conditions which stress balance. Previously, we found an improvement in static balance in older women with an increased support surface area and equal load redistribution on both feet, in response to a dynamic balance training protocol. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the same training program and body composition would have effects on the postural control of older overweight women. Ten healthy women (68.67 ± 5.50 yrs; 28.17 ± 3.35 BMI) participated in a five-week physical activity program. This included dynamic balance exercises, such as heel-to-toe walking in different directions, putting their hands on their hips, eyes open (EO) or closed (EC), with a tablet on their heads, going up and down one step, and walking on a mat. Postural stability was assessed before and after training with an optoelectronic platform and a uni-pedal balance performance test. Body composition of the trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs was measured by bio-impedance analysis. The mean speed (MS), medial-lateral MS (MS-x), anterior-posterior MS (MS-y), sway path (SP) and ellipse surface area (ESA) of the pressure center was reduced after training in older women. However, only MS, MS-x, MS-y and SP significantly decreased in bipodalic conditions with EO and MS-y also with EC (punipedal static balance. Our dynamic balance training protocol appears to be feasible, safe and repeatable for older overweight women and to have positive effects in improving their lateral and anterior-posterior postural control, mainly acting on the visual and skeletal muscle components of the balance control system.

  18. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter; Fulford, Jonathan; Smietanka, Chris; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women.METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of conti...

  19. Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

    This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

  20. Effects of Muay Thai training frequency on body composition and physical fitness in healthy untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.

  1. The combination of exercise training and Zataria multiflora supplementation increase serum irisin levels in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise on irisin within postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-eight participants (age: 55.7 ± 4.9 years; weight: 68.0 ± 6.3 kg; BMI 27.0 ± 2.7; mean ± SD were randomized into four groups for the eight week intervention: control group (CG; n = 12, resistance training group (RTG; n = 12, supplementation with Zataria multiflora group (ZG; n = 12, or supplementation with Z. multiflora and resistance training group (ZRTG; n = 12. RTG and ZRTG performed circuit resistance training, and both ZG and ZRTG consumed 500 mg of Z. multiflora every day during the intervention. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference in irisin at post-training, with greater levels in ZRTG compared to CG. A significant increase was noted for irisin at post-training compared to pre-training for ZG, RTG, and ZRTG. Moreover, we identified a significant decrease in malondialdehyde in the RTG and ZRTG groups and increase in glutathione in the ZG, RTG, and ZRTG groups when compared to CG. Conclusion: These findings showed that exercise, Z. multiflora supplementation or their combination led to an increase in irisin. Keywords: Antioxidants, Circuit resistance training, Myokine, Postmenopausal women, Zataria multiflora

  2. Muscle hypertrophy and fast fiber type conversions in heavy resistance-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staron, R S; Malicky, E S; Leonardi, M J; Falkel, J E; Hagerman, F C; Dudley, G A

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four women completed a 20-week heavy-resistance weight training program for the lower extremity. Workouts were twice a week and consisted of warm-up exercises followed by three sets each of full squats, vertical leg presses, leg extensions, and leg curls. All exercises were performed to failure using 6-8 RM (repetition maximum). Weight training caused a significant increase in maximal isotonic strength (1 RM) for each exercise. After training, there was a decrease in body fat percentage (p less than 0.05), and an increase in lean body mass (p less than 0.05) with no overall change in thigh girth. Biopsies were obtained before and after training from the superficial portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. Sections were prepared for histological and histochemical examination. Six fiber types (I, IC, IIC, IIA, IIAB, and IIB) were distinguished following routine myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase histochemistry. Areas were determined for fiber types I, IIA, and IIAB + IIB. The heavy-resistance training resulted in significant hypertrophy of all three groups: I (15%), IIA (45%), and IIAB + IIB (57%). These data are similar to those in men and suggest considerable hypertrophy of all major fiber types is also possible in women if exercise intensity and duration are sufficient. In addition, the training resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of IIB with a concomitant increase in IIA fibers, suggesting that strength training may lead to fiber conversions.

  3. Endothelial function in highly endurance-trained and sedentary, healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Ingvild T; Hoven, Heidi; Hetland, Eva V; Rognmo, Oivind; Slørdahl, Stig A

    2005-05-01

    Endothelial function is reduced by age, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it is shown that aerobic exercise may reverse this trend. The effect of a high aerobic training status on endothelial function in young, healthy subjects is however less clear. The present study was designed to determine whether endothelial function is improved in highly endurance-trained young women compared to sedentary, healthy controls. Brachial artery diameter was measured in 16 endurance-trained (age: 23.7 +/- 2.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 60.6 +/- 4.5 ml/kg per min) and 14 sedentary females (age: 23.7 +/- 2.1 years, VO2max: 40.5 +/- 5.6 ml/kg per min) at rest, during flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and after sublingual glycerol trinitrate administration, using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD did not differ between the endurance-trained and the sedentary females (14.8% vs 16.4%, p = NS), despite a substantial difference in VO2max of 50% (p endurance-trained group possessed however, a 9% larger resting brachial artery diameter when adjusted for body surface area. The results of the present study suggest that endothelial function is well preserved in young, healthy women, and that a high aerobic training status due to long term aerobic training does not improve the dilating capacity any further.

  4. Evaluation of Vocal Fold Motion Abnormalities: Are We All Seeing the Same Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lyndsay L; Rosen, Clark A

    2017-01-01

    Flexible laryngoscopy is the principle tool for the evaluation of vocal fold motion. As of yet, no consistent, unified outcome metric has been developed for vocal fold paralysis/immobility research. The goal of this study was to evaluate vocal fold motion assessment (inter- and intra-rater reliability) among general otolaryngologists and fellowship-trained laryngologists. Prospective video perceptual analysis study. Flexible laryngoscopic examinations, with sound, of 15 unique patient cases (20 seconds each) were sent to 10 general otolaryngologists and 10 fellowship-trained laryngologists blinded to clinical history. Reviewers were given written definitions of vocal fold mobility and immobility and two video examples. The cases included bilateral vocal fold mobility (six), unilateral vocal fold immobility (five), and unilateral vocal fold hypomobility (four). Five examinations were repeated to determine intra-rater reliability. Participants were asked to judge if there was or there was no purposeful motion, as described by written definitions, for each vocal fold (800 tokens in total). Twenty reviewers (100%) replied. Both general otolaryngologists and fellowship-trained laryngologists had an overall inter-rater reliability of 95%. Difference in inter-rater reliability between the two groups of raters was negligible: 95% for general otolaryngologists and 97.5% for fellowship-trained laryngologists. There was no variability in intra-rater reliability within either rater group (99%). Intra- and inter-rater agreement in determining whether the patient had purposeful vocal fold motion on flexible laryngoscopic examination was excellent in both groups. This study demonstrates that otolaryngologists can consistently and accurately judge the presence and the absence of vocal fold motion. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  6. Effectiveness of Training Model Capacity Building for Entrepreneurship Women Based Empowerment Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idawati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a training model for capacity building of women entrepreneurship community-based. Research type approach Research and Development Model, which refers to the model of development research that developed by Romiszowki (1996) combined with a model of development Sugiono (2011) it was…

  7. Using Implicit Bias Training to Improve Attitudes toward Women in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah M.; Hillard, Amy L.; Schneider, Tamera R.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit biases can foster negative attitudes and lead to damaging stereotypical behaviors. Stereotypes can negatively affect the education, hiring, promotion, and retention of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This study evaluated the impact of diversity training on university faculty (N=234) by assessing changes…

  8. Training to do women's work in a man's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meachin, K; Webb, C

    1996-06-01

    Many student nurses also carry the responsibilities of parenthood, and government has encouraged the recruitment of more mature students to nursing. The majority of nursing recruits continue to be women, but career models are more appropriate to those who do not bear the principal responsibility for childcare, namely men. After reviewing the literature relating to these issues in the National Health Service, the article discusses discrimination against nurses who are parents. An empirical study of a group of mature nursing students on Project 2000 courses is reported, showing that they encounter problems with childcare, support, study, family relationships and inflexibility within nursing education. The article concludes by suggesting a number of points which nurse educators should bear in mind when planning and delivering courses to ensure that the needs of student parents are met.

  9. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  10. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriye Özengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19 and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19. Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. Results: An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05. There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05. A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05, and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05 in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05. A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05 in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Conclusions: It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse.

  11. Exercise training improves autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; Maresca, Luigi; Vuolo, Laura; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Francesco, Orio

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female reproductive-age endocrine disease predominantly characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammatory status. Exercise training (ET) favourably modulates cardiopulmonary function and insulin-sensitivity markers in PCOS women. The present study investigated the effects of ET on autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in PCOS women. Prospective baseline uncontrolled clinical study. One-hundred and eighty five PCOS women referred to our department were screened for the inclusion into the study protocol from March 2004 to July 2007. One-hundred and twenty four PCOS women met the criteria for the inclusion into the study protocol and were subdivided into two groups each composed of 62 patients: PCOS-T (trained) group underwent 3-month ET program, whereas PCOS-UnT (untrained) group did not. At baseline and at 3-month follow-up, hormonal and metabolic profile, cardiopulmonary parameters, autonomic function (as expressed by heart rate recovery, HRR) and inflammatory pattern [as expressed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBCs) count] were evaluated. PCOS-T showed a significant (P PCOS-UnT. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 3-month HRR is linearly related to the inclusion in training group (beta = 0.316, P PCOS women.

  12. Effects of strength training on blood lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women

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    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strength training is often identified as a contributing factor in prevention of diseases and as a non-pharmacological treatment for metabolic disorders and for control of body mass. Its protective effects and utility for management of disease are amplified in people at risk of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Recently the benefits of strength training have been used to reduce the risk of these diseases emerging in postmenopausal women, who are at greater risk of CVD than men of the same age. Notwithstanding, little is known about the effects of strength training on metabolism of blood lipoproteins. The objective of this review was to compare the results of articles that have investigated the effects on lipoprotein concentrations of strength training in postmenopausal women. Current articles dealing with the subject, with publication dates from 1979 to 2012 and large numbers of citations by well-known researchers were identified on the Pubmed, Scopus and EBSCO databases. It was concluded that strength training possibly has an action that affects lipoprotein metabolism and concentrations in postmenopausal women.

  13. Aerobic training does not alter blood pressure in menopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade; Couto, Henrique Eduardo; Cardoso, Glêbia Alexa; Toscano, Lidiane Tavares; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2012-11-01

    Arterial Hypertension (AH) is an aggravating condition for Metabolic Syndrome (MS), as well as being aggravated by it. Menopause can make hypertension treatment more difficult, as it favors the worsening of MS components. Although there is evidence that exercise training reduces blood pressure, whether menopause and SM affect the exercise-induced benefits is yet to be elucidated. To compare the effects of aerobic training on blood pressure in non-menopausal and menopausal women with MS METHODS: A total of 44 women were recruited and divided into four groups: non-menopausal control (NMC: 39.5 ± 3.6 years, n = 11); menopausal control (MC: 54.9 ± 5.9 years, n = 12), non-menopausal aerobics (NMA: 43.1 ± 6.8 years, n = 11) and menopausal aerobics (MA: 52.1 ± 5 years, n = 10). The exercise groups performed aerobic training for three months, five times a week, at an intensity between 60% and 70% of heart rate reserve. The resting blood pressure and blood pressure response after 60 minutes of exercise were measured before and after the training period. The two-way ANOVA test was used, considering a p value 0.05). Three months of aerobic training improved MS components, but did not alter resting blood pressure or the BP response after an acute exercise session in women with MS.

  14. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Education: Competences, Roles and Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Mary; Reed, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on selected outcomes of the European Association of Conservatoires (AEC) "Polifonia" Working Group for Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Training in Europe (2007-2010). The introduction provides the background to the project, explains the rationale and objectives, describes the research process and gives an overview of…

  16. Effects of Functional Training Program in Core Muscles in Women with Fibromyalgia

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    Iván Darío Pinzón-Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of a program of functional muscles core training targeting women with fibromyalgia. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental type trial was conducted, before and after an intervention, for 20 days, often three days/week, 60 minutes each session. In a single-group of eight women, changes in muscle strength, pain, quality of life related to health and physical activity were evaluated. Results: An increase in repetitions of the test trunk flexion, time on the left and right bridge testing lateral and prone bridge the test were found. All features of pain decreased, and, according to the S-FIQ, a decrease in morning fatigue, stiffness and anxiety was reported. Also Met’s/minute-weeks increased after intervention. Conclusion: These data suggest that functional program core muscle training is effective in increasing muscle strength, pain modulation, functional performance optimization, and increased levels of physical activity in women with fibromyalgia.

  17. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Esmarck, B; Kadi, F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men...... and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross.......15+/-0.06; mean+/-SD) and females (from 0.11+/-0.04 to 0.13+/-0.05). These results suggest that 12 weeks of resistance training is effective in enhancing the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscle in the elderly....

  18. High-intensity interval training improves inflammatory and adipokine profiles in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Flávia Mariel; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Figueiredo, Felipe da Cunha; Santos, Daniela Lopes Dos; Bresciani, Guilherme; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Courtes, Aline Alves; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Sangoi Cardoso, Manuela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2018-02-12

    This study investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic levels of inflammatory and hormonal markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen postmenopausal women with MS completed the training on treadmills. Functional, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), and lipid profile were assessed before and after HIIT. Serum or plasma levels of cytokines and hormonal markers were measured along the intervention. The analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these cytokines was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). VO 2 max and some anthropometric parameters were improved after HIIT, while decreased levels of proinflammatory markers and increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were also found. Adipokines were also modulated after 12 weeks or training. The mRNA expression of the studied genes was unchanged after HIIT. In conclusion, HIIT benefits inflammatory and hormonal axis on serum or plasma samples, without changes on PBMC of postmenopausal MS patients.

  19. Nordic Walking Training Causes a Decrease in Blood Cholesterol in Elderly Women Supplemented with Vitamin D

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    Krzysztof Prusik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDifferent studies have demonstrated that regular exercise can induce changes in the lipid profile, but results remain inconclusive. Available data suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency can improve the lipid profile. In this study, we have hypothesized that Nordic Walking training will improve lipid profile in elderly women supplemented with vitamin D.MethodsA total of 109 elderly women (68 ± 5.12 years old took part in the study. First group [experimental group (EG: 35 women] underwent 12 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW training combined with vitamin D supplementation (4,000 IU/day, second group [supplementation group (SG: 48 women] was only supplemented with vitamin D (4,000 IU/day, and third group [control group (CG: 31 women] was not subject to any interventions. Blood analysis of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and 25-OH-D3 was performed at baseline and after the 12 weeks of NW training. Additionally, a battery of field tests specifically developed for older adults was used to assess the components of functional fitness. The same blood analysis was repeated for the EG 6 months after the main experiment.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of NW training and vitamin D supplementation, in the EG a decrease in TC, LDL-C, and TG was observed. In the SG, no changes in the lipid profile were observed, whereas in the CG an increase in the HDL-C level was noticed. Positive physical fitness changes were only observed in the EG.ConclusionOur obtained data confirmed baseline assumption that regular exercise induces positive alternations in lipid profile in elderly women supported by supplementation of vitamin D.

  20. Effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women

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    Mina Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4    BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, the risk of having cardiac diseases, especially high blood pressure, is increased due to the decrease in secretion of estrogen. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women.    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 postmenopausal women (age: 53-60 years, BMI= 29.23 ± 5.27kg/m2  ( were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control (n = 10 groups. Women in the experimental group participated in an aquatic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week in the deep parts of the pool. Training included walking and running in water with water dumbbells weighing 250 grams. Before and after the exercise period, the body composition, blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility of the subjects were measured.    RESULTS: According to the T-score, the average systolic blood pressure in the experimental group significantly decreased (9.29% (P = 0.001. Dynamic balance and flexibility, respectively, significantly increased by 22.02% and 24.4% (P < 0.01. No significant changes were observed in body fat and weight.    CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility these exercises are recommended for postmenopausal women.   Keywords: Menopausal Women, Blood Pressure, Flexibility, Aquatic Resistance Training  

  1. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

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    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  2. Singing in Action. : An inquiry into the creative working processes and practices of classical and contemporary vocal improvisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilén, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores performative perspectives on classical and contemporary vocal improvisation (CCVI) as a critical, creative tool for development of and research in vocal performance. It consists of one introductory part and five articles, with additional documentation on a homepage. The artistic projects have been performed in close collaboration with fellow classically trained singers and musicians. The practice of CCVI is contextualised in relation to vocal history, opera, improvi...

  3. An intensive combined training program modulates physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical parameters in women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Fatih

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.

  4. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

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    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  5. Do women with pelvic floor dysfunction referred by gynaecologists and urologists at hospitals complete a pelvic floor muscle training programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    For decades women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) have been referred to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), but there is only little information on whether the women complete the programmes and why. The objectives of this study were to investigate to which extent women completed a PFMT...

  6. A Joyful Noise: The Vocal Health of Worship Leaders and Contemporary Christian Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Leon; Meyer, David

    2017-03-01

    Contemporary commercial music (CCM) is a term that encompasses many styles of music. A growing subset of CCM is contemporary Christian music, a genre that has outpaced other popular styles such as Latin, jazz, and classical music. Contemporary Christian singers (CCSs) and worship leaders (WLs) are a subset of CCM musicians that face unique vocal demands and risks. They typically lack professional training and often perform in acoustically disadvantageous venues with substandard sound reinforcement systems. The vocal needs and risks of these singers are not well understood, and because of this, their training and care may be suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vocal health of this growing population and their awareness of standard vocal hygiene principles. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to participants in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Asia. A total of 614 participants responded to the questionnaire, which is made available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Many participants reported vocal symptoms such as vocal fatigue (n = 213; 34.7%), tickling or choking sensation (n = 149; 24.3%), loss of upper range (n = 172; 28%), and complete loss of voice (n = 25; 4.1%). One third of the participants (n = 210; 34%) indicated that they do not warm up their voices before performances and over half of the participants (n = 319; 52%) have no formal vocal training. Results suggest that this population demonstrates low awareness of vocal hygiene principles, frequently experience difficulty with their voices, and may face elevated risk of vocal pathology. Future studies of this population may confirm the vocal risks that our preliminary findings suggest. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  8. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

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    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  9. Massed versus Spaced Practice in Vocology: Effect of a Short-Term Intensive Voice Training versus a Longer-Term Traditional Voice Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschman, Iris; Van Lierde, Kristiane; Van Puyvelde, Caro; Bostyn, Astrid; Claeys, Sofie; D'haeseleer, Evelien

    2018-01-01

    Background: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy…

  10. Changes in spinal range of motion after a flexibility training program in elderly women

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    Battaglia G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Battaglia,1,2 Marianna Bellafiore,1,2 Giovanni Caramazza,2 Antonio Paoli,3 Antonino Bianco,1,2 Antonio Palma1,2 1Department of Law, Society, and Sport Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 2Sicilian Regional Sports School of Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI, Sicily, Italy; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Background: Aging-related reduced spinal mobility can interfere with the execution of important functional skills and activities in elderly women. Although several studies have shown positive outcomes in response to spinal flexibility training programs, little is known about the management of sets and repetitions in training protocols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week specific and standardized flexibility training program on the range of spinal motion in elderly women. Methods: Participants were recruited in a senior center of Palermo and randomly assigned in two groups: trained group (TG and control group (CG, which included 19 and 18 women, respectively. TG was trained for 8 weeks at two sessions/week. In particular, every session included three phases: warm up (~10 minutes, central period (~50 minutes, and cool down (~10 minutes. CG did not perform any physical activity during the experimental period. Spinal ranges of motion (ROM were measured from neutral standing position to maximum bending position and from neutral standing position to maximum extension position before and after the experimental period, using a SpinalMouse® device (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland. Results: After the training period, TG showed an increase in spinal inclination by 16.4% (P<0.05, in sacral/hip ROM by 29.2% (P<0.05, and in thoracic ROM by 22.5% (P>0.05 compared with CG from maximum extension position to maximum bending position. We did not observe any significant difference in TG's lumbar ROM compared with CG after the training period (P>0.05. Conclusion

  11. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R.; Gaulin, Steven J. C.; Puts, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F 0) in men’s voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fert...

  12. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive...... control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Peak oxygen...... uptake (16 ± 8 and 21 ± 12%), resting heart rate (HR) (-5 ± 9 and -4 ± 7 bpm) and visual and verbal learning improved following HIIT and CT compared to CON (P HIIT (P 

  13. Effect of 12-Week Pilates Trainning on EDSS in Women Suffering fromMultiple Sclerosis

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    Z Shanazari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease that strikes the immune system. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease which debilitates the nervous system. The study was evaluated the effects of Pilates exercise on women with physical disabilities suffering from multiple sclerosis for 12 weeks .The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of Pilates trainning on EDSS of women suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS for 12 weeks. Methods: In the present clinical trial study, 38 patients age 20-40 years (mean disease duration of 8±2 years with multiple sclerosis grade 0-4.5 were selected. The Patients were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. The training program for pilates, 12 weeks, three sessions a week, with each session consisting of 60 minutes. Patients' physical disability was measured using Krutzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, before and after exercise. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA test. Results: Physical disability scores before and after the exercise in intervention was 47.1 and 37 and in the control group, was 93.1 and 43.1 respectively, which was significantly different in the intervention group before and after training (p<0.05. Conclusion: Pilates training improves the physical disability of MS patients. Therefore, this exercise can be used as a complementary treatment alongside drug treatments. Key Words: Multiple Sclerosis, Women, Pilates, EDSS

  14. Pelvic floor muscle training decreases hip adductors isometric peak torque in incontinent women: an exploratory study

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    Grasiéla Nascimento Correia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pelvic floor muscle (PFM training is the most common treatment for urinary incontinence (UI, however many women performed the contraction of PFM with associated contraction of abdominal, gluteus and hip adductors muscles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pelvic floor muscle (PFM training on isometric and isokinetic hip adductors peak torque (PT among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a longitudinal and prospective exploratory study. This study included 15 physically active women aged 45 years old and over, who presented complaints of UI. The PFM function (digital evaluation and perineometry, isometric and isokinetic hip adductors PT and one hour pad test were performed before and after treatment. The PFM training was performed in group, one hour once a week for 12 sessions. RESULTS: Significant improvement of PFM function and pressure level (p = 0.003, and significant decrease of hip adductors isometric PT and one-hour pad test, were found post-treatment. Moderate negative correlations between PFM contraction pressure and hip adductors isokinetic PT for dominant side (DS (r = -0.62; p = 0.03 and non-dominant side (NDS (r = -0.64; p = 0.02; and between PFM fast fibers contraction and hip adductors isometric PT for DS (r = -0.60; p = 0.03 and NDS (r = -0.59; p = 0.04 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM training decreased hip adductors PT and improved PFM functions and UI.

  15. Effect of 8 Weeks Soccer Training on Health and Physical Performance in Untrained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jaelson G; da Silva, Juliano F; Carminatti, Lorival J; Guglielmo, Luiz G A; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the physiological, neuromuscular, and biochemical responses in untrained women after eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games compared to aerobic training. Twenty-seven healthy untrained women were divided into two groups [soccer group (SG = 17) and running group (RG = 10)]. Both groups trained three times per week for eight weeks. The variables measured in this study were maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), relative velocity at VO 2 max (vVO 2 max), peak velocity, relative intensity at lactate threshold (vLT), relative intensity at onset of blood lactate accumulation (vOBLA), peak force, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL). VO 2 max, vLT, and vOBLA increased significantly in both groups (12.8 and 16.7%, 11.1 and 15.3%, 11.6 and 19.8%, in SG and RG respectively). However, knee extensors peak isometric strength and triglyceride levels, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL did not differ after eight weeks of training in both groups. On the other hand, the LDL/HDL ratio significantly reduced in both groups. In conclusion, eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games was sufficient to increase aerobic performance and promote health benefits related to similar aerobic training in untrained adult women.

  16. Effect of 8 Weeks Soccer Training on Health and Physical Performance in Untrained Women

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    Jaelson G. Ortiz, Juliano F. da Silva, Lorival J. Carminatti, Luiz G.A. Guglielmo, Fernando Diefenthaeler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the physiological, neuromuscular, and biochemical responses in untrained women after eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games compared to aerobic training. Twenty-seven healthy untrained women were divided into two groups [soccer group (SG = 17 and running group (RG = 10]. Both groups trained three times per week for eight weeks. The variables measured in this study were maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, relative velocity at VO2max (vVO2max, peak velocity, relative intensity at lactate threshold (vLT, relative intensity at onset of blood lactate accumulation (vOBLA, peak force, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL. VO2max, vLT, and vOBLA increased significantly in both groups (12.8 and 16.7%, 11.1 and 15.3%, 11.6 and 19.8%, in SG and RG respectively. However, knee extensors peak isometric strength and triglyceride levels, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL did not differ after eight weeks of training in both groups. On the other hand, the LDL/HDL ratio significantly reduced in both groups. In conclusion, eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games was sufficient to increase aerobic performance and promote health benefits related to similar aerobic training in untrained adult women.

  17. Babies in traffic: infant vocalizations and listener sex modulate auditory motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhoff, John G; Hamilton, Grace R; Gittleson, Amanda L; Mejia, Adolfo

    2014-04-01

    Infant vocalizations and "looming sounds" are classes of environmental stimuli that are critically important to survival but can have dramatically different emotional valences. Here, we simultaneously presented listeners with a stationary infant vocalization and a 3D virtual looming tone for which listeners made auditory time-to-arrival judgments. Negatively valenced infant cries produced more cautious (anticipatory) estimates of auditory arrival time of the tone over a no-vocalization control. Positively valenced laughs had the opposite effect, and across all conditions, men showed smaller anticipatory biases than women. In Experiment 2, vocalization-matched vocoded noise stimuli did not influence concurrent auditory time-to-arrival estimates compared with a control condition. In Experiment 3, listeners estimated the egocentric distance of a looming tone that stopped before arriving. For distant stopping points, women estimated the stopping point as closer when the tone was presented with an infant cry than when it was presented with a laugh. For near stopping points, women showed no differential effect of vocalization type. Men did not show differential effects of vocalization type at either distance. Our results support the idea that both the sex of the listener and the emotional valence of infant vocalizations can influence auditory motion perception and can modulate motor responses to other behaviorally relevant environmental sounds. We also find support for previous work that shows sex differences in emotion processing are diminished under conditions of higher stress.

  18. Strength Training for Women as a Vehicle for Health Promotion at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Kai; Witzki, Alexander; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas; Tofaute, Kim Alexander; Leyk, Dieter

    2017-06-30

    Women, on average, have less muscle strength than men. This anthropometric-physiological trait may make them more vulnerable to ex - cessive physical strain, injury, and inability to work. Strength training is used for preventive health maintenance and to lessen musculoskeletal symptoms. In this context, we studied whether the degree of muscle strength has any effect on women's health in everyday working life, and also the effects of strength training for women on their health in the workplace. We systematically searched the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and SPOLIT databases for pertinent publications, in accordance with the PRISMA criteria for literature searches. We analyzed all of the retrieved randomized controlled trials conducted on women aged 18 to 65 to determine the effects of training on muscle strength, physical performance ability, and health-related parameters including body composition, musculo - skeletal pain, and subjective well-being. We did not find any studies that provided answers to the first question. As for the second question, the selection criteria were met by 12 of the 4969 retrieved studies, which dealt with the effect of strength training on health in the occupational environment and involved a total of 1365 female subjects. These studies were carried out in heterogeneous subject groups, with a variety of overlapping interventions consisting of both strength and endurance training. Significantly increased strength was found in all studies, as was a reduction of pain in all of the studies where this question was asked. Inconsistent results were obtained with respect to body weight, body composition, and subjective well-being. The interventions that were conducted in these studies succeeded in increasing strength and reducing pain, even when the training was brief and of low intensity. This was true not only for women working in occupations requiring unusual physical strength, but also for those in sedentary

  19. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  20. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  2. Cardiac adaptations to high-intensity aerobic training in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jon; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Mandrup, Camilla M

    2017-01-01

    and after a 12-week period of high-intensity aerobic cycle training. LV internal diastolic diameter and LV mass were similar in the 2 groups at baseline and increased by ≈2% to 8% (P=0.04-0.0007) with training in both groups. Left atrial end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were similar for both groups......BACKGROUND: We examined the role of menopause on cardiac dimensions and function and assessed the efficacy of exercise training before and after menopause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of healthy premenopausal (n=36, 49.4±0.3 years) and postmenopausal (n=37, 53.5±0.5 years) women with no history...... and increased by 23% to 36% (P=0.0006-0.0001) with training. Systolic function assessed by mean global strain was similar in both groups at baseline and increased by ≈8% (P=0.0004) with training in the postmenopausal group. LV displacement increased by ≈3% (P=0.04) in the premenopausal women only. Diastolic...

  3. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  4. POWER-TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Surakka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength declines with increasing age, and the power-type strength characteristics decline even more drastically than the maximal muscle strength. Therefore, it is important to design training programmes specifically for sedentary middle-aged people to effectively improve the power-type strength in leg and trunk muscles. To be suitable for the target group, the exercise programmes should be feasible, motivating and easy to practice. The aim of this study was to design and investigate the effects and feasibility of a power-type strength training programme in 226 middle-aged men and women, with 26 persons as non-training controls. The subjects trained three times a week during 22 weeks, in 12 groups with exercise classes of 10-20 subjects, and using no or very little external equipment. All training sessions were controlled and supervised by an professional instructor. Vertical squat jump, standing long jump, 20 metre running time, maximal anaerobic cycling power, maximal oxygen uptake, and angular trunk muscle flexion and extension velocities were measured before and after the training period to evaluate the training effects. Questionnaires concerning employment, physical activity, smoking, musculoskeletal symptoms and exercise motives were also filled in before and after the training period. The greatest improvements were achieved in vertical squat jump (18% and in angular trunk flexion (14% and extension (16% velocities. An external loading totalling 2.2 kg (attached in ankles increased the height in vertical squat jump by 23% and maximal anaerobic cycling power by 12%, these improvements were significant compared with subjects in no load training group (p = 0.03 in vertical squat jump and p = 0.05 in maximal anaerobic cycling power. Exercise induced injuries occurred in 19% of men and 6% of women. Low back symptoms decreased in exercisers by 12% and knee symptoms (increased by 4% during the intervention. Of all subjects, 24% dropped out

  5. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test in occupational voice disorders: outcomes before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2008-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of acoustic analysis with vocal loading test for evaluating the treatment outcomes in occupational voice disorders. Fifty-one female teachers with dysphonia were examined (Voice Handicap Index--VHI, laryngovideostroboscopy and acoustic analysis with vocal loading) before and after treatment. The outcomes of teachers receiving vocal training (group I) were referred to outcomes of group II receiving only voice hygiene instructions. The results of subjective assessment (VHI score) and objective evaluation (acoustic analysis) improved more significantly in group I than in group II. The post-treatment examination revealed a decreased percentage of subjects with deteriorated jitter parameters after vocal loading, particularly in group I. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test can be a helpful tool in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in occupational dysphonia.

  6. The effect of different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age

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    Lucas Melo Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract It is not yet clear which physical exercise protocols have greater potential to mitigate the functional decline in physical fitness (coordination, flexibility, strength, agility and cardiorespiratory capacity. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age and understand which training protocol is more effective for promoting significant improvements in physical fitness. The initial sample consisted of 79 subjects, of which 17 dropped out, resulting in a total of 62 subjects who completed the study and are included in the analysis (n = 62. The average age of the study population was 60.1±5.4 years, divided into five groups: aerobic training, concurrent training, multimodal training, functional training and control group. Physical fitness was analyzed through AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance tests (0 and eighth weeks. The ANOVA analyses (aleatory effect show a main effect of time for coordination (p<0.001, strength (p = 0.004, agility (p<0.001 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p<0.001, and statistically significant interactions for coordination (p = 0.003 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p = 0.033. When comparing the average relative differences between the group (Δ%, significant improvement was observed in coordination and agility (p<0.001 in the multimodal and functional training groups. For cardiorespiratory fitness, there was a significant improvement in the aerobic, concurrent and multimodal training groups (p<0.001 and strength increased in the functional training group (p = 0.04. Functional training was demonstrated to be more effective at promoting significant improvements in physical fitness than the other investigated exercise protocols.

  7. Recreational football training decreases risk factors for bone fractures in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, E W; Aagaard, P; Jakobsen, M D

    2010-01-01

    untrained Danish premenopausal women were randomized into two training groups (F and R) that trained 1.8+/-0.3 (+/-SD) and 1.9+/-0.3 h/week, respectively, and these groups were compared with an inactive control group (C). Jumping and dynamic muscle strength were tested and tibial vBMD was measured using...... peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Total vBMD in left and right tibia increased by 2.6+/-2.3% and 2.1+/-1.8% (P

  8. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pvocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pVocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  9. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

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    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  10. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p<.05 was found with parity and birth interval from last birth.  But the association of anaemia with ethnicity, education and other factors like gestational age (trimester was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  11. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  12. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  13. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

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    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  14. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  15. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women.

  17. The effects of mindfulness and relaxation training for insomnia (MRTI) on postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo C; Kozasa, Elisa H; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Hachul, Helena

    2018-05-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of mindfulness and relaxation training for insomnia on insomnia and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years, who were not using hormone therapy, and had a diagnosis of insomnia and an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 15, were randomly assigned to two groups: a mindfulness intervention group and a control group. They were assessed before the intervention, and 8 weeks after its completion using questionnaires assessing sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), quality of life in menopause (Menopause-Specific Quality of Life), menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopausal Index), and level of attention (Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale). They were also assessed through ambulatory polysomnography. This is a pilot study and is limited by its small sample size. The results of the questionnaires showed significant differences in the group that received mindfulness training compared with the control group, namely, improvements in sleep quality, a reduction in the severity of insomnia, a better quality of life, improved attention levels, and a reduction in menopausal and vasomotor symptoms. Polysomnography results showed no differences between the groups. Eight weeks mindfulness meditation training improved sleep quality, quality of life, attention levels, and reduced vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with insomnia.

  18. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Whole-body vibration versus proprioceptive training on postural control in post-menopausal osteopenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nils; Belavý, Daniel L; Rawer, Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    To prevent falls in the elderly, especially those with low bone density, is it necessary to maintain muscle coordination and balance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of classical balance training (BAL) and whole-body vibration training (VIB) on postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. Sixty-eight subjects began the study and 57 completed the nine-month intervention program. All subjects performed resistive exercise and were randomized to either the BAL- (N=31) or VIB-group (N=26). The BAL-group performed progressive balance and coordination training and the VIB-group underwent, in total, four minutes of vibration (depending on exercise; 24-26Hz and 4-8mm range) on the Galileo Fitness. Every month, the performance of a single leg stance task on a standard unstable surface (Posturomed) was tested. At baseline and end of the study only, single leg stance, Romberg-stance, semi-tandem-stance and tandem-stance were tested on a ground reaction force platform (Leonardo). The velocity of movement on the Posturomed improved by 28.3 (36.1%) (ppostural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. The current study could not provide evidence for a significantly different impact of whole-body vibration or balance training on postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a step-training program on muscle strength in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Coelho Zazá

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Step-training is associated with strength improvement of the lower limbs. Muscle strength is a critical component for the maintenance of functional capacity. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of 6 weeks of step-training on work and power of the lower limbs in older women. Thirteen healthy and active women volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects underwent step-training classes three times per week for 60 min. Strength variables of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle work and power were assessed at an angular velocity of 60 and 180°/s. A significant difference (p<0.05 in knee flexor muscle work was observed between pre- and post-test at 60 and 180°/s. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in knee extensor muscle work between pre- and post-test at 60°/s. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-test values of knee flexor muscle power at 60°/s (p<0.05 and knee extensor muscle power at 60 and 180°/s (p<0.05. In conclusion, step-training can be recommended as an alternative physical activity to increase strength performance (work and power of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in older subjects.

  1. Effects of a dynamic balance training protocol on podalic support in older women. Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The foot provides the only direct contact with supporting surfaces and therefore plays an important role in all postural tasks. Changes in the musculoskeletal and neurological characteristics of the foot with advancing age can alter plantar loading patterns and postural balance. Several studies have reported that exercise training improves postural performance in elderly individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of a dynamic balance training protocol performed for 5 weeks on the support surface, percentage distribution of load in both feet, and body balance performance in healthy elderly women. Ten subjects (68.67±5.50 yrs old; 28.17±3.35 BMI) were evaluated with a monopodalic performance test and baropodometric analyses before and after the training period. We found a significant improvement in balance unipedal performance times on left and right foot by 20.18% and 26.23% respectively (p0.05). The increased support surface and equal redistribution of body weight on both feet obtained in response to our training protocol may be postural adaptations sufficient to improve static balance in elderly women.

  2. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  3. Progressive-overload whole-body vibration training as part of periodized, off-season strength training in trained women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of progressive-overload, whole-body vibration (WBV) training on strength and power as part of a 15-week periodized, strength training (ST) program. Eighteen collegiate women athletes with ≥1 year of ST and no prior WBV training participated in the crossover design. Random assignment to 1 of the 2 groups followed pretests of seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), single-leg hop for distance (LSLH, RSLH), countermovement jump (CMJ), 3 repetition maximum (3RM) front squat (FS), pull-up (PU), and 3RM bench press (BP). Whole-body vibration was two 3-week phases of dynamic and static hold body weight exercises administered 2 d·wk in ST sessions throughout the 15-week off-season program. Total WBV exposure was 6 minutes broken into 30-second bouts with 60-second rest (1:2 work-to-relief ratio). Exercises, frequency, and amplitude progressed in intensity from the first 3-week WBV training to the second 3-week phase. Repeated-measures analysis of variances were used to analyze the SMBT, CMJ, LSLH, RSLH, FS, PU, and BP tests. Alpha level was p ≤ 0.05. Front squat, LSLH, and RSLH increased (p = 0.001) from pre- to posttest; FS increased from mid- to posttest. Pull-up increased (p = 0.008) from pre- to posttest. Seated medicine ball throw and BP showed a trend of increased performance from pre- to posttest (p = 0.11). Two 3-week phases of periodized, progressive-overload WBV + ST training elicited gains in strength and power during a 15-week off-season program. Greatest improvements in performance tests occurred in the initial WBV phase. Implementing WBV in conjunction with ST appears to be more effective in the early phases of training.

  4. Vocal Fry Use in Adult Female Speakers Exposed to Two Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A; Summers, Connie; Walls, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have identified the widespread use of vocal fry among American women. Popular explanations for this phenomenon appeal to sociolinguistic purposes that likely take significant time for second language users to learn. The objective of this study was to determine if mere exposure to this vocal register, as opposed to nuanced sociolinguistic motivations, might explain its widespread use. This study used multigroup within- and between-subjects design. Fifty-eight women from one of three language background groups (functionally monolingual in English, functionally monolingual in Spanish, and Spanish-English bilinguals) living in El Paso, Texas, repeated a list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of English and another list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of Spanish. Perceptual analysis identified each episode of vocal fry. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in their frequency of vocal fry use despite large differences in their amount of English-language exposure. All groups produced more vocal fry when repeating English than when repeating Spanish nonwords. Because the human perceptual system encodes for vocal qualities even after minimal language experience, the widespread use of vocal fry among female residents in the United States likely is owing to mere exposure to English rather than nuanced sociolinguistic motivations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter; Fulford, Jonathan; Smietanka, Chris; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (16 ± 8 and 21 ± 12%), resting heart rate (HR) (-5 ± 9 and -4 ± 7 bpm) and visual and verbal learning improved following HIIT and CT compared to CON (P HIIT (P HIIT and CT, and there were no changes in fasting serum lipids, fasting blood [glucose] or [glucose] during an oral glucose tolerance test following either HIIT or CT (P > 0.05). No outcome variable changed in the CON group (P > 0.05). Twelve weeks of self-paced HIIT and CT were similarly effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness, resting HR and cognitive function in inactive premenopausal women, whereas blood pressure, submaximal HR, well-being and body mass adaptations were training-type-specific. Both training methods improved established health markers, but the adaptations to HIIT were evoked for a lower time commitment.

  6. [Stabilometry, Electromyography and Electroencephalography in Postmenopausal Women after Training of the Leg Support Sensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kholodina, N V; Podoinikov, A S; Nikolenko, E D

    2015-01-01

    Ageing, lack of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle cause disorders of the sensorimotor system of postural control. The role of support afferentation in the changes in cortical activity in balance impairments has not been studied yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the stabilographic parameters of the body center of gravity, alpha activity indices of the electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) measurements of forehead muscle tone in response to visual activation in standing and sitting positions in postmenopausal women after and without training of leg support sensation (LSS) The variables were compared between 3 groups: Group A (n = 12, age: 66 ± 9 years)--women who have trained LSS with the help of Aikido techniques for 8 years; group F (n = 12, age: 65 ± 6 years)--women who have attended Fitness training for 8 years; group N (n = 11, age: 66 ± 7 years)--women who have not taken physical exercises for the last 8 years. It was found that in group N a change in body position from "sitting" to "standing" leads to a much greater increase in the area of stabilogram and in the energy expenditure needed to maintain the bal- ance than in groups A and F. Posture changes from sitting to standing position increases the tension of the forehead muscles and the suppression of alpha-1-amplitude, but decreases the power in high- and low-frequency alpha-band of EEG and the width of alpha-band in group N. In women ofgroup F the posture change does not result in an increase in EMG and signs of activation or tension in EEG; in group A it leads to a decrease of visual activation indices and psychoemotional tension and to an increase in power in alpha-2-band which is a sign of neuronal efficiency. Basing on these data, we can conclude that training focused on support afferentation in postmenopausal women decreases the psychoemotional tension and increases neuronal efficiency ofsensorimotor integration of postural control system

  7. Pesquisa de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio das pregas vocais de mulheres por imunohistoquímica Immunohistochemical searching for estrogen and progesterone receptors in women vocal fold epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Angel Bellido Rios

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A laringe é extremamente sensível a mudanças endocrinológicas. A maioria das alterações da mucosa das pregas vocais é causada por modificações do conteúdo líquido das pregas vocais e das suas modificações epiteliais. O estrógeno e a progesterona interferem e modificam esse conteúdo líquido das pregas vocais. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a presença de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio das pregas vocais de mulheres. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de casos prospectivos. Foram realizados exames de imunohistoquímica para receptores de estrógeno e progesterona em 19 espécimes de epitélio de pregas vocais que não apresentavam quaisquer indícios de afecção, inclusive inflamatória. Foram descartados casos de pacientes com idade superior a 40 anos e inferior a 15 anos. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados receptores para progesterona em 18 de 19 pacientes. Os receptores de progesterona estão localizados tanto no núcleo quanto no citoplasma e principalmente na camada basal. Não houve nenhum caso de receptores de estrógeno nas pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: O epitélio das pregas vocais apresenta receptores para progesterona, tanto no citoplasma quanto no núcleo. Não foram encontrados receptores para estrógeno no epitélio das pregas vocais estudadas.Larynx is extremely sensitive to endocrinologic changes. Most vocal fold mucosa alterations are caused by changes in vocal fold liquid content and its epithelial changes. Estrogen and progesterone interfere and change this liquid content in the vocal folds. Our goal with the present paper is to study the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors on vocal fold epithelium in 19 vocal fold epithelium specimens that did not present any indication of disease, especially inflammatory disease. We discarded those cases of patients above 40 years of age and those below 15. RESULTS: we found progesterone receptors in 18 of the 19 patients. The progesterone receptors

  8. Responses of catecholestrogen metabolism to acute graded exercise in normal menstruating women before and after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crée, C; Ball, P; Seidlitz, B; Van Kranenburg, G; Geurten, P; Keizer, H A

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that exercise-related hypo-estrogenemia occurs as a consequence of increased competition of catecholestrogens (CE) for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). This may result in higher norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, which could interfere with normal gonadotropin pulsatility. The present study investigates the effects of training on CE responses to acute exercise stress. Nine untrained eumenorrheic women (mean percentage of body fat +/-SD: 24.8 +/- 3.1%) volunteered for an intensive 5-day training program. Resting, submaximal, and maximal (tmax) exercise plasma CE, estrogen, and catecholamine responses were determined pre- and post training in both the follicular (FPh) and luteal phase (LPh). Acute exercise stress increased total primary estrogens (E) but had little effect on total 2-hydroxyestrogens (2-OHE) and 2-hydroxyestrogen-monomethylethers (2-MeOE) (= O-methylated CE after competition for catechol-O-methyltransferase). This pattern was not significantly changed by training. However, posttraining LPh mean (+/-SE) plasma E, 2-OHE, and 2-MeOE concentrations were significantly lower (P Training produced opposite effects on 2-OHE:E ratios (an estimation of CE formation) during acute exercise in the FPh (reduction) and LPh (increase). The 2-MeOE:2-OHE ratio (an estimation of CE activity) showed significantly higher values at tmax in both menstrual phases after training (FPh: +11%; LPh: +23%; P training, NE values were significantly higher (P training lowers absolute concentrations of plasma estrogens and CE; the acute exercise challenge altered plasma estrogens but had little effect on CE; estimation of the formation and activity of CE suggests that formation and O-methylation of CE proportionately increases. These findings may be of importance for NE-mediated effects on gonadotropin release.

  9. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants ( n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  11. Effects of Creatine and Resistance Training on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Candow, Darren G; Landeryou, Tim; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Our primary purpose was to determine the effect of 12 months of creatine (Cr) supplementation during a supervised resistance training program on properties of bone in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomized (double-blind) into two groups: resistance training (3 d·wk) and Cr supplementation (0.1 g·kg·d) or resistance training and placebo (Pl). Our primary outcome measures were lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Secondary outcome measures were total hip and whole-body BMD, bone geometric properties at the hip, speed of sound at the distal radius and tibia, whole-body lean tissue mass, muscle thickness, and bench press and hack squat strength. Forty-seven women (57 (SD, 6) yr; Cr, n = 23; Pl, n = 24) were randomized, with 33 analyzed after 12 months (Cr, n = 15; Pl, n = 18). Cr attenuated the rate of femoral neck BMD loss (-1.2%; absolute change (95% confidence interval), -0.01 (-0.025 to 0.005) g·cm) compared with Pl (-3.9%; -0.03 (-0.044 to -0.017) g·cm; P < 0.05) and also increased femoral shaft subperiosteal width, a predictor of bone bending strength (Cr, 0.04 (-0.09 to 0.16) cm); Pl, -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01) cm; P < 0.05). Cr increased relative bench press strength more than Pl (64% vs 34%; P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups for other outcome measures. There were no differences between groups for reports of serum liver enzyme abnormalities, and creatinine clearance was normal for Cr participants throughout the intervention. Twelve months of Cr supplementation during a resistance training program preserves femoral neck BMD and increases femoral shaft superiosteal width, a predictor of bone bending strength, in postmenopausal women.

  12. Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligouri, Gianna C; Shoepe, Todd C; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18-22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. -0.015 g/cm(2)). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women.

  13. High-intensity interval training reduces abdominal fat mass in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, F; Rousset, S; Pereira, B; Traore, A; de Pradel Del Amaze, P; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Boisseau, N

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for 16 weeks on whole-body and abdominal fat mass (FM) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventeen women (69±1 years; BMI: 31±1kg.m -2 ) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT [60×(8s at 77-85% HR max , 12s of active recovery)] or MICT (40min at 55-60% of their individual HRR) cycling program for 16 weeks, 2 days/week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure whole-body and regional FM content, including abdominal adiposity and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose and HbA 1c levels were measured. Levels of nutritional intake and physical activity were evaluated by 7-day self-reports. Dietary energy (caloric) intake, physical activity level and total body mass did not vary in either group from the beginning to the end of the training intervention. Overall, total FM decreased and total fat-free mass significantly increased over time (by around 2-3%). Total FM reduction at the end of the intervention was not significantly different between groups. However, significant loss of total abdominal (-8.3±2.2%) and visceral (-24.2±7.7%) FM was observed only with HIIT. Time effects were noted for HbA 1c and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. With no concomitant caloric restriction, an HIIT program in postmenopausal women with T2D (twice a week for 16 weeks) appeared to be more effective for reducing central obesity than MICT, and could be proposed as an alternative exercise training program for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    : Twenty non-smoking women with ages between 18 and 55 years from the Endocrinology Ambulatory of the institution were evaluated after clinical and lab diagnosis for hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The parameters investigated were: period bearing the disease, vocal complaint, maximum phonation time /a/, /s/, and /z/, fundamental frequency (F0, glottal noise (GNE. The aspects evaluated in the auditory-perceptive analysis were: pneumo-phono-articulatory coordination (coordinated or uncoordinated, pitch, loudness, vocal attack, resonance, speech speed and vocal quality, that could be classified as one or two of the following: neutral, hoarse, whispered, coarse, or tense, and degree: light, moderate or severe. Data were statistically analyzed through the EPI-INFO 6.04b software, Fisher qualitative method, considering a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The auditory-perceptive analysis showed that seven patients with hypothyroidism and nine with hyperthyroidism presented changes in vocal quality. Eight subjects from both groups presented pneumo-phono-articulatory incoordination. Eight subjects from group A and six from group B referred vocal complaints, such as hoarseness and thick voice, respectively. In the acoustic analysis, nine subjects presented change in glottal noise. CONCLUSION: The results showed great incidence of vocal changes on the studied groups (both hyper and hypothyroidism groups, which evidences the relation between dysphonia and thyroidal dysfunctions.

  15. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Vocal Fold Vibration Following Surgical Intervention in Three Vocal Pathologies: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy captures the cycle-to-cycle vibratory motion of each individual vocal fold in normal and severely disordered phonation. Therefore, it provides a direct method to examine the specific vibratory changes following vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vocal fold vibratory pattern changes in the surgically treated pathologic vocal fold and the contralateral vocal fold in three vocal pathologies: vocal polyp (n = 3), paresis or paralysis (n = 3), and scar (n = 3). Digital kymography was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images at the mid-membranous region of the vocal fold. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the digital kymography to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of each vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Surgical modification resulted in significantly improved spectral power of the treated pathologic vocal fold. Furthermore, the contralateral vocal fold also presented with improved spectral power irrespective of vocal pathology. In comparison with normal vocal fold spectrum, postsurgical vocal fold vibrations continued to demonstrate decreased vibratory amplitude in both vocal folds. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Support by trained mentor mothers for abused women: a promising intervention in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosman, Gert-Jan; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2014-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women provided by trained mentor mothers in family practice. The aim was to reduce exposure to IPV, symptoms of depression as well as to improve social support, participation in society and acceptance of mental health care. A pre-post study of a 16-week mentoring intervention with identified abused women with children was conducted. After referral by a family doctor, a mentor mother visited the abused woman weekly. Primary outcomes are IPV assessed with the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), depressive symptoms using the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90) and social support by the Utrecht Coping List. Secondary outcomes are analysed qualitatively: participation in society defined as employment and education and the acceptance of mental health care. At baseline, 63 out of 66 abused women were referred to mentor support. Forty-three participants completed the intervention programme. IPV decreased from CASt otal 46.7 (SD 24.7) to 9.0 (SD 9.1) (P ≤ 0.001) after the mentor mother support programme. Symptoms of depression decreased from 53.3 (SD 13.7) to 34.8 (SD 11.5) (P ≤ 0.001) and social support increased from 13.2 (SD 4.0) to 15.2 (SD 3.5) (P ≤ 0.001). Participation in society and the acceptance of mental health for mother and child improved. Sixteen weekly visits by trained mentor mothers are a promising intervention to decrease exposure to IPV and symptoms of depression, as well as to improve social support, participation in society and the acceptance of professional help for abused women and their children.

  18. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  19. Pelvic floor muscle training is not effective in women with UI in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldringh, C.; Wijngaart, M.A.G. van den; Albers-Heitner, P.; Lycklama á Nijeholt, A.A.B.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the short- and long-term effects of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy in women at risk, i.e. women who were already affected by urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy. The intervention consisted of three sessions of PFMT between week 23

  20. Pelvic floor muscle training in the prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence in women - what is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, G.

    2008-01-01

    Many women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). During and after pregnancy, women are advised to perform pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to prevent the development of UI. In established UI, PFMT is prescribed routinely as first-line treatment. Published studies are small, underpowered...

  1. Pelvic floor muscle training is not effective in women with UI in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldringh, C.; Wijngaart, M.A.G. van den; Albers-Heitner, P.; Lycklama á Nijeholt, A.A.B.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the short- and long-term effects of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy in women at risk, i.e. women who were already affected by urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy. The intervention consisted of three sessions of PFMT between week 23

  2. Do trained dogs discriminate individual body odors of women better than those of men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, Tadeusz; Sobczyńska, Magdalena; Walczak, Marta; Gorecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Ensminger, John

    2012-05-01

    Scent identification lineups using dogs are a potentially valuable forensic tool, but have been dismissed by some critics because of cases where a false identification was shown to have occurred. It is not known, however, why dogs appear to make more false indications to the odors of some persons than of others. In this study, human genders were compared as to the degree their individual odors are distinguishable or "attractive" to dogs. Six dogs were trained to smell an individual's hand odor sample and then find the matching hand odor sample in a lineup of five odors. Using one-gender lineups and two-gender lineups with different gender ratios, it was found that dogs trained for the study identified individual women's hand odors more accurately than those of men. It is hypothesized that this is either because of differences in chemical compounds making discrimination of women's odors easier, or because of greater "odor attractiveness" of women's scents to dogs. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Effectiveness of stress management training on stress reduction in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Shirazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are evidences that suggest the impact of stress on pregnancy outcome. Prolong antenatal depression and anxiety may cause lots of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as abortion, still birth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The aim of this pre-posttest randomized control trial study was to determine the role of stress management training in the first trimester on stress reduction in pregnant women referring to General Yas Women Hospital related to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, from May 2014 to January 2016. Methods: Anxiety status of 75 pregnant women in the first trimester was assessed by standard anxiety questioner using Hamilton anxiety rating score. Scores 18-25, 25-35 and >35 were considered for mild, moderate and severe anxiety, respectively. According to the level of anxiety, women with moderate and severe anxiety as the interventional group were arranged for participation in stress management workshops, applying mindfulness technique including: body scan, setting meditation and passing thought technique in 5 an hour sessions. For this experimental group were made available CD training for practicing lessons during the week. All groups didn’t need to medical treatment according to the psychiatrist interview. In the ending of therapy, clinical groups were assessed by anxiety scale again. Women with mild anxiety as the control group received only regular prenatal care without any psychological interventions. The validity and reliability of questioner were approved by experts in this field. This research was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services grant and also the study approved by ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 18, and Student’s t-test analyses were performed. Results: The level of anxiety and stress was decreased significantly between women in clinical groups, 27.5 to 14

  4. Comparison of yoga and aerobic trainings for improving mental health of divorced women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Mousavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is an acceptable method for improving and maintaining the physical and emotional health. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of yoga training program and aerobic exercise on the mental health of divorced women. Two experimental groups and one control group were employed in this quasi-experimental study. The number of 30 divorced women was randomly divided into three groups. The experimental groups involved in yoga (n=10 and aerobics training (n=10 and received 16 exercise sessions for two months. The control group (n=10 received no training. General health questionnaire-28 was employed to evaluate the mental health of participants. Covariance analysis was used as the statistical method. The obtained results indicated that the intervention improved significantly the mental health indices in the intervention groups of yoga and aerobics. In comparison of the effectiveness of yoga and aerobics exercises, the results showed that there is not significant difference between the effectiveness of yoga and aerobics. Therefore, the two methods of exercise are effective on improving the mental health

  5. Chronic effects of strength training vs. Hydro aerobics on functional and cardiorespiratory ability in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Giovanni S; Novaes, Jefferson S; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa E; Garrido, Nuno D; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M

    2014-09-29

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (ptraining methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (pfunctional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women.

  6. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B

    2014-01-01

    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effectiveness of Marriage Enrichment Training on Job Stress and Quality of Work Life of working women

    OpenAIRE

    H; Z salak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, women alongside men to help their family economic cycle. So the quality of work life and job stress affect on behavioral reactions such as job satisfaction, job involvement and job performance. Because more women than men experience job stress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of marriage enrichment training on job stress and quality of work life of working women at Bafg Central Iron Ore Company. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental...

  8. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  9. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  10. The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project: a study of vocal demands and vocal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly L

    2012-09-01

    The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project seeks to identify the musical and performance characteristics of traditional/acoustic musicians and determine the vocal demands they face with the goals of (1) providing information and outreach to this important group of singers and (2) providing information to physicians, speech-language pathologists, and singing teachers who will enable them to provide appropriate services. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data have been collected through administration of a 53-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to artists performing at local venues in Knoxville, Tennessee and also to musicians attending the 2008 Folk Alliance Festival in Memphis, Tennessee. Approximately 41% of the respondents have had no vocal training, whereas approximately 34% of the respondents have had some form of formal vocal training (private lessons or group instruction). About 41% of the participants had experienced a tired voice, whereas about 30% of the participants had experienced either a loss of the top range of the voice or a total loss of voice at least once in their careers. Approximately 31% of the respondents had no health insurance. Approximately 69% of the respondents reported that they get their information about healthy singing practices solely from fellow musicians or that they do not get any information at all. Traditional/acoustic musicians are a poorly studied population at risk for the development of voice disorders. Continued research is necessary with the goal of a large sample that can be analyzed for associations, identification of subpopulations, and formulation of specific hypotheses that lend themselves to experimental research. Appropriate models of information and service delivery tailored for the singer-instrumentalist are needed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of pelvic floor muscle training in urinary incontinent elderly women: a sistematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Henriques Jácomo

    Full Text Available Introduction The International Continence Society (ICS determines that the pelvic floor muscles training (PFMT is the first-choice treatment of urinary symptoms in women. Objective The aim of this study was to systematize randomized controlled clinical trials that address the effects of PFMT in the treatment of urinary symptoms in older women using objective outcome measures. Method Systematic review search was performed eletronic the following databases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, PEDro and manual research conducted in the references of the studies. Were considered eligible women aged over 60 years who performed PFMT in isolation, without the involvement of another technique. The PFMT performed in clinic or at home, with or without the supervision of a therapist and with or without the use of biofeedback as an adjunct. Considered as outcome measures urodynamic studies, voiding diary that assesses daytime urinary frequency, nocturnal urinary frequency, urinary incontinence and exchange absorbent, and, finally, the absorbent test that quantifies loss urinary grams. The assessment of methodological quality of the studies was conducted by PEDro scale. Results Three studies were reviewed in full. Only one trial was rated high methodological quality. There was significant improvement in urinary symptoms after treatment proposed in the three selected studies. Conclusion Considering the studies available so far are weak the evidence for the use of PFMT in the treatment of urinary symptoms in elderly women.

  12. The Effectiveness of Marriage Enrichment Training on Job Stress and Quality of Work Life of working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, women alongside men to help their family economic cycle. So the quality of work life and job stress affect on behavioral reactions such as job satisfaction, job involvement and job performance. Because more women than men experience job stress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of marriage enrichment training on job stress and quality of work life of working women at Bafg Central Iron Ore Company. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest  and control group. The population of this study was all of married female employees who worked at Bafg Central Iron Ore Company (150 persons. From these 150 persons 30 persons were selected by purposeful sampling method. then, they were assignment  into 2 groups (experimental and control groups including test and control group. The marriage enrichment training (eight sessions was held on experimental group. The instruments of this research were Health and Safety Executive HSE and Quality of work life QWL. Results: The results showed that marriage enrichment training had significant influence on job stress in experimental group. But, marriage enrichment training did not affect on quality of working life in the experimental group. And so, this was not observed in the control group. Conclusion: since, the job in women is very important, using of this training can reduce job stress the importance of women in the workforce is remarkable use of enrichment education can in women.

  13. Care to pregnant women in primary care: report of activities in supervised training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayckel da Silva Barreto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an experience report that describes an academic activity during Interdisciplinary In-training course, which is part of curricular program of the 4th year of the Nursing undergraduate course at a public university of the Paraná Northwest. As evaluation of the internship was elaborated an Action Plan based on the Altadir Method of Popular Planning, about prenatal care, focusing on the most common pregnancy complications. After researching the literature, observations during the internship, study in documents and reports of the health team, revealed was that anemia, followed by urinary complications, gastric and gynecological were pregnancy complications more frequent at the health unit. As a result of acquired knowledge together, several actions were undertaken, with professionals and pregnant women. The activities evidenced the relevance of Interdisciplinary In-training as an agent of the competences consolidation and technical abilities, providing the academic identify problems, develop intervention strategies and operational demands of the action.

  14. Professional Educators and domestic violence against women: training and awareness in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Ferrer Pérez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The belief that domestic violence against women is a social problem is relatively new. The aim of this study is to analyse how prospective teachers have been trained in this issue at University and how they view its frequency, its seriousness and its causes.We analysed these factors by carrying out ad-hoc interviews to 230 students of Education, to whom the “Inventory of Thoughts Distorted on Woman and Violence” was also administered.The results show that the majority of these students have received some training on this subject and that their view is similar to that of the general population. Students consider it to be a serious, frequent and unacceptable social problem where diverse individual and social causes carry much weight.The implications of these results are analysed.

  15. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-Walking Training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latosik Ewelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity.

  16. Physical demands of game-based training drills in women's team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Trollerud, Hege P; Spencer, Matt

    2018-03-01

    Game-based training drills are popular in team sports. This study compared two game-based training conditions and official matches in team handball. Thirty-one women players wore inertial measurement units in five training sessions and five official matches. In training, 3vs3 and 6vs6 game-based training conditions were performed with a 5-min duration. PlayerLoad™ and high-intensity events (HIEs; >2.5 m · s -1 ) were extracted from the raw data. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences and reported with effect sizes (ESs). PlayerLoad™ · min -1 from all positions combined was 11.37 ± 0.49 (mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 9.71 ± 0.3 for the 3vs3 and 6vs6 conditions, respectively. Backs (ES: 1.63), wings (ES: 1.91), and pivots (ES: 1.58) had greater PlayerLoad™ in 3vs3 than 6vs6. Substantially greater HIE · min -1 in 3vs3 occurred for all positions. There was substantially greater PlayerLoad™ · min -1 in 3vs3 and 6vs6 than match play for backs, wings, and pivots. Wings (ES: 1.95), pivots (ES: 0.70), and goalkeeper (ES: 1.13) had substantially greater HIE · min -1 in 3vs3 than match play. This study shows greater PlayerLoad™ and HIE in 3vs3 than 6vs6. Both game-based training conditions investigated in this study provide an overload in overall PlayerLoad™; however, additional exercises might be needed to overload HIE, especially for backs and pivots.

  17. Pelvic floor muscle training protocol for stress urinary incontinence in women: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Strengthening exercises for pelvic floor muscles (SEPFM are considered the first approach in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about training parameters. Objective: To identify the protocol and/or most effective training parameters in the treatment of female SUI. Method: A literature research was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, PEDro, Web of Science and Lilacs databases, with publishing dates ranging from January 1992 to March 2014. The articles included consisted of English-speaking experimental studies in which SEPFM were compared with placebo treatment (usual or untreated. The sample had a diagnosis of SUI and their age ranged between 18 and 65 years. The assessment of methodological quality was performed based on the PEDro scale. Results: Seven high methodological quality articles were included in this review. The sample consisted of 331 women, mean age 44.4±5.51 years, average duration of urinary loss of 64±5.66 months and severity of SUI ranging from mild to severe. SEPFM programs included different training parameters concerning the PFM. Some studies have applied abdominal training and adjuvant techniques. Urine leakage cure rates varied from 28.6 to 80%, while the strength increase of PFM varied from 15.6 to 161.7%. Conclusion: The most effective training protocol consists of SEPFM by digital palpation combined with biofeedback monitoring and vaginal cones, including 12 week training parameters, and ten repetitions per series in different positions compared with SEPFM alone or a lack of treatment.

  18. Selective underreporting of energy intake in women: magnitude, determinants, and effect of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Polacow, Viviane O; Artioli, Guilherme G; Benatti, Fabiana B; Lancha, Antonio H

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify underreporting of energy intake in Brazilian women; identify underreporting determinants; find out if underreporting was selective and; test if a motivational multimethod training, in combination with providing the subjects some results from the prior recording period, was able to reduce underreporting. Energy intake (EI) was assessed by a 7-day diet record. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated by heart rate monitoring. EI:EE ratio lower than one in subjects who did not lose weight in one month was considered underreporting. Underreporting was correlated with anthropometric, behavioral, and psychological parameters. Food and nutrient consumption was compared between underreporters and non-underreporters. A focus group investigated the main causes of underreporting. Subjects were told that the earlier food records' results were unrealistic and submitted to a motivational training. Then, they were reevaluated for underreporting. Subjects were recruited by advertisements for a physical activity program. Thirty-eight healthy women, 13 normal-weight (34%), 13 overweight (34%), and 12 obese (32%), enrolled in the study. Three subjects (2 normal-weight and 1 obese) (8%) withdrew. Analysis of variance, paired t tests, and simple linear regression. Seventeen women (49%) underreported their EI by 21%. A significant negative correlation was found between social desirability and EI:EE. Undereating, errors in portion sizes estimation and the inconvenience of having to record everything that was eaten seemed to explain underreporting. Mean portion sizes did not differ for underreporters and non-underreporters. Fewer self-reported years of education was correlated with underreporting only among normal-weight women. Training and confrontation with earlier results reduced underreporting rate to 33%, but did not affect macronutrient densities. Applications/conclusions Subjects tended to report their intake in a socially desirable way, by

  19. Effects of 12-week overground walking training at ventilatory threshold velocity in type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Taisa; Ribeiro, Luiz Fernando Paulino; Ackermann, Marco Aurélio; Baldissera, Vilmar; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Galdino da Silva, Rozinaldo

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the effects of overground walking training at ventilatory threshold (VT) velocity on glycaemic control, body composition, physical fitness and lipid profile in DM2 women. Nineteen sedentary patients were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n=10, 55.9±2.2 years) or a trained group (TG; n=9, 53.4±2.3 years). Both groups were subjected to anthropometric measures, a 12-h fasting blood sampling and a graded treadmill exercise test at baseline and after a 12-week period, during which TG followed a training program involving overground walking at VT velocity for 20-60min/session three times/week. Significant group×time interactions (P0.05) in fasting blood glucose, submaximal fitness parameters and lipid profile. Our results suggest that overground walking training at VT velocity improves long term glycaemic control, body composition and exercise capacity, attesting for the relevance of this parameter as an effective strategy for the exercise intensity prescription in DM2 population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  1. Effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on power and jumping ability in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaruk, Hubert; Winchester, Jason B; Sadowski, Jerzy; Czaplicki, Adam; Sacewicz, Tomasz

    2011-12-01

    Makaruk, H, Winchester, JB, Sadowski, J, Czaplicki, A, and Sacewicz, T. Effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on power and jumping ability in women. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3311-3318, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercise on peak power and jumping performance during different stages of a 12-week training and detraining in women. Forty-nine untrained but physically active female college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: unilateral plyometric group (n = 16), bilateral plyometric group (BLE; n = 18), and a control group (n = 15). Peak power and jumping ability were assessed by means of the alternate leg tests (10-second Wingate test and 5 alternate leg bounds), bilateral leg test (countermovement jump [CMJ]) and unilateral leg test (unilateral CMJ). Performance indicators were measured pretraining, midtraining, posttraining, and detraining. Differences between dependent variables were assessed with a 3 × 4 (group × time) repeated analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test applied where appropriate. Effect size was calculated to determine the magnitude of significant differences between the researched parameters. Only the unilateral plyometric training produced significant (p 0.05) decrease power and jumping ability in all tests during detraining. These results suggest that unilateral plyometric exercises produce power and jumping performance during a shorter period when compared to bilateral plyometric exercises but achieved performance gains last longer after bilateral plyometric training. Practitioners should consider the inclusion of both unilateral and bilateral modes of plyometric exercise to elicit rapid improvements and guard against detraining.

  2. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  3. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolarek AC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available André de Camargo Smolarek,1,2 Luis Henrique Boiko Ferreira,1,2 Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas,1 Steven R McAnulty,3 Karla Daniele Varela,4 Mônica C Dangui,4 Marcelo Paes de Barros,5 Alan C Utter,3 Tácito P Souza-Junior2,3 1Department of Physical Education, Biochemistry of the Exercise Laboratory, Centro Oeste University State, Irati, Parana, 2Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 4Physical Education Department, Faculty Guairaca, Guarapuava, Parana, 5Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Science (ICAFE, Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week. Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2

  4. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

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    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  5. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  6. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vampola, T.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-88 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomechanics of human voice * voice production modelling * vocal excersing * voice training Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/138

  7. Clinical Significance of Contralateral Reactive Lesion in Vocal Fold Polyp and Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Hae; Choi, Yong-Sug; Joo, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Hak; Sun, Dong-Il

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the clinical significance of contralateral reactive lesions in patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery for benign vocal fold lesions such as vocal polyps and cysts. This was a retrospective, single institution cohort study. Patient medical records were reviewed for demographic characteristics; acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual analyses; and Voice Handicap Index score before and after laryngeal microsurgery. Definitive diagnoses were made via intraoperative microlaryngoscopic evaluations. Clinical parameters were assessed to identify risk factors for contralateral reactive lesions. We evaluated surgical outcome using voice analysis. We enrolled 268 patients (109 men and 159 women) with benign vocal fold lesions. A total of 195 (72.8%) had a contralateral reactive vocal fold lesion. A multivariable analysis revealed that being a never smoker and having a hoarseness duration ≥6 months, vocal polyps, and small primary lesions were independent risk factors for contralateral reactive lesions (P vocal fold lesions are frequently detected in patients with vocal polyp and cyst. The reactive lesions had an adverse effect on voice quality. Simultaneous excision of primary and contralateral reactive lesions may be an alternative treatment for better voice outcome. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

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    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  9. Vocal plasticity in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Henrik; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2017-05-31

    Sophisticated vocal communication systems of birds and mammals, including human speech, are characterized by a high degree of plasticity in which signals are individually adjusted in response to changes in the environment. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first evidence for vocal plasticity in a reptile. Like birds and mammals, tokay geckos ( Gekko gecko ) increased the duration of brief call notes in the presence of broadcast noise compared to quiet conditions, a behaviour that facilitates signal detection by receivers. By contrast, they did not adjust the amplitudes of their call syllables in noise (the Lombard effect), which is in line with the hypothesis that the Lombard effect has evolved independently in birds and mammals. However, the geckos used a different strategy to increase signal-to-noise ratios: instead of increasing the amplitude of a given call type when exposed to noise, the subjects produced more high-amplitude syllable types from their repertoire. Our findings demonstrate that reptile vocalizations are much more flexible than previously thought, including elaborate vocal plasticity that is also important for the complex signalling systems of birds and mammals. We suggest that signal detection constraints are one of the major forces driving the evolution of animal communication systems across different taxa. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Effect of Nordic Walking training on iron metabolism in elderly women

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    Kortas J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jakub Kortas,1 Katarzyna Prusik,2 Damian Flis,3 Krzysztof Prusik,1 Ewa Ziemann,4 Neil Leaver,5 Jedrzej Antosiewicz6 1Department of Recreation and Tourism, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 2Department of Biomedical Basis of Health, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 3Department of Bioenergetics and Physiology of Exercise, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 5The Immunosuppression monitoring service (IMS Laboratory, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Heart Science Centre, Harefield Hospital, Harefield, UK; 6Department of Biochemistry, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland Background: Despite several, well-documented pro-healthy effects of regular physical training, its influence on body iron stores in elderly people remains unknown. At the same time, body iron accumulation is associated with high risk of different morbidities.Purpose: We hypothesized that Nordic Walking training would result in pro-healthy changes in an elderly group of subjects by reducing body iron stores via shifts in iron metabolism-regulating proteins.Methods: Thirty-seven women aged 67.7±5.3 years participated in this study. They underwent 32 weeks of training, 1-hour sessions three times a week, between October 2012 and May 2013. Fitness level, blood morphology, CRP, vitamin D, ferritin, hepcidin, and soluble Hjv were assessed before and after the training.Results: The training program caused a significant decrease in ferritin, which serves as a good marker of body iron stores. Simultaneously, the physical cardiorespiratory fitness had improved. Furthermore, blood hepcidin was positively correlated with the ferritin concentration after the training. The concentration of blood CRP dropped, but the change was nonsignificant. The applied training

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

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    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  12. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot study

  13. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality.

  14. Effects of tai chi training on antioxidant capacity in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-04-11

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity-an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme-and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  15. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attakorn Palasuwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n=8 and postmenopausal (n=7 sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1 increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2 decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  16. Impact of 12 weeks of resistance training on physical and functional fitness in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendes Gerage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p145 The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on physical functional fitness in elderly women. Fifty-one elderly women (66.1±4.4 years, apparently healthy, insufficiently active, and without prior experience in RT were randomly assigned into two groups: Training Group (TG = 24 and Control Group (CG = 27. The TG was submitted to a standardized RT program composed of eight exercises, performed in two sets of 10 to 15 repetitions, three times a week, and the CG was submitted to a 12 week stretching exercise program composed by two sessions per week of 30 minutes each. Their physical and functional fitness level was analyzed before and after the intervention period by motor testing to assess Right and Left Upper Limb Endurance (RULE, LULE, Lower Limb Endurance (LLE, Flexibility (FLEX, Manual Skills (MS, Ability to Put on Socks (APS, and Coordination (COORD. The TG had improved performance in LLE (+13.8%, RULE (+24.3%, LULE (+22.9%, and MS (- 0.9 s, whereas the CG improved performance in RULE (+13.9% and LULE (+14.1%, but had increased time in COORD by (+1.5 s, and these were the only tests showing significant interactions of group vs. time (p<0.05. The results suggest that 12 weeks of RT seem to be sufficient to induce positive changes on physical and functional fitness of healthy and previously untrained elderly women.

  17. Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tonacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypothesized that weight loss by diet (D or diet plus exercise training (D + ET would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m², D + ET (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m², and nonadherent (NA, N = 9, 35 ± 2 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m² groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was measured by microneurography and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Mental stress was elicited by a 3-min Stroop color word test. Weight loss was similar between D and D + ET groups (87 ± 2 vs 79 ± 2 and 85 ± 2 vs 76 ± 2 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 with a significant reduction in MSNA during mental stress (58 ± 2 vs 50 ± 2, P = 0.0001, and 59 ± 3 vs 50 ± 2 bursts/100 beats, P = 0.0001, respectively, although the magnitude of the response was unchanged. Forearm vascular conductance during mental stress was significantly increased only in D + ET (2.74 ± 0.22 vs 3.52 ± 0.19 units, P = 0.02. Weight loss reduces MSNA during mental stress in obese women. The increase in forearm vascular conductance after weight loss provides convincing evidence for D + ET interventions as a nonpharmacologic therapy of human obesity.

  18. Need for Resourcefulness Training for Women Caregivers of Elders with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Lekhak, Nirmala; Yolpant, Wichiya; Morris, Diana L

    2015-01-01

    Nearly ten million American women are caregivers of elders with dementia and may experience overwhelming stress that adversely affects their mental health. Interventions to teach them resourcefulness skills for managing stress can promote optimal mental health and facilitate continued caregiving. However, effectiveness of resourcefulness training (RT) cannot be examined until its need is established. This pilot trial with 138 women caregivers of someone with dementia examined the need for RT using subjective and objective data. Data were collected before and after RT. Data analysis focused on baseline resourcefulness scores (higher scores = lower need); scores in relation to attrition; correlations among resourcefulness, stress, and depressive symptoms; and post-RT evaluation of the need for RT. Baseline resourcefulness scores were normally distributed and showed that 74% of the caregivers had a moderate to high need for RT. Reasons for attrition were unrelated to the need for RT; however, caregivers who dropped out had resourcefulness scores that averaged two points higher than those who remained in the study. Lower resourcefulness was associated greater stress (r = -.37, p women dementia caregivers and support moving forward to test RT's effectiveness for reducing caregiver stress and depressive symptoms.

  19. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training in women with overactive bladder syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Silvia; Riccetto, Cassio; Araújo, Angélica; Galo, Laryssa; Brito, Nathália; Botelho, Simone

    2018-04-11

    Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in reducing overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women. Searches were performed at MEDLINE, PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Scielo, and Central Cochrane Library PubMed until January 2017. Controlled trials were researched by two independent reviewers. Eligible studies were restricted to random and controlled clinical trials that investigated the effectiveness of PFMT in decreasing OAB symptoms. Qualitative methodology was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Data was analyzed and interpreted qualitatively. The final search retrieved eight studies (n = 1161 women with urgency symptoms), which were published between 2002 and 2016. The methodological scores varied between 4 and 7 in the PEDro scale. PFMT, with the objective of controlling urgent micturition, demonstrated improvements in quality of life in women with OAB. Most data in this revision came from small- to moderate-sized trials, with different and inconsistent outcome measures, which could have impacted the end results. The literature regarding the effectiveness of PFMT in OAB remains heterogeneous and inconclusive.

  20. Effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training vs. Pilates training on balance and muscle function in older women: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Goran; Sarabon, Nejc; Greblo, Zrinka; Krizanic, Valerija

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in physical function that could result in the development of physical impairment and disability. Hence, interventions that simultaneously challenge balance ability, trunk (core) and extremity strength of older adults could be particularly effective in preserving and enhancing these physical functions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training utilizing the a special computer-controlled device (Huber®) with the conventional Pilates training on balance ability, neuromuscular function and body composition of healthy older women. Thirty-four older women (age: 70±4 years) were randomly assigned to a Huber group (n=17) or Pilates group (n=17). Both groups trained for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors, extensors, and lateral flexors, leg power, upper-body strength, single- and dual-task static balance, and body composition were measured before and after the intervention programs. Significant group×time interactions and main effects of time (pcore resistance training proved to be more effective in improving single- and dual-task balance ability, trunk muscle strength, leg power, and body composition of healthy older women than the traditional Pilates training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Voice Disorders in Teachers: Clinical, Videolaryngoscopical, and Vocal Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Dysphonia is more prevalent in teachers than among the general population. The objective of this study was to analyze clinical, vocal, and videolaryngoscopical aspects in dysphonic teachers. Ninety dysphonic teachers were inquired about their voice, comorbidities, and work conditions. They underwent vocal auditory-perceptual evaluation (maximum phonation time and GRBASI scale), acoustic voice analysis, and videolaryngoscopy. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 90 dysphonic nonteachers, of similar gender and ages, and with professional activities excluding teaching and singing. In both groups, there were 85 women and five men (age range 31-50 years). In the controls, the majority of subjects worked in domestic activities, whereas the majority of teachers worked in primary (42.8%) and secondary school (37.7%). Teachers and controls reported, respectively: vocal abuse (76.7%; 37.8%), weekly hours of work between 21 and 40 years (72.2%; 80%), under 10 years of practice (36%; 23%), absenteeism (23%; 0%), sinonasal (66%; 20%) and gastroesophageal symptoms (44%; 22%), hoarseness (82%; 78%), throat clearing (70%; 62%), and phonatory effort (72%; 52%). In both groups, there were decreased values of maximum phonation time, impairment of the G parameter in the GRBASI scale (82%), decrease of F0 and increase of the rest of acoustic parameters. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant in teachers; laryngopharyngeal reflux, polyps, and sulcus vocalis predominated in the controls. Vocal symptoms, comorbidities, and absenteeism were predominant among teachers. The vocal analyses were similar in both groups. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant among teachers, whereas polyps, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and sulcus were predominant among controls. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Water-Based Training on Static and Dynamic Balance of Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Lopes, Maria de Fátima A; Cebolla, Elaine Cristine; Wolf, Renata; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a water-based exercise program on static and dynamic balance. Thirty-six older women were randomly assigned to a water-based training (3 days/week for 12 weeks) or control group. Water level was kept at the level of the xiphoid process and temperature at ∼28-30°C. Each session included aerobic activities and lower limb strength exercises. The medial-lateral, the anterior-posterior amplitude, and displacement of the center of pressure (CP-D) were measured in a quiet standing position (60 sec eyes opened and closed). The dynamic balance and 8-Foot Up-and-Go tests were also applied. Group comparisons were made using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. No differences were found in the center of pressure variables; however, the WBT group showed better performance in the 8 Foot Up-and-Go Test after training (5.61±0.76 vs. 5.18±0.42; pwater-based training was effective in improving dynamic balance, but not static balance.

  3. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  4. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs. PMID:26464884

  5. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  6. Web-based Coping Skills Training for Women Whose Partner has a Drinking Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Barrick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Spouses whose partner has an alcohol use disorder can experience considerable psychological distress. Yet, due to social, financial, relationship, and psychological barriers they often remain hidden, and underserved. To partially reduce treatment barriers for this population, this study evaluated the short-term efficacy of a self-paced, web-delivered coping skills training program for women experiencing distress as a result of living with a partner with an Alcohol Use Disorder. Participants (N = 89) were randomly assigned to either 8-weeks of an Internet-administered Coping Skills Training Program (iCST), or an 8-week Delayed Treatment Control (DTC). Participation in, and satisfaction with iCST was high. At the end of the 8-week access/delay period, iCST participants exhibited a significantly higher level of coping skills relative to DTC, d = 1.02, 95% CI [.64, 1.51], and reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms, d = −.65, 95% CI [−1.21, −.35], and situational anger, d = −.70, 95% CI [−1.62, −.64]. Moreover, iCST appeared to prevent an increase in symptoms among those with low baseline symptom levels; DTC did not. Skill acquisition appeared to partially mediate changes observed. Online coping skills training may be an effective way of reaching and helping a large number of this frequently underserved population. PMID:25347016

  7. Decrease in blood pressure, body mass index and glycemia after aerobic training in elderly women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luciana Zaranza; Fiani, Cássio Ricardo Vaz; Freitas, Maria Cristina Foss de; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Foss, Milton César

    2010-10-01

    The aging process is associated with the development of several diseases, which can be attenuated by the practice of physical activities. Aerobic training is an effective method to maintain and improve cardiovascular function. Additionally, it has a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of several chronic-degenerative diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. } To verify the effect of a 13-week aerobic training program on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and glycemia levels in elderly women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Eleven sedentary elderly women with DM2, aged 61.0 ± 9.1 years, were submitted a 13-week aerobic training program, constituting group G2. Eleven controlled elderly women (aged 60.2 ± 6.8 years) were not submitted to the aerobic training, constituting the control group (G1). G1 attended educational lectures once a week, whereas G2 walked three times a week. Both groups presented a significant decrease in glycemia and diastolic blood pressure levels. No significant decreases in BMI were observed after the aerobic training in either group. The 13-week aerobic training program was enough to promote significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure and glycemia levels; therefore, this type of exercise training decreases the risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  8. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI, and high-intensity training group (HI. Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50–56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI or 65–70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI. Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI. Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  9. Improvement of cognitive functions in response to a regular Nordic walking training in elderly women - A change dependent on the training experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmiąt, A; Jaworska, J; Micielska, K; Kortas, J; Prusik, K; Prusik, K; Lipowski, M; Radulska, A; Szupryczyńska, N; Antosiewicz, J; Ziemann, E

    2018-04-01

    Although regular physical activity is known to benefit health of aging populations, there are still many factors, which regulate exercise-induced adaptive changes. Among many vitamin D and myokines are under consideration. We, therefore, evaluated the influence of a single session of and regular Nordic Walking (NW) training combined with vitamin D supplementation on cognitive functions and muscle strength and some elements of the amino-acid profile. Thirty-five healthy elderly women (68 ± 5 years old) from health promotion programmes took part in the study. At baseline they were divided into two groups: women, who participated in NW training for the first time (Beginners Group: BG) and women, who continued regular NW training longer than four years (Advance Group: AG). All women had a similar concentration of vitamin D (above 20 ng·ml -1 ) at baseline. The 12 weeks of NW training was supported by supplementation of vitamin D 3 (4000 IU/day). Muscle strength, serum concentrations of myokines (irisin and IL-6), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammation marker, glucose, branched amino acids and tryptophan were all assessed at baseline, 1 h after the first single training session and adequately at the end of the training programme. In addition, iron and ferritin were measured. The concentration of vitamin D 3 as well as psychological (Quality-of-Life Assessment, The Beck Depression Inventory-2) and cognitive evaluations (D2 test of attention, Trial Making Test A&B) were also performed before and after the 12-week training programme. Data were interpreted using magnitude-based inferences. According to data obtained in this study, regular NW training resulted in improvement of cognitive functions in aged women. These positive changes were accompanied by an increase of irisin and BDNF concentration (adjusted effect moderate and likely). Our data also revealed that observed reductions of glucose and tryptophan concentrations might have

  10. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  11. Autogenic training to manage symptomology in women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Kanji, Nasim; Ernst, Edzard; Barbir, Mahmoud; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To explore autogenic training (AT) as a treatment for psychological morbidity, symptomology, and physiological markers of stress among women with chest pain, a positive exercise test for myocardial ischemia, and normal coronary arteries (cardiac syndrome X). Fifty-three women with cardiac syndrome X (mean +/- SD age, 57.1 +/- 8 years) were randomized to an 8-week AT program or symptom diary control. Symptom severity and frequency, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ), and Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QLI), blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and plasma catecholamines were measured before and after intervention and at the 8-week follow-up. Women who underwent AT had improved symptom frequency (8.04 +/- 10.08 vs 1.66 +/- 2.19, P < 0.001) compared with control women and reduced symtom severity (2.08 +/- 1.03 vs 1.23 +/- 1.36, P = 0.02) and frequency (6.11 +/- 3.17 vs 1.66 +/- 2.19, P < G 0.001) post-AT compared with baseline within group. Within-group improvements among women who underwent AT include QLI health functioning (17.80 +/- 5.74 vs 19.41 +/- 5.19, P = 0.04) and CAQ fear (1.53 +/- 0.61 vs 1.35 +/- 0.56, P = 0.02) post-AT and QLI health functioning (17.80 +/- 5.74 vs 20.09 +/- 5.47, P = 0.01), CAQ fear (1.53 +/- 0.61 vs 1.30 +/- 0.67, P = 0.002), CAQ total (1.42 +/- 0.54 vs 1.29 +/- 0.475, P = 0.04), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait anxiety (42.95 +/- 11.19 vs 38.68 +/- 11.47, P = 0.01), and QLI quality of life (20.67 +/- 5.37 vs 21.9 +/- 4.89, P = 0.02) at follow-up. An 8-week AT program improves symptom frequency, with near-significant improvements in symptom severity in women with cardiac syndrome X.

  12. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 5 1 . 4 ± 6 . 8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of ten...

  13. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

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    F. Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings: After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  14. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollahi Shoorabeh F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  15. Effects of stress management training and problem solving on quality of life and life expectancy among infertile women

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    Mohammad Reza Zarbakhsh Bahri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management training and problem-solving training on quality of life and life expectancy of infertile women was conducted.Material and Methods: The method of this study was experimental with pretest – posttest design with a control group. population of 400 infertile women who referred to infertility center in Rasht were randomized to 250 of them were selected and the quality of life and life expectancy of the study were the 45 members of the quality of life and life expectancy lower were more randomly in three groups of 15 people, including two experimental groups and one control group were replaced. Each experimental groups were trained for 10 sessions of 90 minutes, respectively, stress management and problem-solving. Upon completion of the training program, participants were assessed again.Results: The result of present study showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental groups and control group in the scores of quality of life and life expectancy (p0.05.Conclusion: Stress management and problem solving training were effective on life expectancy and quality of life of infertile women but there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of these two methods on life expectancy and quality of life of infertile women.

  16. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 ? 8?s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ( V ? O 2 p e a k ) interspersed with 12?s recovery, whereas MI...

  17. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  18. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  19. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  1. Vocalization Subsystem Responses to a Temporarily Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, Daniel J.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantify the interactions of the 3 vocalization subsystems of respiration, phonation, and resonance before, during, and after a perturbation to the larynx (temporarily induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis) in 10 vocally healthy participants. Using dynamic systems theory as a guide, we hypothesized that…

  2. Effects of Eight-Weeks of Aerobic Training on Resistin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Abedi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resistin is an adipocyte-specific hormone secreted from adipose tissue which plays a significant role in the energy homeostasis and regulation of energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight weeks of aerobic training on the resistin levels and insulin resistance in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, 20 sedentary women were randomly selected and assigned to two groups: experimental group, n=10, aged 47.70±5.35; and control, n=10, age 41.30±3.02, respectively. The participants in the training group performed an exercise protocol three times per week with the goal of 55 to 65 per cent of maximum heart rate. Before and after the completion, the resistin, insulin, glucose and insulin resistance levels were measured after 12 h of overnight fasting. Data were analyzed before and after the intervention by t-test. The significant level was defined as P≤0.05. Results: Aerobic training in compared with the control group showed significant effect in decreasing resistin levels (P=0.012, BMI (P=0.01, insulin resistance (P=0.01, and increasing VO2 max (P=0.004. Conclusion: It appears that eight weeks of aerobic training significantly changes the level of resistin and the insulin resistance index in sedentary middle-aged women. Plasma resistin may be associated with insulin resistance in sedentary women. In general, according to the results, we may say that an eight-week aerobic training with a significant reduction in plasma resistin has a preventive effect as a new and effective training method on insulin resistance in middle-aged sedentary women.

  3. Opportunities and challenges of interdisciplinary research career development: implementation of a women's health research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E; Smith, Yolanda R; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2007-03-01

    A key component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research is the development of interdisciplinary research teams. How best to teach and foster interdisciplinary research skills has not been determined. An effort at promoting interdisciplinary research was initiated by the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) at NIH in 1999. The following year, 12 academic centers were funded to support 56 scholar positions for 2-5 years under Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH). A second cohort of 12 centers, called BIRCWH II, was funded in 2002. In this paper, we present the experience of the University of Michigan BIRCWH program, including a practical approach to dealing with the challenges and opportunities of interdisciplinary research training. Scholars are mentored not only by their primary research advisor but also by a three-person mentor team as well as by their peers. All scholars and a core of supportive faculty meet regularly to discuss interdisciplinary research career development and approaches to apply knowledge in new ways. Of the original cohort of 10 scholars at the University of Michigan, 7 have achieved independent research funding. Challenges include arranging times to meet, developing a common language and knowledge base, dealing proactively with expectations and misunderstandings, focusing on a conceptual model, and providing timely feedback.

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Burtscher, Martin; Martínez-Guardado, Ismael; Timon, Rafael; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olcina, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO 2 = 17.2%; n = 13), (2) aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15), (3) sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15), and (4) sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18). Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1), after 18 training sessions (T2), 7 days after the last session (T3), and 4 weeks after the last session (T4). The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 ( p Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly ( p fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups ( p fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval training under normobaric intermittent hypoxia for 12 weeks in overweight/obese women seems to be promising for reducing body fat content with a concomitant increase in muscle mass.

  5. Effect of Balance, Strength, and Combined Training on the Balance of the Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farsi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ageing is associated with a number of physiologic and functional declines that can increase disability, frailty, and falls in the elderly. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to study and compare the effect of balance, strength, and combined trainings on the balance (overall, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral of the elderly women. Methods & Materials: Twenty-four older female adults (without history of any injuries in their lower limbs were participated voluntarily in this study and randomly assigned into 3 groups: balance (n=8, strength (n=8 and combined (n=8. A 6-week exercise program was performed at Shahid Beheshti University. The program was performed 3 days per week. Before and after implementation of exercise program, the balance status of the subjects was measured by Biodex stability system. The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance (group×time ANOVA with repeated measures on time, paired–sample t-test, 1–way ANOVA, and Bonferroni post–hoc test (P≤0.005. Results: At the end of training programs, significant improvements were observed between the balance and combined groups with regard to the indexes of overall, anterior–posterior, and medial–lateral balance. Also, the strength group showed a significant growth in the indexes of anterior-posterior and medial-lateral compared to the beginning of the study. There was a significant difference between the balance (P=0.0001 and combined groups (P=0.001 with the strength group with regard to the index of overall balance. Also, there was a significant difference between balance group (P=0.0001 and the combined group (P=0.0001 regarding the anterior-posterior balance. But there were no significant differences between groups with regard to the medial-lateral balance. Conclusion: The study showed that perturbation–based balance training and combined training had the better effects compared to the strength training.

  6. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  7. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in muscle strength in elderly women after proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation based training

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    Edivã Bernardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Introduction Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF can be used to improve the quality of life of both healthy and diseased subjects, including the elderly, who suffer muscular weakness due to aging, leading to an impairment in functional capacity. Objective Verify the effectiveness of PNF as a tool for functional conditioning. Materials and methods We evaluated a total of ten elderly women aged 60–70 years, clinically healthy and physically active. They had the force of motion of hip flexion with knee extension analyzed by an analog dynamometer. They were then randomly and equally divided into experimental (EG and control group (CG. The GC was instructed to continue with their normal activities while the GE held 15 training sessions in the lower limb (LL based on the diagonal D1 and D2. Finally, a new collection wrench the two groups was performed and the data compared. Results There was a significant increase in the average strength of GE, on the order of 31% (p 0.05. Discussion : The results confirm that the FNP through initial work of readjustment and proprioceptive neuromuscular activation, and after that, conditioning of the muscle fibers (mainly resistive is capable of amplifying the force developed by the muscle. Conclusion The PNF was effective as training to gain muscle strength, should be better analyzed as a tool fitness, not to cause health risks, have low cost and easy application.

  10. Vascular characteristics in young women-Effect of extensive endurance training or a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnegård, N; Länne, T; Cinthio, M; Ekstrand, J; Hedman, K; Nylander, E; Henriksson, J

    2018-06-01

    To explore whether high-level endurance training in early age has an influence on the arterial wall properties in young women. Forty-seven athletes (ATH) and 52 controls (CTR), all 17-25 years of age, were further divided into runners (RUN), whole-body endurance athletes (WBA), sedentary controls (SC) and normally active controls (AC). Two-dimensional ultrasound scanning of the carotid arteries was conducted to determine local common carotid artery (CCA) geometry and wall distensibility. Pulse waves were recorded with a tonometer to determine regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure waveform. Carotid-radial PWV was lower in WBA than in RUN (P sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, our data suggest that long-term endurance training is associated with potentially favourable peripheral artery adaptation, especially in sports where upper body work is added. This adaptation, if persisting later in life, could contribute to lower cardiovascular risk. © 2018 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series

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    Regina Helena Garcia Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Objective: To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. Methods: The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. Results: 28 patients (26 women and 2 men were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n = 17, teacher (n = 4, salesclerk (n = 4, nurse (n = 1, retired (n = 1, and psychologist (n = 1. Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. Conclusions: In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed.

  12. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Ranalli, Paula Ferreira; Branco, Anete; Pessin, Adriana Bueno Benito

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. 28 patients (26 women and 2 men) were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n=17), teacher (n=4), salesclerk (n=4), nurse (n=1), retired (n=1), and psychologist (n=1). Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

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    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  14. Use of loud phonation as a voice therapy technique for children with vocal nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Nishiyama, Koichiro

    2003-10-01

    For the treatment of vocal nodules, educational programs for vocal hygiene and voice training for acquisition of correct phonation are essential. In the case of children, special considerations are necessary as some of their vocal behaviors and reaction to voice disorders are different from those of adults. In this study, a voice therapy program for child vocal nodules were developed and good results were obtained for six children. They were four boys and two girls (Age: 4-11 yr) and bilateral nodules were found for all of them. In addition to a conventional vocal hygiene program for children, correct production of loud voice (so-called gBeltingh) was the major focus of the voice therapy as the visual inspection of the larynges and perceptual evaluations of the voice revealed inappropriate loud voice production with laryngeal constriction in all children. After 5-24 voice therapy sessions, disappearance of the nodules was found in five children and the reduction of the nodule sizes was found in one child. Improvement of the GRBAS scores, longer maximum phonation time, and extension of vocal ranges were found after the completion of the therapy programs.

  15. The effect of vocal fold augmentation on cough symptoms in the presence of glottic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litts, Juliana K; Fink, Daniel S; Clary, Matthew S

    2017-10-08

    To determine the effect of injection augmentation of the vocal folds on chronic cough symptoms in patients with glottic insufficiency. Medical records from 146 consecutive patients who underwent vocal fold injection augmentation by a fellowship-trained laryngologist between 2013 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-three patients (12 male) met inclusion criteria of a vocal fold augmentation injection, cough symptoms lasting more than 8 weeks, and glottic insufficiency as determined by shortened closed phase on stroboscopy. Exclusion criteria included lack of cough complaints, diagnosis of vocal fold immobility, previous history of vocal fold augmentation, and incomplete data sets. Data collected included age, gender, pre- and 1-month postinjection Cough Severity Index (CSI) scores, location of injection (unilateral or bilateral), and patient statement of percent change in symptoms that was recorded at 1-month postinjection visit. Paired t test indicated a significant decrease in CSI scores from pre- (m = 18.5) to 1-month postinjection (m = 12.1) (P = 0.004). Eighteen patients (78.2%) reported a 50% or greater improvement in cough symptoms at the 1-month postinjection visit. Injection augmentation of the vocal folds in the presence of glottic insufficiency appears to improve cough symptoms, as was reported by CSI in patients who are refractory to other medical and behavioral treatments. 4. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. The entry of women in predominantly male professions: when training supports the search of alternative ways of organizing work time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Sónia; Lacomblez, Marianne; Santos, Marta; Cunha, Liliana; Castelhano, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Following a research carried out on the integration of women in professional areas predominantly for men, this paper intends to present and debate the project of a training course which aims the transformation of the organization of work schedules in order to improve the well-being of the workers involved. The conception of training courses with this type of objective involves the confrontation and debate between the "invested skills" of the trainers and the "constituted skills" of the trainees. But will this paradigm remain intact when applied to training courses permeated by the gender dimension? That is what one will try to realize with the effective implementation of a training course, whose reflection will allow, ultimately, to enrich our understanding on gender, work, health and training.

  17. The Influence of Perception Training on Communication Between Polarized Groups of Officers and Inmates at the Colorado Women's Correctional Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Denamae Dawson

    Those who wish to bring about positive communication between two groups with strongly polarized attitudes cannot do so merely by bringing the groups together for interaction. A study of inmates and officers at a women's prison revealed the potential of perception training for changing initially polarized conceptions. Analyses of subjects'…

  18. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  19. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for treating pelvic organ prolapse in women: randomized controlled trial

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    Bruno Teixeira Bernardes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that women with pelvic floor dysfunctions present decreased cross-sectional area (CSA of the levator ani muscle. One way to assess the effects of training programs is to measure the CSA of the muscle, using ultrasonography. The aim here was to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for increasing the CSA of the levator ani muscle in women with pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled trial at the Urogynecology outpatient clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight women with stage II pelvic organ prolapse were divided into three groups for physiotherapy: a pelvic floor muscle training group (GI; a hypopressive exercise group (GII; and a control group (GIII. The patients underwent transperineal ultrasonographic evaluation using a transducer of frequency 4-9 MHz. The (CSA of the levator ani muscle was measured before physiotherapy and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age, number of pregnancies, number of vaginal deliveries, body mass index and hormonal status. Statistically significant differences in CSA were found in GI and GII from before to after the treatment (P < 0.001, but not in relation to GIII (P = 0.816. CONCLUSIONS: The CSA of the levator ani muscle increased significantly with physiotherapy among the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises produced similar improvements in the CSA of the levator ani muscle.

  20. A Single Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia; Meston, Cindy

    2017-10-03

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has recently been associated with female sexual function (Stanton, Lorenz, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). Below-average HRV was identified as a possible risk factor for sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Based on this newly established relationship between HRV and female sexual function, the present study examined the effect of autogenic training to increase HRV on acute physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. Specifically, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), an index of genital sexual arousal, and subjective sexual arousal were assessed in 33 sexually functional women, aged 18 to 27, before and after a short session of autogenic training. Autogenic training, a relaxation technique that restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, has been shown to significantly increase HRV (Miu, Heilman, & Miclea, 2009). After autogenic training, significant increases in both VPA (p <.05) and subjective sexual arousal (p <.005) were observed. Moreover, change in HRV from pre- to postmanipulation significantly moderated changes in subjective sexual arousal (p <.05) when it was measured continuously during the presentation of the erotic stimulus. This cost-effective, easy-to-administer behavioral intervention may have important implications for increasing sexual arousal in women.

  1. The effect of an aerobic training period on mental health and depression in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Saremi A*

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is among the common endocrine women disorders that can create manifestations such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of aerobic training on mental health and depression among Iranian women suffering from PCOS has been examined. Methods: This semi experimental study was carried out based on pre-test and post-test on experiment and control groups in Arak, Iran. Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (aged 27.82 ±5.23 yr were selected and randomly divided to training (n=12 and control (n=10 groups. Aerobic training program was performed 25-40 min/d, 3d/wk, for 10 weeks. Mental health and depression were evaluated using a general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 and a Beck depression inventory (BAI-II in the two groups before and after the study. Results: The 10 week aerobic training had a significant effect on mental health, subscales of physical symptoms, anxiety and depression (p0.05. Conclusion: The result of present study suggests that aerobic exercise can improve the mental disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Vocal fold self-disruption after phonotrauma on a lead actor: a case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Oliveira, Gisele; Pontes, Paulo

    2009-11-01

    It is well known that phonotraumatic events may produce laryngeal inflammation, vocal fold hemorrhage and different types of mass lesions. This study describes a vocal fold self-disruption that occurred on stage to a lead actor in the role of Richard III. The study design is as case presentation. A 43-year-old actor presented with a sudden voice loss that first occurred on stage after a series of presentations. He also had a cold-like condition that had not been treated. His past medical history included an average of ten cigarettes per day for ten years and a 10-year history of gastritis and stomach ulcer. Perceptual, acoustic, and laryngeal analyses were performed following pharmacological and voice therapy. Perceptual and acoustic analyses showed mild deviations whereas laryngeal visual examination revealed a complete right vocal fold detachment from the anterior commissure to the vocal process, with generalized hyperemia. A mild diffuse Reinke's edema was observed on the left vocal fold. Mild discomfort was present only during the first day of the acute period. Modified vocal rest was recommended and a series of vocal exercises were administered. The patient performed again 4 days later, after following a series of behavioral modification techniques that included casting guidelines during the subsequent 15 days. Healing was exceptional and his voice returned to normal. This unique case with an exceptional recovery emphasizes the etiological aspects of scar formation after phonotrauma. Positive contributing factors may include a good vocal technique and adequate training as well as the protective upregulated genes present in Reinke's edema.

  3. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

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    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  4. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria

    2015-07-01

    Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women.

  5. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

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    Yan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n=15 or the control group (n=21 for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes (e.g., compliance and adverse effects and clinical outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, and physical function were assessed. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. Results. The training materials were well received. The feedback from participants suggests that self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home, although no statistically significant results of the clinical outcome were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure compared with usual care. Conclusion. Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.

  6. Sintomas vocais e perfil de professores em um programa de saúde vocal Vocal symptoms and profile of teachers in a vocal health program

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    Karin Choi-Cardim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar sintomas vocais de dois grupos de professores que foram avaliados em momentos distintos de um programa de saúde vocal. MÉTODOS: correlacionar condições de trabalho e hábitos com o número de sintomas vocais apresentados por 411 professores, agrupados em G1 (256 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e G2 (155 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e de tratamento. RESULTADOS: em ambos os grupos observou-se predomínio de mulheres (p = 0,550, entre 31 e 40 anos (p = 0,557, lecionando para mais de um grau de ensino (p = 0,345 com até 30 alunos/sala (p = 0,521, com presença de ruído no trabalho (p = 0,660, que relataram cuidados vocais (p = 0,231 e utilizavam voz extra-profissionalmente (p = 0,713, não tabagistas (p = 0,010 nem alcoolistas (p = 0,029. Em contrapartida, no G1 observou-se carga horária diária de trabalho de até 5 horas, enquanto a maior parte do G2 trabalhava de 6 a 10 horas (p 4 os grupos; sendo a média de 3,5 (57% para G1 e 5,8 (98,05% para G2 - (p PURPOSE: to analyze vocal symptoms from two groups of teachers assessed during two different instances of a vocal health program. METHODS: correlate work conditions and habits with the number of vocal symptoms submitted by 411 teachers divided into G1 (256 subjects to be submitted to a prevention program and G2 (155 subjects to be submitted to a prevention and treatment program. RESULTS: it was observed that in both groups there was a larger number of women (p=0.550, aged 31 to 40 years (p=0.557, teaching for more than one grade (p=0.345 and with up to 30 students per class (p=0.521; they related presence of noise in their work environment (p=0.660, used to take care of their voices (p=0.231, were non-smokers (p=0.010, used their voices in extra-professional activities and did not have the habit of drinking. On the other hand, both groups were different upon relating daily work hours; in G1 most teachers worked up to 5 hours a day

  7. Short-term water-based aerobic training promotes improvements in aerobic conditioning parameters of mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Reichert, Thais; Coconcelli, Leandro; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Stein, Ricardo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2017-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HR rest ), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HR AT ), peak heart rate (HR peak ), percentage value of HR AT in relation to HR peak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training. Aerobic capacity parameters were evaluated through an aquatic incremental test. After training, there was an increase in TD (16%) and HR AT percentage in relation to HR peak (4.68%), and a reduction of HR rest (9%). It is concluded that a water-based aerobic interval training prescribed through HR AT of only five weeks is able to promote improvements in aerobic capacity of mature women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  9. Effects of Endurance and Endurance Strength Training on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Women with Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Mądry, Edyta; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Ratajczak, Marzena; Kryściak, Jakub; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the effects of endurance training with endurance strength training on the anthropometric, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory parameters in obese women. Methods 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into groups A and B, and asked to perform endurance (A) and endurance strength training (B) for 3 months, 3 times/week, for 60 min. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Graded Exercise Test were performed before and after training. Results Significant decreases in body mass, BMI, total body fat, total body fat mass, and waist and hip circumference were observed after both types of intervention. Marked increases in total body lean and total body fat-free mass were documented in group B. In both groups, significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, maximal work rate, and work rate at ventilatory threshold were accompanied by noticeably decreased resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were noticed between groups for the investigated parameters. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate evidence for a favorable and comparable effect of 3-month endurance and endurance strength training on anthropometric parameters, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory system function in women with abdominal obesity. PMID:25968470

  10. The effects of breathing techniques training on the duration of labor and anxiety levels of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Sevil; Basar, Fatma

    2017-11-01

    To assess the effects of breathing techniques training on anxiety levels of pregnant women and the duration of labor. The study utilizes a randomized controlled trial design. The pregnant women were divided into control (n = 35) or experimental group (n = 35) randomly. The experimental group received breathing techniques training in the latent phase and these techniques were applied in the following phases accordingly. The anxiety levels of pregnant women were evaluated three times in total. The duration of labor was considered as the duration of the first stage of labor and the duration of the second stage of labor. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and the mean duration of labor. This study concludes that breathing techniques are an effective method in the reduction of anxiety and influence the duration of delivery during labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...... out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P ...

  12. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  13. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B

    2017-01-01

    middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post......The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive.......2±0.2 mmol·L(-1) ) and HDL cholesterol increased more (0.2±0.7 vs -0.2±0.2 mmol·L(-1) ) in SOC than in CON (Ptraining resulted...

  14. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-17

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production.

  15. Comparison of the effectiveness of resistance training in women with chronic computer-related neck pain: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Liu, Cuicui; Ke, Songjian; Wan, Qing; Luo, Haijie; Huang, Zhuxi; Xin, Wenjun; Ma, Chao; Wu, Shaoling

    2017-10-01

    Chronic computer-related neck pain is common among office workers. Studies have proposed neck strengthening exercise as a therapy to pain relieving and function improvement. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different loading resistance trainings and we hypothesized that women with work-related neck pain could benefit more from progressive resistance training for pain and function recovery. A randomized controlled trial was conducted and subjects characterized by monotonous jobs were recruited. One hundred and nine employed women with chronic neck pain were randomly allocated into three groups, namely, progressive resistance training (PRT), fixed resistance training (FRT), and control group (CG). In PRT and FRT, four exercises for neck muscles with an elastic rubber band were performed on regular basis for 6 weeks. The therapeutic effectiveness was then evaluated at pretreatment, 2, 4, and 6 weeks during training period, and 3-month posttreatment. Assessment tools included visual analog scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and maximal isometric neck strength. The outcomes were significantly better in PRT and FRT than those in CG at 6-week timepoint and 3-month follow-up (p = 0.000), in terms of VAS, NDI, PPT, and neck muscle strength. Besides, there were statistically significant decreases observed in VAS scores of PRT group compared with those in FRT at 4-, 6-week timepoints, and 3-month follow-up (p training was an effective method for pain relieving, mobility improving, pain threshold, and neck muscle strength enhancing in women with chronic computer-related neck pain. Thus, our study provided evidence that women with work-related neck pain might benefit more from PRT, which may have important implications for future clinical practice. The study was qualified and registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry as ChiCTR-TRC-12002723.

  16. The effects of menopausal health training for spouses on women's quality of life during menopause transitional period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Narjes; Yoshany, Nooshin; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Noghabi, Ali Delshad; Sajjadi, Moosa

    2016-02-01

    Spouses' support during menopausal transition has an important role for improving the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Since the first step in providing support is having adequate knowledge, this study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational program on menopause health for spouses on women's quality of life during the menopausal transition. This clinical trial was conducted in Yazd, Iran. A hundred healthy women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited by random sampling. The spouses in the intervention group (n = 50) attended three training sessions about the management and health of menopausal transition. The spouses in the control group (n = 50) did not receive any intervention. Knowledge and performance about menopausal health were assessed in all spouses before and 3 months after intervention. All women were assessed by the Menopause Rating Scale, and the Menopause Quality of Life questionnaire before and 3 months after educational intervention. Analyses were carried out using SPSS 16 software. The level of significance was set at P less than 0.05. The knowledge and performance of spouses in the intervention group were significantly higher 3 months after intervention (P women in the intervention group was higher 3 months after intervention (P training of menopausal health for spouses improves the quality of life in women during menopausal transition. We suggest integrating such educational programs in menopausal management programs.

  17. Child vocalization composition as discriminant information for automatic autism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Early identification is crucial for young children with autism to access early intervention. The existing screens require either a parent-report questionnaire and/or direct observation by a trained practitioner. Although an automatic tool would benefit parents, clinicians and children, there is no automatic screening tool in clinical use. This study reports a fully automatic mechanism for autism detection/screening for young children. This is a direct extension of the LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system, which utilizes speech signal processing technology to analyze and monitor a child's natural language environment and the vocalizations/speech of the child. It is discovered that child vocalization composition contains rich discriminant information for autism detection. By applying pattern recognition and machine learning approaches to child vocalization composition data, accuracy rates of 85% to 90% in cross-validation tests for autism detection have been achieved at the equal-error-rate (EER) point on a data set with 34 children with autism, 30 language delayed children and 76 typically developing children. Due to its easy and automatic procedure, it is believed that this new tool can serve a significant role in childhood autism screening, especially in regards to population-based or universal screening.

  18. Effects of Ibuprofen and Resistance Training on Bone and Muscle: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Candow, Darren G; Gordon, Julianne J; Mason, Riley S; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Nair, Bindu; Szafron, Michael; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Zello, Gordon A; Kontulainen, Saija A

    2017-04-01

    Resistance training with ibuprofen supplementation may improve musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of resistance training and ibuprofen supplementation on bone and muscle properties in postmenopausal women. Participants (n = 90, 65.3 ± 4.9 yr) were randomly assigned to: supervised resistance training or stretching (placebo-exercise) with postexercise ibuprofen (400 mg) or placebo supplementation for 3 d·wk (9 months). Baseline and postintervention measurements included distal and shaft scans of the forearm and lower leg using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Distal site outcomes included cross-sectional area, content, and density for total and trabecular bone, as well as estimated bone strength in compression. Shaft site outcomes included total bone area; cortical bone area, content, and density; estimated bone strength in torsion; and muscle area and density. Exercise-supplement-time interactions for total bone content at the distal radius (P = 0.009) and cortical density at the radius shaft (P = 0.038) were significant. Resistance training with ibuprofen decreased total bone content (-1.5%) at the distal radius in comparison to the resistance training (0.6%; P = 0.032) and ibuprofen alone (0.5%; P = 0.050). Change in cortical density at the radius shaft differed between the stretching with placebo and ibuprofen supplementation groups (-1.8% vs 1.1%; P = 0.050). Resistance training preserved muscle density in the lower leg more so than stretching (-3.1% vs -5.4%; P = 0.015). Ibuprofen consumed immediately after resistance training had a deleterious effect on bone mineral content at the distal radius, whereas resistance training or ibuprofen supplementation individually prevented bone loss. Resistance training prevented muscle density decline in the lower leg.

  19. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...

  20. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  1. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  2. The Impact of a Teaching or Singing Career on the Female Vocal Quality at the Mean Age of 67 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Bettens, Kim; Leemans, Laura; Van Calster, Ann-Sophie; Van Damme, Nina; Thijs, Zoë; Daelman, Julie; Leyns, Clara; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the objective and subjective vocal quality in women aged between 60 and 75 years. Secondly, the impact of a teaching or singing career on the vocal quality was investigated by comparing the vocal quality of retired women with different careers. This is a case-control study. Seventy-three retired women between 60 and 75 years (mean age: 67 years, standard deviation: 4.49) participated in the study and were divided into three groups: women with a teaching career (n = 21), choir singers with a singing career (n = 12), and women with a non-vocal career (n = 40). All subjects underwent the same assessment protocol consisting of objective (aerodynamic, maximum performance, vocal range, acoustic measurements, and the Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (the Voice Handicap Index, auditory-perceptual evaluations by three listeners) voice measurements. In all three groups, objective and perceptual voice analysis showed a mild dysphonia. No differences in the Dysphonia Severity Index were found between the three groups. The voices of choir singers with a singing career were perceived significantly less rough than voices of the women with a non-vocal career. Additionally, the lowest frequency of the frequency range was significantly lower in the retired teachers and choir singers than in the controls. The results of this study prudently suggest that a singing or a teaching career compared with a non-vocal career has a positive impact on the vocal frequency range, and that singing has a positive impact on the perceptual vocal quality of the older female voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  4. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  6. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  7. Microvascular lesions of the true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, G N; Courey, M S; Ossoff, R H

    1998-06-01

    Microvascular lesions, also called varices or capillary ectasias, in contrast to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, are relatively small lesions arising from the microcirculation of the vocal fold. Varices are most commonly seen in female professional vocalists and may be secondary to repetitive trauma, hormonal variations, or repeated inflammation. Microvascular lesions may either be asymptomatic or cause frank dysphonia by interrupting the normal vibratory pattern, mass, or closure of the vocal folds. They may also lead to vocal fold hemorrhage, scarring, or polyp formation. Laryngovideostroboscopy is the key in determining the functional significance of vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization. Indications for surgery are recurrent hemorrhage, enlargement of the varix, development of a mass in conjunction with the varix or hemorrhage, and unacceptable dysphonia after maximal medical and speech therapy due to a functionally significant varix.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Rhianon; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Cody, June D; Mørkved, Siv

    2012-10-17

    About a third of women have urinary incontinence and up to a 10th have faecal incontinence after childbirth. Pelvic floor muscle training is commonly recommended during pregnancy and after birth both for prevention and the treatment of incontinence. To determine the effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared to usual antenatal and postnatal care on incontinence. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which includes searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process and handsearching (searched 7 February 2012) and the references of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials in pregnant or postnatal women. One arm of the trial needed to include pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Another arm was either no PFMT or usual antenatal or postnatal care. Trials were independently assessed for eligibility and methodological quality. Data were extracted then cross checked. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Data were processed as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Three different populations of women were considered separately, women dry at randomisation (prevention); women wet at randomisation (treatment); and a mixed population of women who might be one or the other (prevention or treatment). Trials were further divided into those which started during pregnancy (antenatal); and those started after delivery (postnatal). Twenty-two trials involving 8485 women (4231 PFMT, 4254 controls) met the inclusion criteria and contributed to the analysis.Pregnant women without prior urinary incontinence (prevention) who were randomised to intensive antenatal PFMT were less likely than women randomised to no PFMT or usual antenatal care to report urinary incontinence up to six months after delivery (about 30% less; risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.95, combined result of 5 trials).Postnatal women with persistent urinary incontinence (treatment) three months after delivery and who received

  9. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  10. The Effect of Aerobic Training on Metabolic Parameters and Serum Level of Sirtuin1 in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Saremi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Sirtuin-1 regulates important cellular processes, including apoptosis, cellular senescence, and metabolism. Therefore, sirtuin-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training on sirtuin-1 level and cardiometabolic parameters in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study with pretest – posttest design, twenty diabetic women (aged 43.92±5.2 y were randomly assigned to aerobic training or non-exercising control groups. Aerobic training program was performed 50-60 min/d, 3d/wk, for 2 months. Serum levels of sirtuin-1, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed before and after the training period. Data were analyzed by paired T test. Results: Adiposity indices, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- cholesterol,blood glucose and insulin resistance index were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the control (p<0.05. Also, sirtuin-1 level was increased in the intervention group compared to the control (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings show that aerobic exercise is associated with an improvement in siruin-1 levels and metabolic indices in women with type 2 diabetes.

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  12. Discussion: Changes in Vocal Production and Auditory Perception after Hair Cell Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A bird study found that with sufficient time and training after hair cell and hearing loss and hair cell regeneration, the mature avian auditory system can accommodate input from a newly regenerated periphery sufficiently to allow for recognition of previously familiar vocalizations and the learning of new complex acoustic classifications.…

  13. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  14. The training and detraining effect of high-intensity interval training on post-exercise hypotension in young overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsu, Biggie; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2016-01-01

    Studies evaluating the response in blood pressure (BP) following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are scant even though there has been extensive work done on the BP response following acute and chronic low- to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. The present study sought to investigate the training and detraining effects of short-term HIIT on the post-exercise hypotension (PEH) response in overweight/obese young women. Twenty young untrained women volunteered for the study. Participants performed six HIIT sessions on a treadmill within 2 weeks (week 1: 10 × 1 min and week 2: 15 × 1 min intervals at 90-95% HRmax, separated by 1 min active recovery at 70% HRmax each session) and detrained for 2 weeks. Post-exercise BP was measured for 1 h following the first and last HIIT sessions. Participants were normotensive (SBP: 119.2 ± 5.60 mmHg; DBP: 78.8 ± 4.12 mmHg) and had a BMI greater than 25 kg m(-2). The magnitude of the systolic hypotensive response was slightly greater after the six sessions HIIT compared to pre-training (5.04 and 4.28 mmHg, respectively), and both would be considered clinically significant (>3 mmHg decrease). After 2 weeks, detraining the PEH response was not clinically significant (1.08 mmHg decrease). The magnitude of the DBP response was only clinically significant following post- and detraining (4.26 and 3.87 mmHg, respectively). The findings suggest that six HIIT sessions is sufficient to affect clinically significant PEH responses in young, overweight/obese women; however, the training effects are lost within 2 weeks of detraining.

  15. The effects of high intensity interval training in women with rheumatic disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstad, Janne; Stensvold, Dorthe; Hoff, Mari; Nes, Bjarne M; Arbo, Ingerid; Bye, Anja

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are inflammatory diseases which involve increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High intensity interval training (HIIT) is known to be effective in improving cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 10 weeks of HIIT at 85-95% of HRmax would improve important risk factors of CVD in rheumatic patients, and if these patients would tolerate exercise intensities above today's recommendations. Seven women with RA and eleven with adult-JIA, 20-50 years, were recruited to this cross-over study. Participants performed HIIT, consisting of 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% of HRmax twice a week for 10 weeks on spinning bikes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate recovery, blood pressure, body composition, and blood variables were measured before and after the exercise and control period. Disease activity was determined and questionnaire data were collected. HIIT resulted in 12.2% increase in VO2max and 2.9% improvement in heart rate recovery (p HIIT (p = 0.08). No changes were detected in disease activity or pain. Despite rigorous high intensity exercise, no increase was detected in disease activity or pain, indicating that HIIT was well tolerated by these patients. Furthermore, HIIT had positive effects on several CVD risk factors. In light of this pilot study, HIIT seems like a promising non-pharmacological treatment strategy for patients with RA and adult-JIA.

  16. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p < 0.001), and VAS (p < 0.001) in the EG. The EG shows better results in leg strength (p < 0.001), handgrip strength (p = 0.025), agility/dynamic balance (p = 0.032) and balance (p = 0.006). An 18-week intervention consisting in two sessions of in-water exercise and one session of on-land exercise of FT reduces pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  17. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The effect of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older men and women undergoing hypocaloric weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Nicklas, Barbara J; Marsh, Anthony P; Houston, Denise K; Miller, Gary D; Isom, Scott; Miller, Michael E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Lyles, Mary F; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-08-01

    Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Reducing skeletal muscle fat and preserving lean tissue are associated with improved physical function in older adults. PPARγ-agonist treatment decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and resistance training preserves lean tissue, but their effect on ectopic fat depots in nondiabetic overweight adults is unclear. We examined the influence of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older (65-79 years) nondiabetic overweight/obese men (n = 48, BMI = 32.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40, BMI = 33.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) during weight loss. All participants underwent a 16-week hypocaloric weight-loss program and were randomized to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or no pioglitazone with or without resistance training, following a 2 × 2 factorial design. Regional body composition was measured at baseline and follow-up using computed tomography (CT). Lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Men lost 6.6% and women lost 6.5% of initial body mass. The percent of fat loss varied across individual compartments. Men who were given pioglitazone lost more visceral abdominal fat than men who were not given pioglitazone (-1,160 vs. -647 cm(3), P = 0.007). Women who were given pioglitazone lost less thigh subcutaneous fat (-104 vs. -298 cm(3), P = 0.002). Pioglitazone did not affect any other outcomes. Resistance training diminished thigh muscle loss in men and women (resistance training vs. no resistance training men: -43 vs. -88 cm(3), P = 0.005; women: -34 vs. -59 cm(3), P = 0.04). In overweight/obese older men undergoing weight loss, pioglitazone increased visceral fat loss and resistance training reduced skeletal muscle loss. Additional studies are needed to clarify the observed gender differences and evaluate how these changes in body composition influence functional status.

  20. Popular Education, Work Training, and the Path to Women's Empowerment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Anna E.

    1998-01-01

    Educacion y Trabajo is a Chilean popular education program that provides participants, ages 15-30, with basic technical-skills training, personal-development training (to promote consciousness raising and self-evaluation), on-the-job training, and management training in microenterprises. A study of six female participants showed the program's…

  1. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  2. Vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy are not altered 6 hours after strength training in collegiate women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Bailey, Brooke Kerbs; Allsen, Philip E

    2004-08-01

    We measured vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy in 18 Division I women basketball players (age 18-22 years) 6 hours following a morning strength training routine called a lift day (LD) and on a control day in which no strength training was performed. Subjects had been strength trained for 4 weeks prior to testing. The strength training session on lift day was a full-body workout and included 7 exercises performed in 3-6 sets at loads ranging from a 5 to 12 repetition maximum (RM). There were no significant differences in jump height with 2 legs (49.5 +/- 4.8 cm and 49.0 +/- 4.8 cm, LD and control, respectively), relative mean power output over 30 seconds on a Wingate bicycle test (6.4 +/- 0.8 W.kg(-1) and 6.6 +/- 0.7 W.kg(-1), LD and control, respectively), or shooting accuracy over 60 seconds (21.5 +/- 3.8 points/min and 21.3 +/- 4.1 points/min, LD and control, respectively). These data suggest that in collegiate women basketball players, a previous bout of strength training has no negative effect on vertical jump height, anaerobic power, or shooting accuracy.

  3. Can quality of life be improved by pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Lindskov, Grethe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke measured by quality of life (QoL) parameters. Three hundred thirty-nine medical records of stroke patients were searched. Twenty-six subjects were randomised...... to a Treatment Group or a Control Group in a single blinded, randomised study design. The intervention included 12 weeks of standardised pelvic floor muscle training. The outcome was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire and The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Twenty...

  4. Old women with a recent fall history show improved muscle strength and function sustained for six months after finishing training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Nina; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional and psycho...... and psychological condition of old women with a recent history of falls.......Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional...

  5. Comparing exercise responses to aerobic plus resistance training between postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Thais R S de; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Viezel, Juliana; Rossi, Fabricio E; Aro, Bruna L; Trindade, Ana Carolina A C; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Junior, Ismael F

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, and nine months, respectively. The exercise program was performed three times/week over nine months and consisted of 40 min of machine-based strength training (seated cable row, bench press, leg extension, leg press, and leg curl, as well as bridge, abdominal, and standard plank exercises) followed by 30 min of treadmill walking. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare the groups over time. Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy postmenopausal women presented similar improvements in estimated lower body strength, predicted VO 2max and V max , and body fat mass. For maximal upper body strength, there was a significant group x time interaction after six months of training (p = 0.01). The healthy postmenopausal women presented a significant increase in upper body strength after six months, while postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy demonstrated an improvement only at nine months of training. The breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy presented increased lean mass while healthy postmenopausal women maintained values over time (Breast cancer: 33.7 ± 3.9(Pre) vs. 34.1

  6. Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE POSSIBLE HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN THE HUMAN LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND COMPARABLE AUDITORY PROJECTION SYSTEMS IN THE MACAQUE BRAIN, IN AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE TWO EXISTING VIEWS ON LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a "ventral pathway" connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a "dorsal pathway" connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  7. Biomechanical simulation of vocal fold dynamics in adults based on laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Döllinger

    Full Text Available Human voice is generated in the larynx by the two oscillating vocal folds. Owing to the limited space and accessibility of the larynx, endoscopic investigation of the actual phonatory process in detail is challenging. Hence the biomechanics of the human phonatory process are still not yet fully understood. Therefore, we adapt a mathematical model of the vocal folds towards vocal fold oscillations to quantify gender and age related differences expressed by computed biomechanical model parameters.The vocal fold dynamics are visualized by laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (4000 fps. A total of 33 healthy young subjects (16 females, 17 males and 11 elderly subjects (5 females, 6 males were recorded. A numerical two-mass model is adapted to the recorded vocal fold oscillations by varying model masses, stiffness and subglottal pressure. For adapting the model towards the recorded vocal fold dynamics, three different optimization algorithms (Nelder-Mead, Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Bee Colony in combination with three cost functions were considered for applicability. Gender differences and age-related kinematic differences reflected by the model parameters were analyzed.The biomechanical model in combination with numerical optimization techniques allowed phonatory behavior to be simulated and laryngeal parameters involved to be quantified. All three optimization algorithms showed promising results. However, only one cost function seems to be suitable for this optimization task. The gained model parameters reflect the phonatory biomechanics for men and women well and show quantitative age- and gender-specific differences. The model parameters for younger females and males showed lower subglottal pressures, lower stiffness and higher masses than the corresponding elderly groups. Females exhibited higher subglottal pressures, smaller oscillation masses and larger stiffness than the corresponding similar aged male groups. Optimizing

  8. Biomechanical simulation of vocal fold dynamics in adults based on laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döllinger, Michael; Gómez, Pablo; Patel, Rita R; Alexiou, Christoph; Bohr, Christopher; Schützenberger, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Human voice is generated in the larynx by the two oscillating vocal folds. Owing to the limited space and accessibility of the larynx, endoscopic investigation of the actual phonatory process in detail is challenging. Hence the biomechanics of the human phonatory process are still not yet fully understood. Therefore, we adapt a mathematical model of the vocal folds towards vocal fold oscillations to quantify gender and age related differences expressed by computed biomechanical model parameters. The vocal fold dynamics are visualized by laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (4000 fps). A total of 33 healthy young subjects (16 females, 17 males) and 11 elderly subjects (5 females, 6 males) were recorded. A numerical two-mass model is adapted to the recorded vocal fold oscillations by varying model masses, stiffness and subglottal pressure. For adapting the model towards the recorded vocal fold dynamics, three different optimization algorithms (Nelder-Mead, Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Bee Colony) in combination with three cost functions were considered for applicability. Gender differences and age-related kinematic differences reflected by the model parameters were analyzed. The biomechanical model in combination with numerical optimization techniques allowed phonatory behavior to be simulated and laryngeal parameters involved to be quantified. All three optimization algorithms showed promising results. However, only one cost function seems to be suitable for this optimization task. The gained model parameters reflect the phonatory biomechanics for men and women well and show quantitative age- and gender-specific differences. The model parameters for younger females and males showed lower subglottal pressures, lower stiffness and higher masses than the corresponding elderly groups. Females exhibited higher subglottal pressures, smaller oscillation masses and larger stiffness than the corresponding similar aged male groups. Optimizing numerical models

  9. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  10. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P Teachers with vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy use more coping strategies. Moreover, they present a tendency to use more problem-focused coping strategies. Voice symptoms prompt the teachers into seeking treatment; however, they are not correlated with the coping itself. In general, the higher the perception of limitation and restriction of participating in vocal activities, the greater the use of coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Common Vocal Effects and Partial Glottal Vibration in Professional Nonclassical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Ibrahim Nasr, Ahmed; Ropero Rendon, Maria Del Mar; Wienhausen, Sascha; Forbes, Eleanor; Seidner, Wolfram; Nawka, Tadeus

    2018-05-01

    To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. Individual cohort study. Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater). Participants repeatedly presented the usual nonclassical vocal effects and techniques in their repertoire. All performances were documented and analyzed using established instruments (eg, auditory-perceptual assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, electroglottography, voice function diagnostics). The vocal apparatus of all singers was healthy and capable of high performance. Typical nonclassical vocal effects were breathy voice, creaky voice, vocal fry, grunting, distortion, rattle, belt, and twang. All effects could be easily differentiated from each other. They were intraindividually consistently repeatable and also interindividually produced in a similar manner. A special feature in one singer was the first evidence of partial glottal vibration when belting in the high register. The unintended transition to this reduced voice quality was accompanied by physical fatigue and inflexible respiratory support. The long-lasting use of the investigated nonclassical vocal effects had no negative impact on trained singers. The possibility of long-term damage depends on the individual constitution, specific use, duration, and extent of the hyperfunction. The incidence of partial glottal vibration and its consequences require continuing research to learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in nonclassical singing. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of maternal role training program on role attainment and maternal role satisfaction in nulliparous women with unplanned pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Fasanghari, Maryam; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The maternal role is one of the most basic and important roles played by women during their lifetime. The process of the maternal role starts during pregnancy and to continue and develop after postpartum with the growth of suckling. However, unplanned pregnancy may jeopardize achieving the maternal role and reduce maternal role satisfaction. Therefore, the researcher conducted the present study to determine the impact of maternal role training program on attainment of role and r...

  13. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90...

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lipids in overweight Chinese young females, while the additive effect of the HIIT under normobaric hypoxia solely enhanced

  15. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men's preferences for women's voices

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana

    2008-01-01

    Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women ...

  16. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  17. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women.A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30 randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak, both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES were collected during the intervention.After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41. Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034, fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002 and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016, there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids.Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  18. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  19. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of eight weeks of functional training in the functional autonomy of elderly women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Matos, Dihogo G; Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Moreira, Osvaldo C; DE Oliveira, Cláudia E; DE Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; DA Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Aidar, Felipe J

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of eight weeks of practical training on the functional autonomy of the elderly. The study included 52 elderly women, 65.42±10.31 years, 65.29±11.30 kg body mass, 1.58±0.07 height, 26.30±4.52 body mass index, 86.48±10.96 cm waist circumference. These elderly women received a specific functional training protocol where their functional autonomy was assessed at three specific times (0, 10 and 20 sessions). The evaluation consisted of a set of five tests defined by the Latin-American Development Group for the Elderly (GDLAM) to determine the functional autonomy of the elderly: walk 10 meters (C10m); stand up from a chair and walk straightaway (SUCWA); dress and undress a T-shirt (DUT); stand up from a sitting position (SUSP); stand up from a lying position (SULP). In each test, the time taken to complete the task was measured. There were statistically significant differences in all functional autonomy tests after 20 training sessions: C10m (pre: 8.10±1.27; post: 7.55±1.10); SUCWA (pre: 40.98±2.77; post: 38.44±2.57); DUT (pre: 13.25±0.88; post: 11.85±0.82); SUSP (pre: 10.74±0.52; post: 8.98±056) and SULP (pre: 3.86±0.37; post: 2.82±0.37). It was determined that 20 functional training sessions were enough to improve the functional autonomy of elderly women. However, we believe that higher volume and intensity of training could be interesting alternatives for even stronger results in future interventions.

  1. Effect of strength training and short-term detraining on muscle mass in women aged over 50 years old

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    Maryam Delshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The loss of muscle mass is associated with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle mass in elderly women. Methods: Twenty post-menopausal women aged ≥50 years old were enrolled. Matching for age, they were randomly assigned into control and resistance training group (RT. The intervention consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for 10 movements with Thera-Band tubing (based on 80-100% 10-RM, three times a week, for 12 weeks and thereafter, four weeks detraining. Skinfold thickness was determined by caliper. Percentage of body fat was estimated from skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular by McArdle method. Fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM were calculated. Range of motion for trunk flexion and extension was determined. Results: During 12 weeks of intervention, significant increases were observed in 1-RM of biceps curl, FFM, trunk flexion and extension and significant decreases during four weeks detraining in RT group. The RT group demonstrated significant decreases during resistance training and increases during detraining in skinfold thickness. FFM, trunk flexion, and extension decreased and skinfold thickness, %FM, and weight of body fat increased in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Resistance training with Thera-Band enhanced strength and muscle endurance in elderly women and a 4-week detraining period had an adverse effect on muscle power. This suggests that a strength training program is an effective intervention to prevent functional reductions, and can contribute to improve neuromuscular function in older adults.

  2. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B; Weihe, P; Uth, J; Mortensen, J; Mohr, M

    2017-12-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. Over one year, mean arterial pressure decreased more in SOC than in CON (-5±7 vs +4±5 mmHg; Pendurance level 1 (122±105 vs 2±21%) and 20-m sprint performance (6±6 vs -1±2%) increased more (Ptraining resulted in broad-spectrum improvements in the health profile of untrained, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and musculo-skeletal benefits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reliability and smallest worthwhile difference in 1RM tests according to previous resistance training experience in young women

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    Matheus Amarante do Nascimento

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the familiarization and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD of one-repetition maximum (1RM tests in detrained women according to their previous resistance training experience. Three groups of women with varying amounts of previous resistance training experience were recruited: Novice (n = 27, 1 to 6 months, Intermediate (n = 13, from 7 to 12 months, and Advanced (n = 20, 13 to 24 months. All participants performed four 1RM test sessions in the bench press (BP, squat (SQ, and arm curl (AC. A significant (p< 0.05 (group vs. time interaction was observed in SQ suggesting that more experienced participants needed fewer 1RM test sessions to reach a stable load compared to the less experienced groups. Strength changes (p 0.05, suggesting that experience had no impact on familiarization for these lifts. SWDs suggest that strength gains greater than 2-4% in these lifts would indicate a meaningful improvement in strength beyond random variation from trial to trial no matter the experience of the subject. Women with limited previous resistance training experience do not require more trials to reach load stabilization than those with more experience. Stability of 1RM loads for BP and AC may require only two sessions, while SQ may require at least three trials.

  4. Change to earlier surgical interventions: contemporary management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Declan

    2015-06-01

    The management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis has undergone significant changes in the last 2 decades. This has largely been made possible by advances in endoscope technology and new injectable materials. This article will cover the main changes in management of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and summarize the recent literature in relation to early intervention in this group. Several recent studies have suggested that early vocal fold injection medialization reduces the likelihood of needing open laryngeal framework surgery in future. Early injection medialization appears to give good long-term results with few complications and minimizes the need for future laryngeal framework surgery. It should be considered in centres wherein the equipment and trained staff are available.

  5. Ultrasonography of the larynx for diagnosis of the vocal folds mobility impairment

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    Petr S. Vetshev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study a possibility of performance and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US of a larynx in identification of motility disorders of VF (vocal folds in comparison with the laryngoscope which is traditionally applied for this purpose. Materials and methods. According to the objectives of the study, two patient groups were formed. In first group of patients (n = 466 we studied acceptability of ultrasonografy to discriminate various laryngeal structures. In second group of patient (n = 432 we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in point of detection of vocal muscles paresis. Results. Laryngeal structures were available to examination by ultrasound (without taking in account age and sex in 92.7% of patients. Two patterns have been identified in the course of this part of the study: deterioration of visibility of the vocal folds with increasing patient age and better visibility of the vocal folds in women than in men. According to the comparative analysis, ultrasonography accuracy rate (in those patients who had had clearly visible vocal folds during ultrasonography did not differ from that during videolaryngoscopy. Conclusion. During the conducted research it was found that the US of the larynx is an effective and perspective method for detection of a paresis of VF with sensitivity and specificity 93,55% and 100% respectively. Among those patients who' VF are available to ultrasound evaluation the accuracy of method is comparable with a videolaryngoscopy and can be used with success in daily work of units of endocrine surgery.

  6. Auditory vocal analysis and factors associated with voice disorders among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceballos, Albanita Gomes da Costa; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; Dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges

    2011-06-01

    Teachers are professionals who demand much of their voices and, consequently, present a high risk of developing vocal disorders during the course of employment. To identify factors associated with vocal disorders among teachers. An exploratory cross-sectional study, which investigated 476 teachers in primary and secondary schools in the city of Salvador, Bahia. Teachers answered a questionnaire and were submitted to auditory vocal analysis. The GRBAS was used for the diagnosis of vocal disorders. The study population comprised 82.8% women, teachers with an average age of 40.7 years, teachers with higher education (88.4%), with an average workday of 38 hours per week, average 11.5 years of professional practice and average monthly income of R$1.817.18. The prevalence of voice disorders was 53.6%. (255 teachers). The bivariate analysis showed statistically significant associations between vocal disorders and age above 40 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI; 1.27-2.64), family history of dysphonia (PR = 1.72; 95% CI; 1.06-2.80), over 20 hours of weekly working hours (PR = 1.66; 95% CI; 1.09-2.52) and presence of chalk dust in the classroom (PR = 1.70; 95% CI; 1.14-2.53). The study concluded that teachers, 40 years old and over, with a family history of dysphonia, working over 20 hours weekly, and teaching in classrooms with chalk dust are more likely to develop voice disorders than others.

  7. The Returns to Educational Training in Math and Science for American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Stephen M.; De Souza, Gita

    The economic returns of taking math and science courses in high school are estimated for women who do not go on to college and for women entrepreneurs. A human capital model is used to estimate returns for respondents drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey's New Youth Cohort. Wage rates in 1990 of women who were ages 14-21 in 1979 were…

  8. Results of two years of water training on jump height in postmenopausal women with moderate hip risk fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carrasco Poyatos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a water-based calisthenics and resistance program on jump height in postmenopausal women with moderate hip risk fracture. 39 women were divided into three groups: swimming group (GN; n = 17, calisthenics and resistance group (GIR; n = 14, and control group (GC; n = 8. Body composition test included body mass index (IMC and waist to hip ratio (ICC. Jump height was assessed by a countermovement jump (CMJ. GN showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in ICC (5.81%. GIR showed a significant decrease in IMC (3.65% and a significant increase in CMJ (15.5%. Two years of water-based calisthenics and resistance training can offer significant benefits in jump height in postmenopausal women with moderate hip risk fracture. Both exercise programs can also improve body composition.

  9. An Assessment of Participation of Rural Women in Livestock Management and Their Training Needs in Potohar Region

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    Farhana Nosheen*, Tanvir Ali1, Haq Nawaz Anwar2 and Muhammad Ahmad3

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Potohar plateau is a mountainous and rocky region, covered with scrub forest, interspaced with flat lying plains; the north and north-east consist of softly undulating plain areas along with some rocky patches. Realizing the need for the quantification of women participation in livestock management, a study was conducted to assess the level of participation and need of training in areas of interest. Chakwal, the third most populated district of barani Potohar, was selected as the universe of this research. Like other districts of Pakistan, all livestock species were reared in Potohar region including Chakwal district. Among total livestock population in the district, the decreasing order of species began with goats, followed by cattle, sheep, buffaloes, asses, camels, horses and mules. Although rural women had productive role in livestock management, yet they neither received adequate advice not had adequate access to modern technology that could benefit them in their livestock management activities. It was revealed from the study that more frequently carried out activities by rural women were livestock management, animal production, protection and poultry husbandry. Rural women were interested to get their training in livestock management, animal production, protection, poultry husbandry and marketing of animals to boost up the livestock productivity.

  10. The Effects of Life Skills Training on Marital Satisfaction of Married Women: A Case Study in Dogonbadan, Iran

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    A Abbasi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Successful family relationships and marital satisfaction largely depends on couples’ awareness of their marital or parental roles. Marital relations training could provide adaptation with expected roles for both husband and wife. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on marital satisfaction in married women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study which was carried out in 2010 examined fifty married women in Dogonbadan, Iran. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and related demographic data which was collected prior and one year after training, were used for the study. T-test was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age, average number of children, and the average length of marriage were 35, 1.8, and 10.36 years respectively. The average of all scores was significantly different in pretest and post test (p<0.002. Also, the scores of personality objects (p<0.05, marital relationships (p<0.001, conflict resolution (p<0.001, and financial and economic monitoring (p<0.001 were significantly different. The differences in mean scores of subscales in relationship with relatives and friends, leisure activities, and marriage and children were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that marital skills' training is effective in improving the marital status and satisfaction, and also improved the quality of life among married couples.

  11. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

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    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  12. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods . Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results . Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention ( p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT ( p = 0.042). Conclusion . Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  13. Chlamydia prevalence among women and men entering the National Job Training Program: United States, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Tian, Lin H; Braxton, Jimmy; Weinstock, Hillard

    2010-02-01

    To analyze 5-year prevalence trends in Chlamydia trachomatis infections among high-risk young men and women aged 16 to 24 years entering the National Job Training Program, where universal screening is required. Entrance exams conducted in over 100 National Job Training Program centers from 2003 to 2007 were considered. Women provided cervical specimens tested using either a DNA hybridization probe (PACE 2, Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA) or a strand displacement amplification test (SDA, BD ProbeTec ET, Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, MD). In the absence of a pelvic exam, urine specimens were tested using SDA. PACE 2 testing was performed predominately from 2002 to 2005; from 2005 to 2007, SDA was used. All male testing was conducted using SDA on urine specimens. Chlamydia prevalence trends were assessed for women and men, using logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and P-values were calculated. Approximately 15,000 women and 30,000 men were screened annually for chlamydia. Among both sexes, adjusted prevalence declined significantly from 2003 to 2007. In 2003, crude prevalence among women was 9.9%; in 2007, prevalence was 13.7%. However, after controlling for covariates, including increasingly sensitive tests, the model indicated a significant declining prevalence trend (AOR: 0.95, CI: 0.93-0.97, 4.6% decrease in odds per year). Among men, crude prevalence in 2003 was 8.4%; in 2007, prevalence was 8.3%; after controlling for possible confounding, a significant decline in prevalence was also detected (AOR: 0.98, CI: 0.96-0.99, 1.9% decrease in odds per year). In a relatively stable, high-risk population of young women and men, adjusted chlamydia prevalence declined from 2003 to 2007. Test technology plays a critical role in interpreting rates and should be considered whenever chlamydia rates are examined.

  14. Differential Effects of Military Training on Fat-Free Mass and Plasma Amino Acid Adaptations in Men and Women

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    James P. McClung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat-free mass (FFM adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA. This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ between male and female recruits, and explore potential associations between FFM and AA responses to training. Body composition and plasma AA levels were assessed in US Army recruits (n = 209, 118 males, 91 females before (baseline and every three weeks during basic combat training (BCT, a 10-week military training course. Body weight decreased in men but remained stable in women during BCT (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Fifty-eight percent of recruits gained FFM during BCT, with more (P < 0.05 females (88% gaining FFM than males (36%. Total plasma AA increased (P < 0.05 during BCT, with greater (P < 0.05 increases observed in females (17% then in males (4%. Essential amino acids (EAA and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA were increased (P < 0.05 in females but did not change in males (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Independent of sex, changes in EAA (r = 0.34 and BCAA (r = 0.27 from baseline were associated with changes in FFM (P < 0.05; greater (P < 0.05 increases in AA concentrations were observed for those who gained FFM. Increases in FFM and plasma AA suggest that BCT elicits a more pronounced anabolic response in women compared to men, which may reflect sex-specific differences in the relative intensity of the combined training and physiological stimulus associated with BCT.

  15. Can pelvic floor muscle training improve sexual function in women with pelvic organ prolapse? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekken, Ingeborg H; Majida, Memona; Ellström Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has level 1 evidence of reducing the size and symptoms associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). There is scant knowledge, however, regarding whether PFMT has an effect on sexual function. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of PFMT on sexual function in women with POP. In this randomized controlled trial, 50 women were randomized to an intervention group (6 months of PFMT and lifestyle advice) and 59 women were randomized to a control group (lifestyle advice only). Participants completed a validated POP-specific questionnaire to describe frequency and bother of prolapse, bladder, bowel, and sexual symptoms and answered a semi-structured interview. No significant change in number of women being sexually active was reported. There were no significant differences between groups regarding change in satisfaction with frequency of intercourse. Interview data revealed that 19 (39%) of women in the PFMT group experienced improved sexual function vs. two (5%) in the control group (Ppelvic floor, improved self-confidence, sensation of a "tighter" vagina, improved libido and orgasms, resolution of pain with intercourse, and heightened sexual gratification for partners. Women who described improved sexual function demonstrated the greatest increases in pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength (mean 16 ± 10 cmH2 0) and endurance (mean 150 ± 140 cmH2 0s) (P<0.01). PFMT can improve sexual function in some women. Women reporting improvement in sexual function demonstrated the greatest increase in PFM strength and endurance. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

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    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  17. Real-Time Vocal Tract Modelling

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    K. Benkrid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, most speech synthesis techniques have relied upon the representation of the vocal tract by some form of filter, a typical example being linear predictive coding (LPC. This paper describes the development of a physiologically realistic model of the vocal tract using the well-established technique of transmission line modelling (TLM. This technique is based on the principle of wave scattering at transmission line segment boundaries and may be used in one, two, or three dimensions. This work uses this technique to model the vocal tract using a one-dimensional transmission line. A six-port scattering node is applied in the region separating the pharyngeal, oral, and the nasal parts of the vocal tract.

  18. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  19. Acute Effects of Static vs. Ballistic Stretching on Strength and Muscular Fatigue Between Ballet Dancers and Resistance-Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Camila D; Brown, Lee E; Wong, Megan A; Leyva, Whitney D; Pinto, Ronei S; Cadore, Eduardo L; Ruas, Cassio V

    2016-11-01

    Lima, CD, Brown, LE, Wong, MA, Leyva, WD, Pinto, RS, Cadore, EL, and Ruas, CV. Acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3220-3227, 2016-Stretching is used to increase joint range of motion, but the acute effects can decrease muscle strength. However, this may depend on the population or mode of stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Fifteen resistance-trained women (age 23.8 ± 1.80 years, mass 67.47 ± 7.77 kg, height 168.30 ± 5.53 cm) and 12 ballet dancers (age 22.8 ± 3.04 years, mass 58.67 ± 5.65 kg, height 168.00 ± 7.69 cm) performed 5 days of testing. The first day was control (no stretching), whereas the other 4 days were static or ballistic stretching in a counterbalanced order. Range of motion, strength, and fatigue tests were also performed. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in hamstrings strength after static (102.71 ± 2.67 N·m) and ballistic stretching (99.49 ± 2.61 N·m) compared with control (113.059 ± 3.25 N·m), with no changes in quadriceps strength. For fatigue, only ballet dancers demonstrated a decrease from control (71.79 ± 4.88%) to ballistic (65.65 ± 8.19%), but no difference with static (65.01 ± 12.29%). These findings suggest that stretching decreases hamstrings strength similarly in ballet dancers and resistance-trained women, with no differences between modes of stretching. However, ballistic stretching only decreased muscular fatigue in ballet dancers, but not in resistance-trained women. Therefore, no stretching should be performed before strength performance. However, ballistic stretching may decrease acute muscular fatigue in ballet dancers.

  20. A Record Holder Female Athlete’s Train ing Loads and its Distribution in Women 400 meter Hurdle Running

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    Sibel DÜNDAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on 400 mt characteristics of women training load used in the hurdle runnig , the distribution and performance according to the period. At this study female athlete’s, who won second place at the European Champion Clubs' Cup Competitions and had a record - breaking six times in a country, five - year training loads and degrees were investigated. In this study, athlete’s degrees an d training loads were analyzed between the years of 1982 - 1987. Atlete’s best 100m,200m,400m,400m hurdle degrees and some training loads (sprint, andurance, weight lifting were assessed by the means and satandart deviations. Athlete’s sprint and training l oads mean and standard deviation values were calculated as 100 m ( 11.96 ± 0.17 , 200m ( 25.0 ± 0.38 , 400m ( 56.07 ± 0.91 and 400 m hurdle running ( 60.38 ± 1.88 and for the training loads of 0 - 150 m sprint ( 66.85 ± 18.95 m, endurance ( 2 02.55 ± 57.56 miles and weightlifting( 151.88 ± 68.2 tons. It was observed that percentage of change of the value of training loads and the running performance changes were not increase at the same rate. Regarding the relationship between the best run ning degree and training load, it was found a significant relationship between only 60 m sprint and 150 - 450 m sprint degrees.

  1. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

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    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  2. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

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    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  3. Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women

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    Bocalini DS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior71São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12 and trained (n = 11 normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute. No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm] was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women. Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs

  4. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

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    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  5. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

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    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. A Comparative Study of Whole Body Vibration Training and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Women's Stress Urinary Incontinence: Three- Month Follow- Up

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    Azizeh Farzinmehr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether Whole Body Vibration Training (WBVT is effective at improving pelvic floor muscles strength in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI.Materials and methods: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. 43 women with SUI were randomly assigned in two groups; WBVT and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training (PFMT and received interventions for four weeks. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength, quality of life and incontinence intensity were evaluated. All measurements were conducted pre and post intervention and also after 3 months in all participants. The ANOVA and the independent sample t test were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and between the groups.Results: This study showed the WBVT protocol in this study was effective in pelvic floor muscles strength similar to PFMT, and also in reducing the severity of incontinence and increasing I-QOL questionnaire score. We found significant differences in each group pre and post intervention (p = 0.0001; but no significant difference in comparison of two groups' outcomes. Also after three-month follow up, there was no significant difference between groups.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the beneficial effects of WBVT in improving pelvic floor muscles strength and quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence in four-week treatment period and after three months follow up.

  7. The effect of two different intensities resistance training on muscle growth regulatory myokines in sedentary young women

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    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training with different intensities on serum myostatin and follistatin levels in sedentary young women. Materials and Methods: In this practical and semi experimental study, 24 sedentary young women with range of 20-30 years and BMI 22-25 kg/m2 were selected by convenience sampling. Then, the volunteers were randomly assigned into two groups, [resistance training group with low intensity (40-60% of one repetition maximum and high intensity (70-90% of one repetition maximum]. The training protocols included: 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Blood samples (5cc were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after at the end of the study; Also Serum levels of myostatin and follistatin were measured by ELISA methods. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance of repeated measures test by SPSS at the significant level (p<0.05. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of follistatin and follistatin to myostatin ratio in high intensity group (p≤0.05. Also there was a significant decrease in the levels of myostatin in high intensity group (p≤0.05; however, there was no significant change in the levels of follistatin, myostatin and follistatin to myostatin ratio in low intensity group (p≥0.05. Also there was no significant change in these variables in high intensity group compared to low intensity group (p≥0.05. Conclusion: It’s seems that the activation of important myogenic and myostatic factors in sedentary young women need to do high intensity resistance training.

  8. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women.

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    Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Ludzki, Alison; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) performed in the fasted (FAST) versus fed (FED) state on body composition, muscle oxidative capacity, and glycemic control in overweight/obese women. Sixteen women (27 ± 8 years, BMI: 29 ± 6 kg/m(2) , VO2peak : 28 ± 3 ml/kg/min) were assigned to either FAST or FED (n = 8 each) and performed 18 sessions of HIT (10× 60-s cycling efforts at ∼90% maximal heart rate, 60-s recovery) over 6 weeks. There was no significant difference between FAST and FED for any measured variable. Body mass was unchanged following training; however, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed lower percent fat in abdominal and leg regions as well as the whole body level (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). Fat-free mass increased in leg and gynoid regions (P ≤ 0.05). Resting muscle biopsies revealed a training-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by increased maximal activities of citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (P ≤ 0.05). There was no change in insulin sensitivity, although change in insulin area under the curve was correlated with change in abdominal percent fat (r = 0.54, P ≤ 0.05). Short-term low-volume HIT is a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight/obese women, but fed- versus fasted-state training does not alter this response. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Effects of Caloric Restriction with or without Resistance Training in Dynapenic-Overweight and Obese Menopausal Women: A MONET Study.

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    Normandin, E; Sénéchal, M; Prud'homme, D; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Brochu, M

    2015-01-01

    The dynapenic (DYN)-obese phenotype is associated with an impaired metabolic profile. However, there is a lack of evidences regarding the effect of lifestyle interventions on the metabolic profile of individual with dynapenic phenotype. The objective was to investigate the impact of caloric restriction (CR) with or without resistance training (RT) on body composition, metabolic profile and muscle strength in DYN and non-dynapenic (NDYN) overweight and obese menopausal women. 109 obese menopausal women (age 57.9 ± 9.0 yrs; BMI 32.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) were randomized to a 6-month CR intervention with or without a RT program. Participants were categorized as DYN or NDYN based on the lowest tertile of relative muscle strength in our cohort (women. DYN and NDYN menopausal women showed similar cardiometabolic benefit from CR or CR+RT interventions. However, our results showed that the addition of RT to CR was more effective in improving maximal strength in DYN and NDYN obese menopausal women.

  10. Dilemmas in the process of weight reduction: Exploring how women experience training as a means of losing weight

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    Karen Synne Groven

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with obesity are usually offered group-based behavior interventions which include dietary advice and exercise programs. In particular, high-intensity training—combining weight lifting with aerobic exercising—has been proven effective for losing weight. Moreover, recent studies have shown that persons participating in high-intensity training are more likely to maintain their weight loss compared to persons with lower levels of physical activity. However, most of the research in the field has made use of quantitative methods focusing on the measurable effect of such interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show how the training is experienced from a first-person perspective, namely the patients themselves. Our hope was to shed some new light on the process of weight loss that concerns more than the measurable “impacts” of the training. A qualitative approach was used based on interviews with five women selected from a primary healthcare clinic in Norway. Our results show that experiences of training are connected to the participants’ general experience of being overweight. Both relationships to other people and earlier experiences are important for how the training is carried out and perceived. Five themes were identified supporting this line of argument: (1 the gaze of others; (2 a common ground; (3 dependence of close-follow up; (4 bodily discomfort as painful; and (5 aiming for results—an ambivalent experience. The results highlight the importance of finding the proper context and support for each patient's needs.

  11. Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women

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    Kishiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Muscle thickness and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, heat shock protein (HSP70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured before and after the exercise training. Training reduced the circulating levels of CRP, SAA (P<.05, HSP70, IGF-I, and insulin (P<.01. The training-induced reductions in CRP and TNF-α were significantly (P<.01, P<.05 associated with increased muscle thickness (r=−0.61, r=−0.54, respectively. None of the results were significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Resistance training may assist in maintaining or improving muscle volume and reducing low-grade inflammation.

  12. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

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    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made.12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated.CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05.SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  13. High-speed resistance training is more effective than low-speed resistance training to increase functional capacity and muscle performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Castillo, Angélica; de la Fuente, Carlos I; Campos-Jara, Christian; Andrade, David C; Álvarez, Cristian; Martínez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Pereira, Ana; Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of 12 weeks of high-speed resistance training (RT) versus low-speed RT on muscle strength [one repetition of maximum leg-press (1RMLP) and bench-press (1RMBP), plus dominant (HGd) and non-dominant maximum isometric handgrip], power [counter-movement jump (CMJ), ball throwing (BT) and 10-m walking sprint (S10)], functional performance [8-foot up-and-go test (UG) and sit-to-stand test (STS)], and perceived quality of life in older women. 45 older women were divided into a high-speed RT group [EG, n=15, age=66.3±3.7y], a low-speed RT group [SG, n=15, age=68.7±6.4y] and a control group [CG, n=15, age=66.7±4.9y]. The SG and EG were submitted to a similar 12-week RT program [3 sets of 8 reps at 40-75% of the one-repetition maximum (1work per exercise without CMJ and BT). Over the 12-week training period, both RT groups showed small to large clinically significant improvements in the dependent variables; however, a significant difference was found between the EG and SG for the performance changes in BT, S10 and UG (20% vs. 11%, pperformance and quality of life in older women, although a high-speed RT program induces greater improvements in muscle power and functional capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilizing Social Work Skills to Enhance Entrepreneurship Training for Women: A Ghanaian Perspective.

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    Agbényiga, Debrenna L; Ahmedani, Brian K

    2008-12-01

    This article describes a women's entrepreneurship exchange program that was designed and facilitated with the cooperation of various governmental and nongovernmental entities in Ghana for Ghanaian women. The article briefly reviews the entrepreneurship development literature from an international perspective and discusses the Entrepreneurship Program as a targeted approach for empowering and sustaining women's economic situation in Ghana. Emphasis is placed on understanding the impact of cultural and social networks and the women's ability to succeed as entrepreneurs through the use of social work skills.

  15. Sprint interval and moderate-intensity cycling training differentially affect adiposity and aerobic capacity in overweight young-adult women.

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    Higgins, Simon; Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous cycle training (MICT), with equal estimated energy expenditure during training on body composition and aerobic capacity. Body composition measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic capacity were assessed following 6 weeks of training in previously inactive overweight/obese young women (n = 52; age, 20.4 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 30.3 ± 4.5 kg·m -2 , 67.3% white). Training was performed in a group-exercise format that mimicked cycling classes offered by commercial fitness facilities, and included 3 weekly sessions of either 30-s "all-out" sprints followed by 4 min of active recovery (SIT), or continuous cycling at 60%-70% heart rate reserve to expend a similar amount of energy. Participants were randomized to SIT or MICT, attended a similar number of sessions (15.0 ± 1.5 sessions vs. 15.8 ± 1.9 sessions, P = 0.097) and expended a similar amount of energy (541.8 ± 104.6 kJ·session -1 vs. 553.5 ± 138.1 kJ·session -1 , P = 0.250). Without significant changes in body mass (P > 0.05), greater relative reductions occurred in SIT than in MICT in total fat mass (3.6% ± 5.6% vs. 0.6% ± 3.9%, P = 0.007), and android fat mass (6.6% ± 6.9% vs. 0.7% ± 6.5%, P = 0.002). Aerobic capacity (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) increased significantly following both interventions (P interval cycling reduces adiposity and increases aerobic capacity more than continuous moderate-intensity cycling of equal estimated energy expenditure in overweight/obese young women.

  16. High-speed kymography identifies the immediate effects of voiced vibration in healthy vocal folds

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    Pimenta, Regina Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of voiced vibration technique can be assessed by laryngeal imaging. Kymographic images derived from high-speed videoendoscopy allow actual visualization of vocal folds vibration. Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the immediate effects of the voiced vibration technique in healthy vocal folds using high-speed digital laryngeal imaging. Methods: Samples were obtained from 15 healthy subjects with no history of voice disorders (6 men and 9 women aged 21 to 43 years. High-speed videoendoscopy recordings were performed before and after the voiced vibration technique. Kymographic images were obtained using high-speed videoendoscopy. The vocal folds were examined in their open and closed positions and the characteristics of the opening and closing phases were determined. A customize computational routine was used quantify these parameters. The closing, opening, and speed quotients were also calculated. Results: In this study, women displayed statistically significant differences in opened phase (P= 0.05*, closed phase (P= 0.046*, and closing phase (P= 0.026* phase characteristics. Men displayed the highest difference rate in opening time characteristics (P= 0.06. The closing and opening quotients for the female group showed significant differences (P= 0.029* and P= 0.049*, respectively. The speed quotient exhibited statistically significant differences in the male group (P= 0.048*. Conclusion: The kymographic images indicated that the immediate effect of the voiced vibration technique was smooth contact in healthy vocal fold vibration.

  17. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Changes in Blood Pressure, Body Composition, and Vo2max after 10 Weeks of High Intense Interval Training and Ginger Consumption in Overweight Women

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    Shila Nayebifar

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, HIIT and ginger consumption can be a good strategy to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures in women. Also, this kind of trainings is an effective approach in improving cardiorespiratory function and body composition in the population of overweight women.

  19. Effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared with watchful waiting in older women with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse : randomised controlled trial in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M. C. R.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Dekker, Janny H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women

  20. Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Stephanie J; Boyle, Rhianon; Cody, June D; Mørkved, Siv; Hay-Smith, E Jean C

    2017-12-22

    About one-third of women have urinary incontinence and up to one-tenth have faecal incontinence after childbirth. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is commonly recommended during pregnancy and after birth for both prevention and treatment of incontinence.This is an update of a review previously published in 2012. To determine the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in the prevention or treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in pregnant or postnatal women. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Specialised Register (16 February 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials in pregnant or postnatal women. One arm of the trial included PFMT. Another arm was no PFMT, usual antenatal or postnatal care, another control condition, or an alternative PFMT intervention. Review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. We extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Populations included: women who were continent (PFMT for prevention), women who were incontinent (PFMT for treatment) at randomisation and a mixed population of women who were one or the other (PFMT for prevention or treatment). We assessed quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. The review included 38 trials (17 of which were new for this update) involving 9892 women from 20 countries. Overall, trials were small to moderate sized, and the PFMT programmes and control conditions varied considerably and were often poorly described. Many trials were at moderate to high risk of bias. Other than two reports of pelvic floor pain, trials reported no harmful effects of PFMT.Prevention of urinary incontinence: compared with usual care, continent pregnant women performing antenatal PFMT may have had a lower risk of reporting urinary incontinence in late pregnancy (62% less; risk ratio (RR) for incontinence 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.72; 6 trials, 624 women; low-quality evidence). Similarly, antenatal PFMT

  1. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

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    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1 control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2 intervention group (WKO who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice a day. Patients were assessed using clinical balance tests (timed up and go test, functional reach test, and unilateral balance test before and 4 weeks after start of treatment. Results. Functional reach and timed up and go test were improved significantly in both groups compared to baseline. The improvement in intervention group was more significant in comparison to control group (P<0.05. Discussion. Posture training with WKO together with exercise program improved two clinical balance tests in women with osteoporosis. Conclusion. Posture training support (PTS applied as WKO together with back extension exercises can be prescribed as an intervention in elderly women in order to reduce the risk of falling.

  2. Skeletal Muscle CAP Expression Increases after Dietary Restriction and Aerobic Training in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Serra, Monica C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the effects of 6 months caloric restriction and aerobic training (3x/wk) (CR+AEX) on c-CBL associated protein (CAP) gene expression in women with a history of GDM. CAP is involved in cell signaling and protein ubiquitination, and is linked to the development of insulin resistance. Obese (BMI=32 ± 1 kg/m 2 , % fat=46 ± 2, X ± SEM), sedentary (VO2 max=21.2 ± 1.2 ml/kg/min), women aged 52 ± 2 years participated in 6 months D+WL (n=10) with body composition, fitness (VO2 max), and glucose tolerance testing. Insulin sensitivity was assessed during the last 30 min of 2-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (40 mU.m -2 .min -1 ) pre and post interventions. Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies (n=7) were conducted and CAP, GLUT4 and glycogen synthase (GS) gene expression measured by RT-PCR. No change in FFM by DXA was observed, but body weight decreased 8% with losses of total body fat mass (Prestriction and aerobic training in women with a history of gestational diabetes.

  3. Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Regina Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI muscles. Patients and methods: Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76 years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP of PFM and surface electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. Results: When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001 following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Conclusion: Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women.

  4. Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Bansal, Vishal; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2017-08-24

    Purpose The present study was conducted to compare the effects of low volume of high intensity interval training (LVHIIT) and high volume of high intensity interval training (HVHIIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) as a primary outcome measure, and on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, and lower limb muscle strength as secondary outcome measures, in sedentary young women. Methods Thirty-six participants were recruited in this study. The LVHIIT group (n = 17) performed one 4-min bout of treadmill running at 85%-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), followed by 3 min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, three times per week for 6 weeks. The HVHIIT group (n = 15) performed four times 4-min bouts of treadmill running at 85%-95% HRmax, interspersed with 3-min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All criterion measures were measured before and after training in both the groups. Results Due to attrition of four cases, data of 32 participants was used for analysis. A significant increase in high frequency (HF) power (p high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio (p body composition, and muscle strength. Conclusion The study results suggest that both LVHIIT and HVHIIT are equally effective in improving VO2max, body composition, and muscle strength, in sedentary young women. However, HVHIIT induces parasympathetic dominance as well, as measured by HRV.

  5. Training Southeast Asian Women for Employment: Public Policies and Community Programs, 1975-1985. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah R.

    This paper evaluates the effect of Federal resettlement policy on Southeast Asian refugee women's employment training programs and describes the extent to which this training contributed to the refugees' economic mobility and acculturation. The report is divided into three major sections. Part 1 introduces the study by discussing its background,…

  6. Respostas cardiopulmonares agudas de mulheres no treinamento de força Acute cardiopulmonary responses of women in strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio Gonsalves Sindorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as respostas cardiopulmonares de uma sessão de treinamento de força em mulheres jovens. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 23 mulheres, com idade entre 18 e 29 anos. Todas as voluntárias foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: cardiopulmonar e de uma repetição máxima (1-RM. O protocolo de treinamento de força teve ênfase em hipertrofia muscular, três séries de oito a 12 repetições a 70% de 1-RM, com intervalos de um minuto e 30 segundos entre as séries. Durante a sessão de treinamento foi realizada a medida das variáveis cardiopulmonares por meio de analisador de gases metabólicos e módulo de telemetria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do consumo de oxigênio da sessão de treinamento foram de 8,43 ± 1,76 ml/kg/min e da frequência cardíaca de 108,08 ± 15,26 bpm. Os resultados do consumo de oxigênio e da frequência cardíaca do treino foram inferiores (p OBJETIVE: Investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of one strength training session in young women. METHOD: Twenty-three women aged between 18 and 29 years participated in this study. All the volunteers were submitted to the following tests: cardiopulmonary and one-repetition maximum (1-RM. The strength training protocol had emphasis on muscular hypertrophy, three sets from eight to twelve repetitions under 70% of 1-RM, with a one minute thirty-second break between sets. During the training session, the cardiopulmonary variables were measured with a metabolic gas analyzer and a telemetry module. RESULTS: The results of the oxygen consumption in the training session were from 8.43 + 1.76 ml/kg/min and of the heart rate of 108.08 + 15.26 bpm. The results of the oxygen consumption and of the heart rate in the training were lower (p < 0.01 than in the ventilatory threshold and of the oxygen consumption and the heart rate reserves. CONCLUSION: The obtained data show that the present protocol of strength training provided low overload to the cardiopulmonary system of

  7. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  8. Injection laryngoplasty as miniinvasive office-based surgery in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis - voice quality outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Jędra, Katarzyna; Rzepakowska, Anna; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-09-01

    Injection laryngoplasty (glottis augmentation) is the preferred method in surgical management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Traditionally, these procedures are performed in the operating room. Nowadays, however, these procedures have moved into the office. To evaluate the voice quality after transoral injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthesia in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Fourteen subjects (5 women and 9 men) with unilateral vocal fold paresis (9 with right vocal fold paresis and 5 with left vocal fold paresis) were included in the study. The mean age of the group was 57.8 ±19.0 years (32-83 years). All of the injection laryngoplasties were performed transorally, under local anaesthesia. The injection material was calcium hydroxylapatite. Before and 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure the following variables were evaluated: voice perception, videostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, aerodynamic evaluation, and the subjective rating of the voice quality by the patient. After injection laryngoplasty, complete glottal closure was achieved or there was a significant improvement in the glottal closure of each subject. We noted great improvement in the post-injection objective and subjective voice outcomes and patients reported improvement in the voice-related quality of life. The transoral approach for injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthesia is an effective and safe way to treat incomplete glottal closure in patients with UVFP. The transoral approach is an efficient alternative to other surgical techniques used for vocal fold injection.

  9. Training and Support for Women's Entrepreneurship. ETF Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekh, Olena

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the wider efforts of policy makers, experts and practitioners to maximise the contribution of women into the national, regional and global economic growth and competitiveness in the countries neighbouring the European Union (EU). It focuses on actions that can support women's participation in entrepreneurship. The paper…

  10. Support by trained mentor mothers for abused women: a promising intervention in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women

  11. Changing Lives: the case for women-only vocational technology training revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.; Faulkner, W.; Slooten, I. van

    2005-01-01

    Women-only vocational courses in technology, which became popular across Western Europe during the 1980s, had fallen from fashion by 2000. Yet the need for such courses remains, at least in certain circumstances. Drawing on case studies of two women-only courses in information and communications

  12. High-speed registration of phonation-related glottal area variation during artificial lengthening of the vocal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Pulakka, Hannu; Alku, Paavo; Vilkman, Erkki; Hertegård, Stellan; Lindestad, Per-Ake; Larsson, Hans; Granqvist, Svante

    2007-01-01

    Vocal exercises that increase the vocal tract impedance are widely used in voice training and therapy. The present study applies a versatile methodology to investigate phonation during varying artificial extension of the vocal tract. Two males and one female phonated into a hard-walled plastic tube (phi 2 cm), whose physical length was randomly pair-wise changed between 30 cm, 60 cm and 100 cm. High-speed image (1900 f/sec) sequences of the vocal folds were obtained via a rigid endoscope. Acoustic and electroglottographic signals (EGG) were recorded. Oral pressure during shuttering of the tube was used to give an estimate of subglottic pressure (Psub). The only trend observed was that with the two longer tubes compared to the shortest one, fundamental frequency was lower, open time of the glottis shorter, and Psub higher. The results may partly reflect increased vocal tract impedance as such and partly the increased vocal effort to compensate for it. In other parameters there were individual differences in tube length-related changes, suggesting complexity of the coupling between supraglottic space and the glottis.

  13. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) – producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    The vocal folds of male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 kHz. Predictions would be closer to 50 Hz. Vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and...

  14. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  15. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  16. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  17. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  18. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max=22.5±4.4 years and 40.1±5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (N.=32, age and VO2max=25.6±4.4 years and 40.6±4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (P>0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (P=0.04) with HIIT, and gender x time (P=0.03) and gender x time x regimen interactions (P=0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (P=0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  19. Effectiveness of a tai-chi training and detraining on functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients.

  20. Can quality of life be improved by pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Lindskov, Grethe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke measured by quality of life (QoL) parameters. Three hundred thirty-nine medical records of stroke patients were searched. Twenty-six subjects were randomised...... to a Treatment Group or a Control Group in a single blinded, randomised study design. The intervention included 12 weeks of standardised pelvic floor muscle training. The outcome was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire and The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Twenty....... Development of specific instruments for QoL in stroke patients with urinary incontinence can be recommended....

  1. The $16,819 pay gap for newly trained physicians: the unexplained trend of men earning more than women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Richards, Michael R; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Gerber, Susan E

    2011-02-01

    Prior research has suggested that gender differences in physicians' salaries can be accounted for by the tendency of women to enter primary care fields and work fewer hours. However, in examining starting salaries by gender of physicians leaving residency programs in New York State during 1999-2008, we found a significant gender gap that cannot be explained by specialty choice, practice setting, work hours, or other characteristics. The unexplained trend toward diverging salaries appears to be a recent development that is growing over time. In 2008, male physicians newly trained in New York State made on average $16,819 more than newly trained female physicians, compared to a $3,600 difference in 1999.

  2. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska; Krystian Kałużny; Jacek Budzyński

    2015-01-01

    Hagner-Derengowska Magdalena, Kałużny Krystian, Budzyński Jacek. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(12):563-580. eISSN 2391-8306. DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44249 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2812%29%3A563-580 http://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/687148 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X...

  3. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Kałużny, Krystian; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Hagner-Derengowska Magdalena, Kałużny Krystian, Budzyński Jacek. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(12):563-580. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44248 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2812%29%3A563-580 http://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/687148 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665...

  4. A Lower-Limb Training Program to Improve Balance in Healthy Elderly Women Using the T-Bow (R) Device

    OpenAIRE

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Colado, Juan Carlos; Pablos Abella, Carlos; Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José; Garcia-Massó, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Ageing impairs balance, which increases the risk of falls. Fall-related injuries are a serious health problem associated with dependency and disability in the elderly and results in high costs to public health systems. This study aims to determine the effects of a training program to develop balance using a new device called the T-Bow (R). A total of 28 women > 65 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) (n = 18; 69.50 [0.99] years), or a control group (CG) (n = 10; 70.70 [2...

  5. Muscle function in aged women in response to a water-based exercises program and progressive resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a water-based exercise program on muscle function compared with regular high-intensity resistance training. Older women (n = 87) were recruited from the local community. The inclusion criteria were, to be aged 60 years or older, able to walk and able to carry out daily living activities independently. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: water-based exercises (WBG), resistance training (RTG) or control (CG). The experimental groups carried out 12 weeks of an excise program performed on water or on land. The dynamic strength, the isometric peak, and rate of torque development for the lower limbs were assessed before and after interventions. The water-based program provided a similar improvement in dynamic strength in comparison with resistance training. The isometric peak torque increased around the hip and ankle joints in the water-based group, and around the knee joint in the resistance-training group (P water-based group around the hip extensors muscles (P Water-based programs constitute an attractive alternative to promote relevant strength gains using moderate loads and fast speed movements, which were also effective to improve the capacity to generate fast torques. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. EFFECTS OF A 4-WEEK ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM ON THE REPEATED BOUT EFFECT IN YOUNG ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14 or a control group (CG, n = 10. They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05 compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05 following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss, but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness.

  7. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  8. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  9. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1996-05-01

    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  10. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  11. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  12. Trained Scientific Women Power: How Much are we Losing and Why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... it and enabled us achieve a greater standard. Their particular contributions ...... the highest qualifications are under-utilized in Science research and ... academic Science careers has commonly been associated with women's.

  13. Positive Action Programmes in the Fields of Education, Training, Retraining, Employment, and Promotion for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Andree

    1987-01-01

    Reviews efforts by individual governments in the European Economic Community to improve the rights of women in the workplace. Focuses on the objectives of these efforts, and concludes by evaluating strengths and weaknesses of these programs. (BSR)

  14. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  15. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  16. Endo-extralaryngeal Laterofixation of the Vocal Folds in Patients with Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Susanne; Teymoortash, Afshin; Hanschmann, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold paralysis can result in shortness of breath and severe dyspnea which can be life-threatening. Thirty-five patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent endo-extralaryngeal laterofixation according to Lichtenberger were retrospectively analyzed regarding etiology, symptoms, treatment and complications. In 27 patients, laterofixation of the vocal cord alone was performed. Eight patients underwent laterofixation and additional posterior chordectomy of the opposite vocal cord according to Dennis and Kashima. The time of intervention ranged from 1 day to 38 years after the onset of bilateral vocal cord immobility. The intraoperative course was uneventful in all patients. None of the patients had postoperative aspiration. Postoperative voice function was acceptable in all patients. Complications of suture laterofixation were laryngeal edema, formation of fibrin, and malposition of the suture. Laterofixation of the vocal cords according to Lichtenberger is a safe and easy method that can be used as a first-stage treatment of vocal cord paralysis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  18. Training young rural women to find urban jobs in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... But not everyone has equal access to these jobs. ... Researchers supported by IDRC evaluate a training program to ... in Bangladesh's Daily Star Equip youth with skills to accelerate growth ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  19. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Vecchioli Scaldazza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB. Materials and Methods 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. Results A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS.

  20. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated...... by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either...... and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals....

  2. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    ” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline......Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa...... pain. Furthermore, changes from nonpainful to painful stimulations in these parameters also significantly predicted concurrent changes in pain ratings. Conclusion: Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific...

  3. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    for studying the origins and neural basis of human language. Vocalizations belonging to the same species, or Conspecific Vocalizations (CVs), are...applications including automatic speech recognition [17], speech enhancement [18], voice activity detection [19], hyper-nasality detection [20], and emotion ...vocalizations. The feature sets chosen have the desirable property of capturing characteristics of the signals that are useful in both identifying and

  4. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  5. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  6. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  7. Water-based aerobic and combined training in elderly women: Effects on functional capacity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Ribeiro; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; Nunes, Gabriela Neves; Martin, Daniela Gomez; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two water-based training programs (aerobic and combined) and a non-periodized physical activity program on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) of elderly women. Forty-one elderly female volunteers (65 ± 4 years) were divided into three groups: aerobic training group (WBA, n = 13), combined training (sequence: resistance/aerobic; WBC; n = 11) and a control group of non-periodized physical activity program (CG, n = 9). The participants performed the water-based trainings twice a week for 12 weeks. The resistance training sets were performed at maximal effort and the aerobic training was performed in the percentage of the heart rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (85-110%) determined in an aquatic progressive test. Assessments of QoL perception (WHOQOL-BREF) and functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand, 6-Minute Walk and 8-Foot Up-and-go were performed before and after training. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), and Bonferroni post-hoc test (α = 0.05). In CG, QoL perception in the physical domain decreased (12 ± 10%) and there was no difference in the other domains. On the other hand, QoL perception was significantly increased in the water-based training groups after the training period in the physical (WBC: 13 ± 16%), psychological (WBA: 9 ± 16%; WBC: 10 ± 11%), social relationships (WBA: 19 ± 42%; WBC: 16 ± 21%) and environmental (WBA: 10 ± 17%; WBC: 16 ± 28%) domains and overall QoL (WBA: 17 ± 22%). No significant difference was observed in the physical domain for WBA and in the overall for WBC. Significant improvements were observed for all groups in the functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand (WBA: 32 ± 11%; WBC: 24 ± 14%; CG: 20 ± 9), 6-Minute Walk (WBA: 10 ± 7%; WBC: 7 ± 6%; CG: 7 ± 5%) and 8-Foot Up-and-go (WBA: 11 ± 5%; WBC: 10 ± 9%; CG: 10 ± 6

  8. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR VOCAL FOLD POLYP FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAŠA GLUVAJIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  9. [Men caretakers of life: Training in gender-sensitive masculinities for the prevention of violence towards women in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina

    2015-01-01

    The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Beyond traditional scientific training: The importance of community and empowerment for women in ecology and evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claire Horner-Devine

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While the biological sciences have achieved gender parity in the undergraduate and graduate career stages, this is not the case at the faculty level. The WEBS (Women Evolving the Biological Sciences symposia go beyond traditional scientific training and professional development to address factors critical to women’s persistence in faculty careers: community and empowerment. Through a series of panel discussions, personal reflections and skills workshops, WEBS creates a community-based professional development experience and a space for participants to grapple with central issues affecting their scientific careers. Longitudinal qualitative survey data suggest that WEBS bolsters the participants’ confidence and empowerment, in addition to providing concrete skills for addressing a range of issues necessary to navigating scientific careers, leading to increased career satisfaction and career self-efficacy (i.e., the belief in one’s capacity to pursue their chosen career. These results highlight the importance and need for programs and opportunities for women in STEM that go beyond training in scientific skills and traditional professional development to include those that create a sense of community and empowerment.

  11. A lower-limb training program to improve balance in healthy elderly women using the T-bow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Colado, Juan C; Pablos, Carlos; Naclerio, Fernando; García-Massó, Xavier

    2009-06-01

    Ageing impairs balance, which increases the risk of falls. Fall-related injuries are a serious health problem associated with dependency and disability in the elderly and results in high costs to public health systems. This study aims to determine the effects of a training program to develop balance using a new device called the T-Bow. A total of 28 women > 65 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) (n = 18; 69.50 [0.99] years), or a control group (CG) (n = 10; 70.70 [2.18] years). A program for lower limbs was applied for 8 weeks using 5 exercises on the T-Bow: squat, lateral and frontal swings, lunges, and plantarflexions. The intensity of the exercises was controlled by time of exposure, support base, and ratings of perceived exertion. Clinical tests were used to evaluate variables of balance. Static balance was measured by a 1-leg balance test (unipedal stance test), dynamic balance was measured by the 8-foot-up-and-go test, and overall balance was measured using the Tinetti test. Results for the EG showed an increase of 35.2% in static balance (P 0.05). Results for the CG showed a decline of 5.79% in static balance (P > 0.05) but no change in the other balance variables. Thus the data suggest that implementing a training program using the T-Bow could improve balance in healthy older women.

  12. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  14. Assessment of thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Ågot Møller; Faber, Christian; Jakobsen, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroplasty with silicone rubber implantation is a surgical procedure for treatment of patients with vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of the operation and to monitor which of the analyses were the more beneficial. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... because it offers a quantitative measure of the voice capacity and intensity, which are the major problems experienced by patients with vocal fold paralysis. Used together, these tools are highly instrumental in guiding the patient's choice of surgery or no surgery. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  15. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  16. On the role of emerging voluntary control of vocalization in language evolution. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudé, Gino

    2016-03-01

    This comment will be focused on the role of monkey vocal control in the evolution of language. I will essentially reiterate the observations expressed in a commentary [1] about the book ;How the brain got language: the mirror system hypothesis;, written by Arbib [2]. I will hopefully clarify our suggestion that non-human primates vocal communication, in conjunction with gestures, could have had an active role in the emergence of the first voluntary forms of utterances that will later shape protospeech. This suggestion is mainly rooted in neurophysiological data about vocal control in monkey. I will very briefly summarize how neurophysiological data allowed us to suggest a possible role for monkey vocalization in language evolution. We conducted a study [3] in which we recorded from ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of macaques trained to emit vocalizations (i.e. coo-calls). The results showed that the rostro-lateral part of PMv contains neurons that fire during conditioned vocalization. The involvement of PMv in vocalization production was further supported by electrical microstimulation of the cortical sector where some of the vocalization neurons were found. Microstimulation elicited in some cases a combination of jaw, tongue and larynx movements. To us, the evolutionary implications of those results were obvious: a partial voluntary vocal control was already taking place in the primate PMv cortex some 25 million years ago.

  17. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health.

  18. Men and Women Exhibit Similar Acute Hypotensive Responses After Low, Moderate, or High-Intensity Plyometric Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Abad-Colil, Felipe; Vera, Maritza; Andrade, David C; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Arazi, Hamid; Cerda-Kohler, Hugo; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of low-, moderate-, high-, and combined-intensity plyometric training on heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and rate-pressure product (RPP) cardiovascular responses in male and female normotensive subjects. Fifteen (8 women) physically active normotensive subjects participated in this study (age 23.5 ± 2.6 years, body mass index 23.8 ± 2.3 kg · m(-2)). Using a randomized crossover design, trials were conducted with rest intervals of at least 48 hours. Each trial comprised 120 jumps, using boxes of 20, 30, and 40 cm for low, moderate, and high intensity, respectively. For combined intensity, the 3 height boxes were combined. Measurements were taken before and after (i.e., every 10 minutes for a period of 90 minutes) each trial. When data responses of men and women were combined, a mean reduction in SBP, DBP, and RPP was observed after all plyometric intensities. No significant differences were observed pre- or postexercise (at any time point) for HR, SBP, DBP, or RPP when low-, moderate-, high-, or combined-intensity trials were compared. No significant differences were observed between male and female subjects, except for a higher SBP reduction in women (-12%) compared with men (-7%) after high-intensity trial. Although there were minor differences across postexercise time points, collectively, the data demonstrated that all plyometric training intensities can induce an acute postexercise hypotensive effect in young normotensive male and female subjects.

  19. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2015-12-01

    3 Chair of Vascular and Internal Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland     Corresponding author: Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska, PT, PhD Chair of Clinical Neuropsychology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 9 Street, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland E-mail address: m_hagner-derengowska@wp.pl     ABSTRACT Background & Aims: Elevation of alanine (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities may appear as liver injury due to fat storage and other enzyme sources, such as rhabdomyolysis. Elevated ALT is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly population. The aims of this study was to determine the effect of a 10-weeks training program on the serum activity of these enzymes in postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity. Methods: The study comprised 81 postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity: 34 (42% of whom completed a 10-weeks Nordic Walking (NW rehabilitation program, 27 (33% of whom completed a Pilates rehabilitation program, and 20 (25% of whom were the control group. Blood for testing for ALT, AST, and other parameters of metabolic syndrome was collected before the program commenced and after it finished. Results: Elevated (> 34 U/l ALT and AST activities presented in 9 (11% and 7 (9% of the patients, respectively. A reduction in ALT and AST activities was observed in 43 (53% of the subjects, and in 61%, 59% and 40%, and 47%, 63% and 50% of the individuals who completed the NW and Pilates programs and were in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The outcome of the training programs on aminotransferase serum activities in postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity was individually different and not related to exercise type.   Keywords: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, obesity, Nordic Walking, Pilates.

  20. The effects of 12 weeks Pilates-inspired exercise training on functional performance in older women: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Natália Donzeli; Testa, Daniela; Ruas, Paula Cristine; Salvini, Tânia de Fátima; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Melo, Ruth Caldeira

    2017-04-01

    Recent scientific evidence supports the benefits of Pilates exercises on postural balance and muscle strength of older persons. However, their effects on other aspects of physical fitness, which are also important for independent living in older age, are still unknown. To investigate the effects of a 12-week Pilates-inspired exercise program on the functional performance of community-dwelling older women. Forty community-dwelling older women were randomly enrolled in a Pilates-inspired exercise training (2 times/week, 60 min/session) (PG, n = 21, 66.0 ± 1.4yrs) or kept in the control group (CG; n = 19, 63.3 ± 0.9yrs). The Pilates exercises were conducted in small groups and performed on mats (using accessories such as exercise rubber bands, swiss and exercise balls). The functional performance on one-leg stance (OLS), timed up and go (TUG), five-times-sit-to-stand (STS) and 6-min walk (6 MW) tests was evaluated before and after the 12-week Pilates training or control follow-up period. After 12 weeks, time effects were observed for STS (p = 0.03) and 6 MW tests (p Pilates-inspired exercises improved dynamic balance, lower-extremity strength and aerobic resistance in community-dwelling older women. Therefore, it may be a potentially effective exercise regimen to maintain physical fitness in old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of unstable surface balance training on postural sway, stability, functional ability and flexibility in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepocatych, Svetlana; Ketcham, Caroline J; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Balilionis, Gytis

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of balance training routine, using both sides utilized balance trainer (BOSU) and aerobic step (STEP) on postural sway and functional ability in middle-aged women. Twenty-seven females participated in the study, age 40.6±12.0 years, body mass 72.0±14.0 kg, height 164.0±7.7 cm, BMI 26.5±4.5 kg/m2, and relative body fat 33.1±7.4%. Participants were divided into two groups and performed progressive exercise routine on either STEP or BOSU for three weeks. Pre- and post-test consisted of Postural Sway Test performed on the Biodex Balance System, Functional Ability Test, Sit and Reach Test and Plank. A significant time effect was observed for both groups for sway index(P=0.029) and center of pressure antero-posterior (AP) displacement (P=0.038) but not for sway area or medio-lateral (ML) displacement (P>0.05). In addition, BOSU group had significantly lower Sway Index(P=0.048) and ML range (P=0.035) scores when vision and surface was altered compared to STEP group. A significant time effect was observed in walking-up the stairs (P=0.020), sit and reach test (P=0.035), and plank (Ptraining have a potential to induce adaptive responses in neuromuscular system that enhances postural control, balance and functional ability of women. The training using BOSU may help improve static balance and functional ability in women.

  2. A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Genant, H. K.; Sadowsky, S.; Byl, N. N.; Gluer, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous research suggests that physical activity may have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women. This relationship was explored in a 2-year, randomized, intervention trial investigating the efficacy of exercise and calcium supplementation on increasing peak bone mass in young women. One hundred and twenty-seven subjects (ages of 20-35 years) were randomly assigned either to an exercise program that contained both aerobics and weight training components or to a stretching program. Calcium supplementation (up to 1500 mg/day including dietary intake) or placebo was given in a double-blinded design to all subjects. Spinal trabecular BMD was determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Spinal integral, femoral neck, and trochanteric BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and calcaneal BMD by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Fitness variables included maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and isokinetic muscle performance of the trunk and thigh. Measurements were made at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Sixty-three subjects (32 exercise, 31 stretching) completed the study, and all the measured bone parameters indicated a positive influence of the exercise intervention. There were significant positive differences in BMD between the exercise and stretching groups for spinal trabecular (2.5%), femoral neck (2.4%), femoral trochanteric (2.3%), and calcaneal (6.4%) measurements. The exercise group demonstrated a significant gain in BMD for spinal integral (1.3 +/- 2.8%, p weight training has beneficial effects on BMD and fitness parameters in young women. However, the addition of daily calcium supplementation does not add significant benefit to the intervention.

  3. RAPTURE OF WOMEN: STRATEGY IN TRAINING FAMILY NUCLEI, CAPITANIA DO PIAUÍ, CENTURY XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANYA MARIA PIRES BRANDÃO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the formation of Piauí society at the when the process of territorial conquest was in the stage of consolidation. It analyzes criminal processes involving the kidnapping of women during the 18 th century; a practice witch constituted a stratagem for the formation of family nuclei. The text proposes that this practice derived from both the numerical superiority of males among the free population and the expectations of both men and women who fought to improve their social positions for themselves and their descendants.

  4. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    by approximately 18% in both groups, whereas the marked increase in muscle citrate synthase activity was 50% larger in the GH group compared with the placebo group. In addition, only the GH group revealed an increase in muscle L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Body weight remained unchanged in both...... groups, but the GH group showed significant changes in body composition with a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean body mass. Twenty-four-hour indirect calorimetry performed in four subjects showed a marked increase in energy expenditure with increased relative and absolute fat combustion...... endurance training on a cycle ergometer over 12 wk. rhGH was given in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. GH administration resulted in a doubling of serum insulin-like growth factor I levels. With endurance training, peak oxygen uptake increased...

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training and adjunctive therapies for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Patricia B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a prevalent and costly condition which may be treated surgically or by physical therapy. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT performed alone and together with adjunctive therapies (eg biofeedback, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones for the treatment of female SUI. Methods All major electronic sources of relevant information were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed English language abstracts or papers published between 1995 and 2005. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs and other study designs eg non-randomised trials, cohort studies, case series, were considered for this review in order to source all the available evidence relevant to clinical practice. Studies of adult women with a urodynamic or clinical diagnosis of SUI were eligible for inclusion. Excluded were studies of women who were pregnant, immediately post-partum or with a diagnosis of mixed or urge incontinence. Studies with a PFMT protocol alone and in combination with adjunctive physical therapies were considered. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study, its level of evidence and the methodological quality. Due to the heterogeneity of study designs, the results are presented in narrative format. Results Twenty four studies, including 17 RCTs and seven non-RCTs, met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies varied but lower quality scores did not necessarily indicate studies from lower levels of evidence. This review found consistent evidence from a number of high quality RCTs that PFMT alone and in combination with adjunctive therapies is effective treatment for women with SUI with rates of 'cure' and 'cure/improvement' up to 73% and 97% respectively. The contribution of adjunctive therapies is unclear and there is limited

  6. Vocal Tract Images Reveal Neural Representations of Sensorimotor Transformation During Speech Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; Miquel, Marc E.; Evans, Bronwen G.; Adank, Patti; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Imitating speech necessitates the transformation from sensory targets to vocal tract motor output, yet little is known about the representational basis of this process in the human brain. Here, we address this question by using real-time MR imaging (rtMRI) of the vocal tract and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain in a speech imitation paradigm. Participants trained on imitating a native vowel and a similar nonnative vowel that required lip rounding. Later, participants imitated these vowels and an untrained vowel pair during separate fMRI and rtMRI runs. Univariate fMRI analyses revealed that regions including left inferior frontal gyrus were more active during sensorimotor transformation (ST) and production of nonnative vowels, compared with native vowels; further, ST for nonnative vowels activated somatomotor cortex bilaterally, compared with ST of native vowels. Using test representational similarity analysis (RSA) models constructed from participants’ vocal tract images and from stimulus formant distances, we found that RSA searchlight analyses of fMRI data showed either type of model could be represented in somatomotor, temporal, cerebellar, and hippocampal neural activation patterns during ST. We thus provide the first evidence of widespread and robust cortical and subcortical neural representation of vocal tract and/or formant parameters, during prearticulatory ST. PMID:28334401

  7. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzade, Motahare; Ranjbar, Rouholah; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Patel, Darpan; Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdieh

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the relationship between these factors with fatigue and quality of life were assessed. Forty women with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤3) were randomized into either a non-exercising control or training group. The training group performed 8-weeks of upper and lower limb aerobic interval training. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factorα, interleukin-10, leptin, and adiponectin were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Moreover, antropometric measures and measures for fatigue and quality of life were determined at the onset of and after exercise training. The results revealed that leptin and tumor necrosis factorα levels significantly decreased subsequent to the aerobic interval training. Although blood adiponectin levels considerably increased in the training group, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factorα ratio underwent no substantial change after the exercise training. In addition, the aerobic interval training was associated with improvement in fatigue, quality of life, and maximal oxygen consumption. Our findings suggested that aerobic interval training can be an effective strategy for managing the immune system at least by its significant impact on inflammatory cytokines and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis. Additionally, this positive impact improved fatigue and adipose tissue indicators.

  8. The impact of Nordic walking trainings on social well-being of women at the age of 50-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Antonina A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of falls aims to increase the strength of large groups of muscles, mainly in the lower limbs, as well as to improve gait, balance, and coordination parameters. Nordic walking (NW is a new type of walking training; the main purpose of NW is to involve the muscles that are not used during normal walking, which enables the performance of high intensity exercises at a relatively low level of perceived exertion. The article deals with the relevance of the problem of raising the health level and working capacity of mature and elderly-aged population. The importance of regular physical exercises as a universal means of satisfying the human body in motion has proved to be substantial. The research results in a positive impact of NW training on the functional status and health of women under the age of 50 - 60, the optimal structure of correctly graduated exercises during Nordic walking trainings in winter and snow-free periods. The quality of women’s life is determined and improved. NW is a form of physical activity which is recommended along with physiotherapy for the elderly to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, vascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, thus improving people’s physical, and, hence, social welfare.

  9. [Women boxing athletes' EMG of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the training of air striking of straight punch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin

    2011-05-01

    To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.

  10. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  11. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  12. The effect of Punica granatum L. along with aerobic training on resistin, serum adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abdi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factors secreted from adipocytes, such as resistin and adiponectin can affect peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and pomegranate, which has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties can affect resistin and adiponectin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Punica granatum L. along with aerobic training on serum resistin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 33 diabetic women with type 2 diabetes were selected from Babol city and were randomly divided into four groups (control, P. granatum L., training and P. granatum L.+ training. The training groups participated in an aerobic training for six weeks, three sessions a week (60% to 75% of the reserved heart rate and for 25 to 45 min. The control groups of P. granatum L. and P. granatum L. + training were fed 150 mL of P. granatum L. for six weeks (at about 18 p.m. Two days before and after the protocol, blood samples were taken. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the serum resistin levels among the three experimental groups. Also, the results showed a significant difference between adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in four groups. Conclusions: It seems that aerobic training and P. granatum L. and combination of both can have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on reduction of adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Loading intensity of jumping exercises in post-menopausal women: Implications for osteogenic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smale, K B; Hansen, L H; Kristensen, J K

    2018-01-01

    Post‐menopausal women frequently exhibit low bone mineral density, and therefore, evidence‐based exercises that induce osteogenic loading and prevent osteoporosis are often essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate the loading intensity of 3 different jumping exercises in post‐menop...

  14. Initial Characteristics and Mentoring Satisfaction of College Women Mentoring Youth: Implications for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, Martha D.; Lawrence, Edith C.; Williams, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Being a youth mentor is popular among college students, yet little is known about how their initial characteristics are related to mentoring satisfaction. Survey data from college women enrolled in a youth mentoring program (n = 158) and a comparison group (n = 136) were analyzed to determine how initial characteristics of youth mentors (a) differ…

  15. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations.

  16. Fussy Girls and Chattering Women--The Construct and Subordination of Femininity in Preschool Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria; Åberg, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    In Sweden, as in Western countries generally, most preschool teachers are women. This fact sometimes leads to the assumption that preschools are "feminine", and that this might be bad for boys. We challenge this assumption. Using a gender critical approach we have studied preschool student teachers. "Femininity" might be used…

  17. The influence of nighttime feeding of carbohydrate or protein combined with exercise training on appetite and cardiometabolic risk in young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Kinsey, Amber W; Eddy, Wyatt R; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Arciero, Paul J; Figueroa, Arturo; Panton, Lynn B

    2015-01-01

    Single macronutrient intake prior to sleep reduces appetite but may negatively impact insulin sensitivity in sedentary obese women. The present study examined the additive impact of nighttime feeding of whey (WH), casein (CAS), or carbohydrate (CHO) combined with exercise training on appetite, cardiometabolic health, and strength in obese women. Thirty-seven sedentary obese women (WH, n = 13, body mass index (BMI) 34.4 ± 1.3 kg/m(2); CAS, n = 14, BMI 36.5 ± 1.8 kg/m(2); CHO, n = 10, BMI 33.1 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) consumed WH, CAS, or CHO (140-150 kcal/serving), every night of the week, within 30 min of sleep, for 4 weeks. Supervised exercise training (2 days of resistance training and 1 day of high-intensity interval training) was completed 3 days per week. Pre- and post-testing measurements included appetite ratings, mood state, resting metabolic rate, fasting lipids, glucose, and hormonal responses (insulin, leptin, adiponectin, hs-CRP, IGF-1, and cortisol), body composition, and strength. Nighttime intake of CAS significantly (p < 0.05) increased morning satiety (pretraining, 25 ± 5; post-training 41 ± 6) more than WH (pretraining, 34 ± 5; post-training, 35 ± 6) or CHO (pre 40 ± 8, post 43 ± 7). Exercise training increased lean mass and strength, decreased body fat, and improved mood state in all groups. No other differences were noted. Nighttime feeding of CAS combined with exercise training increased morning satiety more than WH or CHO. Nighttime feeding for 4 weeks did not impact insulin sensitivity (assessed via homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) when combined with exercise training in obese women. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01830946.

  18. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  19. Vocal Tract and Glottal Function During and After Vocal Exercising With Resonance Tube and Straw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzman, M.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Krupa, P.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J.G.; Geneid, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), "523.e19"-"523.e34" ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vocal exercises * resonance tube * vocal tract impedance * computerized tomography * singer’s/speaker’s formant cluster Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08921997

  20. Effects in Post-Conflict West Africa of Teacher Training for Refugee Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepler, Susan; Routh, Sharyn

    2012-01-01

    This article draws data from an innovative research project tracing former refugee teachers who received teacher training from the International Rescue Committee (IRC) over a 17-year-long education programme in refugee camps in Guinea (1991-2008). The research traced repatriated refugee teachers who had returned to their homes in Sierra Leone and…

  1. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M

    2014-01-01

    ; FTG) and a control group (n = 20; CON). FTG performed 45 ± 1 1-h small-sided football training sessions during the 15-week intervention period. BP, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. After 15 weeks...

  2. Vocal Fold Injection: Review of Indications, Techniques, and Materials for Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mallur, Pavan S.; Rosen, Clark A.

    2010-01-01

    Vocal fold injection is a procedure that has over a 100 year history but was rarely done as short as 20 years ago. A renaissance has occurred with respect to vocal fold injection due to new technologies (visualization and materials) and new injection approaches. Awake, un-sedated vocal fold injection offers many distinct advantages for the treatment of glottal insufficiency (vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold atrophy and vocal fold scar). A review of materials available and ...

  3. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  4. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  5. [Varices of the vocal cord: report of 21 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Jian-jun

    2006-04-01

    To study the diagnosis and treatment of varices of the vocal cord. The clinical data of 21 cases with varix of vocal cord were analyzed. All the patients presented hoarseness. There were 15 female and 6 male cases with their ages ranged from 23 to 68 years (median 44 years old). The varix was found on the right vocal cord in 12 cases, on the left vocal cord in 9 cases. Isolated varix existed on the vocal cord in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord polyps or nodules in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord paralysis in 1 case. All the patients were diagnosed under the laryngovideoscopy. The lesions appeared on the superior surface of the vocal cord. Varices manifested as abnormally dilated capillary running in the anterior to posterior direction in 6 cases, as clusters of capillary in 3 cases, as a dot or small sheet or short line of capillary in 12 cases. The varices were disappeared in 2 of 8 cases with vocal cord varices and polyps after removed the polyps. The varices of others patients had no change after following up for more than 6 months, but one patient happened hemorrhage of the contralateral vocal cord. Varices are most commonly seen in female. Laryngovideoscopy is the key in determining the vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization.

  6. Chlamydia prevalence trends among women and men entering the National Job Training Program from 1990 through 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learner, Emily R; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Fine, Jason P; Pence, Brian W; Powers, Kimberly A; Miller, William C

    2018-01-26

    Evaluating chlamydia prevalence trends from sentinel surveillance is important for understanding population disease burden over time. However, prevalence trend estimates from surveillance data may be misleading if they do not account for changes in risk profiles of individuals who are screened (case mix) and changing performance of the screening tests used. We analyzed chlamydia screening data from a sentinel surveillance population of 389,555 young women (1990-2012) and 303,699 young men (2003-2012) entering the US National Job Training Program. This period follows the introduction of national chlamydia screening programs designed to prevent transmission and reduce population disease burden. After ruling out bias due to case mix, we used an expectation-maximization based maximum likelihood approach to account for measurement error from changing screening tests, and generated minimally-biased long-term chlamydia prevalence trend estimates among youth and young adults in this sentinel surveillance population. Adjusted chlamydia prevalence among women was high throughout the study period, but fell from 20% in 1990 to 12% in 2003, and remained between 12% and 14% through 2012. Adjusted prevalence among men was steady throughout the study period at approximately 7%. For both women and men, adjusted prevalence was highest among Black and American Indian youth and young adults, and in the Southern and Midwestern regions of the US throughout the study period. Our minimally-biased trend estimates provide support for an initial decrease in chlamydia prevalence among women soon after the introduction of national chlamydia screening programs. Constant chlamydia prevalence in more recent years suggests that screening may not be sufficient to further reduce chlamydia prevalence among high-risk youth and young adults.

  7. Glass ionomer application for vocal fold augmentation: Histopathological analysis on rabbit vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sule; Tuzuner, Arzu; Callıoglu, Elif Ersoy; Yumusak, Nihat; Arslan, Necmi; Baltacı, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an injection material for vocal fold augmentation and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Ten adult New Zealand rabbits were used. Under general anesthesia, 0.1-cc GIC was injected to one vocal fold and the augmentation of vocal fold was observed. No injection was applied to the opposite side, which was accepted as the control group. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months and the laryngeal specimens were histopathologically evaluated. The injected and the noninjected control vocal folds were analyzed. The GIC particles were observed in histological sections on the injected side, and no foreign body giant cells, granulomatous inflammation, necrosis, or marked chronic inflammation were detected around the glass ionomer particles. Mild inflammatory reactions were noticed in only two specimens. The noninjected sides of vocal folds were completely normal. The findings of this study suggest that GIC is biocompatible and may be further investigated as an alternative injection material for augmentation of the <