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Sample records for vocally trained women

  1. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  2. BREATH OF USE AND VOCAL TRAINING

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    Nuran ACAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breathable, who escorted us in every aspect of our lives and our survival is our primary activity, allowing for quality of life in a healthy way. quality of breaths taken the right technique, you need both health professional sense should perhaps take advantage of individuals who want to achieve success in life is the primary rule. When the diaphragm is born with assisted breathing lungs of every person's life starts to grow to keep up with the flurry lose this special and important skills. First and foremost, which is important for our body health, including every aspect of proper breathing, especially correct use of the voice carries particular importance. In this article, breathing subject discussed, correct breathing and our lives have tried to give us information about the benefits of both vocal training.

  3. Vocal accuracy and neural plasticity following micromelody-discrimination training.

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    Jean Mary Zarate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control. To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production.

  4. Acoustic, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic effects of vocal training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana Paula De Brito Garcia

    The longitudinal effects of vocal training on the respiratory, phonatory and articulatory systems were investigated in this study. During four semesters, fourteen voice major students were recorded while speaking and singing. Acoustic, temporal, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic parameters were measured to determine changes in the three systems as a function of vocal training. Acoustic measures of the speaking voice included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), percent jitter and shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included duration of sentences, diphthongs and the closure durations of stop consonants. Acoustic measures of the singing voice included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of the phonational range, vibrato pulses per second, vibrato amplitude variation and the presence of the singer's formant. Analysis of the data revealed that vocal training had a significant effect on the singing voice. Fundamental frequency and SPL of the 90% level and 90--10% of the phonational range increased significantly during four semesters of vocal training. Physiological data was collected from four subjects during three semesters of vocal training. Respiratory kinematic measures included lung volume, rib cage and abdominal excursions extracted from spoken sung samples. Descriptive statistics revealed that rib cage and abdominal excursions increased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and decrease from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Electromyographic measures of the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and external obliques muscles revealed that burst duration means decreased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and increased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester. Peak amplitude means increased from the 1st to the 2nd and decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Chest wall excursions and muscle force generation of the three muscles increased as the demanding level and the length of the phonatory

  5. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

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    Talita Louzada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax. The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP and jitter of period (JittP average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63% compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%. Conclusion: Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and

  6. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease

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    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Brauer, Alexander F.L.; Ciucci, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as “LSVT/LOUD®”, does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  7. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Mand Training by Staff and Unprompted Vocal Mands by Children

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    Nigro-Bruzzi, Darlene; Sturmey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a training package, including instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, for training staff members to conduct mand training with children. Experimenters collected data on staff performance on each step of a task analysis of mand training and on unprompted child vocal mands. Training resulted in increases in staff…

  8. Normative voice range profiles in vocally trained and untrained children aged between 7 and 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Zumtobel, Michaela; Prettenhofer, Walter; Aichstill, Birgitta; Jocher, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Only limited data on normal vocal constitution and vocal capabilities in school-aged children are available. To take better care of children's voices, it might be helpful to know voice ranges and limits of not only vocally trained but also vocally untrained children. Goal of this study was the evaluation of singing voice capabilities of vocally healthy children with different social and vocal/musical backgrounds using voice range profile measurements (VRP). VRP percentiles that reflect constitutional aspects were suggested. In this cross-sectional study, 186 children (aged between seven and 10 years), attending five schools, were included. VRP measurements were performed under field conditions. Interviews and questionnaires regarding vocal strain and vocal training were applied; the answers were used for classification of singing activity and vocal training (KLASAK). All children reached a mean singing voice range of at least two octaves. By using the answers of interviews and questionnaires, the children could be classified according to vocal strain and vocal training. The groups showed no significant differences regarding VRP measurements. In the following step, percentiles were calculated. Twenty-five percent of all children (P25) reached a minimum voice range of almost two octaves, namely, 22 semitones (ST) from 220 to 784 Hz with soft and loud singing. Half of the children (P50) had a voice range of 24 ST (2 octaves), while soft singing and a larger voice range of 26 ST while loud singing. The measurements of third quartile (P75) revealed that 25% of children have even a larger voice range than 29 dB (from 196 Hz/g to 1047 Hz/c3) and can sing at most frequencies louder than 90 dB. P90 demonstrated that 10% of the children can sing even lower or higher than the frequency range between 196 Hz/g and 1319 Hz/e3 analyzed. The voice range seems not to be constrained by social but by voice/musical background: children of vocally/musically encouraged schools had wider

  9. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

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    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Vocal Folds in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Virilized Voices

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    Nygren, Ulrika; Isberg, Bengt; Arver, Stefan; Hertegård, Stellan; Södersten, Maria; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) may develop a virilized voice due to late diagnosis or suboptimal suppression of adrenal androgens. Changes in the vocal folds due to virilization have not been studied in vivo. The purpose was to investigate if the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is affected by virilization and correlate…

  11. Effects of vocal training on singing and speaking voice characteristics in vocally healthy adults and children based on choral and nonchoral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Lycke, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study examines the effects of voice training on vocal capabilities in vocally healthy age and gender differentiated groups measured by voice range profile (VRP) and speech range profile (SRP). Frequency and intensity measurements of the VRP and SRP using standard singing and speaking voice protocols were derived from 161 trained choir singers (21 males, 59 females, and 81 prepubescent children) and from 188 nonsingers (38 males, 89 females, and 61 children). When compared with nonsingers, both genders of trained adult and child singers exhibited increased mean pitch range, highest frequency, and VRP area in high frequencies (PVRP area. The logistic regression analysis showed that VRP pitch range, highest frequency, maximum voice intensity, and maximum-minimum intensity range, and SRP slope of speaking curve were the key predictors of voice training. Age, gender, and voice training differentiated norms of VRP and SRP parameters are presented. Significant positive effect of voice training on vocal capabilities, mostly singing voice, was confirmed. The presented norms for trained singers, with key parameters differentiated by gender and age, are suggested for clinical practice of otolaryngologists and speech-language pathologists. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computerized Attention Training Program and Vocal Ensemble Classes – means of Adolescent Attention Focusing Ability Development

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    Trubina, Irēna; Sīle, Maruta; Vaļēviča, Evita; Voita, Daina

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays adolescents encounter difficulties focusing on particular, effective and long-term activities. These difficulties depend on their age group development regularities. The aim of the research is to evaluate computer attention training software in comparison with vocal ensemble classes on the subject of adolescent attention focusing ability development. Participants – 24 adolescents (both sexes, average age 14 ± 0,87 years) were divided into three experimental groups – experimental grou...

  13. Influence of vocal training on postoperative patients with vocal cord polyp vocal ability%嗓音训练对声带息肉患者术后发声能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关彩霞; 朱素月; 张小梅; 庄丽芳; 梁松好

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of vocal training on postoperative patients with vocal cord polyp vocal ability. Methods:Eighty - six pa-tients,who had vocal cords polyp surgeries,were randomly divided into control group and experimental group. Regular treatment and nursing were provided to the control group. while the experimental group has additional voice training,including voice hygiene education,diaphragm breathing training,posture and movement training,and yawning training,rale training,chewing sound training,and voice training. The first and the third monthes after surgery,patients self - administratively record visual analogue scale (VAS). Results:The results showed that the throat vocal ability (VAS) between the two groups had sta-tistical significance in different time (P < 0. 05). Conclusion:Voice training can improve the resection of vocal fold polyp laryngeal vocal ability,promote the voice rehabilitation.%目的::探讨嗓音训练对声带息肉患者术后发声能力的影响。方法:选取2013年1月~2014年5月我院收治86例声带息肉术后患者为研究对象,随机等分为对照组和试验组,对照组术后予常规治疗、护理;试验组在对照组的基础上予嗓音训练,包括嗓音卫生教育、膈肌呼吸训练、姿势与运动训练、打哈欠训练、水泡音训练、嚼音训练、嗓音声学训练。术后1个月、3个月对两组患者用视觉模拟评分法行喉发声能力自主评分比较。结果:喉发声能力 VAS 评分显示,两组不同时段评分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:嗓音训练可改善声带息肉术后喉发声能力,促进嗓音康复。

  14. Training process for foreign women.

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    Carlotta Malfone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses some strategies for the training process of foreign women. Several establishments must cooperate in this process (universities, unions, industrial associations, local councils not only to support job seeking initiatives but also to help these women move up towards more qualified work. The projects aimed at this are sporadic and marginal, lacking in finances because they are entirely focussed on job seeking schemes, and do not aim at helping women overcome their initial disadvantage. The result is not a qualifying training experience but merely a basic duty. Foreign women do not aspire just to dignified work but above all they wish to reach social recognition in order to benefit from all citizen rights yet maintain their personal identity through and through. We find basic fault already in the fact that the receiving country does not take into consideration the education of these women acquired in their countries. Actually, we do not find attempt to check, evaluate and improve the women’s starting qualifications. In the Italian job market, it is still impossible to ratify the qualifications of each new foreign woman. It is therefore necessary to act in many different ways in order to take care of the cultural needs of each ethnic group, so that these women could have options between different ways of life in order to get a positive introduction into the “new” country. It is necessary to create careful flexible courses for each need. Since women immigrants come from different nations, have different levels of instruction, have had different jobs, homes and relations with justice, our model of professional training must be reorganised in order to meet the real needs of these women. To this end, the education and re-training strategies must follow a careful analysis of the women’s living and working conditions, not only in consideration of their bureaucratic needs, but above all in consideration of the addressee

  15. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.

  16. Subjective and objective vocal parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Gugatschka, Markus; Lichtenwagner, Susanne; Schwetz, Verena; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Graupp, Matthias; Gerstenberger, Claus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Despite the relatively high prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affecting up to 15% of all women of reproductive age, only little is known about vocal changes related to this endocrinologic disorder that is characterized by biochemical or clinical hyperandrogenism, impaired cycles, and/or polycystic ovaries. The aim of our study was to describe objective and subjective vocal changes in women with a diagnosed PCOS compared with a control group. Our study group comprised 34 women-24 cases with confirmed PCOS and 10 controls in whom PCOS was excluded. A complete endocrinologic laboratory status was obtained by all participants; study procedures included a videolaryngostroboscopy, voice recording, and completion of the German version of the Voice Handicap Index. A trend toward lower mean fundamental frequency was detectable, but this failed statistical significance. No differences were found in the objective and subjective voice parameters. Elevated serum levels of androgens, as found in women with PCOS, were shown not to have an impact on the subjective and objective voice parameters. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

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    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  18. Changes in salivary estradiol predict changes in women's preferences for vocal masculinity.

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    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Feinberg, David R; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-08-01

    Although many studies have reported that women's preferences for masculine physical characteristics in men change systematically during the menstrual cycle, the hormonal mechanisms underpinning these changes are currently poorly understood. Previous studies investigating the relationships between measured hormone levels and women's masculinity preferences tested only judgments of men's facial attractiveness. Results of these studies suggested that preferences for masculine characteristics in men's faces were related to either women's estradiol or testosterone levels. To investigate the hormonal correlates of within-woman variation in masculinity preferences further, here we measured 62 women's salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels and their preferences for masculine characteristics in men's voices in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data showed that changes in salivary estradiol were the best predictor of changes in women's preferences for vocal masculinity. These results complement other recent research implicating estradiol in women's mate preferences, attention to courtship signals, sexual motivation, and sexual strategies, and are the first to link women's voice preferences directly to measured hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neck Circumference and Vocal Parameters in Women Before and After Bariatric Surgery.

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    de Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; dos Santos, Marquiony Marques; Pereira, Rayane Medeiros

    2016-03-01

    Morbidly obese patients may suffer from vocal disorders, as vocal production is directly related to the volume of the vocal tract, and the large-scale accumulation of fat in this region may interfere with voice production. The aim of this study was to analyze the neck circumference, fundamental frequency, and maximum phonation time of a group of morbidly obese women before and after bariatric surgery. An observational, longitudinal, and descriptive study was performed with patients of the Obesity and Related Diseases Surgery Unit of a university hospital. A total of 21 morbidly obese women aged 28-68 years, with a mean age of 41.33 years, participated in the study. Neck circumference was measured using a tape measure. To obtain fundamental frequency values, the patient was asked to produce the vowel [a] at normal intensity and pitch for an average period of 3 s. After recording, the participants were asked to produce the sustained vowels [a], [i], and [u] at normal intensity and pitch, with a stopwatch used to measure maximum phonation time. Eight months after surgery, patients were reassessed using the same data collecting procedures as were carried out prior to surgery. After surgery, there was an increase in the average value of fundamental frequency and maximum phonation time for all the vowels and a reduction in neck circumference. The differences were statistically significant. Weight reduction and a consequent decrease in neck circumference affected the changes in maximum phonation time and fundamental frequency values in the voices of these patients, after weight loss.

  20. The influence of vocal training and acting experience on measures of voice quality and emotional genuineness

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    Steven Robert Livingstone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vocal training through singing and acting lessons is known to modify acoustic parameters of the voice. While the effects of singing training have been well documented, the role of acting experience on the singing voice remains unclear. In two experiments, we used linear mixed models to examine the relationships between the relative amounts of acting and singing experience on the acoustics and perception of the male singing voice. In Experiment 1, twelve male vocalists were recorded while singing with five different emotions, each with two intensities. Acoustic measures of pitch accuracy, jitter, and harmonics-to-noise (HNR ratio were examined. Decreased pitch accuracy and increased jitter, indicative of a lower ‘voice quality’, were associated with more years of acting experience, while increased pitch accuracy was associated with more years of singing lessons. We hypothesized that the acoustic deviations exhibited by more experienced actors was an intentional technique to increase the genuineness or truthfulness of their emotional expressions. In Experiment 2, listeners rated vocalists’ emotional genuineness. Vocalists with more years of acting experience were rated as more genuine than vocalists with less acting experience. No relationship was reported for singing training. Increased genuineness was associated with decreased pitch accuracy, increased jitter, and a higher harmonics-to-noise ratio. These effects may represent a shifting of priorities by male vocalists with acting experience to emphasize emotional genuineness over pitch accuracy or voice quality in their singing performances.

  1. Application of Hum in Vocal Music Training%哼鸣在声乐训练中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宏志

    2015-01-01

    练声方法在声乐训练中非常重要,但是方法的多样性给广大声乐学习者带来了困惑.如何走出困惑,重拾对声乐学习的兴趣,提高演唱水平,哼鸣练习不愧为捷径之一.本文旨在通过对哼鸣在声乐中的运用的探讨和研究,使大家更清晰的了解其中的原理,以帮助广大声乐爱好者更好的学习.%Training method is very important in vocal music training, but diversity to our vocal music learners brings con-fusion. How to get out of confusion, to regain the vocal music learning interest, improve the level of singing, humming prac-tice is worthy of one of the shortcut. This paper aims to hum with vocal in the discussion and the research, to enable us to understand more clearly the principle, to help the majority of music lovers to study better.

  2. 试论正确发声方法的训练及嗓音保健%Discussion on the Training of Right Vocalization and Voice Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋超

    2013-01-01

    正确发声是音乐初学者和音乐从业者入门的前提和专业成长的关键。笔者从发声方法、发声训练及嗓音保健等方面对正确发声进行探讨,希冀对音乐初学者有所裨益。%The right vocalization is the premise and key of a music beginner's entry and professional growth. The writer explores from such aspects as vocalization, vocal training and voice care, hoping to benefit music beginners.

  3. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

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    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Musical Training in Bel Canto Vocal Technique: A Brief History and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Christine Wondolowski

    This paper offers a brief history and philosophy of the origins of bel canto vocal style and describes the pedagogical methods used to achieve bel canto ideals in singing. The document discusses the adoption and development of this technique and how it developed over long periods of preparation in the foregoing centuries before the Baroque era.…

  5. A Comparison of Vocal Mand Training Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Vitale, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Skinner's classification of verbal behavior, the mand is the first and most advantageous verbal operant to develop. Deficits in vocal mand repertoires are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and can lead to decreased social interaction and increased problem behavior. The present investigation compared the effects of…

  6. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  7. Training of support afferentation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kholodina, N V; Nikolenko, E D; Payet, J

    2017-05-02

    We have recently shown a diminishing of the Menopause Index in old-aged women who underwent special training directed at the enhancement of support afferentation by increasing the plantar forefoot sensitivity (Bazanova et al., 2015). Based on these results we hypothesized, that purposeful training of support afferentation through stimulation of plantar graviceptors by Aikido practice will decrease excessive postural and psychoemotional tension not only in rest condition, but during cognitive and manual task performance too. Fluency of cognitive and motor task performance, EEG alpha power as an index of neuronal efficiency of cognitive control, amount of alpha power suppression as a visual activation measure and EMG power of forehead muscles as a sign of psychoemotional tension were compared in three groups of post-menopausal women: i) 8years training with forefeet support afferentation with Aikido practice (A), ii) 8years fitness training (F) and iii) no dedicated fitness training for past 8years (N). Simultaneous stabilometry, EEG, and frontal EMG recording were performed in sitting and standing up position in eyes closed and eyes open condition. Recording done at rest and while performing cognitive and finger motor tasks. We compared studied parameters between groups with one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc two-tailed unpaired t-tests. The fluency of tasks performance, EMG and alpha-EEG-activity displayed similar values in all groups in a sitting position. Center of pressure (CoP) sway length, velocity and energy demands for saving balance increased when standing up, more in group N than in groups F and A (all contrasts p values0.89). Post hoc t-tests showed increased fluency in standing in both Aikido (p0.77). Fluency in motor task and alpha EEG power decreased, but frontal EMG power increased in response to standing in untrained women (group N) and did not change in F group

  8. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Eisa, Marwa M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS), and three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL) to detect endometrial polyps (EPs) in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33%) were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9%) had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P = 0.223; P = 0.06). 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB. PMID:28003825

  9. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Hussain, Sherif H; Hassanin, Alaa S; Khalaf, Waleed M; Etman, Mohamed K; Elsafty, Mohammed S E; Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Hasanien, Ahmad S; Sakna, Noha A; Taema, Mohammed; Mostafa, Mohammed H; Eisa, Marwa M

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS), and three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL) to detect endometrial polyps (EPs) in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33%) were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9%) had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P = 0.223; P = 0.06). 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB.

  10. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Laban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS, and three-dimensional (3D Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL to detect endometrial polyps (EPs in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB. This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33% were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9% had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P=0.223; P=0.06. 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB.

  11. Considerações sobre modificações vocais e laríngeas ocasionadas pelo som basal em mulheres sem queixa vocal Considerations regarding vocal and laryngeal modifications caused by vocal fry in women without voice complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Meurer Brum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as mudanças vocais e laríngeas ocasionadas pelo som basal em cinco indivíduos adultos do sexo feminino sem alterações vocais e laríngeas. Para isso, realizou-se gravação digital da emissão da vogal /a/ e do exame videolaringoestroboscópico. Em seguida, os sujeitos realizaram o som basal durante três séries de 15 repetições, com intervalo de 30 segundos entre cada série, e realizaram-se novamente o exame laríngeo e a gravação da vogal /a/ sustentada. Os dados laríngeos e vocais pré e pós-realização da técnica foram submetidos às análises acústica, perceptivo-auditiva e videolaringoestroboscópica. A análise acústica foi gerada pelo programa Multi Speech. Constatou-se, após o som basal: aumento da vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; alteração ou manutenção do tipo de voz e do pitch; diminuição ou manutenção das medidas relacionadas ao jitter e shimmer e do índice que sugere ruído glótico; diminuição do índice de fonação suave; manutenção ou alteração da qualidade vocal e do foco ressonantal, com predomínio laringofaríngeo; diminuição da frequência fundamental; e aumento da variação da frequência e da amplitude. Concluiu-se que, nesta sequência de casos, o som basal promoveu efeito positivo sobre a vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais e sobre o ruído da voz, e efeito negativo sobre a ressonância e a estabilidade da voz.The aim of this study was to verify vocal and laryngeal modifications caused by vocal fry in five female subjects without vocal or laryngeal complaints. For this purpose, the sustained emission of the vowel /a/ was digitally recorded, as well as the recording of a videostroboscopic examination of the larynx. Subsequently, the subjects performed the vocal fry in three series of 15 repetitions, with a 30-second interval of passive rest between series, and carried out a second evaluation (recording of the sustained emission of the

  12. Effects of voice training and voice hygiene education on acoustic and perceptual speech parameters and self-reported vocal well-being in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilomaki, Irma; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Leppanen, Kirsti; Vilkman, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Voice education programs may help in optimizing teachers' voice use. This study compared effects of voice training (VT) and voice hygiene lecture (VHL) in 60 randomly assigned female teachers. All 60 attended the lecture, and 30 completed a short training course in addition. Text reading was recorded in working environments and analyzed for fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (Leq), alpha ratio, jitter, shimmer, and perceptual quality. Self-reports of vocal well-being were registered. In the VHL group, increased F0 and difficulty of phonation and in the VT group decreased perturbation, increased alpha ratio, easier phonation, and improved perceptual and self-reported voice quality were found. Both groups equally self-reported increase of voice care knowledge. Results seem to indicate improved vocal well-being after training.

  13. Vocal parameters and voice-related quality of life in adult women with and without ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Pablo Rodrigo Rocha; Bertoldo, Simão Veras; Costa, Luanne Gabrielle Morais; Serra, Emmeliny Cristini Nogueira; Silva, Eduardo Magalhães; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptual and acoustic parameters of voice in adult women with and without ovarian function and its impact on quality of life related to voice. Cross-sectional and analytical study with 106 women divided into, two groups: G1, with ovarian function (n=43) and G2, without physiological ovarian function (n=63). The women were instructed to sustain the vowel "a" and the sounds of /s/ and /z/ in habitual pitch and loudness. They were also asked to classify their voices and answer the voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. The perceptual analysis of the vocal samples was performed by three speech-language pathologists using the GRBASI (G: grade; R: roughness; B: breathness; A: asthenia; S: strain; I: instability) scale. The acoustic analysis was carried out with the software VoxMetria 2.7h (CTS Informatica). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the perceptual analysis, both groups showed a mild deviation for the parameters roughness, strain, and instability, but only G2 showed a mild impact for the overall degree of dysphonia. The mean of fundamental frequency was significantly lower for the G2, with a difference of 17.41Hz between the two groups. There was no impact on V-RQOL in any of the V-RQOL domains for this group. With the menopause, there is a change in women's voices, impacting on some voice parameters. However, there is no direct impact on their quality of life related to voice. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Audio Script Fading and Multiple-Exemplar Training to Increase Vocal Interactions in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Albea, Elena; Reeve, Sharon A.; Brothers, Kevin J.; Reeve, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    Script-fading procedures have been shown to be effective for teaching children with autism to initiate and participate in social interactions without vocal prompts from adults. In previous script and script-fading research, however, there has been no demonstration of a generalized repertoire of vocal interactions under the control of naturally…

  15. On Emotional Expression Training in Higher Vocational Vocal Music Teaching%浅谈高职声乐教学中情感表现的训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洲

    2014-01-01

    Vocal skills and emotional expression are the key links in higher vocational vocal music teaching .However ,some teachers put too much emphasis on the former and ignore the latter in prac-tical teaching process , w hich influences the improvement of vocal music expression ability of the students .Emotional expression training should be based on cultural identification ,follow the com-monality of arts and lead the students to deepen their recognition in works so as to achieve the balance of vocal skills and emotional expression .%发声技能与情感表现是高职声乐教学中的重要环节。但在实际教学过程中,部分教师过于侧重前者而忽视了后者,影响了学生声乐表现能力的提高。情感表现的训练应当基于文化认同,遵循艺术的共同性原则,引导学生深化对作品的认识,达到发声技能与情感表现的平衡。

  16. Training Needs of Farm Women Towards Entrepreneurial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatesan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study revealed that majority (45.83% of the Farm women had medium training need and 30.83 per cent of them had high training need in case of homestead vegetable production. In term of training need in nursery establishment, about 45.00 per cent of the Farm women fell under medium training need category while 35.00 per cent of them fell under high training need category. As regards to their training needs in livestock & poultry rearing, the majority (49.17% of the Farm women had high training needs compared to 35.00 per cent of them having medium training needs. A big share (40.83% of the Farm women had high training needs in food processing, while 33.33 per cent of them had medium training needs. Farmers’ education, farm size, annual income, organizational participation and agricultural knowledge showed negative significant correlation, while fatalism had significant positive association with the training needs. The major problems faced by the Farm women in carrying out their EDPs were: lack of capital/credit, lack of irrigation water, lack of land, lack of knowledge about insect/disease control, marketing & communication facilities and attack of birds/animals, etc.

  17. Brief Report: Effects of Tact Training on Emergent Intraverbal Vocal Responses in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard J.; Hawkins, Emma; Dymond, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the emergence of intraverbal responses following tact training with three adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Participants were taught to tact the name of a cartoon character (e.g., "What is the name of this monster?" ["Simon"]) and that character's preferred food (e.g., "What food does this monster…

  18. What makes a voice masculine: physiological and acoustical correlates of women's ratings of men's vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartei, Valentina; Bond, Rod; Reby, David

    2014-09-01

    Men's voices contain acoustic cues to body size and hormonal status, which have been found to affect women's ratings of speaker size, masculinity and attractiveness. However, the extent to which these voice parameters mediate the relationship between speakers' fitness-related features and listener's judgments of their masculinity has not yet been investigated. We audio-recorded 37 adult heterosexual males performing a range of speech tasks and asked 20 adult heterosexual female listeners to rate speakers' masculinity on the basis of their voices only. We then used a two-level (speaker within listener) path analysis to examine the relationships between the physiological (testosterone, height), acoustic (fundamental frequency or F0, and resonances or ΔF) and perceptual dimensions (listeners' ratings) of speakers' masculinity. Overall, results revealed that male speakers who were taller and had higher salivary testosterone levels also had lower F0 and ΔF, and were in turn rated as more masculine. The relationship between testosterone and perceived masculinity was essentially mediated by F0, while that of height and perceived masculinity was partially mediated by both F0 and ΔF. These observations confirm that women listeners attend to sexually dimorphic voice cues to assess the masculinity of unseen male speakers. In turn, variation in these voice features correlate with speakers' variation in stature and hormonal status, highlighting the interdependence of these physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. L'educació vocal en la formació inicial dels docents a l'Estat espanyol: descripció de la situació i propostes de canvi Voice education in the initial training of teachers in Spain: the state of La educación vocal en la formación inicial de los docentes en el estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmon Elgström

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article comença amb un repàs a les situacions de risc vocal que suporten diàriament els docents en el desenvolupament de la seva tasca i continua amb la presentació de les dades més rellevants de salut vocal dels docents de l’Estat espanyol, recollides a les principals recerques específiques. Més endavant, es revisa la situació que ocupa l’educació vocal en la formació inicial dels docents i, finalment, es descriuen els blocs de continguts d’una proposta de formació vocal (treball postural, treball respiratori i treball vocal, i els espais en què aquesta proposta podria ser inserida en els plans d’estudi de formació inicial dels docents de l’Estat espanyol. ____________________________________ Cet article commence par une révision des situations de risque vocal que vivent quotidiennement les enseignants dans le développement de leur tâche et se poursuit par les principales recherches spécifiques effectuées dans ce domaine. Ensuite, nous révisons la situation qu’occupe la formation vocale dans la formation initiale des enseignants et, finalement, nous décrivons les blocs de contenus d’une proposition de formation vocale (travail postural, travail respiratoire et travail vocal, ainsi que les espaces dans lesquels cette proposition pourrait être insérée dans les plans d’étude de formation initiale des enseignants en Espagne.This paper begins with an overview of the voice risk situations teachers face in their daily work, and continues with a presentation of the most relevant research results regarding teachers’ vocal health in Spain. The paper analyses the role of voice training in teachers’ initial training, and describes the content sections of a voice training proposal (postural work, respiratory work and voice work, and how this proposal can be incorporated into study plans for the initial training of teachers in Spain.Este artículo se inicia con un repaso a las situaciones de riesgo vocal que

  20. Income Generation and Money Management: Training Women as Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sheila

    Based on a workshop in Gambia in 1989, this manual was developed to help Peace Corps workers to develop training techniques for teaching women to run businesses producing and selling local products and to manage money. Topics covered include the following: (1) the role of the facilitator in adult learning; (2) problems women face in controlling…

  1. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training ...

  2. Does self-defense training prevent sexual violence against women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jocelyn A

    2014-03-01

    Self-defense classes are offered across the nation as a strategy for reducing women's vulnerability to sexual assault. Yet there has been little systematic research assessing the effectiveness of these classes. In this article, I use data from a mixed methods study of a 10-week, university-based, feminist self-defense class to examine the effectiveness of self-defense training over a 1-year follow-up period. My analyses indicate that women who participate in self-defense training are less likely to experience sexual assault and are more confident in their ability to effectively resist assault than similar women who have not taken such a class.

  3. 复合型声乐人才培养知识体系初探%The Research on the System of Knowledge for the Training of Compound Vocal Music Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚丽

    2013-01-01

      高师声乐人才培养的目标是培养合格的中等学校音乐教师。当前声乐人才培养中存在诸多问题:声乐演唱的单一化已不适应市场的需求,声乐课程设置的教条化与开放化之间的矛盾,师生比例不协调与学生知识能力结构不平衡。针对于这些问题,教学需要改革:需符合社会发展的需要设置声乐人才培养模式,着重培养实用型、复合型声乐人才,加强声乐理论教学、整合教学课程体系,突出声乐人才培养的师范性,声乐人才培养中对声乐教师有综合素质的要求。%The aim of training vocal music talents in normal universities is to cultivate qualified music teachers in middle schools. This paper starts with the problems existing in the current vocal music talents training, such as the simplification of vocal music performance, dogmatism of vocal courses, the unbalanced student-teacher ratio, and unbalanced structure of students’knowledge. Then it presents some reformatory measures and means to explore the scientific and rational methods for training vocal music talents such as the new training mode, the enhancement of vocal theory teaching, the integration of teaching system, the orientation of teacher-training, and the training on comprehensive qualities.

  4. Influence of strength training on adult women's flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Walace David; Simão, Roberto; Polito, Marco Doederlein; Santana, Cleves Araújo; Chaves, Rogério Batista; Bezerra, Ewerton; Fleck, Steven J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks of strength training on the flexibility of sedentary middle-aged women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to either a strength training group (n = 10; age, 37 +/- 1.7 years; body mass, 65.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height, 157.7 +/- 10.8 cm; and body mass index, 25.72 +/- 3.3 kg x m(-2)) or a control group (n = 10; age, 36.9 +/- 1.2 years; body mass, 64.54 +/- 10.18 kg; height, 158.1 +/- 8.9 cm; and body mass index, 26.07 +/- 2.8 kg x m(-2)). The strength training program was a total body session performed in a circuit fashion and consisted of 7 exercises performed for 3 circuits of 8 to 12 repetitions maximum (RM), except for the abdominal exercise which was performed for 15 to 20 RM. Flexibility measurements were taken for 10 articulation movements pre and post training: shoulder flexion and extension, shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction, elbow flexion, hip flexion and extension, knee flexion, and trunk flexion and extension. Pre and post training, 10 RM strength significantly increased (p training. The control group showed no significant change in any of the flexibility measures determined. In conclusion, weight training can increase flexibility in previously sedentary middle-aged women in some, but not all joint movements.

  5. Endurance training and GH administration in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F;

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of endurance training alone and endurance training combined with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was investigated. Sixteen healthy women [age 75 +/- 2 yr (mean +/- SE)] underwent a 12-wk...... endurance training program on a cycle ergometer. rhGH was administered in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was estimated by means of microdialysis combined with measurements of subcutaneous abdominal...... and after completion of the training program. Similarly, no effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was observed when combining endurance training with rhGH administration. However, in both the placebo and the GH groups, fat oxidation was significantly increased during exercise performed...

  6. Balance training in elderly women using public parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiros-Rodríguez, Raquel; García-Soidan, José L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a balance training program developed in public parks on functionality and general state of health in elderly women. It was a randomized controlled trial. Women older than 65 years (n = 28; 68.5 ± 2.9) participated in a balance training program that lasted 6 weeks, with sessions taking place twice a week (12 exercises/session, 50 min). Balance was analyzed by the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up & Go Test. The generic health status was measured by the SF-12 Health Survey. These tests showed statistically significant differences in the experimental group (p balance.

  7. An Evaluation of a Treatment Package Consisting of Discrimination Training and Differential Reinforcement with Response Cost and a Social Story on Vocal Stereotypy for a Preschooler with Autism in a Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprime, Amanda P.; Dittrich, Gretchen A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of a treatment package comprised of a social story, discrimination training, and differential reinforcement with response cost on the vocal stereotypy of one preschooler diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study took place in a preschool classroom of a public school and was implemented…

  8. An Evaluation of a Treatment Package Consisting of Discrimination Training and Differential Reinforcement with Response Cost and a Social Story on Vocal Stereotypy for a Preschooler with Autism in a Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprime, Amanda P.; Dittrich, Gretchen A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of a treatment package comprised of a social story, discrimination training, and differential reinforcement with response cost on the vocal stereotypy of one preschooler diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study took place in a preschool classroom of a public school and was implemented…

  9. Single- vs. multiple-set strength training in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, A; Stec, J; Schmidtbleicher, D

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single-set and multiple-set strength training in women. Twenty-seven women (aged 20-40 years) with basic experience in strength training were randomly allocated to either a single-set group (n = 9), a 3-set group (n = 9), or a nontraining control group (n = 9). Both training groups underwent a whole-body strengthening program, exercising 2 days a week for 6 weeks. Exercises included bilateral leg extension, bilateral leg curl, abdominal crunch, seated hip adduction/abduction, seated bench press, and lateral pull-down. The single-set group's program consisted of only 1 set of 6-9 repetitions until failure, whereas the multiple-set group trained with 3 sets of 6-9 repetitions until failure (rest interval between sets, 2 minutes). Two times before and 3 days after termination of the training program, subjects were tested for their 1 repetition maximum strength on the bilateral leg extension and the seated bench press machine. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance, Scheffé tests, t-tests, and calculation of effect sizes. Both training groups made significant strength improvements in leg extension (multiple-set group, 15%; single-set group, 6%; p 0.05). However, in the seated bench press only the 3-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength (10%). Calculation of effect sizes and percentage gains revealed higher strength gains in the multiple-set group. No significant differences were found in the control group. These findings suggest superior strength gains occurred following 3-set strength training compared with single-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training.

  10. Motivation, goal orientation, coaching, and training habits of women ultrarunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouse, Rhonna Z; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Pritchard, Mary E

    2011-10-01

    Ultrarunners participate in running events that exceed the 26.2-mile marathon distance (e.g., 50k, 50-100 miles). Very little research exists on ultrarunners, especially women. This study is a descriptive study detailing the motivation, goal orientation, demographic characteristics (e.g., age, job demands, family structure), training habits (e.g., hours per week of training), and coach utilization of women ultrarunners. Participants (N = 344) were recruited via the Ultra List serve and 4 popular ultrarunning websites, and they completed a questionnaire on motivation, goal orientation, training, and coaching using Survey Monkey. General health orientation (mean ± SD) (4.71 ± 1.06) and psychological coping (4.71 ± 1.03) were the 2 strongest motivational factors. Participants were higher in task orientation (1.38 ± 0.68) (e.g., finishing the race or accomplishing various goals) than ego orientation (3.38 ± 1.01) (e.g., placing in the top 3 overall or beating an opponent). Women trained an average of 12.49 h·wk(-1) and spent 64% of their time training alone. Training information came from their own experience, blogs, websites, and the Ultra List Serve. Over three-fourths of the participants (80%) did not use a coach because of cost and a perceived lack of necessity. Women ultrarunners in this study were task oriented, internally motivated, health, and financially conscious individuals. With additional information about women ultrarunners, coaches will be better prepared to work with this population and ultrarunners can improve their performance by learning about current participants' practices.

  11. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  12. Facilitating Postdivorce Adjustment among Women: A Communication Skills Training Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Jake D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the effects of communication skills training on adjustment to divorce and separation among women. Results indicated that the experimental group significantly increased in overall divorce adjustment and in empathy skills. No significant differences were found in perceived social support or self-disclosure skill. (Author)

  13. IDENTITY AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN TRAINING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Delgado-Piña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyze the processes the identity changes and of empowerment in the case of a concrete experience of a group of women in the empowerment project, 2004, in Celaya, Guanajuato. The objective was to know the bond establish between both processes. For this analysis was used information provided through interviews, life stories and observation with seven promoter women who participate in the workshops in Celaya, Guanajuato, who were in the program of state trust fund ZUMAR-FIDEPO (Marginated urban areas-Trust fund for popular development. This program helps people who live in urban marginalized areas through the identification of their needs and problems, by means of community promoters. The Women institute of Guanajuato (IMUG, the United Nations for women fund (UNIFEM, and ZUMAR-FIDEPO were the institutions that were involved in the empowerment project in order to strengthen the process through the implementation of training workshops for the promoters training. In the study were included seven from twenty women who participate in the workshops, which remains in the state program making various activities such as: training in various activities, management of productive projects and they are community promoters. The analysis was carried out based on the speech of the promoters, what they say of themselves and the changes they detect in their identity taking into account the changes in self-esteem, in the auto-concept and the exercise of alternative forms to the authoritarian power.

  14. "BELTEK" Project for the Training and Employability of Women in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Erisen; Nadir, Celikoz; Mehmet, Sahin; Kurtkan, Kapicioglu M. Osman; Sait, Atas; Cemal, Akyol; Cagla, Girgin

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study based on BELTEK, which is a training organisation under Ankara metropolitan Municipality in Turkey. BELTEK is one of the initiatives aiming to train women and help to boost their employability. In this descriptive study, the goals, structure, training activities for the training and employability of women are put under…

  15. Circuit resistance training improved endothelial dysfunction in obese aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rosety

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is widely accepted that obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction. In a recent paper, we have also found circuit resistance training may reduce visceral fat in obese aged women. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to ascertain the effects of circuit resistance training on markers of endothelial dysfunction in this population group. Methods: In the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using an immunoassay (ELISA for endothelin-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Results: When compared to baseline, resistance training significantly reduced serum levels of endothelin-1 (2.28 ± 0.7 vs. 1.98 ± 1.1 pg/ml; p = 0.019; d = 0.67 and ICAM-1 (290 ± 69 vs. 255 ± 76 ng/ml; p = 0.004; d = 0.92 in the experimental group. No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. Conclusion: A short-term circuit resistance program improved endothelial dysfunction in aged obese women. Further studies on this topic are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.

  16. Training for empowerment : The impact of training for women participating in a microfinance intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, Marloes; Hansen, Nina; Lensink, Bernardus; Vu, Nhung

    2015-01-01

    Previous economic research on the impact of offering access to microfinance (micro loan and training) to women provided mixed results with respect to female empowerment. Based on social change literature we expected that inviting female borrowers together with their husbands may stimulate female emp

  17. Reach capacity in older women submitted to flexibility training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elciana de Paiva Lima Vieira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of flexibility training on the maximum range of motion levels and reach capacity of older women practitioners of aquatic exercises of the Prev-Quedas project. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention (IG, n = 25, which were submitted to flexibility training program and control (CG, n = 21, in which older women participated only in aquatic exercises. Flexibility training lasted three months with weekly frequency of two days, consisting of stretching exercises involving trunk and lower limbs performed after aquatic exercises. The stretching method used was passive static. Assessment consisted of the functional reach, lateral and goniometric tests. Statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Shapiro-Wilk normality, ANCOVA, Pearson and Spearman correlations. Significant results for GI in gains of maximum range of motion for the right hip joint (p = 0.0025, however, the same result was not observed in other joints assessed, and there was no improvement in functional and lateral reach capacity for both groups. Significant correlations between reach capacity and range of motion in the trunk, hip and ankle were not observed. Therefore, flexibility training associated with the practice of aquatic exercises promoted increased maximum range of motion only for the hip joint; however, improvement in the reach capacity was not observed. The practice of aquatic exercises alone did not show significant results.

  18. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Unilateral vs. Bilateral Strength Training in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Cíntia E; Radaelli, Regis; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Rech, Anderson; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei S

    2016-07-01

    Botton, CE, Radaelli, R, Wilhelm, EN, Rech, A, Brown, LE, and Pinto, RS. Neuromuscular adaptations to unilateral vs. bilateral strength training in women. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1924-1932, 2016-Considering the bilateral deficit, the sum of forces produced by each limb in a unilateral condition is generally greater than that produced by them in a bilateral condition. Therefore, it can be speculated that performing unilateral strength exercises may allow greater training workloads and subsequently greater neuromuscular adaptations when compared with bilateral training. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare neuromuscular adaptations with unilateral vs. bilateral training in the knee extensor muscles. Forty-three recreationally active young women were allocated to a control, unilateral (UG) or bilateral (BG) training group, which performed 2 times strength training sessions a week for 12 weeks. Knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), maximal isometric strength, muscle electrical activity, and muscle thickness were obtained before and after the study period. Muscle strength was measured in unilateral (right + left) and bilateral tests. Both UG and BG increased similarly their unilateral 1RM (33.3 ± 14.3% vs. 24.6 ± 11.9%, respectively), bilateral 1RM (20.3 ± 6.8% vs. 28.5 ± 12.3%, respectively), and isometric strength (14.7 ± 11.3% vs. 13.1 ± 12.5%, respectively). The UG demonstrated greater unilateral isometric strength increase than the BG (21.4 ± 10.5% vs. 10.3 ± 11.1%, respectively) and only the UG increased muscle electrical activity. Muscle thickness increased similarly for both training groups. Neither group exhibited pretesting 1RM bilateral deficit values, but at post-testing, UG showed a significant bilateral deficit (-6.5 ± 7.8%) whereas BG showed a significant bilateral facilitation (5.9 ± 9.0%). Thus, performing unilateral or bilateral exercises was not a decisive factor for improving morphological adaptations and bilateral

  19. A singing voices synthesis system to characterize vocal registers using ARX-LF model

    OpenAIRE

    Motoda, Hiroki; Akagi, Masato

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a singing voices synthesis system to synthesize singing voices having characteristics of vocal registers, such as vocal fly, modal and falsetto. Human can sing songs naturally in wide range of frequency by training how to use vocal fold vibrations to represent vocal registers. However, even state-of-the-art singing voices synthesis systems cannot produce vocal registers appropriately. Naturalness of the synthesized singing voices using these systems is reduced in low and h...

  20. Intervenção fonoaudiológica para consultores em um serviço de teleatendimento: bem-estar vocal Vocal intervention for telemarketing service consultants: vocal well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís de Campos Moreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar efeitos de um programa de bem-estar vocal aos consultores de um serviço de tele-atendimento para a saúde. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 27 consultores do Call Center VivaVoz que foram avaliados pré e pós-treinamento de voz por meio de análise perceptivo-auditiva da qualidade vocal, articulação, velocidade de fala, ressonância, intensidade e freqüência, por meio da emissão de vogais sustentadas e de fala encadeada com contagem de números de 1 à 20 e a emissão dos dias da semana. O registro de voz foi realizado em sistema digital e a escala japonesa GRBAS-I como instrumento de análise. Também foram realizadas a auto-avaliação vocal e o levantamento dos sintomas vocais. Atividades de voz foram divididas em cinco oficinas sobre saúde vocal, técnicas de aquecimento e desaquecimento, articulação e respiração. Análises descritivas e bivariadas foram realizadas, utilizando Teste T para amostras pareadas e Teste de McNemar. RESULTADOS: os resultados pré-intervenção são de que 50% das mulheres e 33% dos homens consultores apresentaram alterações em relação à respiração, 50% das consultoras com alterações na qualidade vocal e 33% dos homens dificuldades em relação à articulação. Após as oficinas, os resultados mostraram melhora da qualidade vocal, do padrão articulatório e da fluência de fala, bem como da satisfação vocal nos relatos dos consultores. CONCLUSÃO: observaram-se mudanças positivas na qualidade do atendimento à população, além da ampliação do conhecimento dos teleatendentes em relação ao uso correto da voz e manutenção do bem-estar vocal.PURPOSE: to determine effects of a program of vocal well-being for consultants of a call center for health. METHODS: the study involved 27 consultants of the Call Center VivaVoz who were assessed before and after voice training by analysis of perceptual voice quality, articulation, speech rate, resonance, intensity and frequency

  1. The Relationship between Perception of Vocal Effort and Relative Fundamental Frequency during Voicing Offset and Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.; Sawin, Devon E.; Eadie, Tanya L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine the relationship between relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and listener perception of vocal effort in individuals with varying degrees of vocal hyperfunction. Method: Thirty women diagnosed with voice disorders commonly associated with vocal hyperfunction and 10 healthy women provided…

  2. Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.

  3. Vocal Assessment Before, After, and the Day After Opera Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica; Evans, Joseph; Powitzky, Eric

    2016-03-01

    To explore aerodynamic, acoustic, and laryngeal changes surrounding opera performance. Prospective preperformance, postperformance, and day after performance. The laryngeal and vocal function of five male and five female classically trained singers was assessed immediately before, immediately after, and 1 day after an actual operatic performance. Phonatory threshold pressure was obtained. In addition, during a full-voice singing task, aerodynamic and acoustic measures included estimated subglottal pressure, airflow during voicing, laryngeal resistance, and sound pressure level (SPL). Expert listeners in the audience judged performers' voice quality at the beginning and the end of the performance. Laryngeal visualization was performed immediately before performance and the day after performance. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed allergy symptoms with no change in vocal fold edges for all men. Women were less impacted by allergies. For all singers, perceptual judgments of expert listeners in the audience corresponded well with laryngeal findings. The men whose voices were perceived to be balanced and strong across the performance demonstrated increased airflow and reduced laryngeal resistance after performance. The two women who did not sing in church the morning after the performance demonstrated increased airflow and reduced laryngeal resistance. The two men who did sing in church the morning after the performance demonstrated noticeably reduced SPL and increased laryngeal resistance the day after performance. It appears most useful to describe the complexity of vocal performance with a variety of acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual measures. The findings further suggest that vocal rest the day after performance may facilitate recovery. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance-trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penhollow Tina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that low-to-moderate dosages of caffeine supplementation are ergogenic for sustained endurance efforts as well as high-intensity exercise. The effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance are equivocal, with some studies indicating a benefit and others demonstrating no change in performance. The majority of research that has examined the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance has been carried out in both trained and untrained men. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of caffeine supplementation on strength and muscular endurance in resistance-trained women. Methods In a randomized manner, 15 women consumed caffeine (6 mg/kg or placebo (PL seven days apart. Sixty min following supplementation, participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM barbell bench press test and repetitions to failure at 60% of 1RM. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed at rest, 60 minutes post-consumption, and immediately following completion of repetitions to failure. Results Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significantly greater bench press maximum with caffeine (p ≤ 0.05 (52.9 ± 11.1 kg vs. 52.1 ± 11.7 kg with no significant differences between conditions in 60% 1RM repetitions (p = 0.81. Systolic blood pressure was significantly greater post-exercise, with caffeine (p Conclusions These findings indicate a moderate dose of caffeine may be sufficient for enhancing strength performance in resistance-trained women.

  5. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  6. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  7. Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahil Rojiani; Juan F. Santoyo; Hadley Rahrig; Harold D. Roth; Willoughby B. Britton

    2017-01-01

    ...—despite the fact that men and women differ in clinically significant ways. The current study investigated whether college-based meditation training had different effects on negative affect for men and women.Methods...

  8. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  9. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R.N.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in

  10. Women, environmental management and sustainable development: multi-media training package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajic, B

    1997-01-01

    The Women, Environmental Management and Sustainable Development training package is a major part of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women¿s programs on women and sustainable development. This training package highlights an integrated approach in the organization and management of environmental policies and programs integrating the needs of women and their participation in planning, management, implementation and evaluation of environmental programs and projects. With 400 pages of text, 170 transparencies, trainer's guide, bibliography, and audiovisual support material, this package provides an overall presentation of existing problems, solutions, and policies. The training package is designed for 1) senior officials of Ministries of Environment, Natural Resources, Planning, Women's Affairs, Education, and Health; 2) development planners and provincial or local authorities in charge of environmental programs and projects; 3) engineers in charge of designing technologies for environmental projects; 4) university professors, trainers and managers of national training institutes and educational institutions, training staff on women, environmental management and sustainable development; and 5) representatives of nongovernmental organizations involved in environmental projects. The five modular units of the training package include: Introduction--Agenda 21; Module 1--Women and Environmental Health; Module 2--Women as Agents of Change in the Developmental Sector; Module 3--Women as Managers of the Environment; Module 4--Women, Environmental Indicators and Capacity Building Programs. The training package has undergone evaluation for content accuracy comprehensiveness, sequence and relationship of ideas within context, technical quality and media compatibility.

  11. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear...

  12. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  13. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  14. An Investigation of the Intensity of Work Required to Elicit a Training Effect in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentswieg, Joel; Burrhus, Paulette

    Thirty volunteer college women are randomly assigned to different work intensities to determine the threshold of cardiovascular training for young, untrained women. A Quinton 607 Heartrate Controller maintined the specified work intensity on a treadmill. Training consisted of 15 minutes of work, three times per week for one month. Workload was…

  15. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21...

  16. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  17. Effect of Strength Training on Rate of Force Development in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjao, Andre Luiz Demantova; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Carneiro, Nelson Hilario; Goncalves, Raquel; Ferreira de Moura, Rodrigo; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of an 8-week strength training (ST) program on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromyographic activity (EMG) in older women. Seventeen women (M age = 63.4 years, SD = 4.9) without previous ST experience were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 10) group. A leg-press isometric test was…

  18. Running sprint interval training induces fat loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Hamilton, Craig D; Olver, T Dylan; Lemon, Peter W R

    2014-08-01

    Data on whether sprint interval training (SIT) (repeated supermaximal intensity, short-duration exercise) affects body composition are limited, and the data that are available suggest that men respond more favourably than do women. Moreover, most SIT data involve cycling exercise, and running may differ because of the larger muscle mass involved. Further, running is a more universal exercise type. This study assessed whether running SIT can alter body composition (air displacement plethysmography), waist circumference, maximal oxygen consumption, peak running speed, and (or) the blood lipid profile. Fifteen recreationally active women (age, 22.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 163.9 ± 5.1 cm; mass, 60.8 ± 5.2 kg) completed 6 weeks of running SIT (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min of rest performed 3 times per week). Training decreased body fat mass by 8.0% (15.1 ± 3.6 to 13.9 ± 3.4 kg, P = 0.002) and waist circumference by 3.5% (80.1 ± 4.2 to 77.3 ± 4.4 cm, P = 0.048), whereas it increased fat-free mass by 1.3% (45.7 ± 3.5 to 46.3 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.05), maximal oxygen consumption by 8.7% (46 ± 5 to 50 ± 6 mL/(kg·min), P = 0.004), and peak running speed by 4.8% (16.6 ± 1.7 to 17.4 ± 1.4 km/h, P = 0.026). There were no differences in food intake assessed by 3-day food records (P > 0.329) or in blood lipids (P > 0.595), except for a slight decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentration (1.34 ± 0.28 to 1.24 ± 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.034). Running SIT is a time-efficient strategy for decreasing body fat while increasing aerobic capacity, peak running speed, and fat-free mass in healthy young women.

  19. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture......-validated training and test setup. The database is divided in two different ways: with/without artist overlap between training and test sets, so as to study the so called ‘artist effect’. The performance and results are analyzed in depth: from error rates to sample-to-sample error correlation. A voting scheme...

  20. Facilitating Successful Re-Entries in the United States: Training and Development for Women Returners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tomika W.

    2013-01-01

    Women returners are women who leave the paid workforce for a period of time following the birth of their child(ren) and subsequently seek to return to paid employment. As women returners attempt to re-enter the workforce, many of them are in need of updating their skills or re-training in a new set of skills. In this study, the training and…

  1. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A;

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...... in the two subjects receiving rhGH. In conclusion, rhGH adds to the effects of endurance training on muscle oxidative enzymes and causes a reduction in body fat in elderly women....

  2. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  3. The Impact of Training on Women's Micro-Enterprise Development. Education Research Paper. Knowledge & Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Fiona; Abdulla, Salwa; Appleton, Helen; el-Bushra, Judy; Cardenas, Nora; Kebede, Kibre; Lewis, Viv; Sitaram, Shashikala

    A study investigated the impact of training on women's micro-enterprise development in four programs in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Sudan. Research design was a series of case studies of projects and programs providing training in technical or business skills. Impact of training was measured against these four indicators: income, access to and…

  4. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie M; Taryn M. Hand; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Kathleen J. Austin; Alexander, Brenda M.; Melinda M. Manore

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity ...

  5. Kenyan women medical doctors and their motivations to pursue international research training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Farquhar, Carey

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to understand the factors that influence African women medical doctors to pursue international health research training because they remain under-represented in research fields but increasingly represented in medicine. We conducted a program study with Kenyan women (N = 12) who participated in a US funded AIDS International Training and Research Program implemented by the University of Washington. Interviews were conducted to understand their clinical research career motivations and training pathways into global health research. The transcripts were analyzed for themes using predefined code areas. The findings outline entry into research, professional and career balance motivations, and two stages of a career path into research. Kenyan women medical clinical researchers shared similar motivations as US women but differed as well. Kenyan medical doctors pursued health research within a context of limited resources, but the ability to balance work and family while contributing to public health through research and leadership was highly valued. International training programs can effectively engage women in research training by developing women's health research areas, supportive family policies, and aligning program design with local training to develop career pathways for women.

  6. Different responses of skeletal muscle following sprint training in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson Liljedahl, M; Holm, I; Sylvén, C; Jansson, E

    1996-01-01

    Six male and ten female physically active students performed 30-s sprint training on a cycle ergometer three times a week for 4 weeks, to investigate the training responses of skeletal muscle and to evaluate possible sex differences in this respect. Three repeated sprint tests with a 20-min rest in between were performed and muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after the training period. Mean power (average of sprint I-III) and type IIB cross-sectional fibre area increased only in the women (7% and 25% respectively) following sprint training, resulting in a decreased sex difference. There was an increase in total lactate dehydrogenase (LD) activity following sprint training in both sexes, although the levels were lower in the women both before and after training. Glycogen content increased and the activity of LD iso-enzyme 1 decreased in the women, but not in men. It was hypothesised that both the smaller areas of type II fibres and lower activity of LD generally seen in women may be due in part to less frequent activation of type II fibres in women than in men. If this were the case, the women should respond to sprint training (a type of training that activates type II fibres) to a relatively greater extent than men. That the observed increase in type IIB fibre area in response to sprint training was greater in the women than in men supported the hypothesis of the study. However, the results for LD activity, which showed a similar response in the men and the women, did not support the hypothesis.

  7. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  8. Singers' Vocal Function Knowledge Levels, Sensorimotor Self-awareness of Vocal Tract, and Impact of Functional Voice Rehabilitation on the Vocal Function Knowledge and Self-awareness of Vocal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vocal function knowledge and vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness and the impact of functional voice rehabilitation on vocal function knowledge and self-awareness. This is a prospective, randomized study. Twenty singers (study group [SG]) completed a questionnaire before and after functional voice rehabilitation. Twenty additional singers, representing the control group, also completed the questionnaire without functional voice rehabilitation at a 3-month interval. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part evaluated the singers' attitude to the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the vocal tract and their self-esteem of the knowledge level. The second part assessed the theoretical knowledge of the singers' vocal tract physiology. The third part of the questionnaire assessed singers' sensorimotor self-awareness of the vocal tract. The results showed that most singers indicated that knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology is useful (59% SG, 67% control group). However, 75% of all participants defined their knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology as weak or inadequate. In the SG, vocal function knowledge at the first assessment was 45%. After rehabilitation, the level increased to 67.7%. Vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness initially was 38.9% in SG but rose to 66.7%. Findings of the study suggest that classical singers lack knowledge about the physiology of the vocal mechanism, especially the breathing patterns. In addition, they have low sensorimotor self-awareness of their vocal tract. The results suggest that singers would benefit from receiving services from phoniatrists and speech-language pathologists during their voice training. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  10. Greater Oxidative Capacity in Primary Myotubes from Endurance-trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Ryan, Terence E; Ferrara, Patrick J; Hickner, Robert C; Brophy, Patricia M; Neufer, P Darrell; McClung, Joseph M; Funai, Katsuhiko

    2017-06-14

    Exercise training promotes skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and an increase in maximal oxygen consumption. Primary myotubes retain some metabolic properties observed in vivo but it is unknown whether this includes exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. The goal of this study was to test if primary myotubes from exercise-trained women have higher mitochondrial content and maximal oxygen consumption compared to untrained women. Six trained and nine untrained Caucasian women participated in this study. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle of the right leg were obtained and primary muscle cells were isolated. Maximal respiration rates, mitochondrial mRNA and protein content, and succinate dehydrogenase activity were measured in skeletal muscle and primary myotubes from trained and untrained women. Trained women, compared to untrained women, had higher maximal whole-body oxygen consumption (+18%, P = 0.03), in vivo maximal skeletal muscle oxidative capacity measured with near infrared spectroscopy (+48%, P < 0.01), and maximal oxygen consumption in permeabilized muscle fibers (+38%, P = 0.02), which coincided with higher protein levels of muscle mitochondrial enzymes. Primary myotubes from trained women had higher maximal oxygen consumption (+38%, P = 0.03) suggesting that some elements of exercise-induced metabolic programming persists ex vivo. Consistent with this idea, myotubes from trained women had higher mRNA levels of transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis in addition to higher protein levels of mitochondrial enzymes. These data suggest the existence of an "exercise metabolic program", where primary myotubes isolated from exercise-trained individuals exhibit greater mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity compared to untrained individuals. These myotubes may be a useful model to study molecular mechanisms relevant to exercise adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

  11. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    .1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20...... turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.......PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14...

  12. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    vocal behavior of popular singers, according to gender and professional and amateur categories. METHOD: interview with 47 singers, 25 men and 22 women. RESULTS: there were statistical significance differences in the following findings: MALE - microphone during rehearsal, absence of diagnosed voice problems, lack of assistance on vocal hygiene, pain or discomfort after singing, but no allergies or respiratory problems; FEMALES - singing lessons and awareness of posture; AMATEUR - no dancing while singing, no imitating voices, lack of otolaryngological evaluation (ENT, no diagnosed vocal problems, lack of speech-language therapy, absence of guidelines on vocal anatomy/physiology and without alcohol consumption during the rehearsals; PROFESSIONAL- hoarseness, knowledge about articulation, alcohol consumption during performance, excess throat clearing, pain after singing. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between genders showed male singers were using microphone in rehearsals, did not have respiratory or allergic problems, nor voice problems were diagnosed, but they had pain sensation or discomfort after singing and did not have vocal hygiene, and female singers had singing lessons and followed posture guidelines. The comparison between amateurs and professionals showed that amateur singers did not dance while singing, did not imitate voices, did not consume alcohol during rehearsals, and did not have diagnosed voice problems, but they did not have ENT evaluation, nor did they engage in speech-language therapy, and had no awareness of vocal anatomy/physiology; and the professional singers complained of hoarseness, excess throat clearing and pain after singing, and they consumed alcohol during singing, despite having knowledge about articulation.

  13. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  14. Leadership Characteristics and Training Needs of Women and Men in Charge of Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Marita; López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results obtained by two consecutive enquiries into the leadership styles and training needs of women and men leading higher education organisations. It compares the findings of the first stage of two studies, based on ad hoc questionnaires responded to by 136 women and 129 men. Results showed only subtle differences…

  15. The Effect of the Family Training Program on Married Women's Couple-Burnout Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Hatice Deveci; Deniz, M. Engin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of Modules 2 and 3 of the Family Communication Section of the Family Training Program as prepared by the Ministry of Family and Social Policies on married women's couple-burnout levels. The study group consists of 40 married women in total: 20 constituting the experimental group and the remaining 20…

  16. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  17. Vocational Training for Liushou Women in Rural China: Development by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongxia; Liu, Zhiwen; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    As industrialisation and urbanisation aggressively take hold in China, all possible labour pools are being tapped to meet the market demands. Liushou women, or women who stay behind in rural areas as their spouses join the massive migrant workforce, are one such labour pool. Vocational training has been adopted by the Chinese state as a…

  18. A Brief Discussion on the Insistence and Variation of Tone Making during Vocal Training%浅谈声乐教学训练中音色塑造的坚守与变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2013-01-01

    音色的塑造一直是声乐教学过程中的主要任务。本文重点讨论了在音色塑造过程中应当坚守什么与应当变化什么两个方面,结合教学实践经验总结,强调了呼吸支持能力、声带闭合能力、高位置控制能力以及作品风格变化的适应能力的作用。%Tone making is always the primary task in the process of vocal training. This essay centrally discusses what should be insisted on and what should be altered in the process of tone making. Combined with the summarization of teaching practice and experience, this paper highlights the capabilities including the breathing support, vocal chord resistance, high pitch control-ling and the adjustment of the works styles, etc.

  19. Creating Opportunities: Good Practice in Small Business Training for Australian Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Wood, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    To overcome barriers to participation in small business training faced by rural Australian women, training needs and delivery issues were identified and a good practice matrix was developed with the following components: marketing, content, delivery, support, impact, and innovation. Underlying principles included unique needs, diversity, use of…

  20. The Culture of Femininity in Women's Teaching Training Colleges, 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Compares the experience of 3 women's training colleges in Great Britain during the first half of the 20th century. Concludes that the training college culture, with its combination of individual enrichment and collective stagnation, is important to the history feminism. (CFR)

  1. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R.N.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-N

  2. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  3. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  4. 嗓音训练治疗声带小结的疗效观察%The Effects of Voice Training Therapy on Dysphonia in Patients with Vocal Nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 葛平江; 彭莉佳; 盛晓丽; 许咪咪; 任庆宜; 陈少华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨嗓音训练对声带小结患者发声障碍的治疗效果。方法对21例声带小结患者进行嗓音训练,包括嗓音教育和发声训练,根据“呼吸-发声-共鸣”平衡原理,采用喉部按摩、无声练习及发大开口咽音的训练方法,每周训练一次,每次1~2小时,共5次。训练前后对患者进行嗓音障碍指数量表(VHI)评估、GRBAS评估、动态喉镜检查、空气动力学检测、计算机嗓音声学分析,比较治疗前后评估结果。结果21例患者治疗后VHI评分总分(29.48±21.21分)明显低于治疗前(52.95±24.30分)(P<0.01);GRBAS评分中总嘶哑度G(0.67±0.76)明显低于训练前(1.88±1.05)(P<0.01),粗糙声R(0.52±0.58)明显低于训练前(1.36±0.55)(P<0.01);治疗后动态喉镜检查患者声带闭合、运动的对称性、粘膜波、振动规律性均改善(P<0.01);3例患者声带小结完全消失,13例患者声带小结缩小,5例与治疗前比较无明显变化;最长发声时间也由治疗前的8.87±3.75秒变为治疗后的12.54±3.68秒( P<0.01);治疗后嗓音的频率微扰、振幅微扰、噪谐比(分别为0.18%±0.08%、2.10%±0.98%、0.0034±0.0022 dB )均明显低于治疗前(分别为0.43%±0.31%、4.55%±1.80%、0.0184±0.028 dB )( P<0.01或0.05)。结论嗓音训练对声带小结患者发声障碍有良好的治疗效果。%Objective To investigate the effect of voice training therapy on the voice improvement in patients with vocal nodules .Methods Twenty one patients with vocal nodules were recruited and were evaluated by the GRBAS perpetual evaluation ,voice handicap index (VHI)-30 subjective assessment ,vocal laryngostroboscopy , maximum phonation time (MPT) and acoustic analysis pre- and post-therapy .These patients completed 5 cour‐ses of voice

  5. Analysis of Dehydration in the Different Stages of Women Training: Wrestling vs. Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Calvo Rico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing variables concerning body composition and strength affected by dehydration methods used to reach the competition weight in sportswomen (19 women. This study took into account two combat sports (wrestling sample: 11 women and judo sample: 8 women in three different training stages: base, specific and pre-competitive. The assessment tools applied to body composition sizes and strength variables were Inbody 230 and Isocontro 5.0, respectively. Results showed that both wrestling training and judo training in specific and pre-competitive stages were done under water scarcity. Then, the most affected strength variables were: maximum strength and the body composition ones were: weight, percentage of water and body fat. Thus, this research proposed to set some regulations to be applied in reasoned weight loss depending on training goals in order to avoid a disservice to each stage, competition and sportswomen health.

  6. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kenderas for the empowerment of rural women through vocational trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabasum Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the role of Krishi Vigyan Kenderas for the empowerment of rural women in Kashmir valley in the year 2010-12. A sample of 400 rural women out of 800 covered under different vocational training courses of Kvks was selected by random sampling method for data collection. A structured interview schedule was prepared and was pretested on 10 percent of the respondents before final use. The study revealed that majority of the respondents (46.75% became independent, (30.5% respondents had reduced their dependency and a small number of respondents (22.75% did not feel any change in their dependency. The findings revealed that majority of the, respondents developed their leadership qualities, can make self assessment, got economic freedom, developed their psychological confidence and became able to take decisions. Thus vocational trainings given through kvks plays a positive role for the empowerment of rural women who have undergone through trainings and adopted the recommendations of the given practices. The findings of the study also revealed that majority of the women respondents had increased their psychological confidence and decreased their sub-ordination and cent percent of the women respondents agreed that vocational trainings given by Krihi Vigyan Kenderas provided an opportunity for women to enhance their economy and improve the socio economic status of rural women. More than half of the respondents revealed that they earn profit by adopting these skills and have increased their income and became socially, economically and psychologically empowered. The training of cutting and tailoring, knitting, fruit and vegetable preservation and tilla work has increased the economic status of trainees and also of their families. The positive change in their living status was also visible. Hence training programmes organized by KVKs especially for rural women for their empowerment plays a positive role.

  7. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva W; Petersen, Liljan F; Lindenskov, Annika; Weihe, Pál; Mortensen, Jann; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (± SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20). The training groups completed three sessions per week for 15 weeks. DXA scans were performed and resting blood samples were drawn pre- and post-intervention. In SOC, plasma osteocalcin, procollagen type I N propeptide and C-terminal telopeptide increased (P training with sedentary middle-aged women caused marked increases in bone turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.

  8. Dicussion on the Vocal Music Teaching of Solfeggio and Ear Training of Students on the High School Music College Entrance Examination%浅谈高中音乐高考生视唱练耳的声乐教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸金飞

    2014-01-01

    阐述了视唱练耳在高中音乐高考生声乐教学中的重要性,分析了国内视唱练耳教学的现状,并探讨了视唱练耳教学应坚持的原则,从而为获得良好的视唱练耳教学效果提供一些可行的思路。%It expounds the importance of Solfeggio and ear training in high school music students in vocal music teaching, analyzed current domestic solfeggio teaching, and discusses the principle that the Solfeggio teaching should adhere to , to provide some workable ideas in order to obtain a good effect of solfeggio teaching.

  9. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  10. Effects of phototherapy plus physical training on metabolic profile and quality of life in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2017-10-01

    A cluster of metabolic abnormalities are markedly higher among postmenopausal women. The present study evaluated the effects of infrared light emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on multiple metabolic markers, body fat, dietary habits and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Forty-five postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups, and of these, 30 women successfully completed the full study. The three groups were as follows: (i) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (ii) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (iii) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of six months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), which was obtained during a progressive exercise testing. The average HR and velocity during treadmill training were 144 ± 9 bpm and 5.8 ± 1.3 km/h for both trained groups. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Anthropometric data, skinfolds thickness, biochemical exams (lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels), dietary habits and quality of life were evaluated. The sum of skinfolds significantly improved in the exercise and sedentary groups (p Physical training with or without phototherapy may improve the metabolic profile. In addition, phototherapy together with treadmill training prevented an increase in subcutaneous fat and facilitated an improved quality of life in postmenopausal women.

  11. Influence of moderately intense strength training on flexibility in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto; Dias, Ingrid; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson; Leite, Thalita; Blair, Jeff C; Bunker, Derek J

    2010-11-01

    The present study is the first to examine whether moderately intense resistance training improves flexibility in an exclusively young, sedentary women population. Twenty-four, young, sedentary women were divided into 3 groups as follows: agonist/antagonist (AA) training group, alternated strength training (AST) group, or a control group (CG). Training occurred every other day for 8 weeks for a total of 24 sessions. Training groups performed 3 sets of 10 to 12 repetitions per set except for abdominal training where 3 sets of 15 to 20 reps were performed. Strength (1 repetition maximum bench press) and flexibility were assessed before and after the training period. Flexibility was assessed on 6 articular movements: shoulder flexion and extension, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, and trunk flexion and extension. Both groups increased strength and flexibility significantly from baseline and significantly when compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.05). The AST group increased strength and flexibility significantly more than the AA group (p ≤ 0.05) in all but one measurement. This study shows that resistance training can improve flexibility in young sedentary women in 8 weeks.

  12. Characteristics of the Respiratory Muscle Strength of Women and Men at Different Training Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klusiewicz Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of the study was to determine the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax of highly trained male and female athletes competing in endurance sports and of non-training students of both sexes. Analysis was conducted of the dependence of PImax levels on somatic indices and training experience. The reproducibility of the method for measuring PImax index was determined. Material and methods. The study examined a total of 234 training and non-training individuals (78 women and 156 men. The test subjects were measured for PImax, as well as inspiratory time, active time, passive time and diaphragm relaxation time. A group of 59 women and men (training and non-training were tested a second time within 5-7 days of the first test to determine the reproducibility of the PImax measurements. Results and conclusion. The measurements were found to be highly reproducible (between the first and second tests no statistically significant differences were found, all spirometric indices included in the study were shown to demonstrate a significant correlation, and total error for all of the analyzed indexes was between 11.1 and 24.3%. Reference ranges for PImax were determined for women and men at different training levels. PImax was shown to have a positive dependence on somatic indices characterizing male and female body mass.

  13. Endurance training and GH administration in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F

    2001-01-01

    adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; (133)Xe washout). Whole body fat oxidation was estimated simultaneously by indirect calorimetry. Before and after completion of the training program, measurements were performed both at rest and during 60 min of continuous cycling at a workload corresponding to 60...... and after completion of the training program. Similarly, no effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was observed when combining endurance training with rhGH administration. However, in both the placebo and the GH groups, fat oxidation was significantly increased during exercise performed...

  14. The relationship between pitch discrimination and vocal production: comparison of vocal and instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2009-01-01

    Auditory pitch discrimination and vocal pitch accuracy are fundamental abilities and essential skills of a professional singer; yet, the relationship between these abilities, particularly in trained vocal musicians, has not been the subject of much research. Difference limens for frequency (DLFs) and pitch production accuracy (PPA) were examined among 20 vocalists, 21 instrumentalists, and 21 nonmusicians. All were right-handed young adult females with normal hearing. Stimuli were harmonic tone complexes simulating piano tones and represented the mid-frequency of the untrained female vocal range, F0=261.63-392 Hz (C4-G4). DLFs were obtained by an adaptive psychophysical paradigm. Vocal pitch recordings were analyzed to determine PPA. Musicians demonstrated superior pitch discrimination and production accuracy compared to nonmusicians. These abilities did not distinguish instrumentalists and vocalists. DLF and PPA were significantly correlated with each other only for musicians with instrumental training; however, PPA was most consistent with minimal variance for vocalists. It would appear that a relationship between DLF and PPA develops with musical training, and these abilities can be differentially influenced by the type of specialty training.

  15. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  16. A HMM-Based Method for Vocal Fold Pathology Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majidnezhad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic analysis is a proper method in vocal fold pathology diagnosis so that it can complement and in some cases replace the other invasive, based on direct vocal fold observations methods. There are different approaches for vocal fold pathology diagnosis. This paper presents a method based on hidden markov model which classifies speeches into two classes: the normal and the pathological. Two hidden markov models are trained based on these two classes of speech and then the trained models are used to classify the dataset. The proposed method is able to classify the speeches with an accuracy of 93.75%. The results of this algorithm provide insights that can help biologists and computer scientists design high-performance system for detection of vocal fold pathology diagnosis.

  17. Improvement of systolic and diastolic heart function after physical training in sedentary women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Juul; Hansen, P R; Søgaard, P

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiac effects of football training and running for inactive pre-menopausal women by standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to two training groups (football: FG; n=19; running; RG; n=18) training 1 h with equal...... average heart rates twice a week for 16 weeks and compared with a matched inactive control group (CG; n=10). During the training period, left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased by 13% in FG and 11% in RG (P....0+/-1.3 mm (Ptraining groups. Peak systolic velocity increased by 26% in FG and 17% in RG (P

  18. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse.

  19. Justification for experimental methods for circuit training aerobics classes first mature age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop and validate a methodology for circuit training aerobics. Methodology focused on improving physical health first mature age women. Material : a study was conducted with 81 women (age 21 - 35 years. Results : justified the means and methods of circuit training, the duration of the structural components, the rational parameters of physical activity, pulse modes. Depending on the physical health of women developed a set of circuit training for the main part of the session. Complex circuit training consists of 2 series, active rest interval between 3 minutes. Duration of employment in one series of 23 minutes. Exercises are performed at 5 locations: 3 - aerobic (3x5 min, 2 - power (2x4 min. The total duration of training - 49 minutes. The intensity of the training load is regulated by the level of physical health and the maximum test results. Conclusions : The positive changes morphofunctional indicators show an increase in the body's bioenergy and women transition to a higher level of physical health.

  20. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  1. Melatonin Supplementation Decreases Aerobic Exercise Training Induced-Lipid Peroxidation and Malondialdehyde in Sedentary Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaadini Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Five percent of consumed oxygen produces a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS including free radicals and other chemical products such as malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA increases lipid peroxidation such as low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-c. Melatonin can decrease MDA and lipid peroxidation, but there are limited data about melatonin supplementation on MDA and lipid peroxidation of women. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin supplementation on exercise-induced MDA and lipid peroxidation of sedentary young women. Twenty sedentary young (20–25 years old women were selected and randomly divided into two exercise training-supplement (n=10 and exercise training (n=10 groups. Pretest/posttest body mass, BMI, rest heart rate (RHR, body fat percent, menstrual cycle, blood sampling for MDA and lipid profile were collected. Aerobic exercise training was performed for 8 weeks, triple weekly. Melatonin supplementation was ingested at 3 mg/day for exercise training-supplement. Results showed that the long term exercise training increased MDA concentrations, and melatonin supplementation significantly suppressed MDA surge (−25.2±2.87; 95% CI=−30.91 to −19.49. Moreover, post-exercise training LDL-c levels significantly declined due to melatonin supplementation in sedentary young women (19.5±2.41; 95% CI=12.272 to 25.728. We concluded that 3 mg melatonin supplementation following aerobic exercise training would attenuate ROS and improve lipid profile of young sedentary women.

  2. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Esmarck, B; Kadi, F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men...... and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross......-sections with a monoclonal antibody against neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and counterstaining with Mayer's hematoxylin. Compared with the pre-training values, there was a significant increase (Pcells per fiber post-training in males (from 0.11+/-0.03 to 0...

  3. Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after...

  4. Effect of periodized water exercise training program on functional autonomy in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Yesica Ochoa Martínez; Javier Arturo Hall López; Alberto Paredones Hernández; Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scientific evidence have been related negative functional autonomy to sedentary lifestyle in elderly women by other hand physical exercise is highly recommended to prevent deterioration of neuromuscular functions and proposed during the rehabilitation of physical disability and fall accidents. Aim: To determine the effect of periodized water exercise training on functional autonomy in elderly women. Methods: Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned in two, water exercise interve...

  5. Effects of Functional Training Program in Core Muscles in Women with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of a program of functional muscles core training targeting women with fibromyalgia. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental type trial was conducted, before and after an intervention, for 20 days, often three days/week, 60 minutes each session. In a single-group of eight women, changes in muscle strength, pain, quality of life related to health and physical activity were evaluated. Results: An increase in repetitions of the test trunk flexio...

  6. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chiun-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  7. Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Rojiani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While recent literature has shown that mindfulness training has positive effects on treating anxiety and depression, there has been virtually no research investigating whether effects differ across genders—despite the fact that men and women differ in clinically significant ways. The current study investigated whether college-based meditation training had different effects on negative affect for men and women.Methods: Seventy-seven university students (36 women, age = 20.7 ± 3.0 years participated in 12-week courses with meditation training components. They completed self-report questionnaires of affect, mindfulness, and self-compassion before and after the course.Results: Compared to men, women showed greater decreases in negative affect and greater increases on scales measuring mindfulness and self-compassion. Women’s improvements in negative affect were correlated to improvements in measures of both mindfulness skills and self-compassion. In contrast, men showed non-significant increases in negative affect, and changes in affect were only correlated with ability to describe emotions, not any measures of experiential or self-acceptance.Conclusion: These findings suggest that women may have more favorable responses than men to school-based mindfulness training, and that the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions may be maximized by gender-specific modifications.

  8. A Training Class for Women Cadres on the Nairobi Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DURING the last five days of October 1993, the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) held a training course to realize the goals of the document,"Future Strategies for Women’s Advancement Through the Year 2000." (The document is referred to as the "Nairobi Strategies" in the story.) The

  9. Perceptual Changes in Response to Two Regimens of Interval Training in Sedentary Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Stirling, Douglas; McMillan, David W; Gallant, Rachael; Dewoskin, Ruthie

    2016-04-01

    This study examined acute and chronic changes in perceptual measures (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], affect, and arousal) in response to 2 regimens of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Twenty-three healthy sedentary women (mean ± SD age and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max = 23.0 ± 5.7 years and 30.1 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min, respectively) were randomized to complete 12 weeks of one of 2 HIIT regimes, whereas an additional 7 women served as sedentary controls. Training was performed 3 days per week on a cycle ergometer and consisted of up to ten 1-minute bouts at moderate (60-80%Wmax = moderate intensity [MOD]) or more intense (80-90%Wmax = HI) workloads separated by active recovery. At baseline and every 3 weeks, RPE, affect, and arousal were measured during training using validated scales. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine acute and chronic changes in these variables to HIIT. Data revealed significant (p Training led to a significant reduction in RPE, whereas both affect and arousal were unchanged (p > 0.05) after HIIT. Completion of moderate or more intense interval training reduces perceptions of RPE during training yet does not alter arousal or affect. RPE was reduced via training, yet large dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIIT may minimize training-induced changes in affect.

  10. Postprandial lipemia in young men and women of contrasting training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, S L; Lawrence, J E; Malkova, D; Murphy, M H; Mastana, S; Hardman, A E

    2000-11-01

    This study compared the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response to a high-fat meal in trained and untrained normolipidemic young adults after 2 days' abstinence from exercise. Fifty-three subjects (11 endurance-trained men, 9 endurance-trained women, 10 sprint/strength-trained men, 11 untrained men, 11 untrained women) consumed a meal (1.2 g fat, 1.1 g carbohydrate, 66 kJ per kg body mass) after a 12-h fast. Venous blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and at intervals until 6 h. Postprandial responses were the areas under the plasma or serum concentration-vs.-time curves. Neither fasting TAG concentrations nor the postprandial TAG response differed between trained and untrained subjects. The insulinemic response was 29% lower in endurance-trained men than in untrained men [mean difference -37.4 (95% confidence interval -62.9 to -22.9) microIU/ml x h, P = 0.01]. Responses of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma nonesterified fatty acids were all lower for endurance-trained men than for untrained men. These findings suggest that, in young adults, no effect of training on postprandial lipemia can be detected after 60 h without exercise. The effect on postprandial insulinemia may persist for longer.

  11. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  12. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... of the vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent...

  13. Exercise training improves hemodynamic recovery to isometric exercise in obese men with type 2 diabetes but not in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Franklin, Ruth; Baynard, Tracy; Carhart, Robert L; Weinstock, Ruth S; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-12-01

    Women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) show greater rates of mortality due to ischemic heart disease than men with T2D. We aimed to examine cardiovascular and autonomic function responses to isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise between men and women with T2D, before and after an exercise training program. Hemodynamic responses were measured in 22 men and women with T2D during and following a 3-min IHG test, and before and after 16 wks of aerobic exercise training. Women had a smaller decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (BP) during recovery from IHG (ΔMAP(REC)) than men pre- and post-training (Pexercise training improved this response in men but not in women (men, pre-training: -13.9±1.8, post-training: -20.5±5.3 mmHg vs. women, pre-training: -10.7±1.7, post-training: -4.1±4.9 mmHg; Pexercise training in obese men, but not in obese women with T2D which reflects a better adaptive autonomic response to exercise training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of upper body strength gains between men and women after 10 weeks of resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gentil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training (RT offers benefits to both men and women. However, the studies about the differences between men and women in response to an RT program are not conclusive and few data are available about upper body strength response. The aim of this study was to compare elbow flexor strength gains in men and women after 10 weeks of RT. Forty-four college-aged men (22.63 ± 2.34 years and forty-seven college-aged women (21.62 ± 2.96 years participated in the study. The RT program was performed two days a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training period, peak torque (PT of the elbow flexors was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. PT values were higher in men in comparison to women in pre- and post-tests (p 0.05. Effect sizes were 0.57 and 0.56 for men and women, respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggests that men and women have a similar upper body strength response to RT.

  15. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  16. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  17. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...... endurance training on a cycle ergometer over 12 wk. rhGH was given in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. GH administration resulted in a doubling of serum insulin-like growth factor I levels. With endurance training, peak oxygen uptake increased...... by approximately 18% in both groups, whereas the marked increase in muscle citrate synthase activity was 50% larger in the GH group compared with the placebo group. In addition, only the GH group revealed an increase in muscle L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Body weight remained unchanged in both...

  18. Using Implicit Bias Training to Improve Attitudes toward Women in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah M.; Hillard, Amy L.; Schneider, Tamera R.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit biases can foster negative attitudes and lead to damaging stereotypical behaviors. Stereotypes can negatively affect the education, hiring, promotion, and retention of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This study evaluated the impact of diversity training on university faculty (N=234) by assessing changes…

  19. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  20. Effectiveness of Training Model Capacity Building for Entrepreneurship Women Based Empowerment Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idawati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a training model for capacity building of women entrepreneurship community-based. Research type approach Research and Development Model, which refers to the model of development research that developed by Romiszowki (1996) combined with a model of development Sugiono (2011) it was…

  1. Vocational Training for Women "Returners": One Half of the Sky Can Be Interesting to the Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magazine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties facing women who are trying to return to the labor market and who are in need of training. Suggests that age, sex, personal circumstances, and existing qualification profiles do not determine once and for all what a person can and may do. (JOW)

  2. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  3. Effects of strength training on blood lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strength training is often identified as a contributing factor in prevention of diseases and as a non-pharmacological treatment for metabolic disorders and for control of body mass. Its protective effects and utility for management of disease are amplified in people at risk of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Recently the benefits of strength training have been used to reduce the risk of these diseases emerging in postmenopausal women, who are at greater risk of CVD than men of the same age. Notwithstanding, little is known about the effects of strength training on metabolism of blood lipoproteins. The objective of this review was to compare the results of articles that have investigated the effects on lipoprotein concentrations of strength training in postmenopausal women. Current articles dealing with the subject, with publication dates from 1979 to 2012 and large numbers of citations by well-known researchers were identified on the Pubmed, Scopus and EBSCO databases. It was concluded that strength training possibly has an action that affects lipoprotein metabolism and concentrations in postmenopausal women.

  4. [Metabolic response to high intensity exercise training in sedentary hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez L, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Flores O, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Campos J, Christian; Carrasco, Vanesa; Martínez S, Cristian; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    High intensity training could be an effective way of improving health on individuals at high metabolic risk. To investigate the effects of a high intensity training intervention on metabolic-related markers in sedentary women at high metabolic risk. Forty six sedentary women with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m² were assigned to four groups, according to their metabolic profile; hyperglycemia (H, n = 12), hyperglycemia/hypercholesterolemia (HH, n = 13), normoglycemia (N, n = 10) and normoglycemia/hypercholesterolemia (NH, n = 11). For 12 weeks and five days per week, subjects performed seven intervals of high intensity training (20 to 30 seconds) during a training session of 20 minutes. Anthropometric (body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference) and metabolic variables (glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and TG) were measured at baseline, at 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. BMI and waist circumference decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention. Similarly, glucose decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention in all groups. The reduction was of higher magnitude in those groups with hyperglycemia (H = -16%, HH = -22%, N = -7,5%, NH = -9,6%). However, lipid profile (TG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) improved significantly only in the hypercholesterolemic groups. Physical activity programs incorporating high intensity training can improve glucose and lipid profile in women with metabolic disorders. Moreover, this benefit is greatest in those individuals with highest metabolic burden.

  5. Muscle performance and functional capacity retention in older women after high-speed power training cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana; Izquierdo, Mikel; Silva, António J; Costa, Aldo M; González-Badillo, Juan José; Marques, Mário C

    2012-08-01

    Power declines more steeply than strength with advancing age and training cessation among older women and is associated with the loss of functional ability. We tested the hypothesis that the impact of 6 weeks of detraining (DT) subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, power performance (counter movement jump and ball throwing) and functional task (sit-to-stand test) would decrease physical performance, and specifically power performance. Thirty-seven older women were divided into an experimental group and a control group [EG, n=20, 65.8 (2.5) years; CG: n=17, 64.8 (2.8) years]. Muscular strength, power and functional testings were conducted before the initiation of training (T1), after 12 weeks (T2) and after 6 weeks of DT (T3). During the 12 weeks of training, EG significantly increased their dynamic strength performance (range from 41.9 to 64.1%), muscle power output (range from 18.2 to 33.6%) (pmuscles than in muscle power (2-4.5%) and function (2.8%) (pmuscle strength than in power output and preserved physical independence, mediated in part, by the effectiveness of high-speed power training particularly developed for older women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Functional Training Program in Core Muscles in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Pinzón-Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of a program of functional muscles core training targeting women with fibromyalgia. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental type trial was conducted, before and after an intervention, for 20 days, often three days/week, 60 minutes each session. In a single-group of eight women, changes in muscle strength, pain, quality of life related to health and physical activity were evaluated. Results: An increase in repetitions of the test trunk flexion, time on the left and right bridge testing lateral and prone bridge the test were found. All features of pain decreased, and, according to the S-FIQ, a decrease in morning fatigue, stiffness and anxiety was reported. Also Met’s/minute-weeks increased after intervention. Conclusion: These data suggest that functional program core muscle training is effective in increasing muscle strength, pain modulation, functional performance optimization, and increased levels of physical activity in women with fibromyalgia.

  7. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  8. Do women with pelvic floor dysfunction referred by gynaecologists and urologists at hospitals complete a pelvic floor muscle training programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    For decades women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) have been referred to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), but there is only little information on whether the women complete the programmes and why. The objectives of this study were to investigate to which extent women completed a PFMT progr...

  9. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  10. H1 and H2 receptors mediate postexercise hyperemia in sedentary and endurance exercise-trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Jennifer L; Halliwill, John R

    2006-12-01

    In sedentary individuals, H(1) receptors mediate the early portion of postexercise skeletal muscle hyperemia, whereas H(2) receptors mediate the later portion. It is not known whether postexercise hyperemia also presents in endurance-trained individuals. We hypothesized that the postexercise skeletal muscle hyperemia would also exist in endurance-trained individuals and that combined blockade of H(1) and H(2) receptors would abolish the long-lasting postexercise hyperemia in trained and sedentary individuals. We studied 28 sedentary and endurance trained men and women before and through 90 min after a 60-min bout of cycling at 60% peak O(2) uptake on control and combined H(1)- and H(2)-receptor antagonist days (fexofenadine and ranitidine). We measured arterial pressure (brachial auscultation) and femoral blood flow (Doppler ultrasound). On the control day, femoral vascular conductance (calculated as flow/pressure) was elevated in all groups 60 min after exercise (sedentary men: Delta86 +/- 35%, trained men, Delta65 +/- 18%; sedentary women, Delta61 +/- 19%, trained women: Delta59 +/- 23%, where Delta is change; all P men: Delta21 +/- 17%, trained men: Delta9 +/- 5%, sedentary women: Delta19 +/- 4%, trained women: Delta11 +/- 11%; all P > 0.16 vs. preexercise; all P men and women. Furthermore, histaminergic mechanisms produce the long-lasting hyperemia in sedentary and endurance-trained individuals.

  11. Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Pereira, Danillo R.; Papa, João P.; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84) using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available. PMID:27654941

  12. Effect of endurance training on adrenergic control of lipolysis in adipose tissue of obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richterova, B; Stich, V; Moro, C; Polak, J; Klimcakova, E; Majercik, M; Harant, I; Viguerie, N; Crampes, F; Langin, D; Lafontan, M; Berlan, M

    2004-03-01

    The effect of a 12-wk training program on sc abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was studied in 11 obese women. Before and after the training, biopsies of SCAAT were performed for mRNA levels determination. Using the microdialysis method, involvement of alpha(2)- and beta-adrenergic receptor (ARs) in the control of lipolysis in SCAAT was studied using local perfusion of epinephrine alone or supplemented with phentolamine, an alpha(2)-AR antagonist. In addition, the variation in dialysate glycerol concentrations during exercise (50% peak oxygen consumption at 40 min) in a probe perfused with Ringer's solution was compared with that obtained in a probe perfused with Ringer's solution plus phentolamine. Training did not promote changes in the expression of key genes of the lipolytic pathway. The epinephrine-induced rise in the dialysate glycerol concentration was identical before and after training and was similarly potentiated by phentolamine. During exercise, the potentiating effect of phentolamine on the glycerol response was apparent before, but not after, training. The exercise-induced increase in plasma norepinephrine was lower after training (P = 0.04). In conclusion, training did not modify either the expression of genes involved in the control of lipolysis or alpha(2)- and beta-ARs in situ sensitivity to epinephrine in SCAAT. Training reduced the antilipolytic action of catecholamines mediated by alpha(2)-ARs during exercise, probably due to a reduction of exercise-induced catecholamine increase.

  13. Effect of yoga training on balance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Koohboomi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase of age and reduction of physical activities usually cause undesirable physical and mental dysfunctions among the elderly. Since physical activities can improve physical and mental conditions, followed by more independence in the elderly, this study was conducted to find out the effects of yoga programs on balance in the elderly. Methods: this quasi-experimental study was carried out on 30 elderly women (age: 66±6.02 years, height: 161±11.53 centimeter and weight: 68.70±7.08 kilogram, all enjoying general health, were selected through convenience sampling. Sharpened-Romberg test (with open eyes and achievement test were used to measure static and dynamic balance, respectively. These tests were performed before and after the exercise program. Data analysis was performed by independent t- test (P<0.05. Results: Research findings showed that yoga exercises for 6 weeks had a significant impact on static balance (P= 0.002 and dynamic balance (P= 0.004 compared with the control group. Conclusion: It seems that yoga (Huta yoga has positive effects on balance in the elderly. These effects include improvement of dynamic and static balance.

  14. Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Singhal, Arpit; Bigelman, Kevin A; Cureton, Kirk J

    2011-08-01

    Very high-intensity, low-volume, sprint interval training (SIT) increases muscle oxidative capacity and may increase maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), but whether circulatory function is improved, and whether SIT is feasible in overweight/obese women is unknown. To examine the effects of SIT on [Formula: see text] and circulatory function in sedentary, overweight/obese women. Twenty-eight women with BMI > 25 were randomly assigned to SIT or control (CON) groups. One week before pre-testing, subjects were familarized to [Formula: see text] testing and the workload that elicited 50% [Formula: see text] was calculated. Pre- and post-intervention, circulatory function was measured at 50% of the pre-intervention [Formula: see text], and a GXT was performed to determine [Formula: see text]. During the intervention, SIT training was given for 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 4-7, 30-s sprints on a stationary cycle (5% body mass as resistance) with 4 min active recovery between sprints. CON maintained baseline physical activity. Post-intervention, heart rate (HR) was significantly lower and stroke volume (SV) significantly higher in SIT (-8.1 and 11.4%, respectively; P sedentary, overweight/obese women.

  15. Popular education, work training, and the path to women's empowerment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, A E

    1998-05-01

    The program 'Educacion y Trabajo' (Education and Work) in Chile was designed to help train unskilled workers and to facilitate their entrance into the labor market. Employing a participatory educational approach, the program provided personal and vocational training for men and women aged 15-30 years. Both technical and personal development training, which are embedded in Popular Education methodology, emphasize interaction among students and between students and teachers using games, videos, slides, manuals, cartoons, and worksheets. Interviews with female participants confirmed the program's empowering effects on the personal, as well as economic situation of women. The study further demonstrates how Popular Education is applied and adapted to promote self-esteem and self-reliance among female participants. Process-oriented, participatory learning, and horizontal relationships between the learner and teacher, allowed for the development of interactive structures in the classroom. This approach has especially benefited married women. Central to this empowerment process is awareness raising. By emphasizing the sociocultural origin of social structures, Popular Education helps demystify the social sphere and shows the importance of each individual in contributing to its improvement. However, while this program helps enhance women's self-esteem, self-confidence, and self-promotion, it only represents an initial step. To continue the path to full empowerment, negotiating powers must go beyond the household level and into the formal economy.

  16. Changes in spinal range of motion after a flexibility training program in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Battaglia,1,2 Marianna Bellafiore,1,2 Giovanni Caramazza,2 Antonio Paoli,3 Antonino Bianco,1,2 Antonio Palma1,2 1Department of Law, Society, and Sport Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 2Sicilian Regional Sports School of Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI, Sicily, Italy; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Background: Aging-related reduced spinal mobility can interfere with the execution of important functional skills and activities in elderly women. Although several studies have shown positive outcomes in response to spinal flexibility training programs, little is known about the management of sets and repetitions in training protocols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week specific and standardized flexibility training program on the range of spinal motion in elderly women. Methods: Participants were recruited in a senior center of Palermo and randomly assigned in two groups: trained group (TG and control group (CG, which included 19 and 18 women, respectively. TG was trained for 8 weeks at two sessions/week. In particular, every session included three phases: warm up (~10 minutes, central period (~50 minutes, and cool down (~10 minutes. CG did not perform any physical activity during the experimental period. Spinal ranges of motion (ROM were measured from neutral standing position to maximum bending position and from neutral standing position to maximum extension position before and after the experimental period, using a SpinalMouse® device (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland. Results: After the training period, TG showed an increase in spinal inclination by 16.4% (P<0.05, in sacral/hip ROM by 29.2% (P<0.05, and in thoracic ROM by 22.5% (P>0.05 compared with CG from maximum extension position to maximum bending position. We did not observe any significant difference in TG's lumbar ROM compared with CG after the training period (P>0.05. Conclusion

  17. Effect of 12-Week Pilates Trainning on EDSS in Women Suffering fromMultiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Shanazari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease that strikes the immune system. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease which debilitates the nervous system. The study was evaluated the effects of Pilates exercise on women with physical disabilities suffering from multiple sclerosis for 12 weeks .The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of Pilates trainning on EDSS of women suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS for 12 weeks. Methods: In the present clinical trial study, 38 patients age 20-40 years (mean disease duration of 8±2 years with multiple sclerosis grade 0-4.5 were selected. The Patients were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. The training program for pilates, 12 weeks, three sessions a week, with each session consisting of 60 minutes. Patients' physical disability was measured using Krutzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, before and after exercise. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA test. Results: Physical disability scores before and after the exercise in intervention was 47.1 and 37 and in the control group, was 93.1 and 43.1 respectively, which was significantly different in the intervention group before and after training (p<0.05. Conclusion: Pilates training improves the physical disability of MS patients. Therefore, this exercise can be used as a complementary treatment alongside drug treatments. Key Words: Multiple Sclerosis, Women, Pilates, EDSS

  18. Changes in physical fitness profilogramach women aged 60 - 75 years under training health

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    Kortas Jakub

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the society with regards to the positive influence of physical activity, and the ageing of world population are two facts that promote the need to develop qualified personnel of instructors. Individual approach to each group of training attendants is the principle of effective health training at every level of sport activity. This individual approach should be reflected in both the selection of training program, and the perceived effect of the activity. In the present work, I present personal analysis of influence of general keep-fit training performed in a gym. 36 women were enrolled in the study, for whom profilograms were created, which reflected the results of five measurements of physical fitness.

  19. Influence of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and endocrine-inflammatory biomarkers in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Jarrete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that few studies have examined the interaction between endocrine-inflammatory mediators and aerobic exercise training in hypertensive postmenopausal women, the aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic exercise training (AET for twenty-four sessions would alter cortisol, leptin and interleukin-1β (IL-1β levels. To further analyze endothelium function in response to AET, we also examined redox state as well as NO/cGMP pathway in this population. Eighteen hypertensive postmenopausal women finished this study. AET program consisted of 24 sessions in treadmill, 3 times per week, duration of 30 up to 40 min for each session, for 8 weeks at intensity of 100% of the MLSS according to previous incremental test. Heart rate was monitored in all studied time (resting and during exercise sessions. After 48 h of the last exercise session, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses (levels of cortisol, leptin, IL-1β, nitrite/nitrate (NOx−, cGMP, malondialdehyde (MDA and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; superoxide and catalase activity. We also measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A significant reduction in body mass was observed. As expected, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were significantly reduced after AET in hypertensive women. We also found a marked increase in NOx− levels as well as cGMP concentration in trained women, approximately 37.7 and 30.8%, respectively. No changes in cortisol, leptin, ADMA and IL-1β levels were observed after AET. Similarly, MDA levels and catalase activity were not affected by AET. In contrast, a marked increase in SOD activity was found (86.6%. In conclusion, our findings show that aerobic exercise training for twenty-four sessions promoted a significant reduction in blood pressure by activating NO/cGMP pathway as well as by promoting an up-regulation of SOD activity without changing in cortisol/leptin levels in postmenopausal hypertensive women.

  20. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  1. Effect of two doses of interval training on maximal fat oxidation in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Stirling, Douglas; McMillan, David W

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to determine the effect of two doses of chronic high-intensity interval training (HIT) on changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and body composition. Sedentary women (N = 23, age and V˙O2max = 24.2 ± 6.2 yr and 30.3 ± 5.2 mL·kg-1·min-1, respectively) completed either high (HI) (80%-90% maximal workload) or moderate (MOD) intensity (60%-80% maximal workload) HIT on a cycle ergometer 3 d·wk-1 for 12 wk consisting of 6-10 sixty-second bouts interspersed with active recovery. Seven women of similar age and fitness level served as controls. Every 3 wk, substrate oxidation was assessed during progressive exercise via indirect calorimetry to determine MFO and minimum fat oxidation, and body composition was assessed every 6 wk. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to examine changes in substrate oxidation in response to training, with training group used as a between-subjects variable. Results revealed improved MFO (P = 0.04, 19%-25%) and minimum fat oxidation (P = 0.001, 22-24 W) in response to HIT, yet the magnitude of improvement was similar (P > 0.05) between training paradigms. No change (P > 0.05) in body weight, percent body fat, or waist-hip circumference was revealed with training. These data suggest that 12 wk of either moderate or more strenuous interval training similarly enhance fat oxidation in sedentary women but do not alter body weight or body composition.

  2. Physiological adaptations to strength and circuit training in postmenopausal women with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentano, Michel A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Da Silva, Eduardo M; Ambrosini, Anelise B; Coertjens, M; Petkowicz, Rosemary; Viero, Itamara; Kruel, Luiz F M

    2008-11-01

    Strength training (ST; high intensity/low volume/long rest) has been used in several populations, including children, young adults, and older adults. However, there is no information about circuit weight training (CWT; low intensity/high volume/short rest) in apparently healthy postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of high-intensity ST and circuit training on isometric strength (IS), upper limb dynamic strength (ULS) and lower limb dynamic strength (LLS), muscle activation of quadriceps (EMG quad), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), time to exhaustion (TE), and bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-eight postmenopausal women were divided into 3 groups: 1) ST group (STG, n = 9, 45-80% 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 2-4 sets, 20-6 reps), 2) circuit training group (CTG, n = 10, 45-60% 1RM, 2-3 sets, 20-10 reps), and 3) a control group (CON, n = 9, no exercise). Significance level was defined as p training, increases were observed in STG and CTG. However, whereas in the STG, the IS (32.7%), ULS (28.7%), LLS (39.4%), EMG quad (50.7%), VO2 max (22%), and TE (19.3%) increased, CTG showed changes only in IS (17.7%), ULS (26.4%), LLS (42.2%), VO2 max (18.6%), and TE (16.8%). BMD did not change in any experimental group. In the CON, there were no changes in the variables analyzed. Our results suggest that ST and circuit training positively affect postmenopausal women's muscular strength, muscular activation, and cardiorespiratory fitness, with no changes in BMD.

  3. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  4. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  5. Comparison of energy cost of maximal strength and local muscle endurance training in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antonio Gonsalves Sindorf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the energy cost (EC of two weight training protocols in young women. Twelve women between 18 and 29 years old participated in the study. All the volunteers were under one maximum repetition test (1RM, protocols of maximum strength training (MS, and local muscle endurance training (LME. At rest, during of the training session and 30 minutes of recovery, the measures of the expired air were made through metabolic gases analyzer and module of telemetry. There were not significant differences (p > .05 in EC at rest before MS session  and LME session, the EC in kcal/min was higher (p < .01 during LME  than MS, and the total EC of  MS  was higher (p > .05 than LME session. The energy expenditure returned to resting values before 30 minutes in both sessions. It was concluded that the MS and LME weight training sessions resulted in a low EC.

  6. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  7. Evidence of muscular adaptations within four weeks of barbell training in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Olinghouse, Kendra D; Drusch, Alexander S; Mota, Jacob A; Hernandez, Jennah M; Akalonu, Chibuzo C; Thompson, Brennan J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the time course of neuromuscular and hypertrophic adaptations associated with only four weeks of barbell squat and deadlift training. Forty-seven previously untrained women (mean±SD, age=21±3years) were randomly assigned to low volume training (n=15), moderate volume training (n=16), and control (n=16) groups. The low and moderate volume training groups performed two and four sets, respectively, of five repetitions per exercise, twice a week. Testing was performed weekly, and included dual X-ray absorptiometry and vastus lateralis and rectus femoris B-mode ultrasonography. Bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the leg extensors. Significant increases in lean mass for the combined gynoid and leg regions for the low (+0.68kg) and moderate volume (+0.47kg) groups were demonstrated within three weeks. Small-to-moderate effect sizes were shown for leg lean mass, vastus lateralis thickness and pennation angle, and peak torque, but EMG amplitude was unaffected. These findings demonstrated rapid muscular adaptations in response to only eight sessions of back squat and deadlift training in women despite the absence of changes in agonist-antagonist EMG amplitude.

  8. POWER-TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

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    Jukka Surakka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength declines with increasing age, and the power-type strength characteristics decline even more drastically than the maximal muscle strength. Therefore, it is important to design training programmes specifically for sedentary middle-aged people to effectively improve the power-type strength in leg and trunk muscles. To be suitable for the target group, the exercise programmes should be feasible, motivating and easy to practice. The aim of this study was to design and investigate the effects and feasibility of a power-type strength training programme in 226 middle-aged men and women, with 26 persons as non-training controls. The subjects trained three times a week during 22 weeks, in 12 groups with exercise classes of 10-20 subjects, and using no or very little external equipment. All training sessions were controlled and supervised by an professional instructor. Vertical squat jump, standing long jump, 20 metre running time, maximal anaerobic cycling power, maximal oxygen uptake, and angular trunk muscle flexion and extension velocities were measured before and after the training period to evaluate the training effects. Questionnaires concerning employment, physical activity, smoking, musculoskeletal symptoms and exercise motives were also filled in before and after the training period. The greatest improvements were achieved in vertical squat jump (18% and in angular trunk flexion (14% and extension (16% velocities. An external loading totalling 2.2 kg (attached in ankles increased the height in vertical squat jump by 23% and maximal anaerobic cycling power by 12%, these improvements were significant compared with subjects in no load training group (p = 0.03 in vertical squat jump and p = 0.05 in maximal anaerobic cycling power. Exercise induced injuries occurred in 19% of men and 6% of women. Low back symptoms decreased in exercisers by 12% and knee symptoms (increased by 4% during the intervention. Of all subjects, 24% dropped out

  9. Equal Opportunities and Vocational Training. In-firm Training and Career Prospects for Women in the Federal Republic of Germany. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelheimer, Barbara

    A study examined the relationship between occupational advancement among women and their participation in the training offered at the enterprise level in West Germany. Women from four firms, a department store company, a large bank, a computer firm, and a public sector service undertaking, were studied. In all four firms, the internal recruitment…

  10. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  11. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age

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    Lucas Melo Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract It is not yet clear which physical exercise protocols have greater potential to mitigate the functional decline in physical fitness (coordination, flexibility, strength, agility and cardiorespiratory capacity. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age and understand which training protocol is more effective for promoting significant improvements in physical fitness. The initial sample consisted of 79 subjects, of which 17 dropped out, resulting in a total of 62 subjects who completed the study and are included in the analysis (n = 62. The average age of the study population was 60.1±5.4 years, divided into five groups: aerobic training, concurrent training, multimodal training, functional training and control group. Physical fitness was analyzed through AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance tests (0 and eighth weeks. The ANOVA analyses (aleatory effect show a main effect of time for coordination (p<0.001, strength (p = 0.004, agility (p<0.001 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p<0.001, and statistically significant interactions for coordination (p = 0.003 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p = 0.033. When comparing the average relative differences between the group (Δ%, significant improvement was observed in coordination and agility (p<0.001 in the multimodal and functional training groups. For cardiorespiratory fitness, there was a significant improvement in the aerobic, concurrent and multimodal training groups (p<0.001 and strength increased in the functional training group (p = 0.04. Functional training was demonstrated to be more effective at promoting significant improvements in physical fitness than the other investigated exercise protocols.

  13. 嗓音训练配合颈三线按摩法治疗声带小结%Vocal nodules treated by voice training and three line massage neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎春; 邱宝珊; 黄晓萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summerize the clinical researching results of vocal nodules treated by vocie training and three line massage neck and judge it's clinical therapeutic effects. Methods We take 25 cases with vocal nodules in-to clinical trials,then observe the therapeutic effects of the cases,include VHI,Computer voice analysis,Stroboscopy, MPT and make statistical analysis. Results VHI for(39. 41 ± 18. 45)before treatment and after treatment for (19. 29 ± 20. 39),before and after the contrast was statistically significant;Jitter,shimmer,NHR respectively before treatment(0. 61 ± 0. 52),(3. 78 ± 1. 14),(0. 212 ± 0. 014),after treatment respectively(0. 20 ± 0. 31),(1. 98 ± 1. 07),(0. 109 ± 0. 025),before and after the contrast was statistically significant. The therapeutic effect indexes are superior to prior treatment. Conclusion The treatment method of needling No. 1 Kaiyin points and Jingjiaji points mainly is safe and effective on treating vocal nodules.%目的:总结嗓音训练配合颈三线按摩法治疗声带小结的临床疗效及安全性。方法将25例声带小结患者纳入临床观察,对患者治疗前后嗓音障碍指数量表(VHI)、计算机嗓音分析、频闪喉镜检查、最长发声时间(MPT)进行评估。结果 VHI 治疗前为(39.41±18.45),治疗后为(19.29±20.39),前后对比有统计学意义;jitter、shimmer、NHR 治疗前分别为(0.61±0.52)、(3.78±1.14)、(0.212±0.014),治疗后分别为(0.20±0.31)、(1.98±1.07)、(0.109±0.025),前后对比有统计学意义。结论嗓音训练配合颈三线按摩治疗声带小结,能增强颈、喉及胸部肌群的协调性,延伸患者发声时间,安全有效。

  14. The reproductive system function at women athletes are training by lifting and taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekhanevich O.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of investigation is studying the character and leading mechanisms of reproductive system pathology at women athletes are training by lifting and taekwondo. The object of research was the medical control at women are training in lifting and taekwondo. The results of the research have shown that the physical and psychoemotional overexertion with restriction of eating lead to adrenocorticotropic horomon considerable quantity emission which stimulates suprarenal glands and cause the development of hyperanrogenemy and ovaries functions depression. The athletes have more frequent menstrual cycle disturbances such as opsomenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and algodysmenorrhea. Typically there are changes of indices of physical development, appearance the symptoms of psychological masculinithation, hirsutism and secondary ovaries disturbance.

  15. The acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on vertical jump performance in trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unick, Jessica; Kieffer, H Scott; Cheesman, Wendy; Feeney, Anna

    2005-02-01

    Traditionally stretching has been included as part of a warm-up that precedes athletic participation. However, there is mixed evidence as to whether stretching actually enhances or hinders athletic performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of static (SS) and ballistic stretching (BS) on vertical jump (VJ) performance and to investigate whether power was altered at 15 and 30 minutes after stretching. Sixteen actively trained women performed a series of vertical jumps (countermovement and drop jumps) after an initial nonstretching (NS) session and after participating in BS and SS sessions that were conducted in a balanced and randomized order. The results indicated that there was no significant difference (p ballistic stretching, elapsed time, or initial flexibility scores. This suggests that stretching prior to competition may not negatively affect the performance of trained women.

  16. Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women

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    Oliveira PFA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Ferreira Alves Oliveira,1 André Bonadias Gadelha,2 Rafael Gauche,2 Flávio Macedo Lahud Paiva,2 Martim Bottaro,2 Lauro C Vianna,2 Ricardo Moreno Lima2 1Department of Physical Education, Instituto Federal de Brasília, 2College of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Purpose: To examine the effects of resistance training (RT on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. Patients and methods: Twenty-two postmenopausal women (65.0±4.2 years underwent 12 weeks of whole body progressive training with intensity prescribed based on rating of perceived exertion. Dominant knee extension strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer before and after the intervention. Moreover, all volunteers had blood samples collected for lipid profile, glycemic control, and C-reactive protein analyses. Waist circumference and arterial blood pressure were also measured at baseline and after the training period. Student’s t-tests for paired samples and repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare dependent variables, and statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Isokinetic muscle strength significantly increased (P<0.01 with training. It was observed that waist circumference as well as total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly decreased with training (P<0.01. Total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, an important marker of cardiovascular disease incidence, was also significantly reduced (from 3.91±0.91 to 3.60±0.74; P<0.01 after the program. Blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were also significantly reduced (P<0.01. No significant alterations were observed for resting blood pressure, triglycerides, or C-reactive protein. Conclusion: Based on the observed results, it can be concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program, besides increasing isokinetic muscle strength, induces beneficial alterations

  17. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRAINING VOLUME AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGES IN ELDERLY WOMEN

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    Juan José Rábade Espinosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Several studies have analyzed the relationship between physical activity and bone density. However, the prescription of exercise is not entirely clear as to the type, quantity and intensity. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the amount of exercise and changes in bone mineral density. Methods: Fifty-two women, members of the Municipal Program of Physical Activity for Seniors, voluntarily underwent two ultrasonographies of the calcaneus within a 6-month interval. During this period, all physical activity was recorded. Afterwards, a lineal correlation study was carried out between the amount of exercise and bone changes, expressed as T-Score variation, first in total number of participants and then in groups. Considering the average body weight obtained for all women, two groups were created ("light" 69 kg. Later, women who had participated in less than 72% of the targeted program were excluded from both groups, and the differences between the groups "light and trained" and "heavy and trained" were analyzed. To do so, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results: A significant relationship of r= -0.59 was found between the total amount of exercise and the T-Score variation in the group of women above 69 kg. Significant differences were found between the "light and trained" group and the "heavy and trained" group with respect to the variation of T-Score. Conclusion: The effect of exercise on bone mineral density is determined, somehow, by body weight. This interaction is due, possibly, to mechanical demands difference.

  19. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  20. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

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    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  1. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52-65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2-L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2-L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2-L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi.

  2. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  3. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women.

  4. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1 for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  5. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  6. A new ventilatory threshold equation for aerobically trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Moh H; Coburn, Jared W

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (i) modify previously published ventilatory threshold (VT) equations using the constant error (CE) values for aerobically trained individuals from a recent study; (ii) cross-validate the modified equations to determine their accuracy for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals; (iii) derive a new non-exercise based equation for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals if the modified equations are found to be inaccurate; and (iv) cross-validate the new VT equation using the Predicted REsidual Sum of Squares (PRESS) statistic and an independent sample of aerobically trained individuals. Two hundred and eight (n = 208) aerobically trained men and women (mean +/- SD: age = 38.8 +/- 10.4 year) performed a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine the observed VT. The predicted VT values from seven published equations were compared with the observed VT by examining the CE, standard error of estimate, validity coefficient (r), and total error (TE). Cross-validation of the modified equations resulted in high %TE values. Therefore, a new VT equation was derived. Cross-validation of this equation on an independent sample of 72 subjects resulted in a low %TE value. The new model is recommended over previous models for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals.

  7. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  8. Chlamydia prevalence among women and men entering the National Job Training Program: United States, 2003-2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Tian, Lin H; Braxton, Jimmy; Weinstock, Hillard

    2010-01-01

    To analyze 5-year prevalence trends in Chlamydia trachomatis infections among high-risk young men and women aged 16 to 24 years entering the National Job Training Program, where universal screening is required...

  9. Self-selected resistance training intensity in healthy women: the influence of a personal trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the influence of resistance training with a personal trainer versus unsupervised resistance training on the self-selected intensities used by women during resistance exercise. Forty-six resistance-trained women (age = 26.6 +/- 6.4 years; body mass = 64.2 +/- 10.9 kg) who either trained individually (n = 27; No PT) or with a personal trainer (n = 19; PT) were carefully instructed to select a weight they used in their own resistance training workouts that enabled the completion of 10 repetitions for the chest press (CP), leg press (LP), seated row (SR), and leg extension (LE) exercises. Each participant was subsequently tested for one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength on each exercise, and the self-selected intensity was calculated based on a percent of each 1RM value. For self-selected relative intensity, the PT group selected significantly greater intensities for LP (50% vs. 41%), CP (57.4% vs. 48%), and SR (56% vs. 42%) whereas a trend (p = 0.10) was observed for LE (43% vs. 38%) compared with No PT. Overall, the average self-selected intensity for all exercises was approximately 51.4% in PT group and approximately 42.3% in the No PT group. 1RM values for LP, LE, and SR were greater in the PT than No PT group. Ratings of perceived exertion values were significantly greater in the PT compared with the No PT group for CP, LE, and SR but not LP. These results indicate that resistance training under the supervision of a personal trainer leads to greater initial 1RM strength values, self-selection of greater workout intensities, and greater ratings of perceived exertion values during resistance exercise.

  10. Lower Extremity Disorders among Men and Women in Army Basic Training and Effects of Two Types of Boots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    27 R.R. Protzman and C.G. Griffis. Stress fractures in men and women undergoing military training. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 59A, 825, 1977...was dropped on the rearfoot or the forefoot regions of the boots. de Moya found that the impact cushioning and energy absorption characteristics of the...fractures in men and women undergoing military training. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 59A, 825, 1977. 28. K. A. Reinker ane S. A. Ozburne. A

  11. XML The Impact of High Intensity Interval Training On Lipid Profile, Inflammatory Markers and Anthropometric Parameters in Inactive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Zaer Ghodsi (MSc); Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari; Amir Fattah (MSc)

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a recently proposed exercise protocol, which is time-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIIT for 8 weeks on the lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and anthropometric parameters of young women who do not exercise. Methods: In this study, 20 young physically inactive women performed HIIT workouts for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. The training protocol cons...

  12. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  13. Cortical field potentials associated with audio-initiated vocalization in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemba, H; Kyuhou, S; Matsuzaki, R; Amino, Y

    1999-09-03

    Five monkeys vocalizing at self-pace (self-paced vocalization) were well trained to vocalize in response to a monkey call (audio-initiated vocalization). Field potentials associated with audio-initiated vocalizations were recorded by using electrodes which were implanted chronically on the surface and at a 2.0-3.0 mm depth in various cortical areas. A surface-negative (s-N), depth-positive (d-P) potential (at about 70 ms latency after stimulus onset) was recorded in the rostral bank of the inferior limb of the arcuate sulcus in the left hemisphere, in which an insignificant potential was associated with self-paced vocalizations. An s-N, d-P slow potential which occurred in the motor and somatosensory cortices with a latency of about 300 ms after stimulus, started about 700 ms before vocalizations. The duration and amplitude of this potential was substantially the same with those of the potential which occurred with self-paced vocalizations. Reaction times from stimulus onset to vocalization start were variable, but were about 0.9s on the average. The findings were discussed in connection with reaction-time hand movements.

  14. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 ± 0.3 (means ± SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 ± 1 vs. 51 ± 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  15. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  16. Pelvic floor muscle training in the prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence in women - what is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, G.

    2008-01-01

    Many women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). During and after pregnancy, women are advised to perform pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to prevent the development of UI. In established UI, PFMT is prescribed routinely as first-line treatment. Published studies are small, underpowered...

  17. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsisi HF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hany Farid Eid Morsy Elsisi,1 Gihan Samir Mohamed Mousa,1 Mohamed Taher Mahmoud ELdesoky2 1Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, 2Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background and purpose: Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF or circuit weight training (CWT on short-run basis (after 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT (n=15 each group. The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4 and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05. But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. Keywords: magnetic field, circuit weight training, bone mineral density, elderly women, bone mineral content, bone mass

  18. 如何培养小学生在声乐教学中对视唱练耳的学习兴趣%How to Train the Students in the Teaching of Vocal Music in Solfeggio Learning Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶

    2014-01-01

    在小学,声乐教学是非常重要的,其能够更好地提高学生的综合素质,将学生的音乐潜能发掘出来,让学生能够更好地掌握音乐要素和音乐规律,提高学生表现方面的能力,让学生更好地理解音乐。但是随着改革的不断深入,在教学的时候越来越重视基础教学,在声乐教学中,视唱练耳也愈加的重要。所以,老师在进行声乐教学的时候必须真正重视视唱练耳方面的训练,将学生对视唱练耳的兴趣培养出来,提高学生演唱方面的能力和综合方面的能力,帮助学生更好的发展。%In the primary school, the vocal music teaching is very important, which can improve the comprehensive quality of students, the students’ music potential to be uncovered, so that students can better master the elements of music and music rules, improve the ability of student performance, so that students can better understand the music. But with the deepening of reform, more and more attention in the teaching of basic education, the training the students’ interest in solfeggio, enhance the capacity of students singing and all-around development, help students better.

  19. Acoustic vocal measures in women without voice complaints and with normal larynxes Medidas vocais acústicas de mulheres sem queixas de voz e com laringe normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Susana Finger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to establish normal voice standards in order to help guide voice professionals. AIM: to describe acoustic voice measures of adult young women with normal larynxes and without voice complaints. METHOD: 56 women underwent ENT evaluation and speech screening. The "A" vowel utterance was digitally recorded and analyzed by means of the Praat (Version 4.6.10 software. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and by the Shapiro-Wilk test with a 5% significance level. The study was cross-section and exploratory. RESULTS: normal distribution measures were: fundamental frequency; Jitter (local; Jitter (local, absolute; Jitter (ppq5; Jitter (ddp. The Jitter (rap, all the Shimmer, the noise/harmonic ratio (NHR and the harmonic/noise ratio (HNR values did not follow a normal distribution. CONCLUSION: It seems that the measures which followed the normal distribution can be used as base-normal values for the interpretation of acoustic voice analysis of those women with and without laryngeal disorders. All the values with and without normal distribution showed results similar to the ones present in the national and international literature.O estabelecimento de padrões de base da normalidade é importante para guiar os profissionais na área da voz. OBJETIVO: Descrever as medidas acústicas de vozes de mulheres adultas jovens, com laringe normal e sem queixas de voz. MÉTODO: 56 mulheres realizaram avaliação otorrinolaringológica e triagem fonoaudiológica. A emissão da vogal /a/ foi gravada digitalmente e analisada por meio do software Praat (versão 4.6.10. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, e pelo teste Shapiro-Wilk, em nível de significância de 5%. O estudo foi transversal e exploratório. RESULTADOS: Medidas com distribuição normal foram: Frequência fundamental; Jitter (local; Jitter (local, absoluto; Jitter (ppq5; Jitter (ddp. As medidas de Jitter (rap; todas as de Shimmer; a Propor

  20. Social Factors that Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination: A Challenge to the Transfer of Training Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Patricia A.; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to understand how social factors might help or hinder the training transfer process. Specifically, this qualitative research looked at the meanings a group of women attached to social factors that might influence their practice of breast self-exam. Implications for transfer of training are suggested.…

  1. A Joyful Noise: The Vocal Health of Worship Leaders and Contemporary Christian Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Leon; Meyer, David

    2016-08-15

    Contemporary commercial music (CCM) is a term that encompasses many styles of music. A growing subset of CCM is contemporary Christian music, a genre that has outpaced other popular styles such as Latin, jazz, and classical music. Contemporary Christian singers (CCSs) and worship leaders (WLs) are a subset of CCM musicians that face unique vocal demands and risks. They typically lack professional training and often perform in acoustically disadvantageous venues with substandard sound reinforcement systems. The vocal needs and risks of these singers are not well understood, and because of this, their training and care may be suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vocal health of this growing population and their awareness of standard vocal hygiene principles. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to participants in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Asia. A total of 614 participants responded to the questionnaire, which is made available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Many participants reported vocal symptoms such as vocal fatigue (n = 213; 34.7%), tickling or choking sensation (n = 149; 24.3%), loss of upper range (n = 172; 28%), and complete loss of voice (n = 25; 4.1%). One third of the participants (n = 210; 34%) indicated that they do not warm up their voices before performances and over half of the participants (n = 319; 52%) have no formal vocal training. Results suggest that this population demonstrates low awareness of vocal hygiene principles, frequently experience difficulty with their voices, and may face elevated risk of vocal pathology. Future studies of this population may confirm the vocal risks that our preliminary findings suggest.

  2. Using Primary Care to Address Violence against Women in Intimate Partner Relationships: Professional Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbas-Fernández, Aida; Calcerrada-Gutiérrez, Marybexy

    2016-10-01

    Unified, prevention- and community-oriented, Cuba's National Health System is well positioned to address social problems such as gender violence against women. It is sometimes taken for granted that family doctors, family nurses and psychologists in the health system should be able to deal with such cases. However, some studies among these professionals have revealed misconceptions about intimate partner violence, an insufficient understanding of its causes, and greater tolerance of psychological violence than of physical and sexual violence. Cuba needs to train family doctors and clinical psychologists who are knowledgeable about the subject so that they can take part in the development and implementation of intersectoral education and prevention policies and programs, provide assistance to women who have been victims of violence, and work together with community members to create support networks that serve as monitoring mechanisms. Primary care is the ideal setting for raising awareness of the need for greater intersectoral action to systematically address violence against women. KEYWORDS Professional training, doctors, clinical psychologists, gender, spousal abuse, domestic violence, family violence, family relationships, Cuba.

  3. Effectiveness of stress management training on stress reduction in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Shirazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are evidences that suggest the impact of stress on pregnancy outcome. Prolong antenatal depression and anxiety may cause lots of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as abortion, still birth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The aim of this pre-posttest randomized control trial study was to determine the role of stress management training in the first trimester on stress reduction in pregnant women referring to General Yas Women Hospital related to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, from May 2014 to January 2016. Methods: Anxiety status of 75 pregnant women in the first trimester was assessed by standard anxiety questioner using Hamilton anxiety rating score. Scores 18-25, 25-35 and >35 were considered for mild, moderate and severe anxiety, respectively. According to the level of anxiety, women with moderate and severe anxiety as the interventional group were arranged for participation in stress management workshops, applying mindfulness technique including: body scan, setting meditation and passing thought technique in 5 an hour sessions. For this experimental group were made available CD training for practicing lessons during the week. All groups didn’t need to medical treatment according to the psychiatrist interview. In the ending of therapy, clinical groups were assessed by anxiety scale again. Women with mild anxiety as the control group received only regular prenatal care without any psychological interventions. The validity and reliability of questioner were approved by experts in this field. This research was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services grant and also the study approved by ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 18, and Student’s t-test analyses were performed. Results: The level of anxiety and stress was decreased significantly between women in clinical groups, 27.5 to 14

  4. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-08-28

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after a 6-week HIIT intervention. Various statistical methods were used to classify plasma metabolic signatures associated with post-prandial glucose and/or training status when using a repeated measures/cross-over study design. Branched-chain/aromatic amino acids and other intermediates of urea cycle and carnitine metabolism decreased over time in plasma after oral glucose loading. Adaptive exercise-induced changes to plasma thiol redox and orthinine status were measured for trained subjects while at rest in a fasting state. A multi-linear regression model was developed to predict changes in glucose tolerance based on a panel of plasma metabolites measured for naïve subjects in their untrained state. Since treatment outcomes to physical activity are variable between-subjects, prognostic markers offer a novel approach to screen for potential negative responders while designing lifestyle modifications that maximize the salutary benefits of exercise for diabetes prevention on an individual level.

  5. Effects of exercise training and Mediterranean diet on vascular risk reduction in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Klonizakis, Markos

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the potential risk-reduction benefits of Mediterranean Diet (MD) and regular exercise training on microvascular activity and cardiorespiratory capacity in postmenopausal women. Fifteen sedentary postmenopausal participants (age = 54.6 ± 3.6) were randomised into either exercise training or exercise combined with following MD for eight-weeks, and were assessed for their cardiorespiratory capacity, and upper- and lower-limb endothelial cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) test using Laser Doppler Fluximetry (LDF), coupled with measuring endothelium-dependent Acetylcholine Chloride (Ach) and -dependent Sodium Nitropurruside (SNP) vasodilators. Exercise training improved cardiorespiratory capacity as indicated by ventilatory threshold (11.5 ± 2.1 vs. 14.0 ± 3.0 ml·kg-1·min-1, p exercise with MD showed a stronger improvement in Ach (p = 0.02, d = 0.36) of the lower limb, than in exercise alone group. The results suggest that regular moderate exercise improves microcirculatory vascular function and increases exercise tolerance, both are responsible for reducing cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. However, combining MD with exercise suggests additional microvascular vasodialiatory improvement, suggesting an effective strategy for further cardiovascular risk-reduction in this high-risk group.

  6. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  7. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  8. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gerage,Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina,Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves,Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Edilson Serpeloni CYRINO

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent ...

  9. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  10. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  11. Care to pregnant women in primary care: report of activities in supervised training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayckel da Silva Barreto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an experience report that describes an academic activity during Interdisciplinary In-training course, which is part of curricular program of the 4th year of the Nursing undergraduate course at a public university of the Paraná Northwest. As evaluation of the internship was elaborated an Action Plan based on the Altadir Method of Popular Planning, about prenatal care, focusing on the most common pregnancy complications. After researching the literature, observations during the internship, study in documents and reports of the health team, revealed was that anemia, followed by urinary complications, gastric and gynecological were pregnancy complications more frequent at the health unit. As a result of acquired knowledge together, several actions were undertaken, with professionals and pregnant women. The activities evidenced the relevance of Interdisciplinary In-training as an agent of the competences consolidation and technical abilities, providing the academic identify problems, develop intervention strategies and operational demands of the action.

  12. Brief self-compassion meditation training for body image distress in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Aubrey M; Craighead, Linda W

    2016-12-01

    Self-compassion interventions may be uniquely suited to address body image distress (BID), as change-based strategies may have limited utility in a cultural context that so highly values appearance. The current study evaluated a version of an Internet-based self-compassion training, which had previously shown promising results, but was limited by high attrition. The intervention period was reduced from three weeks to one week in the present study to improve retention. Eighty undergraduate women endorsing body image concerns were randomized to either self-compassion meditation training or a waitlist control group. Results suggest that brief exposure to the basic tenets of self-compassion holds promise for improving aspects of self-compassion and BID. Attrition was minimal, but compliance with meditation practice instructions during the week was low. Efforts are needed to improve engagement, but this approach has the potential to be an acceptable and cost effective method to reduce BID.

  13. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-Walking Training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latosik Ewelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity.

  14. Professional Educators and domestic violence against women: training and awareness in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Ferrer Pérez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The belief that domestic violence against women is a social problem is relatively new. The aim of this study is to analyse how prospective teachers have been trained in this issue at University and how they view its frequency, its seriousness and its causes.We analysed these factors by carrying out ad-hoc interviews to 230 students of Education, to whom the “Inventory of Thoughts Distorted on Woman and Violence” was also administered.The results show that the majority of these students have received some training on this subject and that their view is similar to that of the general population. Students consider it to be a serious, frequent and unacceptable social problem where diverse individual and social causes carry much weight.The implications of these results are analysed.

  15. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolarek AC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available André de Camargo Smolarek,1,2 Luis Henrique Boiko Ferreira,1,2 Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas,1 Steven R McAnulty,3 Karla Daniele Varela,4 Mônica C Dangui,4 Marcelo Paes de Barros,5 Alan C Utter,3 Tácito P Souza-Junior2,3 1Department of Physical Education, Biochemistry of the Exercise Laboratory, Centro Oeste University State, Irati, Parana, 2Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 4Physical Education Department, Faculty Guairaca, Guarapuava, Parana, 5Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Science (ICAFE, Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week. Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2

  16. The effects of power and strength training on bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M; Di Brezzo, R; Fort, I L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this 48-week exercise intervention was designed to examine the effects of power and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD). Premenopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned to either a power (N.=8) or resistance (N.=11) training group. The power exercises included jumping rope, skipping, hopping, and other power-type exercises. The resistance training group performed 8-10 whole-body strengthening exercises at 70% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Before and after the exercise intervention, BMD was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the total-body, lumbar spine, left femoral neck, and left greater trochanter. Muscular strength was measured by hand grip dynamometer and 1RM of chest press and leg press. Muscular power was assessed by the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. There were no statistical differences between the two training groups for any of the BMD measurements. Chest press strength was different between the two groups, increasing 6.41 and 1.1kg for the resistance and power groups, respectively over the course of the training period (F[1.15]=9.44, P<0.01). There was a significant time effect for leg press 1RM (F[1.15]=6.04, P=0.03). The participants increased by 12.37kg after the 48-week intervention. Hand grip strength also increased after the study intervention (F[1.16]=46.32, P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that power and resistance training are comparable techniques for maintaining bone density.

  17. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Vainio, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The human vocal folds are known to interact with the vocal tract acoustics during voiced speech production; namely a nonlinear source-filter coupling has been observed both by using models and in \\emph{in vivo} phonation. These phenomena are approached from two directions in this article. We first present a computational dynamical model of the speech apparatus that contains an explicit filter-source feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics back to the vocal folds oscillations. The model was used to simulate vocal pitch glideswhere the trajectory was forced to cross the lowest vocal tract resonance, i.e., the lowest formant $F_1$. Similar patterns produced by human participants were then studied. Both the simulations and the experimental results reveal an effect when the glides cross the first formant (as may happen in \\textipa{[i]}). Conversely, this effect is not observed if there is no formant within the glide range (as is the case in \\textipa{[\\textscripta]}). The experiments show smaller effect c...

  18. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

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    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  19. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  20. Vocal Improvisation for Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith P.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the three-phase process of musical creativity (exploratory, invention, organizational), identifying activities in each of the creative phases. Included are vocal impression, picture sounds, chord tones, and name improvisation. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  1. Pesquisa de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio das pregas vocais de mulheres por imunohistoquímica Immunohistochemical searching for estrogen and progesterone receptors in women vocal fold epithelia

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    Oswaldo Angel Bellido Rios

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A laringe é extremamente sensível a mudanças endocrinológicas. A maioria das alterações da mucosa das pregas vocais é causada por modificações do conteúdo líquido das pregas vocais e das suas modificações epiteliais. O estrógeno e a progesterona interferem e modificam esse conteúdo líquido das pregas vocais. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a presença de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio das pregas vocais de mulheres. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de casos prospectivos. Foram realizados exames de imunohistoquímica para receptores de estrógeno e progesterona em 19 espécimes de epitélio de pregas vocais que não apresentavam quaisquer indícios de afecção, inclusive inflamatória. Foram descartados casos de pacientes com idade superior a 40 anos e inferior a 15 anos. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados receptores para progesterona em 18 de 19 pacientes. Os receptores de progesterona estão localizados tanto no núcleo quanto no citoplasma e principalmente na camada basal. Não houve nenhum caso de receptores de estrógeno nas pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: O epitélio das pregas vocais apresenta receptores para progesterona, tanto no citoplasma quanto no núcleo. Não foram encontrados receptores para estrógeno no epitélio das pregas vocais estudadas.Larynx is extremely sensitive to endocrinologic changes. Most vocal fold mucosa alterations are caused by changes in vocal fold liquid content and its epithelial changes. Estrogen and progesterone interfere and change this liquid content in the vocal folds. Our goal with the present paper is to study the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors on vocal fold epithelium in 19 vocal fold epithelium specimens that did not present any indication of disease, especially inflammatory disease. We discarded those cases of patients above 40 years of age and those below 15. RESULTS: we found progesterone receptors in 18 of the 19 patients. The progesterone receptors

  2. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pdysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pdysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  3. Effects of exercise on ankle proprioception in adult women during 16 weeks of training and eight weeks of detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Sun, Wei; Yu, Bing; Song, Qipeng; Mao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of training and detraining on ankle proprioception in terms of kinesthesia in adult women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Tai Chi and Brisk Walking Groups went through a 16-week training period followed by an eight-week detraining period. The ankle plantar-flexion, dorsal-flexion, inversion, and eversion kinesthesia were measured every four weeks. The ankle kinesthesia in plantar/dorsal flexion of both exercise groups decreased, but the Tai Chi Group decreased more and sooner than the Brisk Walking Group. The training effects of Tai Chi exercise were retained but diminished during the detraining. The training effects of Brisk Walking exercise were not retained. The kinesthesia of ankle inversion and eversion remained unchanged after training. The results suggest that Tai Chi exercise is more effective in training ankle proprioception in plantar and dorsal flexion and in retaining the training effects compared with Brisk Walking exercise.

  4. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality.

  5. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit–stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by “The Montreal Cognitive Assessment” questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality. PMID:27330282

  6. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  7. Effect of Nordic Walking training on iron metabolism in elderly women

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    Kortas J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jakub Kortas,1 Katarzyna Prusik,2 Damian Flis,3 Krzysztof Prusik,1 Ewa Ziemann,4 Neil Leaver,5 Jedrzej Antosiewicz6 1Department of Recreation and Tourism, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 2Department of Biomedical Basis of Health, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 3Department of Bioenergetics and Physiology of Exercise, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 5The Immunosuppression monitoring service (IMS Laboratory, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Heart Science Centre, Harefield Hospital, Harefield, UK; 6Department of Biochemistry, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland Background: Despite several, well-documented pro-healthy effects of regular physical training, its influence on body iron stores in elderly people remains unknown. At the same time, body iron accumulation is associated with high risk of different morbidities.Purpose: We hypothesized that Nordic Walking training would result in pro-healthy changes in an elderly group of subjects by reducing body iron stores via shifts in iron metabolism-regulating proteins.Methods: Thirty-seven women aged 67.7±5.3 years participated in this study. They underwent 32 weeks of training, 1-hour sessions three times a week, between October 2012 and May 2013. Fitness level, blood morphology, CRP, vitamin D, ferritin, hepcidin, and soluble Hjv were assessed before and after the training.Results: The training program caused a significant decrease in ferritin, which serves as a good marker of body iron stores. Simultaneously, the physical cardiorespiratory fitness had improved. Furthermore, blood hepcidin was positively correlated with the ferritin concentration after the training. The concentration of blood CRP dropped, but the change was nonsignificant. The applied training

  8. Training status (endurance or sprint) and catecholamine response to the Wingate-test in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, C; Zouhal, H; Vincent, S; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Berthon, P M; Bentué-Ferrer, D; Delamarche, P

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if, as for men, training status induces different catecholamine responses to exercise. To do this, we investigated the effect of training status (sprint or endurance) on plasma catecholamine response to a supramaximal exercise in women. Nineteen subjects took part in our study: six untrained subjects (UT), seven endurance trained subjects (ET) and six sprint trained ones (ST). The trained subjects (ET and ST) were all competing at a high national level. The maximal power (W max ) and the mean power (W) were determined from the Wingate-test. Blood lactate, adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) were analysed at rest (La 0, A 0 and NA 0 ), immediately at the end of the exercise (A max and NA max ) and after 5 min recovery (La max [3 min in arterialized blood], A 5 and NA 5 ). The disappearance of A and NA was judged by the ratio (A max -A 5 )/A max and (NA max -NA 5 )/NA 5. The ratio A max /NA max was considered as an index of the adrenal medulla responsiveness to the sympathetic nervous activity. As expected, during the Wingate-test ST exhibited significantly higher performances compared to UT and ET. But in contrast to the men's data no difference was observed between the three groups both for La max (13.1 +/- 0.8 mmol x L (-1); 14.8 +/- 1.0 mmol x L (-1) and 11.2 +/- 0.5 mmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT), NA max (22.1 +/- 1.2 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 2.4 nmol x L (-1) and 20.2 +/- 7 nmol x L (-1)respectively for ET, ST and UT) and A max (4.1 +/- 0.8 nmol x L (-1); 2.6 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT). Consequently the ratio A max /NA max was similar in UT, ET and ST (respectively 0.2 +/- 0.03; 0.2 +/- 0.04; 0.17 +/- 0.04), These results indicated, in contrast to the men's data, that the catecholamine response to the Wingate-test did not differ between female subjects of different status of training. In conclusion this study did not find any significant effect of training

  9. Effects of tai chi training on antioxidant capacity in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-04-11

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity-an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme-and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  10. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attakorn Palasuwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n=8 and postmenopausal (n=7 sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1 increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2 decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

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    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  12. Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women

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    A.C. Tonacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypothesized that weight loss by diet (D or diet plus exercise training (D + ET would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m², D + ET (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m², and nonadherent (NA, N = 9, 35 ± 2 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m² groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was measured by microneurography and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Mental stress was elicited by a 3-min Stroop color word test. Weight loss was similar between D and D + ET groups (87 ± 2 vs 79 ± 2 and 85 ± 2 vs 76 ± 2 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 with a significant reduction in MSNA during mental stress (58 ± 2 vs 50 ± 2, P = 0.0001, and 59 ± 3 vs 50 ± 2 bursts/100 beats, P = 0.0001, respectively, although the magnitude of the response was unchanged. Forearm vascular conductance during mental stress was significantly increased only in D + ET (2.74 ± 0.22 vs 3.52 ± 0.19 units, P = 0.02. Weight loss reduces MSNA during mental stress in obese women. The increase in forearm vascular conductance after weight loss provides convincing evidence for D + ET interventions as a nonpharmacologic therapy of human obesity.

  13. Free living energy expenditure in post menopausal women before and after exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytel, L R; Lambert, M I; Johnson, J; Noakes, T D; Lambert, E V

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of moderate exercise training, on 24-hour free living energy expenditure in previously sedentary post-menopausal women. The experimental group (EX) included 9 women. Ten non-exercising control subjects (CON) were recruited to undergo pre- and post-testing. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), total 24-hour heart beats (HB), total energy intake (TEI), resting metabolic rate, maximal oxygen consumption (VáO2max), body composition, and submaximal heart rate were measured before and after the exercise intervention. Body composition did not change (body fat % in CON 34.0 +/- 4.0% vs. 33.9 +/- 3.6% and EX 34.1 +/- 4.0% vs. 34.0 +/- 3.4%). Mean submaximal heart rate during steady-state exercise in EX was lower after training compared to CON (p post, respectively), RMR (CON 134.2 +/- 9.4 vs. 136.9 +/- 15.0 KJ/kgFFM/day, and EX 138.4 +/- 6.4 vs. 140.7 +/- 14.2 KJ/kgFFM/day, pre vs. post, respectively), TEI (CON 7.9 +/- 2.2 vs. 8.2 +/- 2.5 MJ, and EX 9.4 +/-1.6 vs. 8.3 +/- 2.8 MJ), nor HB (CON 110,808 +/- 12,574 vs. 107,366 +/- 12,864 beats, and EX 110,188 +/- 9,219 vs. 114,590 +/- 12,750 beats) change over 8 weeks in either group. These data suggest that a moderate exercise program may not impact on TDEE, RMR, TEI, or HB in previously sedentary, older women.

  14. Resourcefulness Training for Women Dementia Caregivers: Acceptability and Feasibility of Two Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Lekhak, Nirmala; Napoleon, Betty; Morris, Diana L

    2016-01-01

    Almost 10 million women in the United States are caregivers for elders with dementia and many experience extreme stress that compromises their health. Acceptable and feasible interventions to teach them resourcefulness skills for managing stress may improve their health and facilitate continued caregiving. This study examined two commonly used methods for practicing skills taught during resourcefulness training (RT) to women caregivers of elders with dementia (n=63): journaling and digital voice recording. It also explored whether providing caregivers a choice between the two methods made it more acceptable or feasible. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected before, during, and after RT. Caregivers who recorded used more words (M=5446) but recorded fewer days (M=17) than those who journaled (M=2792 words and M=27 days). Similar concerns in relation to time management and practice method were expressed by women caregivers irrespective of practice method (journal versus recorder) or random versus choice condition. While journaling was more frequent than recording, more words were expressed during recordings. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were unrelated to the number of practice days or word counts, suggesting RT acceptability and feasibility even for highly stressed or depressed caregivers. Because intervention feasibility is important for RT effectiveness testing, alternatives to the journaling and recording methods for practicing RT skills should be considered.

  15. Effect of hydration and vocal rest on the vocal fatigue in amateur karaoke singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Chan, Rainy M M

    2003-06-01

    Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is not uncommon to find participants singing continuously for four to five hours each time. As most of the karaoke singers have no formal training in singing, these amateur singers are more vulnerable to developing voice problems under these intensive singing activities. This study reports the performance of 20 young amateur singers (10 males and 10 females, aged between 20-25 years) on a series of phonatory function tasks carried out during continuous karaoke singing. Half of the singers were given water to drink and short duration of vocal rests at regular intervals during singing and the other half sang continuously without taking any water or rest. The subjects who were given hydration and vocal rests sang significantly longer than those who did not take any water or rest. The voice quality, as measured by perceptual and acoustic measures, and vocal function, as measured by phonetogram, did not show any significant changes during singing in the subjects who were given water and rest during the singing. However, subjects who sang continuously without drinking water and taking rests showed significant changes in the jitter measure and the highest pitch they could produce during singing. These results suggest that hydration and vocal rests are useful strategies to preserve voice function and quality during karaoke singing. This information is useful educational information for karaoke singers.

  16. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  17. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  18. The effects of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Park, Jin-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly people in local communities performed dual-task gait training for 20 minutes three times per week for 8 weeks. Foot pressure was measured using an F-scan System (Tekscan, South Boston, MA, USA) before the intervention and in the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention. [Results] Foot pressure increased significantly between the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention in the CFF (central forefoot); between before the intervention and the 4th week, between the 4th and 8th weeks, and between before the intervention and the 8th week in the MF (midfoot); and between before the intervention and the 4th and 8th weeks in the HL (heel). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that dual-task gait training may improve the gait ability of elderly persons residing in the community.

  19. Evaluation of strength training protocols with the use of the Powerball® and Shakeweight® in moderate trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEOPHILOS PILIANIDIS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two training protocols on the women’s arms strength by using the patented equipment of PowerBall® and Shake Weight®. 39 females, aged 21.6±1.1yrs with body mass 60.3±7.4kg and stature 164±0.6cm were randomly divided into three groups: the PowerBall® (PGr, the Shake Weight® (SGr and the Control (CGr. The participants of the PGr & SGr trained for 18 days by using specific arms exercises while the women of the CGr did not perform any training program. In all studied women the hand-grip test as well as the forearm and arm girths of the dominant hand was evaluated before and after the completion of the testing protocol. The interaction among the variables in each group was assessed with the use of the factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The results showed that the women in PGr had a marginal improvement in the final hand- grip measurement (18.78±3.1kg in relation to the participants of the SGr (18.65±3.1kg. In addition, the forearm and arm girths of the women of the PGr were slightly larger than those reported in the participants of the SGr. In conclusion, the present study justifies the effectiveness of the training with the use of the innovative PowerBall® and Shake Weight® which are the proper equipment for the upper limbs muscular strength in moderate trained women.

  20. 女子篮球体能训练现状研究%Women's Basketball Training Physical Research Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏莉; 钟丹

    2014-01-01

    The physical training is an important basis for almost all sports, especially for women's basketball, the sports training is much more important. Despite actively explore various sports institutions at all levels of effective models of physical training women's basketball, women's basketball fitness training but still lags behind the development of technology and the times, physical training in women's basketball, there are still many shortcomings to be, it should be taken seriously and continue to improve. In this paper, the status of the physical training of the sort of women's basketball and analysis, the optimal path on how to better carry out the women's basketball workout.%体能训练是几乎所有运动项目的重要基础,特别是对于女子篮球而言,体育训练则显得更为重要。尽管我国各级各类体育院校积极探索女子篮球体能训练的有效模式,但女子篮球体能训练仍然滞后于科技和时代的发展,在女子篮球体能训练方面还存在着许多不足之处,应当认真对待并不断完善。本文对我国女子篮球体能训练现状进行了梳理和分析,就如何更好的开展女子篮球体能训练提出优化路径。

  1. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    : Twenty non-smoking women with ages between 18 and 55 years from the Endocrinology Ambulatory of the institution were evaluated after clinical and lab diagnosis for hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The parameters investigated were: period bearing the disease, vocal complaint, maximum phonation time /a/, /s/, and /z/, fundamental frequency (F0, glottal noise (GNE. The aspects evaluated in the auditory-perceptive analysis were: pneumo-phono-articulatory coordination (coordinated or uncoordinated, pitch, loudness, vocal attack, resonance, speech speed and vocal quality, that could be classified as one or two of the following: neutral, hoarse, whispered, coarse, or tense, and degree: light, moderate or severe. Data were statistically analyzed through the EPI-INFO 6.04b software, Fisher qualitative method, considering a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The auditory-perceptive analysis showed that seven patients with hypothyroidism and nine with hyperthyroidism presented changes in vocal quality. Eight subjects from both groups presented pneumo-phono-articulatory incoordination. Eight subjects from group A and six from group B referred vocal complaints, such as hoarseness and thick voice, respectively. In the acoustic analysis, nine subjects presented change in glottal noise. CONCLUSION: The results showed great incidence of vocal changes on the studied groups (both hyper and hypothyroidism groups, which evidences the relation between dysphonia and thyroidal dysfunctions.

  2. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  3. Influence of a physical training program on muscle strength, balance and gait velocity among women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aveiro,MC; Granito,RN; Navega,MT; P Driusso; J Oishi

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The trend towards increased life expectancy will certainly lead to increases in morbidity and mortality relating to osteoporosis. Because of the lack of well defined protocols on the intensity and frequency of easily performed physical exercises for Brazilian women, this study proposed to analyze the effects of a training program for ankle muscle strength, balance performance and gait velocity among women with a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. METHODS: Twelve female volun...

  4. Heat acclimation and physical training adaptations of young women using different contraceptive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M; Keith, Nicole R; Elliott, Tabatha A; Vanheest, Jaci L; Scheett, Timothy P; Stoppani, James; Judelson, Daniel A; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2005-05-01

    Although endogenous and exogenous steroid hormones affect numerous physiological processes, the interactions of reproductive hormones, chronic exercise training, and heat acclimation are unknown. This investigation evaluated the responses and adaptations of 36 inactive females [age 21 +/- 3 (SD) yr] as they undertook a 7- to 8-wk program [heat acclimation and physical training (HAPT)] of indoor heat acclimation (90 min/day, 3 days/wk) and outdoor physical training (3 days/wk) while using either an oral estradiol-progestin contraceptive (ORAL, n = 15), a contraceptive injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DEPO, n = 7), or no contraceptive (EU-OV, n = 14; control). Standardized physical fitness and exercise-heat tolerance tests (36.5 degrees C, 37% relative humidity), administered before and after HAPT, demonstrated that the three subject groups successfully (P muscular endurance (i.e., sit-ups, push-ups, 4.6-km run time) and body composition characteristics. The stress of HAPT did not disrupt the menstrual cycle length/phase characteristics, ovulation, or plasma hormone concentrations of EU-OV. No between-group differences (P > 0.05) existed for rectal and skin temperatures or metabolic, cardiorespiratory, muscular endurance, or body composition variables. A significant difference post-HAPT in the onset temperature of local sweating, ORAL (37.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C) vs. DEPO (37.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C), suggested that steroid hormones influenced this adaptation. In summary, virtually all adaptations of ORAL and DEPO were similar to EU-OV, suggesting that exogenous reproductive hormones neither enhanced nor impaired the ability of women to complete 7-8 wk of strenuous physical training and heat acclimation.

  5. The effects of a single session aerobic exercise on obestatin gene expression in trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidlamir A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies indicate that obestatin, an anti-hunger peptide, plays an important role in energy balance, GH secretion, and body weight. It has been physiologically shown that obestatin apposes the function of Ghrelin. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single session of aerobic exercise in trained women (a 1.5-mile run on the expression of obestatin gene found in lymphocytes."n "nMethods: 16 trained female participants (4±1 years of training experience were voluntarily selected from Khorasan province in Iran and were randomly divided into two groups: the control and aerobic exercise groups. The participants in the aerobic group were asked to run for 1.5 miles with a fixed speed (70 VO2 max while the controls were passively present in the exercise environment. Following an overnight fast, blood samples (10 ml from the antecubital vein were collected before and immediately after the exercise from all the participants. Obestatin expression was investigated after separating the lymphocytes by centrifuge and using semi-quantitative RT-PCR."n "nResults: There was a rise in obestatin gene expression in the case group after one session of aerobic training versus the control group but the changes were not statistically significant."n "nConclusion: The results indicated that a single aerobic exercise could not significantly increase the expression of obestatin. Perhaps the type, duration and intensity of the applied protocol in this study did not have a cumulative effect on this gene although these results are in harmony with the results of other studies in this regard.

  6. Effects of different resistance training frequencies on flexibility in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro NH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nelson H Carneiro,1,2 Alex S Ribeiro,1 Matheus A Nascimento,1 Luís A Gobbo,3 Brad J Schoenfeld,4 Abdallah Achour Júnior,1 Sebastião Gobbi,5 Arli R Oliveira,1 Edilson S Cyrino1 1Study and Research Group in Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise, Physical Education Department, Londrina State University, Londrina, 2Physical Education Department, Oeste Paulista University, Presidente Prudente, 3Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologia/Departamento de Educação Física, Presidente Prudente, Brazil; 4Exercise Science Department, The City University of New York Lehman College, Bronx, New York, USA; 5Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Institudo de Biociências/Departamento de Educação Física, Laboratory of Aging and Physical Activity (LAFE, Rio Carlo, São Paulo, Brazil Objective: The main purpose of the investigation reported here was to analyze the effect of resistance training (RT performed at different weekly frequencies on flexibility in older women.Participants and methods: Fifty-three older women (≥60 years old were randomly assigned to perform RT either two (n=28; group “G2x”, or three (n=25; group “G3x” times per week. The RT program comprised eight exercises in which the participants performed one set of 10–15 repetitions maximum for a period of 12 weeks. Anthropometric, body-composition, and flexibility measurements were made at baseline and post-study. The flexibility measurements were obtained by a fleximeter.Results: A significant group-by-time interaction (P<0.01 was observed for frontal hip flexion, in which G3x showed a higher increase than G2x (+12.8% and +3.0%, respectively. Both groups increased flexibility in cervical extension (G2x=+19.1%, G3x=+20.0%, right hip flexion (G2x=+14.6%, G3x=+15.9%, and left hip flexion (G2x=+25.7%, G3x=+19.2%, with no statistical difference between groups. No statistically significant differences were noted for the increase in skeletal muscle mass

  7. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  8. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  9. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    , which is the mode that is most limited in pitch range, was tested at its pitch limit C5 (523 Hz) under normal conditions and when the singer has inhaled Helium. When inhaling Helium the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is reduced in magnitude and the resonances are scaled upwards in frequency due...... to different density and speed of sound in Helium. The electroglottograph shows a change in waveform when the singer inhales helium. The percentage of the glottal cycle when the vocal cords are open, the so-called open quotient, increases from 40 to 55%. When inhaling helium the male singer was able reach Eb5...

  10. The effect of an aerobic training period on mental health and depression in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saremi A; Kazemi M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is among the common endocrine women disorders that can create manifestations such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of aerobic training on mental health and depression among Iranian women suffering from PCOS has been examined. Methods: This semi experimental study was carried out based on pre-test and post-test on experiment and control groups in Arak, Iran. Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (aged 27.82 ±5.23 y...

  11. Análise do trato vocal em pacientes com nódulos, fendas e cisto de prega vocal Vocal tract analysis in patients with vocal fold nodules, clefts and cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Buzelin Nunes

    2009-04-01

    the frequency of supraglottic vocal tract adjustments in dysphonic women with nodules, clefts and cysts. METHODS: We assessed 31 dysphonic women, with age ranging between 18 and 45 years, with vocal alteration and a diagnosis of nodules, middle-posterior cleft and cyst, and we carried out a summarized evaluation of the sensory-motor and oral systems and the patients were submitted to video-laryngostroboscopy and nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy. Three distinct groups were selected: patients with bilateral nodules, clefts and cysts, with similar glottic configuration. Their vocal tracts were visually analyzed through exams of nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy, by speech and hearing therapists and otorhinolaryngologists, checking the following parameters: supraglottic constriction, larynx vertical mobility, pharyngeal constriction and tongue mobility. The data was statistically described and treated. RESULTS: during visual analysis we did not find statistically significant differences which would separate the glottic alterations groups. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between supraglottic tract adjustments with any particular type of glottic alteration. These are individual behaviors that generate adjustments and justify the different vocal qualities in patients with the same type of laryngeal alteration.

  12. Heart rate variability characteristics in sedentary postmenopausal women following six months of exercise training: the DREW study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P Earnest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Overall, postmenopausal women have lower levels of HRV than premenopausal women, which may be additionally complicated by lifestyle related behaviors such as physical inactivity and obesity. Though cardiorespiratory exercise training increases HRV, little is known regarding the exercise dose necessary to promote this improvement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our primary aim was to measure HRV in post-menopausal women following 6-months of exercise training. We examined supine resting HRV in 373 post-menopausal women (45-75 y after 6-months of randomly assigned and double-blinded administered exercise training exercise training at 50%, 100% and 150% of the NIH Consensus Development Panel's recommended minimal physical activity level. This corresponded to 4, 8, or 12 kcal/kg per week (KKW of energy expenditure. At baseline, we observed no significant differences in HRV or hormone replacement use between treatment groups. However, we did observe that Caucasian women and those taking antidepressant medications had lower levels of baseline HRV. After 6-months of exercise intervention, we observed a dose dependent increase in all parasympathetically derived time and frequency domain measurements across exercise groups after adjustment for age, ethnicity, antidepressants, and baseline rMSSD (all, P<0.001. For example, the parasympathetic index rMSSD was greater than control (23.19+/-1.0 for the 4-KKW (25.98+/-0.8; P = 0.14, 8-KKW (27.66+/-1.0; P<0.05, and 12-KKW (27.40+/-0.0; P<0.05 groups at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Moderate intensity exercise training exercise is sufficient to improve HRV in previously sedentary postmenopausal women in a dose-dependent manner, as 4-KKW is insufficient to improve parasympathetic indices of HRV, while 12-KKW conferred no greater improvement than 8-KKW. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00011193.

  13. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  14. Cetacean vocal learning and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Vincent M

    2014-10-01

    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies.

  15. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  16. The impact of vocal hyperfunction on relative fundamental frequency during voicing offset and onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E; Hillman, Robert E; Heaton, James T

    2010-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with vocal hyperfunction would show decreases in relative fundamental frequency (RFF) surrounding a voiceless consonant. This retrospective study of 2 clinical databases used speech samples from 15 control participants and women with hyperfunction-related voice disorders: 82 prior to treatment (muscle tension dysphonia, n=22; vocal fold nodules, n=30; vocal fold polyps, N=30) and 18 before and after surgical removal of vocal fold nodules or polyps. Acoustic samples were analyzed with respect to the RFF at the offset and onset of voicing surrounding a voiceless consonant. Individuals with vocal hyperfunction in a large clinical sample showed significant lowering of offset and onset RFF compared with controls. Voicing offset and onset RFFs were not significantly changed by the removal of vocal fold lesions in the surgical group. Altered offset and onset RFF in patients with hyperfunction-related voice disorders can be interpreted as a by-product of heightened levels of laryngeal muscle tension. Measurement of RFF during voice offset and onset has potential for use as a simple, noninvasive measure of vocal hyperfunction.

  17. The effect of an aerobic training period on mental health and depression in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saremi A*

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is among the common endocrine women disorders that can create manifestations such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of aerobic training on mental health and depression among Iranian women suffering from PCOS has been examined. Methods: This semi experimental study was carried out based on pre-test and post-test on experiment and control groups in Arak, Iran. Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (aged 27.82 ±5.23 yr were selected and randomly divided to training (n=12 and control (n=10 groups. Aerobic training program was performed 25-40 min/d, 3d/wk, for 10 weeks. Mental health and depression were evaluated using a general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 and a Beck depression inventory (BAI-II in the two groups before and after the study. Results: The 10 week aerobic training had a significant effect on mental health, subscales of physical symptoms, anxiety and depression (p0.05. Conclusion: The result of present study suggests that aerobic exercise can improve the mental disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for treating pelvic organ prolapse in women: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Teixeira Bernardes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that women with pelvic floor dysfunctions present decreased cross-sectional area (CSA of the levator ani muscle. One way to assess the effects of training programs is to measure the CSA of the muscle, using ultrasonography. The aim here was to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for increasing the CSA of the levator ani muscle in women with pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled trial at the Urogynecology outpatient clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight women with stage II pelvic organ prolapse were divided into three groups for physiotherapy: a pelvic floor muscle training group (GI; a hypopressive exercise group (GII; and a control group (GIII. The patients underwent transperineal ultrasonographic evaluation using a transducer of frequency 4-9 MHz. The (CSA of the levator ani muscle was measured before physiotherapy and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age, number of pregnancies, number of vaginal deliveries, body mass index and hormonal status. Statistically significant differences in CSA were found in GI and GII from before to after the treatment (P < 0.001, but not in relation to GIII (P = 0.816. CONCLUSIONS: The CSA of the levator ani muscle increased significantly with physiotherapy among the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises produced similar improvements in the CSA of the levator ani muscle.

  19. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...

  20. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  1. Aerobic exercise training improves atrial natriuretic peptide and catecholamine-mediated lipolysis in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pasarica, Magdalena; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Redman, Leanne M

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the regulation of lipolysis by catecholamine and for the first time atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) before and after 16 wk of aerobic training. Eight hyperandrogenic obese women with PCOS [age, 25 +/- 1 yr; body mass index (BMI), 32.0 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)] and seven healthy BMI-matched controls participated. Studies were performed before and after a 16-wk exercise training program in women with PCOS and cross-sectionally in a group of BMI-matched controls. Lipolysis was measured in vitro in isolated adipocytes and in vivo by microdialysis of sc abdominal adipose tissue before and during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. In vitro, baseline and maximal ANP- and isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was markedly reduced in PCOS women. Baseline (P lipolysis, however, was remarkably increased after training, independent of changes in body weight and sex hormones. These functional improvements were supported by an increased 1) lipolytic sensitivity for ANP (1.3-fold; P lipolysis during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was also reduced in PCOS. Together, these data show that the regulation of lipolysis by the main endocrine hormones is impaired in women with PCOS. These lipolytic defects can be partly reversed by aerobic exercise training independent of changes in body fat mass and sex hormones.

  2. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n=15 or the control group (n=21 for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes (e.g., compliance and adverse effects and clinical outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, and physical function were assessed. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. Results. The training materials were well received. The feedback from participants suggests that self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home, although no statistically significant results of the clinical outcome were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure compared with usual care. Conclusion. Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.

  3. Different molecular and structural adaptations with eccentric and conventional strength training in elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias; Breil, Fabio Andreas; Lurman, Glenn; Klossner, Stephan; Flück, Martin; Billeter, Rudolf; Däpp, Christoph; Hoppeler, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Reprogramming of gene expression contributes to structural and functional adaptation of muscle tissue in response to altered use. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms for observed improvements in leg extension strength, gain in relative thigh muscle mass and loss of body and thigh fat content in response to eccentric and conventional strength training in elderly men (n = 14) and women (n = 14; average age of the men and women: 80.1 ± 3.7 years) by means of structural and molecular analyses. Biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis in the resting state before and after 12 weeks of training with two weekly resistance exercise sessions (RET) or eccentric ergometer sessions (EET). Gene expression was analyzed using custom-designed low-density PCR arrays. Muscle ultrastructure was evaluated using EM morphometry. Gain in thigh muscle mass was paralleled by an increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area (hypertrophy) with RET but not with EET, where muscle growth is likely occurring by the addition of sarcomeres in series or by hyperplasia. The expression of transcripts encoding factors involved in muscle growth, repair and remodeling (e.g., IGF-1, HGF, MYOG, MYH3) was increased to a larger extent after EET than RET. MicroRNA 1 expression was decreased independent of the training modality, and was paralleled by an increased expression of IGF-1 representing a potential target. IGF-1 is a potent promoter of muscle growth, and its regulation by microRNA 1 may have contributed to the gain of muscle mass observed in our subjects. EET depressed genes encoding mitochondrial and metabolic transcripts. The changes of several metabolic and mitochondrial transcripts correlated significantly with changes in mitochondrial volume density. Intramyocellular lipid content was decreased after EET concomitantly with total body fat. Changes in intramyocellular lipid content correlated with changes in body fat content with both RET and EET. In the elderly, RET and

  4. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  5. Thigh muscle size and vascular function after blood flow-restricted elastic band training in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fukumura, Kazuya; Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of elastic band training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on thigh muscle size and vascular function in older women. Older women were divided into three groups: low-intensity elastic band BFR training (BFR-Tr, n = 10), middleto high-intensity elastic band training (MH-Tr, n = 10), and no training (Ctrl, n = 10) groups. BFR-Tr and MH-Tr groups performed squat and knee extension exercises using elastic band, 2 days/week for 12 weeks. During BFR-Tr exercise session, subjects wore pressure cuffs around the most proximal region of both thighs. The following measurements were taken before (pre) and 3-5 days after (post) the final training session: MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at mid-thigh, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extension, central systolic blood pressure (c-SBP), central-augmentation index (c-AIx), cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Quadriceps muscle CSA (6.9%) and knee extension MVIC (13.7%) were increased (p muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not decrease vascular function in older women. PMID:27244884

  6. Injuries and injury risk factors among men and women in U.S. Army Combat Medic Advanced individual training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, N E; Knapik, J J; Shaffer, S W; McKenzie, T H; Schneider, G M

    2000-09-01

    No previous reports have evaluated injuries or injury risk factors during the advanced individual training (AIT) that follows the Army's initial or basic combat training (BCT). This study examined injuries and injury risk factors among 439 men and 287 women participating in combat medic AIT. A questionnaire addressing demographic and lifestyle characteristics (age, race, tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, etc.) was administered to all subjects. Stature and body mass were obtained from battalion records. Injuries occurring during both BCT and AIT were transcribed from subject medical records. Results indicated that cumulative injury incidence (subjects with one or more injuries) in BCT was 26% for men and 52% for women (p 25 years), split option (a break in service between BCT and AIT), and higher body mass were independent risk factors for AIT injuries among women. None of the examined variables were independent risk factors for AIT injuries among men.

  7. ['Young women and lady dentists': training, degrees, and the market in the first decades of the Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Maria Lucia; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Muniz, Maria Aparecida; Martino, Luiz Vicente Souza; Santos, Ana Paula Ferreira; Maestrini, Karla

    2008-06-01

    Since the 1980s, more women than men have graduated from Brazil's dentistry schools, yet little has been written about women's access to the profession. This article provides background information useful in analyzing the training and professional roles of women dentists in Brazil during the first years of the Republic; discusses the relation between changes in the profession, health policies, and the gender system during that period; and contributes to the discussion on the feminization of the profession. The article is part of a broader project investigating training, professional roles, and the labor market in the health field in São Paulo. Sources include articles published in newspapers, magazines, and specialized journals devoted to dentistry, pharmacy, and medicine, along with government and university records covering the years 1892 through 1926.

  8. Oxidative capacity and glycogen content increase more in arm than leg muscle in sedentary women after intense training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Connolly, Luke; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    training was evaluated. A group of sedentary premenopausal women aged 45±6 years (±SD) with expected high adaptive potential in both upper- and lower-extremity muscle groups participated. After random allocation to high-intensity swimming (HIS, n=21), moderate-intensity swimming (MOS, n=21), soccer (SOC, n...... lateralis in sedentary women, and 'high-intensity low-volume' training is a more efficient regime than 'low-intensity high-volume' training for increasing the aerobic capacity of m. deltoideus.......The hypothesis that the adaptive capacity is higher in human upper- than lower-body skeletal muscle was tested. Furthermore, the hypothesis that more pronounced adaptations in upper-body musculature can be achieved by 'low-volume high-intensity' as compared to 'high-volume low-intensity' exercise...

  9. Effect on long-term average spectrum of pop singers' vocal warm-up with vocal function exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Angulo, Mabel; Muñoz, Daniel; Mayerhoff, Ross

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This case-control study aimed to investigate if there is any change on the spectral slope declination immediately after vocal function exercises (VFE) vs traditional vocal warm-up exercises in normal singers. Thirty-eight pop singers with perceptually normal voices were divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 18). One single session with VFE for the experimental group and traditional singing warm-up exercises for the control group was applied. Voice was recorded before and after the exercises. The recorded tasks were to read a phonetically balanced text and to sing a song. Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis included alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio, and singing power ratio (SPR). Acoustic parameters of voice samples pre- and post-training were compared. Comparison between VFE and control group was also performed. Significant changes after treatment included the alpha ratio and singing power ratio in speaking voice, and SPR in the singing voice for VFE group. The traditional vocal warm-up of the control group also showed pre-post changes. Significant differences between VFE group and control group for alpha ratio and SPR were found in speaking voice samples. This study demonstrates that VFE have an immediate effect on the spectrum of the voice, specifically a decrease on the spectral slope declination. The results of this study provide support for the advantageous effect of VFE as vocal warm-up on voice quality.

  10. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  11. Prevalence trends in chlamydial infections among young women entering the national job training program, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesoef, M Riduan; Mosure, Debra J

    2006-09-01

    To assess the trends and risk factors of chlamydial infections in disadvantaged women aged 16 to 24 years entering a national job training program. To assess the impact of chlamydia screening program on chlamydia trend. The authors calculated the prevalence of chlamydia by demographic and geographic characteristics from 106,377 women who were screened from 1998 through 2004. Chlamydia prevalence was inversely associated with age, decreasing from 12.7% in women aged 16 to 17 years to 6.6% in women aged 22 to 24 years. Blacks had the highest prevalence (13.1%). Chlamydia prevalence significantly decreased from 11.7% in 1998 to 10.0% in 2003 and then slightly increased to 10.3% in 2004. After direct standardization and adjustment for the laboratory test type, a similar trend was observed by age and race/ethnicities. Among disadvantaged women aged 16 to 24 years entering a national job training program, the chlamydia prevalence and racial disparities in prevalence were consistently high from 1998 to 2004, especially among younger black women.

  12. THE RELIABILITY OF 1- AND 3RM TESTS OF UNILATERAL STRENGTH IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Hoff

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1- and 3RM tests for the modified unilateral squat. Thirty untrained (22 women, 8 men and 22 trained (12 women, 10 men subjects participated in the study. The trained group had a minimum of 1 year lower-body training experience but had not participated in unilateral training prior to the study. After practicing proper technique with light loads, the subjects used the barbell squat to complete a 1- and 3RM pretest and posttest. In each group half of the subjects completed the 1RM tests prior to the 3RM tests while half of the subjects completed the 3RM tests first. A rest period of 48 hours was allowed between each test. Twenty subjects, randomly selected from the two groups, completed a third session of the 1RM test 3 days after the 1RM posttest. Intraclass correlation coefficients were recorded. Differences between pre- and posttest measures were determined by the paired-sample t-test. The 1- and 3RM tests were found to be significantly reliable for trained men, r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, untrained men, r = 0.99 and r = 0.97, trained women r = 0.99 and r = 0.94, and untrained women, r = 0.97 and r = 0.87, respectively. Posttest scores for the 1- and 3RM tests significantly improved above baseline levels in each group (p < 0.05. Strength scores did not significantly increase during the third 1RM test (p = 0.22. The data indicate that the modified unilateral squat can be measured with high reliability using the 1- and 3RM tests. The improved posttest scores indicate that a pretest session should take place before recording baseline measurements

  13. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  14. Prospective randomized comparison of oxybutynin, functional electrostimulation, and pelvic floor training for treatment of detrusor overactivity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Raquel M; Castro, Rodrigo A; Sousa, Gabriela C; Sartori, Marair G F; Baracat, Edmund C; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of oxybutynin, functional electrostimulation (FES), and pelvic floor training (PFT) for treatment of women with detrusor overactivity. Sixty-four subjects were randomized to oxybutynin (n=22), FES (n=21), or PFT (n=21). Women were evaluated before and after completion of 12 weeks of treatment by subjective response, voiding diary, and urodynamic test. There was subjective symptomatic improvement in 77% of the women treated with oxybutynin, 52% with FES, and 76% with PFT. Urgency resolved in 64% of women treated with oxybutynin, 52% with FES, and in 57% with PFT. Urodynamic evaluation was normal in 36% treated with oxybutynin, 57% with FES, and 52% with PFT. Maximum detrusor involuntary contraction pressure decreased in all groups (p<0.05). All treatments were equally effective. Subjective reduction of urge-incontinence episodes was associated with symptomatic improvement.

  15. Decomposition of vocal cycle length perturbations into vocal jitter and vocal microtremor, and comparison of their size in normophonic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoentgen, J

    2003-06-01

    A statistical method that enables raw vocal cycle length perturbations to be decomposed into perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and vocal tremor is presented, together with a comparison of the size of jitter and tremor. The method is based on a time series model that splits the vocal cycle length perturbations into uncorrelated cycle-to-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and supra-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal tremor. The corpus was composed of 114 vocal cycle length time series for sustained vowels [a], [i], and [u] produced by 22 male and 16 female normophonic speakers. The results were the following. First, 100 out of 114 time series were decomposed successfully by means of the time series model. Second, vocal perturbations ascribed to tremor were significantly larger than perturbations ascribed to jitter. Third, the correlation between vocal jitter and vocal tremor was moderate, but statistically significant. Fourth, small but statistically significant differences were observed among the three vowel timbres in the relative jitter and the arithmetic difference of jitter and tremor. Fifth, the differences between male and female speakers were not statistically significant in the relative raw perturbations, the relative jitter, or the modulation level owing to tremor.

  16. A home-based treadmill training reduced epicardial and abdominal fat in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fornieles González

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study was designed to determine the effect of home-based treadmill training on epicardial and abdominal adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS. A secondary objective was to identify significant correlations between imaging and conventional anthropometric parameters. Material and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women with MS volunteered for the current trial. Thirty were randomly assigned to perform a supervised home-based 16-week treadmill training program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of a warm-up, 30-40 min treadmill exercise (increasing 5-minutes each 4-weeks at a work intensity of 60-75% of peak heart rate (increasing 5% each 4-weeks and cooling-down. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT was assessed by echocardiography. Abdominal fat mass in the lumbar regions L1-L4 and L4-L5 was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Epicardial fat thickness and abdominal fat percentages were significantly improved after the completion of the training program. Another striking feature of the current study was the moderate correlation that was found between EFT and waist circumference (WC. Conclusion: Home-based treadmill training reduced epicardial and abdominal fat in postmenopausal women with MS. A secondary finding was that a moderate correlation was found between EFT and WC. While current investigations are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.

  17. XML The Impact of High Intensity Interval Training On Lipid Profile, Inflammatory Markers and Anthropometric Parameters in Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Zaer Ghodsi (MSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT is a recently proposed exercise protocol, which is time-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIIT for 8 weeks on the lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP, fasting blood sugar (FBS and anthropometric parameters of young women who do not exercise. Methods: In this study, 20 young physically inactive women performed HIIT workouts for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. The training protocol consisted of 10-times treadmill running for 15 seconds at maximum effort and then 30 seconds of resting. Blood samples were taken while fasting, a day before and after the training and then the considered parameters were measured. Wilcoxon test was used to compare the obtained data. Results: HIIT significantly reduced FBS, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein /cholesterol ratio and CRP while increasing the HDL levels. There was a significant difference in the weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, abdominal circumference and chest circumference of the subjects before and after the training (p <0.05. Conclusion: HIIT can improve lipid, inflammatory and anthropometric parameters, thus it can be considered as a suitable alternative to time-consuming exercises, especially for physically inactive women who like to spend less time to achieve optimal physical wellness and body fitness.

  18. Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J.; Landy, Lauren N.; Brown, Kimberley; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects. PMID:24636501

  19. Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kimberley D; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects.

  20. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  1. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eonho; Dear, Alexis; Ferguson, Steven L; Seo, Dongil; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    This study compared SuperSlow resistance training (SRT) to traditional resistance training (TRT) during early phase adaptations in strength, aerobic capacity, and flexibility in college-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to SRT (n = 14); TRT (n = 13); or control (CON; n = 8) groups. To equalize training times, TRT trained 3 times per week for 25 minutes each session, whereas SRT trained twice a week for 35 minutes each session. Both groups trained for 4 weeks, whereas the CON group maintained normal daily activities. Workouts consisted of 5 exercises: shoulder press, chest press, leg press, low row, and lat pull down. The SRT group completed 1 set of each exercise at 50% 1RM until momentary failure with a 10-second concentric and a 10-second eccentric phase. The TRT group completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM for each exercise, with 4 seconds of contraction time for each repetition. Groups were statistically similar at baseline. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effect for flexibility with the greatest improvements occurring for the training groups (SRT 14.7% and TRT 11%). All strength tests had significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effects but no group or group by time interactions. Both training groups had large percent improvements in strength compared to CON, but the large variability associated with the SRT group resulted in only the TRT group being significantly different from the CON group. In conclusion, percent improvements were similar for the TRT and SRT groups, but only the TRT group reached statistical significance for the strength improvements, and both groups were equally effective for improving flexibility.

  2. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. [Vocal cord dysfunction. An important differential diagnosis to bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, C; Schade, G; Fleischer, S; Hess, M

    2004-03-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is described as a functional disorder of the vocal folds which leads to an intermittent, inspiratory 'paradoxical' glottal closure. We report on three women with frequent repetitive shortness of breath attacks caused by VCD. This was diagnosed by transnasal videofiberendoscopy, with glottal closure being seen during inspiration. Because of the different etiologies, one of the patients was treated with breathing and speech therapy, another received Omeprazol for laryngopharyngeal reflux, and the third was treated by intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injections. All three patients showed a reduction in attacks. Clinically, VCD seems to mimic asthma. However, with a thorough patient history and diagnostics, especially with transnasal laryngoscopy during a (triggered) attack, a precise diagnosis seems possible.

  4. Some aspects of vocal fold bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Hirano, M; Chijiwa, K

    1994-05-01

    Bowing of the vocal fold frequently occurs in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP), those with sulcus vocalis, and those who have had laser surgery. Additionally, there are vocal folds that present bowing with no noticeable organic lesion. For the purpose of investigating the causes and mechanisms of vocal fold bowing, consecutive fiberscopic videorecordings of 127 patients with VFP, 33 with sulcus vocalis, 33 with laser surgery, and 33 with dysphonia having no clinically noticeable organic lesion were reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the paralyzed vocal folds had bowing, and the occurrence of bowing was significantly related to the activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle as measured by electromyography. The cricothyroid activity had no significant relationship to vocal fold bowing. All vocal folds with sulcus presented with bowing. Thirty-five percent of the vocal folds that had had laser surgery had bowing. The extent of tissue removal was closely related to the occurrence of bowing. Twelve cases with no organic lesion had vocal fold bowing. Of these 12 patients, 8 were male and 9 were older than 60 years. Some aging process in the mucosa was presumed to be the cause of the bowing in this age group of patients without clinically noticeable organic lesions. Causes of vocal fold bowing in the younger group of patients without organic lesions were not determined in this study.

  5. Teacher's voice: vocal tract discomfort symptoms, vocal intensity and noise in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Amanda Louize Félix; Lucena, Brunna Thaís Luckwu de; De Araújo, Aline Menezes Guedes Dias; Melo, Luciana Pimentel Fernandes de; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Silva, Maria Fabiana Bonfim de Lima

    2016-04-01

    To identify a possible correlation between teachers vocal intensity and the noise in the classroom, as well as between vocal intensity and the symptoms of vocal tract discomfort before and after classes. 27 Elementary School I teachers participated in the study. We used the questionnaires "Vocal Production Condition of the Teacher" and "Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale - VTD" which were applied before and after the class. A properly calibrated noise meter was used for measuring noise in the classroom and the teachers' vocal intensity. There was a moderate positive correlation between vocal intensity and noise and also a significant difference between the VTD scale and the teachers with and without vocal complaint before and after classes. When compared separately on both occasions, there was an increase in the group's scores for both groups and with and without complaints. We found association of the vocal tract symptoms before and after classes, frequency of burning, itching, sore throat and sensitive throat were observed. The intensity of symptoms was significant for sore throat, itching and feeling of lump in the throat. We observed significant values of vocal intensity and frequency and intensity of symptoms for sensitive throat and lump in the throat before the class, and sore throat and lump in the throat after the. The increase in teacher's vocal intensity correlates to high noise levels in the classroom. The evidence suggests correlation between vocal intensity and discomfort of the vocal tract, with most of the symptoms reported in greater frequency and intensity after the class.

  6. The effect of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older men and women undergoing hypocaloric weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Nicklas, Barbara J; Marsh, Anthony P; Houston, Denise K; Miller, Gary D; Isom, Scott; Miller, Michael E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Lyles, Mary F; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-08-01

    Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Reducing skeletal muscle fat and preserving lean tissue are associated with improved physical function in older adults. PPARγ-agonist treatment decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and resistance training preserves lean tissue, but their effect on ectopic fat depots in nondiabetic overweight adults is unclear. We examined the influence of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older (65-79 years) nondiabetic overweight/obese men (n = 48, BMI = 32.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40, BMI = 33.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) during weight loss. All participants underwent a 16-week hypocaloric weight-loss program and were randomized to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or no pioglitazone with or without resistance training, following a 2 × 2 factorial design. Regional body composition was measured at baseline and follow-up using computed tomography (CT). Lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Men lost 6.6% and women lost 6.5% of initial body mass. The percent of fat loss varied across individual compartments. Men who were given pioglitazone lost more visceral abdominal fat than men who were not given pioglitazone (-1,160 vs. -647 cm(3), P = 0.007). Women who were given pioglitazone lost less thigh subcutaneous fat (-104 vs. -298 cm(3), P = 0.002). Pioglitazone did not affect any other outcomes. Resistance training diminished thigh muscle loss in men and women (resistance training vs. no resistance training men: -43 vs. -88 cm(3), P = 0.005; women: -34 vs. -59 cm(3), P = 0.04). In overweight/obese older men undergoing weight loss, pioglitazone increased visceral fat loss and resistance training reduced skeletal muscle loss. Additional studies are needed to clarify the observed gender differences and evaluate how these changes in body composition influence functional status.

  7. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE training (PRISE in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15 or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15 for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs, power (bench throws, BTs, blood pressure (BP, augmentation index, (AIx, and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre and 13 (post. At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05 in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively, BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts, AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%, and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg. These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day diet and multi-component exercise (RISE training (PRISE enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women.

  8. Effect of resistance training with elements of stretching on body composition and quality of life in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Socha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity in elderly persons contributes to prevention and treatment of chronic disease and, through its influence on the musculoskeletal system, increases physical capability and improves mental function. Aim of the study was to assess the effect of resistance training with elements of stretching on body composition and quality of life in women of postmenopausal age. Material and methods : Thirty-eight postmenopausal women aged 62.5 ±5.8 years were randomly divided into two groups. One group participated in an 8-week training program (60 minutes, twice weekly; 4 MET [metabolic equivalent] 2 hours/week. The second group performed no training. A comparison was made of body composition and quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey prior to and after 8 weeks of training. Results: In the training group, after 8 weeks there was a significant reduction in body fat (in %; p = 0.028, and an increase in fat-free mass (in %; p = 0.025 and total body water (in %; p = 0.021, which indicates increased muscle mass. Furthermore, there were statistically significant differences in the assessment of quality of life in physical (role-physical [RP], bodily pain [BP], general health [GH] scales; p < 0.005 and mental health (vitality [VT] scale; p = 0.05. In the non-exercising group no changes were observed in features examined in the initial and final test. Conclusions : Resistance training with elements of stretching in postmenopausal women improved body composition to achieve a reduction in risk factors associated with excess fatty tissue and muscle mass deficiency. It raises the quality of life in terms of both physical and mental function.

  9. Oxidative capacity and glycogen content increase more in arm than leg muscle in sedentary women after intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Connolly, Luke; Weihe, Pál; Iuliano, Enzo; Krustrup, Peter; Saltin, Bengt; Mohr, Magni

    2015-07-15

    The hypothesis that the adaptive capacity is higher in human upper- than lower-body skeletal muscle was tested. Furthermore, the hypothesis that more pronounced adaptations in upper-body musculature can be achieved by "low-volume high-intensity" compared with "high-volume low-intensity" exercise training was evaluated. A group of sedentary premenopausal women aged 45 ± 6 yr (± SD) with expected high adaptive potential in both upper- and lower-extremity muscle groups participated. After random allocation to high-intensity swimming (HIS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MOS, n = 21), soccer (SOC, n = 21) or a nontraining control group (CON, n = 20), the training groups completed three workouts per week for 15 wk. Resting muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle and deltoideus muscle before and after the intervention. After the training intervention, a larger (P sedentary women, and "high-intensity low-volume" training is a more efficient regime than "low-intensity high-volume" training for increasing the aerobic capacity of the deltoideus muscle. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  11. VOCALS-UK: An overview of UK VOCALS science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Vocals-Uk Science Team

    2010-12-01

    This paper will highlight a variety of process studies, observationally led studies and modelling studies, both completed and in progress, conducted by groups in the United Kingdom, working in collaboration with international partners on the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The VOCALS field experiment was conducted out of Arica, Chile, between October and November, 2008. The study aims to better understand the nature and variability of interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and steep topography, as well as local and long-range transport of pollutants and aerosol, in the context of their role in controlling the climate of the South East Pacific - an important region in terms of the global energy budget and which is currently poorly characterised in global climate models. Specific highlights will include a statistical representation of the SEP marine boundary layer during VOCALS-Rex to inform future modelling; an analysis of the synoptic and large-scale dynamical influences on cloud in the SEP; results from improved Met Office Unified Model forecast runs which examine aerosol-cloud interactions with a comparison to results from WRF-CHEM; and large eddy modelling of simulated gravity waves and their potential to induce open cellular convection (create pockets of open cells). In addition, early results from a number of further studies will be presented.

  12. Acute EPOC response in women to circuit training and treadmill exercise of matched oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, W A; Hawthorne, W E; Markofski, M M

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of circuit training (CT) and treadmill exercise performed at matched rates of oxygen consumption and exercise duration on elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in untrained women, while controlling for the menstrual cycle. Eight, untrained females (31.3 +/- 9.1 years; 2.04 +/- 0.26 l min(-1) estimated VO2max; BMI=24.6+/-3.9 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in the study. Testing was performed during the early follicular phase for each subject to minimize hormonal variability between tests. Subjects performed two exercise sessions approximately 28 days apart. Resting, supine energy expenditure was measured for 30 min preceding exercise and for 1 h after completion of exercise. Respiratory gas exchange data were collected continuously during rest and exercise periods via indirect calorimetry. CT consisted of three sets of eight common resistance exercises. Pre-exercise and exercise oxygen consumption was not different between testing days (P>0.05). Thus, exercise conditions were appropriately matched. Analysis of EPOC data revealed that CT resulted in a significantly higher (pEPOC period (pEPOC.

  13. Moderate Resistive Training Maintains Bone Mineral Density and Improves Functional Fitness in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Sales Bocalini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five subjects were randomized to untrained (UN and resistive-trained (RT groups. The RT group exercised three sessions per week at 60%–70% of the load according to individual 1RM test during 24 weeks. Both groups were evaluated before and after protocol period assessing lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, VO2 max, and neuromuscular fitness. After 24 weeks, there were significant reductions in LS (0.89±0.16% loss and FN BMD (1.54±0.35% loss for UN but no change was found in the TR (LS: 0.01±0.12% and FN: 0.04±0.05% loss. The UN group had no changes in neuromuscular performance. However, RT exhibited a significant improvement on the functional fitness parameters evaluated, with the exception of agility. Our results indicate RT suppresses the decline in BMD and simultaneously improves the functional fitness of postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy, which may reduce fall risk and related bone fractures.

  14. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  15. Can quality of life be improved by pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Lindskov, Grethe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke measured by quality of life (QoL) parameters. Three hundred thirty-nine medical records of stroke patients were searched. Twenty-six subjects were randomised...... to a Treatment Group or a Control Group in a single blinded, randomised study design. The intervention included 12 weeks of standardised pelvic floor muscle training. The outcome was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire and The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Twenty...

  16. Popular Education, Work Training, and the Path to Women's Empowerment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Anna E.

    1998-01-01

    Educacion y Trabajo is a Chilean popular education program that provides participants, ages 15-30, with basic technical-skills training, personal-development training (to promote consciousness raising and self-evaluation), on-the-job training, and management training in microenterprises. A study of six female participants showed the program's…

  17. Popular Education, Work Training, and the Path to Women's Empowerment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Anna E.

    1998-01-01

    Educacion y Trabajo is a Chilean popular education program that provides participants, ages 15-30, with basic technical-skills training, personal-development training (to promote consciousness raising and self-evaluation), on-the-job training, and management training in microenterprises. A study of six female participants showed the program's…

  18. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Stian; Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2015-10-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women.

  19. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  20. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  1. [Men caretakers of life: Training in gender-sensitive masculinities for the prevention of violence towards women in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina

    2015-01-01

    The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity.

  2. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  3. Universal vocal signals of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F.; Ekman, P.; Scott, S.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional signals allow for the sharing of important information with conspecifics, for example to warn them of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. Although much is known about facial expressions of emotion, less research has focused on affect in the voice. We compare British listeners to individuals from remote Namibian villages who have had no exposure to Western culture, and examine recognition ...

  4. Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lipid profile are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in postmenopausal woman who have been associated with age-related loss of muscle mass. The beneficial role of aerobic exercise in the prevention of CVD has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of lipoprotein levels after 12 weeks of different volumes of strength training and its correlation with strength and muscle volume in postmenopausal women. The participants were randomized into three groups: low volume (LVST; n = 12, 1 set and high volume of strength training (HVST; n = 11, 3 sets, or control group (n = 12. Training groups performed 12 weeks of supervised strength exercises, 15 maximum repetitions, five times a week, 20 minutes for LVST and 40 minutes for HVST for each training session. Measurements included body composition, strength and muscle volume, as well as blood analysis (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein pre- and post-training. The HVST and LVST improved the one-repetition maximum knee extension strength (p < 0.001, maximal dynamic strength (p < 0.001, and muscle volume (p = 0.048. Post-training triglyceride was lower in HVST when compared to LVST and the control group (p = 0.047. Even though they present the same neuromuscular and morphological adaptations in postmenopausal women, the HVST is more effective than LVST in improving the lipid profile of postmenopausal woman, and can be considered as an ideal program of intervention to reverse changes in lipid metabolism commonly found in this group.

  5. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, A; MOZZANICA, F.; Ginocchio, D.; MARUZZI, P.; Atac, M.; OTTAVIANI, F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. Th...

  6. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90...

  7. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  8. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  9. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Ranalli, Paula Ferreira; Branco, Anete; Pessin, Adriana Bueno Benito

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. 28 patients (26 women and 2 men) were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n=17), teacher (n=4), salesclerk (n=4), nurse (n=1), retired (n=1), and psychologist (n=1). Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Garcia Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Objective: To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. Methods: The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. Results: 28 patients (26 women and 2 men were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n = 17, teacher (n = 4, salesclerk (n = 4, nurse (n = 1, retired (n = 1, and psychologist (n = 1. Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. Conclusions: In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed.

  11. Effect of exercise training combined with phytoestrogens on adipokines and C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco, Eléonor; Choquette, Stéphane; Audet, Mélisa; Lebon, Johann; Tessier, Daniel; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2012-02-01

    Phytoestrogens and training could be effective to reduce cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk factors in postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, the impact of their combination on adipokines and systemic inflammation was never investigated. The objective was to verify if 6 months of mixed training combined with phytoestrogens could have an additional effect on adipokine levels and systemic inflammation in obese postmenopausal women. Fifty-two obese women aged between 50 and 70 years were randomly assigned to (1) exercise with placebo (EX + PL; n = 25) or (2) exercise with phytoestrogens (EX + PHY; n = 27). Body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and lean body mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were obtained after a 12-hour overnight fast. Total energy intake was measured with a 3-day dietary record. All measurements were performed before and after the 6-month intervention. Although energy intake remained unchanged, body composition was improved in all women (all Ps phytoestrogens. Correlation analyses showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.58, P = .02) and fasting insulin levels (r = -0.42, P = .02) at baseline were both correlated with changes in leptin levels. Baseline fasting glucose (r = -0.36, P = .03) and adiponectin (r = 0.45, P = .005) levels were associated with changes in CRP concentrations. Although mixed exercise program combined with phytoestrogens does not seem to provide any additional effect, mixed training improves systemic inflammation and leptin concentrations in obese postmenopausal women.

  12. Aesthetic and Culture Origin of Vocal Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延春

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most commonly and widely adopted art forms, vocal art has been closely related with national culture and the aesthetics trend. Traditional Chinese vocal art rooted from China' s long history and distinctive culture. On the contrary, Italian bel canto stems from the prospect of Italian Opera Art during the Renaissance period. This essay discusses the differences between East and West vocal art, from its aesthetic and culture origin.

  13. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

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    Abrahin O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Odilon Abrahin,1–3 Rejane P Rodrigues,1–3 Vanderson C Nascimento,3 Marzo E Da Silva-Grigoletto,1,4 Evitom C Sousa,3 Anderson C Marçal1,2 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil; 2Center of Research in Intracellular Signaling, Department of Morphology, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Resistance Exercise and Health, Sports Department, University of Pará State, Belem, Brazil; 4Scientific Sport, Sergipe, Brazil Introduction: Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose: Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP, maximum expiratory pressure (MEP, functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods: Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET or three sets (3-SET of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results: The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8% and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%. Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%. After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80% in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion: Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of

  14. Effectiveness of group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety and depression of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Maleki-Rizi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women that as a sudden event has profound effects on all aspects of patients' lives. Psychosocial interventions may play important roles in reducing anxiety and depression among breast-cancer survivors. Therefore, group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy may help women to cope better with their condition, and decrease their anxiety and depression. In a quasi-experimental study, 30 patients with breast cancer were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to 2 experimental and control groups. The experimental group attended acceptance and commitment training classes for 8 weeks continuously (each class lasting 90 minutes). Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BHI-II) as a pretest and posttest. Analysis of Covariance was used as the statistical method. In acceptance and commitment group training, anxiety and depression significantly decreased (pacceptance and commitment therapy is an effective method in reducing anxiety and depression. Hence psychological interventions can be used to reduce psychological difficulties of women with breast cancer.

  15. Effects of 8 Weeks Aerobic Training on the Social-Physical Anxiety in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Forough Rahmati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ailments which are known as specific diseases make the society we live in suffer, and scientific researches pay much attention to the effect of sport and physical activity on these diseases and introduce sports as treatment for them. The purpose of this study was to check the effect of an aerobic training course on social-physical anxiety in women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS. The study population consisted of all inactive women reported by MS community of Tehran in 2012. Of them, 24 ones have been chosen at random (age 32±11 years old and selected in two groups of control and experimental at random. The social-physical anxiety scale (SPAS was used to measure the social-physical anxiety in these patients. The findings indicated a noticeable decrease in the amount of social-physical anxiety in women with MS after 8 weeks of aerobic training (P<0.001. Eventually, we can conclude that aerobic training are effective on decreasing the social-physical anxiety of patients suffering from MS, and it can, by its nature, decrease the social-physical anxiety in these people and promote health and participation in sports activities.

  16. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

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    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m(-2)) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO2: 150 mmHg, FIO2: 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO2: 117 mmHg, FIO2: 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2peak), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min(-1) (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min(-1) (+26.1%)] and peak O2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM (p < 0.05). Although the 5-wk HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C (p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C (p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either

  18. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in young women entering a national job training program, 1990-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Ransom, R L; St Louis, M E; Groseclose, S L; Hadgu, A; Levine, W C; Hayman, C

    2001-08-01

    This analysis describes trends in the prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in economically disadvantaged young women entering a national job training program. We examined chlamydia test data for May 1990 through June 1997 for women aged 16 to 24 years who enrolled in the program. The significance of trends was evaluated with the chi 2 test for trend. Prevalence of chlamydial infection declined 32.9%, from 14.9% in 1990 to 10.0% in 1997 (P < .001). Prevalence decreased significantly in all age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and geographic regions. The decrease in prevalence of chlamydial infection suggests that prevention activities have reached disadvantaged women across the United States; however, prevalence of chlamydial infection remains high, and enhanced prevention efforts in disadvantaged communities are urgently needed.

  19. Prevalence of Genital Chlamydial Infection in Young Women Entering a National Job Training Program, 1990–1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Kristen J.; Ransom, Raymond L.; St. Louis, Michael E.; Groseclose, Samuel L.; Hadgu, Alula; Levine, William C.; Hayman, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This analysis describes trends in the prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in economically disadvantaged young women entering a national job training program. Methods. We examined chlamydia test data for May 1990 through June 1997 for women aged 16 to 24 years who enrolled in the program. The significance of trends was evaluated with the χ2 test for trend. Results. Prevalence of chlamydial infection declined 32.9%, from 14.9% in 1990 to 10.0% in 1997 (P < .001). Prevalence decreased significantly in all age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and geographic regions. Conclusions. The decrease in prevalence of chlamydial infection suggests that prevention activities have reached disadvantaged women across the United States; however, prevalence of chlamydial infection remains high, and enhanced prevention efforts in disadvantaged communities are urgently needed. PMID:11499120

  20. Use of loud phonation as a voice therapy technique for children with vocal nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Nishiyama, Koichiro

    2003-10-01

    For the treatment of vocal nodules, educational programs for vocal hygiene and voice training for acquisition of correct phonation are essential. In the case of children, special considerations are necessary as some of their vocal behaviors and reaction to voice disorders are different from those of adults. In this study, a voice therapy program for child vocal nodules were developed and good results were obtained for six children. They were four boys and two girls (Age: 4-11 yr) and bilateral nodules were found for all of them. In addition to a conventional vocal hygiene program for children, correct production of loud voice (so-called gBeltingh) was the major focus of the voice therapy as the visual inspection of the larynges and perceptual evaluations of the voice revealed inappropriate loud voice production with laryngeal constriction in all children. After 5-24 voice therapy sessions, disappearance of the nodules was found in five children and the reduction of the nodule sizes was found in one child. Improvement of the GRBAS scores, longer maximum phonation time, and extension of vocal ranges were found after the completion of the therapy programs.

  1. Som fricativo sonoro /ℑ/: modificações vocais Fricative hearing sound /ℑ/: vocal modifications

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    Helena D'Avila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as modificações vocais após a utilização do fricativo sonoro /ž/, em dez mulheres sem alterações vocais/laríngeas. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas medidas acústicas, perceptivo-auditiva, eletroglotografia e auto-avaliação da voz pré e pós-produção da técnica. RESULTADOS: foram estatisticamente significantes: as sensações subjetivas positivas; a maior definição de harmônicos e de formantes, diminuição do ruído, e maior regularidade no traçado. CONCLUSÃO: a técnica promove estabilidade vocal, gerando menor esforço fonatório, maior conforto durante a produção vocal e maior projeção vocal no grupo estudado.PURPOSE: verify the vocal modifications that occurred after the utilization of the fricative hearing sound /ž/ in ten adult women that had no vocal laryngeal alterations. METHODS: they passed through a vocal and acoustic evaluation as well as hearing perception, and then they auto-evaluated their voices before and after the technique. RESULTS: statistically significant, namely: positive subjective feelings; spectrograms showing more definition for the harmonic and formants, noise reduction, and more regularity on the trace. CONCLUSION: the technique produced less effort in phonation, more comfort during the vocal production and a more vocal production in the studied group.

  2. Chlamydia prevalence among women and men entering the National Job Training Program: United States, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Tian, Lin H; Braxton, Jimmy; Weinstock, Hillard

    2010-02-01

    To analyze 5-year prevalence trends in Chlamydia trachomatis infections among high-risk young men and women aged 16 to 24 years entering the National Job Training Program, where universal screening is required. Entrance exams conducted in over 100 National Job Training Program centers from 2003 to 2007 were considered. Women provided cervical specimens tested using either a DNA hybridization probe (PACE 2, Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA) or a strand displacement amplification test (SDA, BD ProbeTec ET, Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, MD). In the absence of a pelvic exam, urine specimens were tested using SDA. PACE 2 testing was performed predominately from 2002 to 2005; from 2005 to 2007, SDA was used. All male testing was conducted using SDA on urine specimens. Chlamydia prevalence trends were assessed for women and men, using logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and P-values were calculated. Approximately 15,000 women and 30,000 men were screened annually for chlamydia. Among both sexes, adjusted prevalence declined significantly from 2003 to 2007. In 2003, crude prevalence among women was 9.9%; in 2007, prevalence was 13.7%. However, after controlling for covariates, including increasingly sensitive tests, the model indicated a significant declining prevalence trend (AOR: 0.95, CI: 0.93-0.97, 4.6% decrease in odds per year). Among men, crude prevalence in 2003 was 8.4%; in 2007, prevalence was 8.3%; after controlling for possible confounding, a significant decline in prevalence was also detected (AOR: 0.98, CI: 0.96-0.99, 1.9% decrease in odds per year). In a relatively stable, high-risk population of young women and men, adjusted chlamydia prevalence declined from 2003 to 2007. Test technology plays a critical role in interpreting rates and should be considered whenever chlamydia rates are examined.

  3. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Zhaowei Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women.A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30 randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak, both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES were collected during the intervention.After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41. Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034, fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002 and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016, there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids.Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  4. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  5. Vocal learning of a communicative signal in captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

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    Russell, Jamie L; McIntyre, Joseph M; Hopkins, William D; Taglialatela, Jared P

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that chimpanzees could learn to produce attention-getting (AG) sounds via positive reinforcement. We conducted a vocal assessment in 76 captive chimpanzees for their use of AG sounds to acquire the attention of an otherwise inattentive human. Fourteen individuals that did not produce AG sounds during the vocal assessment were evaluated for their ability to acquire the use of an AG sound through operant conditioning and to employ these sounds in an attention-getting context. Nine of the 14 chimpanzees were successfully shaped using positive reinforcement to produce an AG sound. In a post-training vocal assessment, eight of the nine individuals that were successfully trained to produce AG sounds generalized the use of these newly acquired signals to communicatively relevant situations. Chimpanzees possess the ability to acquire the use of a communicative signal via operant conditioning and can generalize the use of this newly acquired signal to appropriate communicative contexts.

  6. The Effects of Life Skills Training on Marital Satisfaction of Married Women: A Case Study in Dogonbadan, Iran

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    A Abbasi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Successful family relationships and marital satisfaction largely depends on couples’ awareness of their marital or parental roles. Marital relations training could provide adaptation with expected roles for both husband and wife. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on marital satisfaction in married women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study which was carried out in 2010 examined fifty married women in Dogonbadan, Iran. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and related demographic data which was collected prior and one year after training, were used for the study. T-test was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age, average number of children, and the average length of marriage were 35, 1.8, and 10.36 years respectively. The average of all scores was significantly different in pretest and post test (p<0.002. Also, the scores of personality objects (p<0.05, marital relationships (p<0.001, conflict resolution (p<0.001, and financial and economic monitoring (p<0.001 were significantly different. The differences in mean scores of subscales in relationship with relatives and friends, leisure activities, and marriage and children were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that marital skills' training is effective in improving the marital status and satisfaction, and also improved the quality of life among married couples.

  7. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  8. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

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    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  9. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  10. Effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekendiz, Betül; Cuğ, Mutlu; Korkusuz, Feza

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on trunk extensor (abdominal)/flexor (lower back) and lower limb extensor (quadriceps)/flexor (hamstring) muscular strength, abdominal, lower back and leg endurance, flexibility and dynamic balance in sedentary women (n = 21; age = 34 ± 8.09; height = 1.63 ± 6.91 cm; weight = 64 ± 8.69 kg) trained for 45 minutes, 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Results of multivariate analysis revealed significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between pre and postmeasures of 60 and 90° s trunk flexion/extension, 60 and 240° s-1 lower limb flexion/extension (Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer), abdominal endurance (curl-up test), lower back muscular endurance (modified Sorensen test), lower limb endurance (repetitive squat test), lower back flexibility (sit and reach test), and dynamic balance (functional reach test). The results support the fact that Swiss-ball core strength training exercises can be used to provide improvement in the aforementioned measures in sedentary women. In conclusion, this study provides practical implications for sedentary individuals, physiotherapists, strength and conditioning specialists who can benefit from core strength training with Swiss balls.

  11. The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Rostami, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The role of transabdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) on core stability has been shown previously. Energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training are commonly used by overweight and obese people to reduce their weight. In this study we investigated the impact of 12 weeks concurrent energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles of 19 obese and overweight women employing ultrasonography in resting and drawing-in maneuvers. The results showed significant increase of the muscle thicknesses during drawing-in maneuver after 12 weeks intervention. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that 12 weeks concurrent abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet in addition to weight loss lead to improvement of transabdominal muscles thickness in obese and overweight people. Considering the role of these muscles in core stability, using this therapeutic protocol in obese people, particularly in those who have weakness of these muscles might be helpful.

  12. Sintomas vocais e perfil de professores em um programa de saúde vocal Vocal symptoms and profile of teachers in a vocal health program

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    Karin Choi-Cardim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar sintomas vocais de dois grupos de professores que foram avaliados em momentos distintos de um programa de saúde vocal. MÉTODOS: correlacionar condições de trabalho e hábitos com o número de sintomas vocais apresentados por 411 professores, agrupados em G1 (256 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e G2 (155 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e de tratamento. RESULTADOS: em ambos os grupos observou-se predomínio de mulheres (p = 0,550, entre 31 e 40 anos (p = 0,557, lecionando para mais de um grau de ensino (p = 0,345 com até 30 alunos/sala (p = 0,521, com presença de ruído no trabalho (p = 0,660, que relataram cuidados vocais (p = 0,231 e utilizavam voz extra-profissionalmente (p = 0,713, não tabagistas (p = 0,010 nem alcoolistas (p = 0,029. Em contrapartida, no G1 observou-se carga horária diária de trabalho de até 5 horas, enquanto a maior parte do G2 trabalhava de 6 a 10 horas (p 4 os grupos; sendo a média de 3,5 (57% para G1 e 5,8 (98,05% para G2 - (p PURPOSE: to analyze vocal symptoms from two groups of teachers assessed during two different instances of a vocal health program. METHODS: correlate work conditions and habits with the number of vocal symptoms submitted by 411 teachers divided into G1 (256 subjects to be submitted to a prevention program and G2 (155 subjects to be submitted to a prevention and treatment program. RESULTS: it was observed that in both groups there was a larger number of women (p=0.550, aged 31 to 40 years (p=0.557, teaching for more than one grade (p=0.345 and with up to 30 students per class (p=0.521; they related presence of noise in their work environment (p=0.660, used to take care of their voices (p=0.231, were non-smokers (p=0.010, used their voices in extra-professional activities and did not have the habit of drinking. On the other hand, both groups were different upon relating daily work hours; in G1 most teachers worked up to 5 hours a day

  13. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

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    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  14. Landing Technique Improvements After an Aquatic-Based Neuromuscular Training Program in Physically Active Women.

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    Scarneo, Samantha E; Root, Hayley J; Martinez, Jessica C; Denegar, Craig; Casa, Douglas J; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dann, Catie L; Aerni, Giselle A; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular training programs (NTPs) improve landing technique and decrease vertical ground-reaction forces (VGRFs), resulting in injury-risk reduction. NTPs in an aquatic environment may elicit the same improvements as land-based programs with reduced joint stress. To examine the effects of an aquatic NTP on landing technique as measured by the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) and VGRFs, immediately and 4 mo after the intervention. Repeated measures, pool and laboratory. Fifteen healthy, recreationally active women (age 21 ± 2 y, mass 62.02 ± 8.18 kg, height 164.74 ± 5.97 cm) who demonstrated poor landing technique (LESS-Real Time > 4). All participants completed an aquatic NTP 3 times/wk for 6 wk. Participants' landing technique was evaluated using a jump-landing task immediately before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 4 mo after (RET) the intervention period. A single rater, blinded to time point, graded all videos using the LESS, which is a valid and reliable movement-screening tool. Peak VGRFs were measured during the stance phase of the jump-landing test. Repeated-measure analyses of variance with planned comparisons were performed to explore differences between time points. LESS scores were lower at POST (4.46 ± 1.69 errors) and at RET (4.2 ± 1.72 errors) than at PRE (6.30 ± 1.78 errors) (P .05). Participants also landed with significantly lower peak VGRFs (P aquatic NTP improves landing technique and suggest that improvements are retained over time. These results show promise of using an aquatic NTP when there is a desire to reduce joint loading, such as early stages of rehabilitation, to improve biomechanics and reduce injury risk.

  15. Differential Effects of Military Training on Fat-Free Mass and Plasma Amino Acid Adaptations in Men and Women

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    James P. McClung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat-free mass (FFM adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA. This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ between male and female recruits, and explore potential associations between FFM and AA responses to training. Body composition and plasma AA levels were assessed in US Army recruits (n = 209, 118 males, 91 females before (baseline and every three weeks during basic combat training (BCT, a 10-week military training course. Body weight decreased in men but remained stable in women during BCT (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Fifty-eight percent of recruits gained FFM during BCT, with more (P < 0.05 females (88% gaining FFM than males (36%. Total plasma AA increased (P < 0.05 during BCT, with greater (P < 0.05 increases observed in females (17% then in males (4%. Essential amino acids (EAA and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA were increased (P < 0.05 in females but did not change in males (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Independent of sex, changes in EAA (r = 0.34 and BCAA (r = 0.27 from baseline were associated with changes in FFM (P < 0.05; greater (P < 0.05 increases in AA concentrations were observed for those who gained FFM. Increases in FFM and plasma AA suggest that BCT elicits a more pronounced anabolic response in women compared to men, which may reflect sex-specific differences in the relative intensity of the combined training and physiological stimulus associated with BCT.

  16. Comparison of the effects of two resistance training regimens on muscular and bone responses in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, A C; Meyer, F; da Veiga, A D R; Zanardo, V P S

    2010-09-01

    A 28-week resistance training with linear periodization was compared with an undulating model in 27 premenopausal women. In both groups, bone mineral density (BMD) was not changed but muscle strength increased, and there were changes in anthropometrical and muscle damage parameters, indicating that in this population, these models are similar concerning these variables. This study seeks to compare the effects of resistance training with undulating versus linear periodization on BMD, muscle strength, anthropometrical variables, and muscle damage parameters in premenopausal women. Twenty-seven females (39.6 +/- 0.41 years, mean +/- standard error), without osteopenia or osteoporosis and without calcium supplementation, were randomly assigned either to a linear periodization group (LPG, n = 14) or to an undulating periodization group (UPG, n = 13). The subjects were trained three times a week for 28 weeks. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal and submaximal dynamic muscle strengths were measured through the 1-RM and 20-RM tests, respectively. Anthropometrical (body mass, skinfolds, and perimeters) and muscle damage parameters were assessed through serum creatine kinase (CK) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). BMD remained unchanged in both groups, despite significant increases in maximal (LPG, 37-73%; UPG, 40-70%) and submaximal (LPG, 82-114%; UPG, 70-102%) muscle strength. The perimeter of the distal thigh was increased (about 1.7 cm) in both groups. CK and DOMS were greater in the first mesocycle than in the subsequent ones. After the 1st training session in each mesocycle, 24 and 48 h CK was increased as compared to pretraining values. The resistance training of 28 weeks increased muscle strength in both training groups with no difference in BMD or in the occurrence of muscle damage.

  17. Time course of low- and high-volume strength training on neuromuscular adaptations and muscle quality in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Botton, Cíntia E; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Bottaro, Martim; Brown, Lee E; Lacerda, Fabiano; Gaya, Anelise; Moraes, Kelly; Peruzzolo, Amanda; Pinto, Ronei S

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of low- and high-volume strength trainings on neuromuscular adaptations of lower- and upper-body muscles in older women after 6 weeks (6WE), 13 weeks (13WE), and 20 weeks (20WE) of training. Healthy older women were assigned to low-volume (LV) or high-volume (HV) training groups. The LV group performed one set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three sets, 2 days/week. Knee extension and elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1-RM), maximal isometric strength, maximal muscle activation, and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body muscles, as well as lower-body muscle quality (MQ) obtained by ultrasonography, were evaluated. Knee extension and elbow flexion 1-RM improved at all time points for both groups; however, knee extension 1-RM gains were greater for the HV group after 20WE. Maximal isometric strength of the lower body for both groups increased only at 20WE, while upper-body maximal isometric strength increased after 13WE and 20WE. Maximal activation of the lower and upper body for both groups increased only after 20WE. Both groups showed significant increases in MT of their lower and upper body, with greater gains in lower-body MT for the HV group at 20WE. MQ improved in both groups after 13WE and 20WE, whereas the HV group improved more than the LV group at 20WE. These results showed that low- and high-volume trainings have a similar adaptation time course in the muscular function of upper-body muscles. However, high-volume training appears to be more efficient for lower-body muscles after 20 weeks of training.

  18. Acute Effects of Static vs. Ballistic Stretching on Strength and Muscular Fatigue Between Ballet Dancers and Resistance-Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Camila D; Brown, Lee E; Wong, Megan A; Leyva, Whitney D; Pinto, Ronei S; Cadore, Eduardo L; Ruas, Cassio V

    2016-11-01

    Lima, CD, Brown, LE, Wong, MA, Leyva, WD, Pinto, RS, Cadore, EL, and Ruas, CV. Acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3220-3227, 2016-Stretching is used to increase joint range of motion, but the acute effects can decrease muscle strength. However, this may depend on the population or mode of stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Fifteen resistance-trained women (age 23.8 ± 1.80 years, mass 67.47 ± 7.77 kg, height 168.30 ± 5.53 cm) and 12 ballet dancers (age 22.8 ± 3.04 years, mass 58.67 ± 5.65 kg, height 168.00 ± 7.69 cm) performed 5 days of testing. The first day was control (no stretching), whereas the other 4 days were static or ballistic stretching in a counterbalanced order. Range of motion, strength, and fatigue tests were also performed. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in hamstrings strength after static (102.71 ± 2.67 N·m) and ballistic stretching (99.49 ± 2.61 N·m) compared with control (113.059 ± 3.25 N·m), with no changes in quadriceps strength. For fatigue, only ballet dancers demonstrated a decrease from control (71.79 ± 4.88%) to ballistic (65.65 ± 8.19%), but no difference with static (65.01 ± 12.29%). These findings suggest that stretching decreases hamstrings strength similarly in ballet dancers and resistance-trained women, with no differences between modes of stretching. However, ballistic stretching only decreased muscular fatigue in ballet dancers, but not in resistance-trained women. Therefore, no stretching should be performed before strength performance. However, ballistic stretching may decrease acute muscular fatigue in ballet dancers.

  19. Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women

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    Bocalini DS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior71São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12 and trained (n = 11 normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute. No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm] was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women. Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs

  20. A Record Holder Female Athlete’s Train ing Loads and its Distribution in Women 400 meter Hurdle Running

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    Sibel DÜNDAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on 400 mt characteristics of women training load used in the hurdle runnig , the distribution and performance according to the period. At this study female athlete’s, who won second place at the European Champion Clubs' Cup Competitions and had a record - breaking six times in a country, five - year training loads and degrees were investigated. In this study, athlete’s degrees an d training loads were analyzed between the years of 1982 - 1987. Atlete’s best 100m,200m,400m,400m hurdle degrees and some training loads (sprint, andurance, weight lifting were assessed by the means and satandart deviations. Athlete’s sprint and training l oads mean and standard deviation values were calculated as 100 m ( 11.96 ± 0.17 , 200m ( 25.0 ± 0.38 , 400m ( 56.07 ± 0.91 and 400 m hurdle running ( 60.38 ± 1.88 and for the training loads of 0 - 150 m sprint ( 66.85 ± 18.95 m, endurance ( 2 02.55 ± 57.56 miles and weightlifting( 151.88 ± 68.2 tons. It was observed that percentage of change of the value of training loads and the running performance changes were not increase at the same rate. Regarding the relationship between the best run ning degree and training load, it was found a significant relationship between only 60 m sprint and 150 - 450 m sprint degrees.

  1. The Impact of Vocal Hyperfunction on Relative Fundamental Frequency during Voicing Offset and Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with vocal hyperfunction would show decreases in relative fundamental frequency (RFF) surrounding a voiceless consonant. Method: This retrospective study of 2 clinical databases used speech samples from 15 control participants and women with hyperfunction-related voice disorders: 82 prior…

  2. Effects of resistance training frequency on cardiorespiratory fitness in older men and women during intervention and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lezaun, Elena; Schumann, Moritz; Mäkinen, Tuomas; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Walker, Simon

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) performed with different frequencies, including a follow-up period, on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy older individuals. Eighty-eight men and women (69±3years, 167±9cm and 78±14kg) were randomly placed into four groups: training one- (M1=11, W1=12), two- (M2=7, W2=14), or three- (M3=11, W3=13) times-per-week or a non-training control group (MCon=11, WCon=9). During months 1-3, all subjects trained two-times-per-week while during the subsequent 6months, training frequency was set according to the group. Oxygen consumption (cycling economy: CE), gross efficiency (GE), blood lactate concentrations (La) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated during a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), heart rate (HRrest) and body composition by DXA were also measured at rest. Maximal strength was measured by a 1-RM leg press test. Most improvements in CE, GE, La and HR occurred in all groups during months 1-3. No additional statistically significant improvements were observed during months 4-9, although effect sizes for the change in CE and GE at higher workloads indicated a dose-response pattern in men (CE at 75W: M1 g=0.13, M2 g=-0.58, M3 g=-0.89; 100W: M1 g=0.43, M2 g=-0.59, M3 g=-0.68) i.e. higher training frequency (two- and three-times-per-week versus one-time-per-week) led to greater improvements once the typical plateau in performance had occurred. Hb increased in W1 and W2, while no changes were observed in Hct or HRrest. 1-RM increased from months 1-3 in all intervention groups (except M2) and from month 4-9 only in M3 and in all women intervention groups. During follow-up, maximal strength was maintained but cycling economy returned to the baseline values in all training groups. These data indicate that RT led to significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness during the initial 3months of training. This was partly explained by the RT protocol performed but further

  3. Audio-vocal responses of vocal fundamental frequency and formant during sustained vowel vocalizations in different noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Guo-She

    2015-06-01

    Sustained vocalizations of vowels [a], [i], and syllable [mə] were collected in twenty normal-hearing individuals. On vocalizations, five conditions of different audio-vocal feedback were introduced separately to the speakers including no masking, wearing supra-aural headphones only, speech-noise masking, high-pass noise masking, and broad-band-noise masking. Power spectral analysis of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) was used to evaluate the modulations of F0 and linear-predictive-coding was used to acquire first two formants. The results showed that while the formant frequencies were not significantly shifted, low-frequency modulations (production, the motor speech controls on F0 may depend on a feedback mechanism while articulation should rely more on a feedforward mechanism. Power spectral analysis of F0 might be applied to evaluate audio-vocal control for various hearing and neurological disorders in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Liposuction-Induced Effects on Adiponectin and Selected Cytokines Are Not Affected by Exercise Training in Women

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    Marina Yazigi Solis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n=18, four-month exercise program and nontrained (NT, n=18. Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE and six months after surgery (POST6. TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P<0.05, main effect for time. No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training.

  5. Child vocalization composition as discriminant information for automatic autism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Early identification is crucial for young children with autism to access early intervention. The existing screens require either a parent-report questionnaire and/or direct observation by a trained practitioner. Although an automatic tool would benefit parents, clinicians and children, there is no automatic screening tool in clinical use. This study reports a fully automatic mechanism for autism detection/screening for young children. This is a direct extension of the LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system, which utilizes speech signal processing technology to analyze and monitor a child's natural language environment and the vocalizations/speech of the child. It is discovered that child vocalization composition contains rich discriminant information for autism detection. By applying pattern recognition and machine learning approaches to child vocalization composition data, accuracy rates of 85% to 90% in cross-validation tests for autism detection have been achieved at the equal-error-rate (EER) point on a data set with 34 children with autism, 30 language delayed children and 76 typically developing children. Due to its easy and automatic procedure, it is believed that this new tool can serve a significant role in childhood autism screening, especially in regards to population-based or universal screening.

  6. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  7. Natural vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus are broadly encoded by a small number of independent multi-unit clusters

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    Dominika eLyzwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster betweenall tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest abroadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus.Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties.

  8. First Communion: The Emergence of Vocal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that vocal communion between infant and caregiver supports infants' language acquisition and connectedness with caregivers. Recommends research to determine whether social behaviors such as joint attention and vocal imitation are functionally related to language learning or are only symptomatic of a survival-centered caregiving…

  9. Pulmonary mucormycosis presenting with vocal cord paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H. J.; Mohan Rao, K.N.; K M Prathima; Moideen, Riyaz

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively uncommon infection. It can present in various forms. Very few cases of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis have been described in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient.

  10. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

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    Stefan Lautenbacher

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion:. Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific and comprehensive phonetic analyses will surely help to provide an even more precise characterization of vocalizations because of pain.

  11. Nordic walking training attenuation of oxidative stress in association with a drop in body iron stores in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortas, Jakub; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Prusik, Krzysztof; Prusik, Katarzyna; Ziemann, Ewa; Labudda, Sandra; Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Ewa; Jankowski, Maciej; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2017-02-22

    Excess body iron accumulation and oxidative stress has been associated with ageing. Regular exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and induce some changes in iron metabolism. However, the effects of exercise on both of these parameters have been poorly investigated. In our study, 35 elderly women participated in 12 weeks of Nordic walking (NW) training (three times a week). We demonstrated that the training caused a significant reduction in malondialdehyde advanced oxidation protein products-markers of oxidative stress but had no effects on paraoxonase 1 activity. These changes were associated with the decrease of blood ferritin (99.4 ± 62.7 vs. 81.4 ± 61.7 ng/ml p < 0.05). Measurement of physical fitness revealed that the training caused a significant improvement in performance and a negative correlation between the blood ferritin and endurance test was recorded (r = -0.34, p = 0.03). In addition, a significant correlation between blood ferritin and fasting glucose level was noted. The training induced a rise of HDL cholesterol from 70.8 ± 19.3-75.3 ± 21.1, p < 0.05, whereas other lipid parameters remained unchanged. In conclusion, NW training reduced body iron stores and it was associated with lower oxidative stress and better endurance.

  12. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

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    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made. METHODS: 12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated. RESULTS: CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05. DISCUSSION: SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  13. Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women

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    Kishiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Muscle thickness and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, heat shock protein (HSP70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured before and after the exercise training. Training reduced the circulating levels of CRP, SAA (P<.05, HSP70, IGF-I, and insulin (P<.01. The training-induced reductions in CRP and TNF-α were significantly (P<.01, P<.05 associated with increased muscle thickness (r=−0.61, r=−0.54, respectively. None of the results were significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Resistance training may assist in maintaining or improving muscle volume and reducing low-grade inflammation.

  14. Dilemmas in the process of weight reduction: Exploring how women experience training as a means of losing weight

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    Karen Synne Groven

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with obesity are usually offered group-based behavior interventions which include dietary advice and exercise programs. In particular, high-intensity training—combining weight lifting with aerobic exercising—has been proven effective for losing weight. Moreover, recent studies have shown that persons participating in high-intensity training are more likely to maintain their weight loss compared to persons with lower levels of physical activity. However, most of the research in the field has made use of quantitative methods focusing on the measurable effect of such interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show how the training is experienced from a first-person perspective, namely the patients themselves. Our hope was to shed some new light on the process of weight loss that concerns more than the measurable “impacts” of the training. A qualitative approach was used based on interviews with five women selected from a primary healthcare clinic in Norway. Our results show that experiences of training are connected to the participants’ general experience of being overweight. Both relationships to other people and earlier experiences are important for how the training is carried out and perceived. Five themes were identified supporting this line of argument: (1 the gaze of others; (2 a common ground; (3 dependence of close-follow up; (4 bodily discomfort as painful; and (5 aiming for results—an ambivalent experience. The results highlight the importance of finding the proper context and support for each patient's needs.

  15. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer,Valquíria; Cielo,Carla Aparecida; Ferreira,Fernanda Mariotto

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas...

  16. Effects of resistance training on resistin, leptin, cytokines, and muscle force in elderly post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Jonato; Shiguemoto, Gilberto; Botero, Joao Paulo; Frollini, Anelena; Dias, Rodrigo; Leite, Richard; Pereira, Guilherme; Magosso, Rodrigo; Baldissera, Vilmar; Cavaglieri, Claudia; Perez, Sergio

    2009-12-01

    It may be that resistance exercise can be used to prevent the degenerative processes and inflammation associated with ageing. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on cytokines, leptin, resistin, and muscle strength in post-menopausal women. Thirty-five sedentary women (mean age 63.18 years, s = 4.8; height 1.64 m, s = 0.07; body mass 57.84 kg, s = 7.70) were recruited. The 16 weeks of periodized resistance training consisted of two weekly sessions of three sets of 6-14 repetition maximum. Maximal strength was tested in bench press, 45 degrees leg press, and arm curl. Plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-15, leptin, and resistin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Maximal strength on all measures was increased after 16 weeks. There were minor or no modifications in tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-15. Interleukin-6 was decreased 48 h after compared with baseline and declined after 16 weeks. Leptin decreased 24 h after compared with baseline and was reduced at baseline and 48 h after compared with pre-training. There was a decrease in resistin after 24 and 48 h compared with baseline and a decline in baseline and immediately after levels compared with pre-training. A possible explanation of the results of the present study is a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the innate immune system. Periodized resistance training seems to be an important intervention to reduce systemic inflammation in this population.

  17. Biofeedback Treatment of Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion and Respiratory Distress in an Adolescent Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Emily; Allen, Keith D.

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation, we evaluated the effectiveness of surface electromyography (EMG) biofeedback to treat paradoxical vocal fold motion in a 16-year-old girl. EMG biofeedback training occurred once per week over the course of 10 weeks. In a changing criterion design, muscle tension showed systematic changes that corresponded with changes in the…

  18. Utilizing Social Work Skills to Enhance Entrepreneurship Training for Women: A Ghanaian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, Debrenna L; Ahmedani, Brian K

    2008-12-01

    This article describes a women's entrepreneurship exchange program that was designed and facilitated with the cooperation of various governmental and nongovernmental entities in Ghana for Ghanaian women. The article briefly reviews the entrepreneurship development literature from an international perspective and discusses the Entrepreneurship Program as a targeted approach for empowering and sustaining women's economic situation in Ghana. Emphasis is placed on understanding the impact of cultural and social networks and the women's ability to succeed as entrepreneurs through the use of social work skills.

  19. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cGMP levels and blood pressure in treated hypertensive postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iane P Novais

    Full Text Available Abstract The second messenger cGMP has been largely studied as a therapeutic target in a variety of disorders such as erectile dysfunction, arterial hypertension and heart failure. Evidence has shown thatcGMP activators are less efficient in estrogen-deficiency animals, but no studies exist involving non-pharmacological approacheson NO/cGMP signaling pathway in hypertensive postmenopausal women. The aim of this study is to examine NO/cGMP pathway, redox state and blood pressure in trained treatedhypertensive (HT postmenopausal women comparing with normotensive (NT group. The rationale for that is most of HT patients is encouraged by physician to perform exercise associated with pharmacological treatments.Aerobic exercise training (AET consisted of 24 sessions, 3 times/week.Parameters were evaluated at baseline and after AET for both groups (HT=28; NT=33.In treatedHT group, AET was significantly effective in increasing cGMP concentrations (28% accompanied by an up-regulation of SOD (97% and catalase activity (37%. In NT group, we found an increasein SOD activity (58%. TreatedHT postmenopausal women were still responsive to AET increasing cGMP levels and up-regulating antioxidant system. It should also be emphasized that these findings provide information on the circulating biomarkers that might delay the developing of cardiovascular events in this particular population.

  1. Effects of Water-Based Exercise Training on the Cognitive Function and Quality of Life of Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayán, Carlos; Carvalho, Paulo; Varela, Silvia; Cancela, José María

    2017-09-25

    Research regarding the impact of aquatic exercise on cognition is scarce. This study aimed at identifying the effects of water-based exercise training on the cognitive function and quality of life of healthy adult women. Fifty-one healthy women [mean age: 46.5 (12.3) y] were assigned to group A or B and followed a water-based exercise program for 6 months. During the first 3 months, the sessions performed by group A were focused on stimulating cognitive function. For the next 3 months, the sessions were mainly aimed at improving physical fitness. Participants in group B followed the same program in reverse order. The trail making and symbol digit modality tests were used to assess the impact of the program on cognition. The effects of the intervention on the participants' physical and mental health were measured by means of the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey. Once the intervention ended, significant improvements were observed in the participants' cognitive function and mental health domain, regardless of the group in which they were initially included. Water-based exercise is a training modality capable of enhancing cognitive function and quality of life through improvements in mental health in healthy adult women.

  2. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1 control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2 intervention group (WKO who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice a day. Patients were assessed using clinical balance tests (timed up and go test, functional reach test, and unilateral balance test before and 4 weeks after start of treatment. Results. Functional reach and timed up and go test were improved significantly in both groups compared to baseline. The improvement in intervention group was more significant in comparison to control group (P<0.05. Discussion. Posture training with WKO together with exercise program improved two clinical balance tests in women with osteoporosis. Conclusion. Posture training support (PTS applied as WKO together with back extension exercises can be prescribed as an intervention in elderly women in order to reduce the risk of falling.

  3. 听障儿童声带小结个案研究%A Case Study of a Hearing-impaired Child with Vocal Nodule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金秀; 白银婷; 黄昭鸣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effective vocal training for a hearing-impaired child with vocal nodule. Methods The child with vocal nodule received the vocal training. A single-subject experimental design was applied to analyze the acoustic parameters such as FO, jitter, shimmer and NNE before and after the treatment so as to monitor the training effect. Results There was a significant difference in F0(P0.05). Conclusion The integrated vocal training including laryngea! Massage, vocal cord relaxation and yawn-sigh technique, is an effective approach for hearing-impaired children with vocal nodule.%目的 探讨听障儿童声带小结发声训练的有效方法.方法 对一名患有声带小结的听障患儿进行发声训练,采用单一被试法分析治疗前后声学参数F0、jitter、shimmer、NNE,监控其训练效果.结果 基线期与处理期的F0有显著性差异(P0.05).结论 喉部按摩、声带放松训练、哈欠-叹息法等综合发声训练对改善听障儿童声带小结有着较好的效果.

  4. Investigating the Effect of Communication Skills Training for Married Women on Couples’ Intimacy and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Farbod

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of communication skills education for married women on couples’ intimacy and quality of life. The subjects of this study were married female students enrolled in the spring semester of 2011 at the Applied Sciences and Technology University (Tourism Unit of Kerman in Iran, along with their husbands. Of the students who expressed interest in taking part in this study, 30 subjects were selected and randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. Subjects in the experimental group participated in a 12-session training for the improvement of communication skills in the context of marriage and family therapy. Comparison of these two groups indicated that communication skills training for married women can increase their intimacy and quality of life in their relationships with their husbands (p < .01. This study further revealed that this sort of training programs could also increase the quality of life of the husbands in their relationships with their wives (p < .01.

  5. Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Bansal, Vishal; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2017-08-24

    Purpose The present study was conducted to compare the effects of low volume of high intensity interval training (LVHIIT) and high volume of high intensity interval training (HVHIIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) as a primary outcome measure, and on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, and lower limb muscle strength as secondary outcome measures, in sedentary young women. Methods Thirty-six participants were recruited in this study. The LVHIIT group (n = 17) performed one 4-min bout of treadmill running at 85%-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), followed by 3 min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, three times per week for 6 weeks. The HVHIIT group (n = 15) performed four times 4-min bouts of treadmill running at 85%-95% HRmax, interspersed with 3-min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All criterion measures were measured before and after training in both the groups. Results Due to attrition of four cases, data of 32 participants was used for analysis. A significant increase in high frequency (HF) power (p high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio (p sedentary young women. However, HVHIIT induces parasympathetic dominance as well, as measured by HRV.

  6. Respostas cardiopulmonares agudas de mulheres no treinamento de força Acute cardiopulmonary responses of women in strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio Gonsalves Sindorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as respostas cardiopulmonares de uma sessão de treinamento de força em mulheres jovens. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 23 mulheres, com idade entre 18 e 29 anos. Todas as voluntárias foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: cardiopulmonar e de uma repetição máxima (1-RM. O protocolo de treinamento de força teve ênfase em hipertrofia muscular, três séries de oito a 12 repetições a 70% de 1-RM, com intervalos de um minuto e 30 segundos entre as séries. Durante a sessão de treinamento foi realizada a medida das variáveis cardiopulmonares por meio de analisador de gases metabólicos e módulo de telemetria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do consumo de oxigênio da sessão de treinamento foram de 8,43 ± 1,76 ml/kg/min e da frequência cardíaca de 108,08 ± 15,26 bpm. Os resultados do consumo de oxigênio e da frequência cardíaca do treino foram inferiores (p OBJETIVE: Investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of one strength training session in young women. METHOD: Twenty-three women aged between 18 and 29 years participated in this study. All the volunteers were submitted to the following tests: cardiopulmonary and one-repetition maximum (1-RM. The strength training protocol had emphasis on muscular hypertrophy, three sets from eight to twelve repetitions under 70% of 1-RM, with a one minute thirty-second break between sets. During the training session, the cardiopulmonary variables were measured with a metabolic gas analyzer and a telemetry module. RESULTS: The results of the oxygen consumption in the training session were from 8.43 + 1.76 ml/kg/min and of the heart rate of 108.08 + 15.26 bpm. The results of the oxygen consumption and of the heart rate in the training were lower (p < 0.01 than in the ventilatory threshold and of the oxygen consumption and the heart rate reserves. CONCLUSION: The obtained data show that the present protocol of strength training provided low overload to the cardiopulmonary system of

  7. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and strength training to gain muscle strength in elderly women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesário, Denise Ferreira; Mendes, Geovânia Barbosa da Silva; Uchôa, Érica Patrícia Borba Lira; Veiga, Paulo Henrique Altran

    2014-01-01

    ...: To perform comparative analyze of results of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and strength training to gain muscle strength of biceps and quadriceps and grip in the elderly...

  8. Aerobic Exercise Training in Formerly Preeclamptic Women: Effects on Venous Reserve.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In women with a history of preeclampsia, low plasma volume (women. In this study, we examined the effects of aerobic

  9. Simultaneous Effect of Resistance Training and Portulace Oleraceal Supplementation on Some Biochemical Markers of Bone Dynamics in Women with Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokufe Ziadloo (MSc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Osteoporosis is one of the complications of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training along with Portulaca oleracea supplementation on OPG and NFκB levels (bone markers in women with type II diabetes. Methods: Overall, 28 women with type II diabetes (44 to 60 years old were randomly and equally assigned into four groups (supplement, training, training-supplement and control. An eight-week resistance training program (three one-hour sessions per week with one repetition maximum was performed using three types of bands with different resistances, at 40-50% intensity and 50-70% maximum heart rate. P. oleracea seeds were supplemented daily (7.5 grams mixed in yogurt for eight weeks. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: After 8 weeks, OPG and NFκB levels in the three groups of supplement, training and training-supplement increased and decreased, respectively. The highest change in both variables was observed in the training-supplement group. Moreover, the level of these two variables in the training-supplement group had significant difference with the controls and other groups (P=0.000. Conclusion: As a non-pharmacological therapeutic approach, the regular resistance training and P. oleracea supplementation can increase bone formation markers and reduce bone resorption in women with type II diabetes.

  10. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Heart Rate Variability and Body Fat Percentage in Obese Hispanic Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Gregory; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Nordvall, Michael; Chernykh, Oksana; Adames, Jason; Wong, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole-body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n = 13) or a nonexercising control group (n = 14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group by time interaction (P body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r = .63, P HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

  12. Muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty-three community-dwelling women were divided into the following groups: older, with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty in the contralateral limb (OKG; N= 7; older, without symptomatic osteoarthritis (OG; N= 8; and young and healthy (YG; N= 8. Muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength test and exercise intensity progression (workload increases of 5%-10% were made whenever adaptation occurred were compared before and after 13 weeks of a twice-weekly progressive resistance-training program. RESULTS: At baseline, OKG subjects displayed lower muscle strength than those in both the OG and YG. Among OKG subjects, baseline muscle strength was lower in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total arthroplasty leg. Muscle strength improved significantly during follow-up in all groups; however, greater increases were observed in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total knee arthroplasty leg in OKG subjects. Greater increases were also seen in the osteoarthritic leg of OKG than in OG and YG. The greater muscle strength increase in the osteoarthritic leg reduced the interleg difference in muscle strength in OKG subjects, and resulted in similar posttraining muscle strength between OKG and OG in two of the three exercises analyzed. Greater exercise intensity progression was also observed in OKG subjects than in both OG and YG subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OKG subjects displayed greater relative muscle strength increases (osteoarthritic leg than subjects in the YG, and greater relative exercise intensity progression than subjects in both OG and YG. These results suggest that resistance training is an effective method to counteract the lower-extremity strength deficits reported in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty.

  13. 声带显微手术后发声功能恢复和嗓音训练时间的初步探讨%Preliminary Study on Functional Recovery and Voice Training Time after Microsurgical Operation of Vocal Cords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志鹏; 熊姗姗; 李美丽; 彭伟; 李文生; 沈康

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the recovery of function and voice training time after microsurgical operation of vocal cords.Method:152 vocal cord polyps patients with vocal cord microsurgery from January 2011 to April 2014 in institute of otolaryngology department as research objects,using the voice acoustic analysis,compared to the voice acoustic parametersduring preoperative and postoperative 3,5,7 days.In accordance with the draw random sampling method 152 patients were divided into two groups,patients in group A at 1 weeks after surgery to give voice training,patients in group B at 2 weeks after surgery to give voice training.6 months after voice training,to compare the voice acoustic parameters,VHI scores and GRBAS scores of the two groups.Result:3 d after the operation,the acoustic parameters in patients decreased,had no significant difference compared with that before operation,from 5 d after operation,the acoustic parameters significantly decreased compared with that before operation,there were differences in statistical significance (P<0.05).Before voice training, two groups of patients with voice acoustic parameters,VHI scores and GRBAS scores had no significance,6 months after voice training,two groups of patients with voice acoustic parameters,VHI scores and GRBAS scores were significantly improved, group B improved more significantly than group A (P<0.05).Conclusion:The voice quality begin to restore 5 d after surgery in patients with vocal cord polyp microstructure,but patients within 2 weeks after a rigorous hugh rear can make voice training.%目的:探讨声带显微手术后发声功能恢复和嗓音训练时间。方法:选取2011年1月-2014年4月本院耳鼻咽喉科收治的152例行声带显微手术的声带息肉患者为研究对象,采用嗓音声学分析,对其术前、术后3、5、7 d,各嗓音声学参数进行比较。按照抽签随机取样法将152例患者均分为两组,A组患者于手术后1周给予嗓音

  14. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  15. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions.

  16. Infrared LED irradiation applied during high-intensity treadmill training improves maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women: a 6-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Corazza, Adalberto Vieira; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Reduced aerobic fitness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases among the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LED irradiation (850 nm) applied during treadmill training on the maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women. At the beginning of the study, 45 postmenopausal women were assigned randomly to three groups, and 30 women completed the entire 6 months of the study. The groups were: (1) the LED group (treadmill training associated with phototherapy, n = 10), (2) the exercise group (treadmill training, n = 10), and (3) the sedentary group (neither physical training nor phototherapy, n = 10). The training was performed for 45 min twice a week for 6 months at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HRmax). The irradiation parameters were 39 mW/cm(2), 45 min and 108 J/cm(2). The cardiovascular parameters were measured at baseline and after 6 months. As expected, no significant differences were found in the sedentary group (p ≥ 0.05). The maximal time of tolerance (Tlim), metabolic equivalents (METs) and Bruce stage reached significantly higher values in the LED group and the exercise group (p training (delta values) for the Tlim, METs and HR at isotime were greater in the LED group than in the exercise group with a significant intergroup difference (p training can improve maximal performance and post-exercise recovery in postmenopausal women.

  17. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Kałużny, Krystian; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Hagner-Derengowska Magdalena, Kałużny Krystian, Budzyński Jacek. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(12):563-580. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44248 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2812%29%3A563-580 http://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/687148 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665...

  18. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  19. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldazza, Carlo Vecchioli; Morosetti, Carolina; Giampieretti, Rosita; Lorenzetti, Rossana; Baroni, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT) in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Materials and Methods 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. Results A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS.

  20. A Robotic Voice Simulator and the Interactive Training for Hearing-Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Sawada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A talking and singing robot which adaptively learns the vocalization skill by means of an auditory feedback learning algorithm is being developed. The robot consists of motor-controlled vocal organs such as vocal cords, a vocal tract and a nasal cavity to generate a natural voice imitating a human vocalization. In this study, the robot is applied to the training system of speech articulation for the hearing-impaired, because the robot is able to reproduce their vocalization and to teach them how it is to be improved to generate clear speech. The paper briefly introduces the mechanical construction of the robot and how it autonomously acquires the vocalization skill in the auditory feedback learning by listening to human speech. Then the training system is described, together with the evaluation of the speech training by auditory impaired people.

  1. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  2. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314

  3. Exercise and improved insulin sensitivity in older women: evidence of the enduring benefits of higher intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Loretta; Dziura, James; Yeckel, Catherine W; Neufer, P Darrell

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have compared the relative benefits of moderate- vs. higher intensity exercise training on improving insulin sensitivity in older people while holding exercise volume constant. Healthy older (73 +/- 10 yr) women (N = 25) who were inactive, but not obese, were randomized into one of three training programs (9-mo duration): 1) high-intensity [80% peak aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak); T(H)] aerobic training; 2) moderate-intensity (65% V(O2)peak; T(M)) aerobic training; or 3) low-intensity (stretching) placebo control (50% V(O2)peak); C(TB)). Importantly, exercise volume (300 kcal/session) was held constant for subjects in both the T(H) and the T(M) groups. V(O2)peak was determined by using a graded exercise challenge on a treadmill. Total body fat and lean mass were determined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The rate of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization as well as the suppression of lipolysis were determined approximately 72 h after the final exercise bout by using a two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. We observed improved glucose utilization at the higher insulin dose with training, but these improvements were statistically significant only in the T(H) (21%; P = 0.02) compared with the T(M) (16%; P = 0.17) and C(TB) (8%; P = 0.37) groups and were observed without changes in either body composition or V(O2)peak. Likewise in the T(H) group, we detected a significant improvement in insulin-stimulated suppression (%) of adipose tissue lipolysis at the low-insulin dose (38-55%, P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that long-term higher intensity exercise training provides more enduring benefits to insulin action compared with moderate- or low-intensity exercise, likely due to greater transient effects.

  4. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, Bruno; Macedo, André Regis; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Takayama, Liliam; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation, associated or not with resistance training, in vulnerable older women. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Sixty subjects were assigned to compose the following groups: placebo (PL), creatine supplementation (CR), placebo with resistance training (PL+RT), and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 24weeks. The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests. The changes in 1-RM leg press were significantly greater in the CR+RT group (+19.9%) than in the PL (+2.4%) and the CR groups (+3.7%), but not than in the PL+RT group (+15%) (p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.357, respectively). The CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1-RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all the other groups (p≤0.05). The CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than the PL (-1.2%), the CR (+0.3%), and the PL+RT groups (-0.2%) (p≤0.05). The CR and the PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass (p=0.62), but superior to those seen in the PL group. Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, creatine supplementation combined with resistance training improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01472393.

  5. The Effect of Resistance Training on Plasma Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2 Level in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Behjati Ardakani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of chronic diseases increases with age. Increased production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS involves in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetic vascular complications, and heart failure. The present study aimed to explore the effects of resistance training on plasma hydrogen peroxide level of ageing women. Methods: Twenty-four postmenopausal women (mean age = 67.37 ± 6.02, height = 153.02 ± 8.12, weight = 65.78 ± 12.03, BMI = 26.87 ± 4.16, body fat% = 18.61 ± 3.65, and WHR = 0.92 ± 0.4 were purposefully chosen and randomly divided into control and experimental groups each consisted of 12 subjects. Experimental group did resistance training for eight weeks as follows: three sessions per week with 40% to 65% intensity of a maximum repetition and 5% overload after each 6 sessions. Before and after 8 weeks of training, resting levels of hydrogen peroxide was measured and recorded. Data were analyzed by paired- samples t-test. Results: A statistically significant decrease observed in plasma H2O2 level (p= 0.041 and also weight (p= 0.048, body fat percent (p= 0.001, WHR (p= 0.037, resting- heart- rate (p= 0.021, systolic blood pressure (p= 0.006 and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.002 of participants in experimental group but there were not any statistically different in any of the variables, pre and post-test in control group. Conclusion: Resistance training may be used as an intervention program for cardiovascular risk factors reduction.

  6. EFFECTS OF A 4-WEEK ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM ON THE REPEATED BOUT EFFECT IN YOUNG ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14 or a control group (CG, n = 10. They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05 compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05 following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss, but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness.

  7. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  8. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (pwaist circumference (p...BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health...... in postmenopausal women is debated as the menopausal transition is also associated with increased age and fat mass. Furthermore, indications of reduced cardio-metabolic adaptations to exercise in postmenopausal women add to the adverse health profile. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes...

  9. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Common Vocal Effects and Partial Glottal Vibration in Professional Nonclassical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Ibrahim Nasr, Ahmed; Ropero Rendon, Maria Del Mar; Wienhausen, Sascha; Forbes, Eleanor; Seidner, Wolfram; Nawka, Tadeus

    2017-07-12

    To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. Individual cohort study. Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater). Participants repeatedly presented the usual nonclassical vocal effects and techniques in their repertoire. All performances were documented and analyzed using established instruments (eg, auditory-perceptual assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, electroglottography, voice function diagnostics). The vocal apparatus of all singers was healthy and capable of high performance. Typical nonclassical vocal effects were breathy voice, creaky voice, vocal fry, grunting, distortion, rattle, belt, and twang. All effects could be easily differentiated from each other. They were intraindividually consistently repeatable and also interindividually produced in a similar manner. A special feature in one singer was the first evidence of partial glottal vibration when belting in the high register. The unintended transition to this reduced voice quality was accompanied by physical fatigue and inflexible respiratory support. The long-lasting use of the investigated nonclassical vocal effects had no negative impact on trained singers. The possibility of long-term damage depends on the individual constitution, specific use, duration, and extent of the hyperfunction. The incidence of partial glottal vibration and its consequences require continuing research to learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in nonclassical singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  12. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 声乐教学模式改革与重定位研讨%Discussion of vocal music teaching model reform and relocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任占忠

    2014-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the present situation of vocal music teaching, and then from strengthening vocal music training, basic training of local opera, dance training this three aspects discussed the vocal music teaching mode reform, finally focuses on vocal music teaching mode of relocation.%本文首先分析了声乐教学的现状,然后从强化声乐训练、进行戏曲基本功训练、进行舞蹈训练这三个方面讨论了声乐教学模式的改革,最后重点研究了声乐教学模式的重定位。

  14. Effects of preoperative inspiratory muscle training in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery: respiratory muscle strength, lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cangussu Barbalho-Moulim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preoperative inspiratory muscle training is able to attenuate the impact of surgical trauma on the respiratory muscle strength, in the lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Meridional Hospital, Cariacica/ES, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Thirty-two obese women undergoing elective open bariatric surgery were randomly assigned to receive preoperative inspiratory muscle training (inspiratory muscle training group or usual care (control group. MAIN MEASURES: Respiratory muscle strength (maximal static respiratory pressure - maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure, lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion. RESULTS: After training, there was a significant increase only in the maximal inspiratory pressure in the inspiratory muscle training group. The maximal expiratory pressure, the lung volumes and the diaphragmatic excursion did not show any significant change with training. In the postoperative period there was a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure in both the groups. However, there was a decrease of 28% in the inspiratory muscle training group, whereas it was 47% in the control group. The decrease in maximal expiratory pressure and in lung volumes in the postoperative period was similar between the groups. There was a significant reduction in the measures of diaphragmatic excursion in both the groups. CONCLUSION: The preoperative inspiratory muscle training increased the inspiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure and attenuated the negative postoperative effects of open bariatric surgery in obese women for this variable, though not influencing the lung volumes and the diaphragmatic excursion.

  15. The Evaluation of a Women's Leadership Development Training for Girls Rock! Roanoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kelinsky, Lia R

    2015-01-01

    Men and masculine qualities stereotypically define leadership. Role Congruity Theory explains that women leaders may experience a double discrimination. First, because leadership roles are stereotypically male, a woman may not have the necessary qualities. Second, because leadership qualities are stereotypically masculine, when women do exhibit agentic qualities, they are perceived negatively and not feminine (Eagly and Karau, 2002). Further, adopting a masculine style is perceived as an inau...

  16. Change to earlier surgical interventions: contemporary management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Declan

    2015-06-01

    The management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis has undergone significant changes in the last 2 decades. This has largely been made possible by advances in endoscope technology and new injectable materials. This article will cover the main changes in management of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and summarize the recent literature in relation to early intervention in this group. Several recent studies have suggested that early vocal fold injection medialization reduces the likelihood of needing open laryngeal framework surgery in future. Early injection medialization appears to give good long-term results with few complications and minimizes the need for future laryngeal framework surgery. It should be considered in centres wherein the equipment and trained staff are available.

  17. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx.

  18. Vocal cord paralysis in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Stephen; Brennan, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We present in this case report the return to flying duty of a pilot with vocal cord paralysis secondary to removal of a thymoma. We discuss the importance of glottic function as it pertains to the unique aviation environment. We also discuss the anatomy and physiology of the glottis, the evaluation for vocal cord paralysis, and surgical approaches for paralyzed vocal cords. Although the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis is low in the military aviation community, it is important to recognize that its sequelae can be managed so that the aviator may return to flight duties.

  19. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  20. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  1. An exploratory baseline study of boy chorister vocal behaviour and development in an intensive professional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenevora; Welch, Graham; Howard, David M

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is no existing published empirical longitudinal data on the singing behaviours and development of choristers who perform in UK cathedrals and major chapels. Longitudinal group data is needed to provide a baseline against which individual chorister development can be mapped. The choristers perform to a professional standard on a daily basis, usually with linked rehearsals, whilst also following a full school curriculum. The impact of this intensive schedule in relation to current vocal behaviour, health and future development requires investigation. Furthermore, it is also necessary to understand the relationship between the requirements of chorister singing behaviour and adolescent voice change. The paper will report the initial findings of a new longitudinal chorister study, based in one of London's cathedrals. Singing and vocal behaviours are being profiled on a six-monthly basis using data from a specially designed acoustic and behavioural instrument. The information obtained will enable us to understand better the effects of such training and performance on underlying vocal behaviour and vocal health. The findings will also have implications for singing teachers and choral directors in relation to particular methods of vocal education and rehearsal.

  2. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Miller-Sims

    Full Text Available Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  3. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  4. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    .... Various statistical methods were used to classify plasma metabolic signatures associated with post-prandial glucose and/or training status when using a repeated measures/cross-over study design...

  5. Beyond traditional scientific training: The importance of community and empowerment for women in ecology and evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claire Horner-Devine

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While the biological sciences have achieved gender parity in the undergraduate and graduate career stages, this is not the case at the faculty level. The WEBS (Women Evolving the Biological Sciences symposia go beyond traditional scientific training and professional development to address factors critical to women’s persistence in faculty careers: community and empowerment. Through a series of panel discussions, personal reflections and skills workshops, WEBS creates a community-based professional development experience and a space for participants to grapple with central issues affecting their scientific careers. Longitudinal qualitative survey data suggest that WEBS bolsters the participants’ confidence and empowerment, in addition to providing concrete skills for addressing a range of issues necessary to navigating scientific careers, leading to increased career satisfaction and career self-efficacy (i.e., the belief in one’s capacity to pursue their chosen career. These results highlight the importance and need for programs and opportunities for women in STEM that go beyond training in scientific skills and traditional professional development to include those that create a sense of community and empowerment.

  6. Effects of different doses of high-speed resistance training on physical performance and quality of life in older women: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Diaz, Daniela; Martinez-Salazar, Cristian; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Moran, Jason; Buford, Thomas W; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of two frequencies of high-speed resistance training (HSRT) on physical performance and quality of life of older women. Methods A total of 24 older women participated in a 12-week HSRT program composed of either two or three sessions/week (equated for volume and intensity). Women were randomized into three arms: a control group (CG, n=8), a resistance training group performing two sessions/week (RT2, n=8), and a resistance training group performing three sessions/week (RT3, n=8). The training program for both experimental groups included exercises that required high-speed concentric muscle actions. Results No baseline differences were observed among groups. Compared with the CG, both training groups showed similar small to moderate improvements (P<0.05) in muscle strength, power, functional performance, balance, and quality of life. Conclusion These results suggest that equated for volume and intensity, two and three training sessions/week of HSRT are equally effective for improving physical performance and quality of life of older women. PMID:28008239

  7. Effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception, and training on exercise-induced changes in circulating DHEA-sulphate and testosterone in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, C; Boisseau, N; Ottavy, M; Mulliez, J; Millet, C; Ingrand, I; Diaz, V; Dugué, B

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception, and training status on the exercise-induced changes in circulating DHEA-sulphate and testosterone in young women. Twenty-eight healthy women were assigned to an untrained group (n = 16) or a trained group (n = 12) depending on their training background. The untrained group was composed of nine oral contraceptive users (OC+) and seven eumenorrheic women (OC-). The trained group was composed of OC+ subjects only. All the OC+ subjects were taking the same low-dose oral contraception. Three laboratory sessions were organised in a randomised order: a prolonged exercise test until exhaustion, a short-term exhaustive exercise test, and a control session. Blood specimens were collected before, during and after the exercise tests and at the same time of the day during the control session. Basal circulating testosterone was significantly lower in trained as compared to untrained subjects. In all subjects, the prolonged exhaustive exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone. The short-term exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s in untrained eumenorrheic and in trained OC users only. Menstrual phases in OC- did not influence the responses. It was found that exhaustive physical exercise induced an increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone in young women. Oral contraception may limit short-term exercise-induced changes.

  8. The effectiveness of a relaxation training program for women with preterm labour on pregnancy outcomes: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal maternal stress is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Few studies have been published on the effectiveness of relaxation techniques focusing on women with preterm labour. The object of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a relaxation training program on pregnancy outcomes in women experiencing preterm labour. A single-blinded, controlled clinical trial was used. The study was conducted in two hospitals. Both of the study hospitals located in northern Taiwan are also large teaching hospitals and share the same treatment protocols of preterm labour. Inclusion criteria were being pregnant and diagnosed with preterm labour, singleton, hospitalized at time of entry into the study, at gestation between 20 and 34 weeks, and having a cervical dilatation of less than 3 cm. Exclusion criteria were if they had one or any combination of the following: antepartum hemorrhage, infection, hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, or immunologic disease. The experimental group (n=68) participants received a mini mp3 player containing a 13-min relaxation audio program, which they were instructed to follow daily, while the control group (n=59) received only routine prenatal care. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from medical charts after each woman gave birth. Survival analysis demonstrated that the experimental group had a significant pregnancy prolongation compared to the control group (p=0.048). Participants receiving the relaxation training program had a significant lower proportion of extreme preterm birth, a higher rate of not being admitted to a NICU, and a lower rate of stay days within 30 days when compared with the control group. No significant differences were found on pregnancy outcomes in terms of the rate of preterm birth, low birth weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min, mode of birth, and perinatal mortality between the two groups. Relaxation training for women with preterm labour is effective in delaying of delivery and enhancing positive

  9. The Effect of Different Doses of Aerobic Exercise Training on Exercise Blood Pressure in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damon L.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to reduce exercise blood pressure. However, it is unknown if these improvements occur in a dose dependent manner. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on exercise blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women. Methods Participants (n=404) were randomized to one of 4 groups: 4, 8, or 12 kilocalories per kilogram of energy expenditure per week (kcal/kg/week) or the non-exercise control group for 6 months. Exercise blood pressure was obtained during the 50 watts stage of a cycle ergometer maximal exercise test. Results There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure at 50 watts in the 4 kcal/kg/week (−10.9 mmHg, pexercise training dose significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (−4.3 mmHg, p= 0.033) compared to control. Additionally, resting blood pressure was not altered following exercise training (p>0.05) compared to control, and was not associated with changes in exercise systolic (r=0.09, p=0.09) or diastolic (r=0.10, p=0.08) blood pressure. Conclusions Aerobic exercise training reduces exercise blood pressure and may be more modifiable than changes in resting blood pressure. A high dose of aerobic exercise is recommended to successfully reduce both exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and therefore may attenuate the CVD risk associated with abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure. PMID:22547251

  10. The effects of 12 weeks Pilates-inspired exercise training on functional performance in older women: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Natália Donzeli; Testa, Daniela; Ruas, Paula Cristine; Salvini, Tânia de Fátima; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Melo, Ruth Caldeira

    2017-04-01

    Recent scientific evidence supports the benefits of Pilates exercises on postural balance and muscle strength of older persons. However, their effects on other aspects of physical fitness, which are also important for independent living in older age, are still unknown. To investigate the effects of a 12-week Pilates-inspired exercise program on the functional performance of community-dwelling older women. Forty community-dwelling older women were randomly enrolled in a Pilates-inspired exercise training (2 times/week, 60 min/session) (PG, n = 21, 66.0 ± 1.4yrs) or kept in the control group (CG; n = 19, 63.3 ± 0.9yrs). The Pilates exercises were conducted in small groups and performed on mats (using accessories such as exercise rubber bands, swiss and exercise balls). The functional performance on one-leg stance (OLS), timed up and go (TUG), five-times-sit-to-stand (STS) and 6-min walk (6 MW) tests was evaluated before and after the 12-week Pilates training or control follow-up period. After 12 weeks, time effects were observed for STS (p = 0.03) and 6 MW tests (p Pilates-inspired exercises improved dynamic balance, lower-extremity strength and aerobic resistance in community-dwelling older women. Therefore, it may be a potentially effective exercise regimen to maintain physical fitness in old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pascal Belin; Shirley Fecteau; Ian Charest; Nicholas Nicastro; Marc D Hauser; Jorge L Armony

    2008-01-01

    .... Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys...

  12. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  13. Pelvic floor muscle training and adjunctive therapies for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Patricia B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a prevalent and costly condition which may be treated surgically or by physical therapy. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT performed alone and together with adjunctive therapies (eg biofeedback, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones for the treatment of female SUI. Methods All major electronic sources of relevant information were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed English language abstracts or papers published between 1995 and 2005. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs and other study designs eg non-randomised trials, cohort studies, case series, were considered for this review in order to source all the available evidence relevant to clinical practice. Studies of adult women with a urodynamic or clinical diagnosis of SUI were eligible for inclusion. Excluded were studies of women who were pregnant, immediately post-partum or with a diagnosis of mixed or urge incontinence. Studies with a PFMT protocol alone and in combination with adjunctive physical therapies were considered. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study, its level of evidence and the methodological quality. Due to the heterogeneity of study designs, the results are presented in narrative format. Results Twenty four studies, including 17 RCTs and seven non-RCTs, met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies varied but lower quality scores did not necessarily indicate studies from lower levels of evidence. This review found consistent evidence from a number of high quality RCTs that PFMT alone and in combination with adjunctive therapies is effective treatment for women with SUI with rates of 'cure' and 'cure/improvement' up to 73% and 97% respectively. The contribution of adjunctive therapies is unclear and there is limited

  14. Water-Based Concurrent Training Improves Peak Oxygen Uptake, Rate of Force Development, Jump Height, and Neuromuscular Economy in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Cadore, Eduardo L; Zaffari, Paula; Baroni, Bruno M; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Radaelli, Régis; Pantoja, Patrícia D; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A; Wolf Schoenell, Maira C; Vaz, Marco A; Kruel, Luiz F M

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of different intrasession exercise sequences on the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in young subjects. Twenty-six healthy young women (25.1 ± 2.9 years) were placed into 2 water-based concurrent training groups: resistance before (RA, n = 13) or after (AR, n = 13) aerobic training. Subjects trained resistance and aerobic training during 12 weeks, 2 times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), rate of force development (RFD) obtained during an isometric peak torque knee extension protocol, jump height, and neuromuscular economy (normalized electromyography at 80% of pretraining knee extension isometric peak torque) in young women were determined. After training, there was a significant increase (p < 0.001) in both RA and AR in the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with no differences between groups (7 vs. 5%). The maximal isometric knee extension RFD showed significant increases (p = 0.003) after training (RA: 19 vs. AR: 30%), and both groups presented similar gains. In addition, the countermovement jump height also increased (p = 0.034) after training (RA: 5% vs. AR: 6%), with no difference between groups. After training, there were significant improvements on vastus lateralis (p < 0.001) (RA: -13% vs. AR: -20%) and rectus femoris (p = 0.025) (RA: -17% vs. AR: -7%) neuromuscular economy, with no difference between groups. In conclusion, 12 weeks of water-based concurrent training improved the peak oxygen uptake, RFD, jump height, and neuromuscular economy in young women independent from the intrasession exercise sequence.

  15. The evolution of coordinated vocalizations before language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. briefly point out the potential significance of coordinated vocal behavior in the dual pathway model of acoustic communication. Rhythmically entrained and articulated pre-linguistic vocal activity in early hominins might have set the evolutionary stage for later refinements that manifest in modern humans as language-based conversational turn-taking, joint music-making, and other behaviors associated with prosociality.

  16. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    begun. Diazepam , chlordiazepoxide , morphine, or naloxone was administered I.P. prior to placing the rat in the tailshock apparatus. Four different...by chlordiazepoxide and diazepam . Drug Dev. Res., 5, 185-193 (1985). Gardner, C.R., and Budhram, P. Effects of agents which interact with central... diazepam , and chlorpromazine, attenuate these vocalizations. Recent work by Kaltwasser (1990) examined the occurrence of vocalizations in response to

  17. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear mode...

  18. The impact of Nordic walking trainings on social well-being of women at the age of 50-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Antonina A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of falls aims to increase the strength of large groups of muscles, mainly in the lower limbs, as well as to improve gait, balance, and coordination parameters. Nordic walking (NW is a new type of walking training; the main purpose of NW is to involve the muscles that are not used during normal walking, which enables the performance of high intensity exercises at a relatively low level of perceived exertion. The article deals with the relevance of the problem of raising the health level and working capacity of mature and elderly-aged population. The importance of regular physical exercises as a universal means of satisfying the human body in motion has proved to be substantial. The research results in a positive impact of NW training on the functional status and health of women under the age of 50 - 60, the optimal structure of correctly graduated exercises during Nordic walking trainings in winter and snow-free periods. The quality of women’s life is determined and improved. NW is a form of physical activity which is recommended along with physiotherapy for the elderly to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, vascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, thus improving people’s physical, and, hence, social welfare.

  19. [Women boxing athletes' EMG of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the training of air striking of straight punch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin

    2011-05-01

    To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.

  20. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  1. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  2. The effects of aerobic- versus strength-training on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L

    2014-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of aerobic-training (AT) versus strength-training (ST) on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns. Theory-based correlates of body image change were also examined. Participants were 46 women (M age=21.5 years), randomly assigned to an 8-week AT or ST intervention consisting of supervised exercise 3 days/week. Multidimensional measures of body image were administered pre- and post-intervention, along with measures of physical fitness, perceived fitness, and exercise self-efficacy. Women in the AT condition reported greater reductions in social physique anxiety (p=.001) and tended to report greater improvements in appearance evaluation (p=.06) than women in the ST condition. Changes in perceived fatness, perceived aerobic endurance and aerobic self-efficacy were significantly correlated with body image change (psbody image and advancing theory to account for the effects of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytokine Pattern is Affected by Training Intensity in Women Futsal Players

    OpenAIRE

    Zar, Abdossaleh; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Miri, Maryamosadat; Abedi, Hassan Ali; Salesi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    To find the relation between exercise and cytokines, we examined the effect of the training intensity on the levels of cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interlukine-4 (IL-4) and interlukine-4/interferon-gamma ratio (IL-4/IFN-γ ratio) in female Futsal players. Twelve well-trained female college Futsal players aged 19~22 participated in this study. The athletes completed 30-min of running at 60~65% maximal heart rate [moderate-intensity exercise], and 30-min of running at 75~80% ma...

  4. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations.

  5. Initial Characteristics and Mentoring Satisfaction of College Women Mentoring Youth: Implications for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, Martha D.; Lawrence, Edith C.; Williams, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Being a youth mentor is popular among college students, yet little is known about how their initial characteristics are related to mentoring satisfaction. Survey data from college women enrolled in a youth mentoring program (n = 158) and a comparison group (n = 136) were analyzed to determine how initial characteristics of youth mentors (a) differ…

  6. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Jimenez Arnulfo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hatha Yoga (HY can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle- aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions. The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI, % body fat and ∑ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VE max , maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max , maximal heart rate (HR max , systolic (BPs and diastolic blood pressure (BPd], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day, program adherence (~85%, and exercising skills (asana performance were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO 2max and VE max and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO 2max and HDL-C in middle-aged and older women.

  7. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and Σ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  8. Effects of preoperative inspiratory muscle training in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery: respiratory muscle strength, lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Cangussu Barbalho-Moulim; Gustavo Peixoto Soares Miguel; Eli Maria Pazzianotto Forti; Flavio do Amaral Campos; Dirceu Costa

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preoperative inspiratory muscle training is able to attenuate the impact of surgical trauma on the respiratory muscle strength, in the lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Meridional Hospital, Cariacica/ES, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Thirty-two obese women undergoing elective open bariatric surgery were randomly assigned to receive preoperative inspiratory muscle trainin...

  9. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Nayebifar; Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour; Toba Kazemi; Seyed Hosein Abtahi Eivary; Mehdi Mogharnasi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal...

  10. The Effect of Training and Monitoring at Home on the Knowledge Level and Practices of Married Women Regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolutek, Rahşan; Avcı, İlknur Aydın

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed as a semi-experimental study to determine the effects of training and monitoring at home on the knowledge level and practices of married women regarding breast and cervical cancer. The research sample consisted of 153 women. Data was collected by the "Introductory Questionnaire" and "Breast Cancer and Cervical Cancer symptoms, prevention, early diagnosis information and application form." After the data was collected, women received training. After training, to monitor changes, phone calls were made along with home visits for 6 months. After the end of the visits, forms were re-administered. For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test, Friedman analysis, and Student-Newman-Keuls test were performed. According to the findings, women increased their score from the information form after planned monitoring at home, and the difference between the first and last measurement points was statistically significant (pcancer, and the difference between the first and last measurement points was statistically significant (pbreast self-examination (BSE). As a result, women's knowledge concerning breast and cervical cancer has changed in a positive manner with planned monitoring and training.

  11. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J; Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-15

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia "loops," which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts.

  12. Martina Bergman-Osterberg (1849-1915): Creating a Professional Role for Women in Physical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Martina Bergman-Osterberg came to London from Sweden versed in the theory and practice of Swedish gymnastics as taught by Per Henrik Ling (1776-1881), and introduced his system into British schools, first while working for the London School Board and subsequently by establishing the Dartford College of Physical Training. This paper examines the…

  13. Effects in Post-Conflict West Africa of Teacher Training for Refugee Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepler, Susan; Routh, Sharyn

    2012-01-01

    This article draws data from an innovative research project tracing former refugee teachers who received teacher training from the International Rescue Committee (IRC) over a 17-year-long education programme in refugee camps in Guinea (1991-2008). The research traced repatriated refugee teachers who had returned to their homes in Sierra Leone and…

  14. Vocational Training for Professionals in the Field of Equal Opportunities for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Julio Fernandez; Higuera, Luis Aramburu-Zabala

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of job profiles for equal opportunity officers and advisers in Spain and recognition of these occupations in the National Classification of Occupations. Discusses standardized training for these positions and the development of a certificate of occupational proficiency. (SK)

  15. Voice analysis before and after vocal rehabilitation in patients following open surgery on vocal cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunijevac Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major role of larynx in speech, respiration and swallowing makes carcinomas of this region and their treatment very influential for patients’ life quality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of voice therapy in patients after open surgery on vocal cords. Methods. This study included 21 male patients and the control group of 19 subjects. The vowel (A was recorded and analyzed for each examinee. All the patients were recorded twice: firstly, when they contacted the clinic and secondly, after a three-month vocal therapy, which was held twice per week on an outpatient basis. The voice analysis was carried out in the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT Clinic, Clinical Hospital Center “Zvezdara” in Belgrade. Results. The values of the acoustic parameters in the patients submitted to open surgery on the vocal cords before vocal rehabilitation and the control group subjects were significantly different in all specified parameters. These results suggest that the voice of the patients was damaged before vocal rehabilitation. The results of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A before and after vocal rehabilitation of the patients with open surgery on vocal cords were statistically significantly different. Among the parameters - Jitter (%, Shimmer (% - the observed difference was highly statistically significant (p 0.05 . Conclusion. There was a significant improvement of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A in the study subjects three months following vocal therapy. Only one out of five representative parameters showed no significant improvement.

  16. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  17. Correlation between vocal functions and glottal measurements in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagi, K; Khidr, A A; Ford, C N; Bless, D M; Heisey, D M

    1997-06-01

    Observations and analysis of glottal characteristics are critical in choosing the best modality for surgery in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP). This study suggests that multiple glottal characteristics influence the vocal product in patients with UVP. In addition to the horizontal position of the paralyzed vocal fold (deviation from the midline), the glottal area, degree of bowing of the paralyzed and contralateral vocal folds, maximum separation between vocal folds, compensatory glottal maneuvers, and the vertical glottic closure plane significantly influenced the quality of the voice. Clinicians should be aware of these observations to facilitate treatment planning and assessment of the results of surgical procedures used to improve voice quality in cases of UVP.

  18. Effects and prevalence of nonresponders after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval or resistance training in women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR (P training. A uniqueness of the present study was to examine the NR prevalence in women with insulin resistance after high-intensity interval (HIIT) and resistance training (RT). This study demonstrates that 12 wk of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables. However, significantly different NR prevalence were observed in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Combined training (strength plus aerobic) potentiates a reduction in body fat but only functional training reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in postmenopausal women with a similar training load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Diniz, Tiego A; de Castro, Marcela R; Buonani, Camila; Mota, Jorge; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined (CT; strength plus aerobic) and functional training (FT) on the body composition and metabolic profile with a similar training load in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into three groups: CT (n=20), FT (n=17), and control group (CG, n=15). The trunk FM, fat mass (FM), percentage of FM (FM%), and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile, glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed. There were main effects of time in trunk fat, FM, and FM% (Pvalues for CT group. For LDL-c, there was significant interaction (P=0.002) with greater values for FT group in relation to CG and CT. Furthermore, when performed the post hoc test on the "mean absolute differences" (Δ), it can observed statistically significant difference between FT, CT, and CG (-13.0±16.5 mg/dL vs. 4.8±18.4 mg/dL vs. 9.2±18.8 mg/dL, Ptraining loads are equivalent CT potentiated a reduction in FM and FM%, however, only FT reduced LDL-c in postmenopausal women.

  20. A comparison of harmonic production in trained and untrained singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Jonathan H.; Caso, Hilary J.

    2004-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the differences in the tone qualities of trained and untrained singers of both genders by measuring the ratio of energy found in the fundamental frequency to that found in the harmonics of the two groups. Forty trained and untrained male and female subjects (ten in each group) sang the vowels [a e i o u] in the words ``me cake father obey too.'' Each subject sang through the list of words in its entirety one time. They were also asked to produce each word at a constant pitch of their choosing. The intensity (dB) was then measured at the vowel midpoint in the intact vowel, and then again with the fundamental filtered out. These two measurements allowed for a comparison to be made by subtracting the results. This process produced results showing that the fundamental frequency was responsible for the majority of the trained singers', vocal productions, where harmonics were responsible for the majority of the untrained singers', vocal productions. The data also showed that these results were more prominent for the production of the high vowels in both genders, and for women overall.

  1. Can quality of life be improved by pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Lindskov, Grethe;

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke measured by quality of life (QoL) parameters. Three hundred thirty-nine medical records of stroke patients were searched. Twenty-six subjects were randomised......-four subjects completed the study. The SF-36 and IIQ did not show significant difference between the two groups. Despite the high prevalence of stroke with urinary incontinence, it is difficult to include these patients in such studies. The samples were too small to detect any significant differences....... Development of specific instruments for QoL in stroke patients with urinary incontinence can be recommended....

  2. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  3. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  4. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  5. Influence of Training about Carcinogenic Effects of Hookah Smoking on the Awareness, Attitude, and Performance of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoozi, Saideh; Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara; Naseh, Ladan

    2017-07-27

    Background: Wrong attitudes and beliefs about the less carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking comparing to cigarette, easy availability, low cost, and other factors have caused that the usage of hookah smoking increase a lot in our country. Objective: This study has been done with the purpose of examining the influence of education about carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking on the awareness, attitude, and performance of women who refer to the healthcare and medical treatment centers. Materials and Methods: At this semi experimental study, 60 women who refer to the medical and hygienic centers of Bushehr were placed in 3 educational groups based on simple accidental sampling. The tool for data collection was a questionnaire including demographic features, awareness, attitude, and performance measurement. Results: according to the results, the amount of awareness in the majority (48%) of participants about carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking was in an average level. 100% of the participants had the awareness of over 33.1% and their attitude toward hookah smoking was 100% positive that after the intervention it was reported 5%. The participants’ performance in hookah smoking before the intervention was only 25% desirable that after the intervention it was reported 73.3%. The results of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test also showed that the distribution of awareness, attitude, and performance was quite normal. Conclusion: according to the results, it’s the society’s basic need to warn people about carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking by increasing people’s awareness through media, holding training courses, showing movies, and training booklets. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero-Zurita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4±6.8 years attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36. Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all <0.001. The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (=0.006, back scratch (=0.002, handgrip strength (=0.006, chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all <0.001. Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (<0.001 and six subscales: stiffness (=0.005, pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all <0.001. The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (=0.003, vitality (=0.018, physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all <0.001. Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients.

  7. The Combined Effects of Tai Chi, Resistance Training, and Diet on Physical Function and Body Composition in Obese Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Maris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem in the USA, especially in minority populations over the age of 60 years, and the aging process can cause adverse effects on physical function. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi, resistance training (RT, and diet result in overall health improvements. However, the combination of these specific interventions has yet to be translated to obese older women in an urban setting. The purpose of this study was to examine a combined intervention on the primary outcomes of physical function and body composition. Using a nonrandomized design, 26 obese women (65.2±8.1 years completed a 12-week intervention; participants were assigned to an intervention (EXD group or a control (CON group. The EXD group (n=17 participated in Tai Chi, RT, and a dietary session. The CON group (n=9 was asked to continue their normal lifestyle. Timed up and go (TUG time was reduced by 0.64±2.1 seconds (P=0.04 in the EXD group while the CON group saw a borderline significant increase of 0.71 sec (P=0.051. The combined intervention helped improve performance on TUG time, but there were no significant increases in other body composition or function measures.

  8. Site-specific effects of strength training on bone structure and geometry of ultradistal radius in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, S; Gatti, D; Braga, V; Bianchini, D; Rossini, M

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the effects of exercise on bone mass in postmenopausal women is limited and controversial. Animal studies have shown that the response of bone to bending strain is an alteration of bone geometry. We studied 250 postmenopausal women, aged 52-72 years, willing to participate in a 6-month exercise program. The first 125 started the program immediately and the remaining 125 served as controls. The training program included exercises designed to maximize the stress on the wrist. One hundred and eighteen of the active group and 116 of the control group completed the study and were reassessed 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck, lumbar spine, ultradistal and proximal radius was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) both before and at the end of the exercise program. The forearm was also evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, which measures the area, bone mineral content (BMC), and volumetric density for both the cortical and the trabecular component. The results showed that the DXA measurements at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, ultradistal and proximal radius were similar between the two groups. No significant difference was detected after the exercise program at the proximal radius. At the ultradistal radius, the cross-sectional area of cortical bone rose by 2.8 +/- 15.0% (SD, p different from those observed in the control group (p bending strength.

  9. Effect of continuous passive motion (machine-assisted) exercise as an alternative form of training on physiological profiles of women aged 40-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan B; Bemben, Debra A; Knehans, Allen W; Bemben, Michael G

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of 16 weeks of continuous passive motion (CPM) or machine-assisted exercise as an alternative form of training on body composition, muscle strength, and flexibility in women aged 40-65 years. Thirty-one exercisers and 8 controls completed 16 weeks of training, with the exercisers averaging 3 sessions per week. Six toning tables targeted different muscle groups by moving the body and/or limbs while subjects attempted to resist the movements. Body composition was assessed by individual measures (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, hydrodensitometry, and bioelectric impedance) and a 4-compartment model, flexibility was assessed by a Leighton flexometer and the sit and reach procedure, and strength was measured by standard 1 repetition maximum procedures before training began, after 5 weeks of training, and after 16 weeks of training. When the 2 groups were compared after week 5 and week 16 of training, few significant (p < 0.05) group by trial differences were noted; however, these differences were minimal and represented little or no practical significance (very low effect sizes). In conclusion, CPM training did not appear to provide a sufficient stimulus to significantly alter measures of strength, flexibility, or body composition in women aged 40-65 years.

  10. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  11. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  12. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  13. Utilizing Social Work Skills to Enhance Entrepreneurship Training for Women: A Ghanaian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Ahmedani, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a women’s entrepreneurship exchange program that was designed and facilitated with the cooperation of various governmental and nongovernmental entities in Ghana for Ghanaian women. The article briefly reviews the entrepreneurship development literature from an international perspective and discusses the Entrepreneurship Program as a targeted approach for empowering and sustaining women’s economic situation in Ghana. Emphasis is placed on understanding the impact of cultural and social networks and the women’s ability to succeed as entrepreneurs through the use of social work skills. PMID:20011682

  14. Impact of Vocal Tract Resonance on the Perception of Voice Quality Changes Caused by Varying Vocal Fold Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Rosario; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Gerratt, Bruce; Kreiman, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Summary Experiments using animal and human larynx models are often conducted without a vocal tract. While it is often assumed that the absence of a vocal tract has only small effects on vocal fold vibration, it is not actually known how sound production and quality are affected. In this study, the validity of using data obtained in the absence of a vocal tract for voice perception studies was investigated. Using a two-layer self-oscillating physical model, three series of voice stimuli were created: one produced with conditions of left-right symmetric vocal fold stiffness, and two with left-right asymmetries in vocal fold body stiffness. Each series included a set of stimuli created with a physical vocal tract, and a second set created without a physical vocal tract. Stimuli were re-synthesized to equalize the mean F0 for each series and normalized for amplitude. Listeners were asked to evaluate the three series in a sort-and-rate task. Multidimensional scaling analysis was applied to examine the perceptual interaction between the voice source and the vocal tract resonances. The results showed that the presence or absence of a vocal tract can significantly affect perception of voice quality changes due to parametric changes in vocal fold properties, except when the parametric changes in vocal fold properties produced an abrupt shift in vocal fold vibratory pattern resulting in a salient quality change. PMID:27134616

  15. There is not yet strong evidence that exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training can reduce stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    What evidence is there for alternative exercises to specific pelvic floor muscle training for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women? A systematic review was conducted with searches of PubMed and PEDro to January 2013. The quality of randomised trials was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Each type of exercise was classified as being in a Development Phase, Testing Phase, or Refinement and Dissemination Phase. Women with stress or mixed urinary incontinence with predominantly stress urinary incontinence. Exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training. The primary outcome was urinary leakage. Seven randomised controlled trials were found: three on abdominal training, two on the Paula method, and two on Pilates exercise. The methodological quality score ranged between 4 and 8 with a mean of 5.7. There was no convincing evidence for the effect of these exercise regimens so they remain in the Testing Phase. Because no randomised trials were found for posture correction, breathing exercise, yoga, Tai Chi, and general fitness training, these were classified as being in the Development Phase. There is not yet strong evidence that alternative exercise regimens can reduce urinary leakage in women with stress urinary incontinence. Alternative exercise regimens should not yet be recommended for use in clinical practice for women with stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding female empowerment : The impact of offering goal setting training to couples in the context of a microfinance intervention for women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, Marloes; Hansen, Nina; Otten, Sabine; Lensink, Bernardus

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on the impact of offering access to microfinance (micro loan and training) to women provided mixed results with respect to female empowerment. We propose that empowerment is a three-level concept and should be investigated at the personal, relational, and societal level. In the cur

  17. Empowerment as a multifaceted concept: : The impact of offering goal setting training to couples in the context of a microfinance intervention for women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, Marloes; Hansen, Nina; Otten, Sabine; Lensink, Bernardus

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on the impact of offering access to microfinance (micro loan and training) to women provided mixed results with respect to female empowerment. We propose that empowerment is a three-level concept and should be investigated at the personal, relational, and societal level. In the cur

  18. The Impact Of Ten Weeks Of Bodyweight Training On The Level Of Physical Fitness And Selected Parameters Of Body Composition In Women Aged 21-23 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipecki Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of 10 weeks of bodyweight training on selected elements of body composition (body mass, muscle mass, and the percentage of body fat and water and components of physical fitness (strength, strength endurance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity of women aged 21-23 years who do not practise sports professionally.

  19. The Symbolic Approach and the Criticism to Industrialization——A Study on the Image of Train in Women in Love by D.H.Lawrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱卓为

    2015-01-01

    The symbolic approach is one of the most important writing techniques that D.H.Lawrence specialized in.The criticism to industrialization is one of his main novel’s themes.This paper analyzed one of the typical symbols of industrialization from Women in Love-train and reveals Lawrence’s criticism to the industrial society.

  20. The feasibility of progressive resistance training in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizza, Lisa; Smith, Caroline A; Swaraj, Soji; Agho, Kingsley; Cheema, Birinder S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of executing a randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance training (PRT) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS were randomized to an experimental (PRT) group or a no-exercise (usual care) control group. The PRT group was prescribed two supervised and two unsupervised (home-based) training sessions per week for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and attrition, adherence, adverse events, and completion of assessments. Secondary outcomes, collected pre and post intervention, included a range of pertinent physiological, functional and psychological measures. Fifteen participants were randomised into the PRT group (n = 8) or control group (n = 7); five women (n = 2 in PRT group and n = 3 in control group) withdrew from the study. The most successful recruitment sources were Facebook (40 %) and online advertisement (27 %), while least successful methods were referrals by clinicians, colleagues and flyers. In the PRT group, attendance to supervised sessions was higher (95 %; standard deviation ±6 %) compared to unsupervised sessions (51 %; standard deviation ±28 %). No adverse events were attributed to PRT. Change in menstrual cycle status was not significantly different between groups over time (p = 0.503). However, the PRT group significantly increased body weight (p = 0.01), BMI (p = 0.04), lean mass (p = 0.01), fat-free mass (p = 0.005) and lower body strength (p = 0.03), while reducing waist circumference (p = 0.03) and HbA1c (p = 0.033) versus the control group. The PRT group also significantly improved across several domains of disease-specific and general health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety and exercise self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial of PRT in PCOS would be feasible, and this mode of exercise may elicit a therapeutic effect on clinically important outcomes in this cohort. The success of a large

  1. Prevalence of Non-responders for Glucose Control Markers after 10 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Adult Women with Higher and Lower Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R) or non-responders (NRs), especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance. Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); n = 20) and a group with lower insulin resistance (L-IR, 35 ± 9 years; 27.8 ± 2.8 kg/m(2); n = 20). Anthropometric, cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance variables were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training. Results: There were significant training-induced changes [delta percent (Δ%)] in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores in the H-IR group (-8.8, -26.5, -32.1%, p sedentary adult women. This research demonstrates the protective effect of HIIT against cardiometabolic disease progression in a sedentary population.

  2. ACUTE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT CIRCUIT WEIGHT TRAINING PROTOCOLS ON BLOOD LACTATE, HEART RATE, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook L. Skidmore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Interval and circuit weight training are popular training methods for maximizing time-efficiency, and are purported to deliver greater physiological benefits faster than traditional training methods. Adding interval training into a circuit weight-training workout may further enhance the benefits of circuit weight training by placing increased demands upon the cardiovascular system. Our purpose was to compare acute effects of three circuit weight training protocols 1 traditional circuit weight training, 2 aerobic circuit weight training, and 3 combined circuit weight-interval training on blood lactate (BLA, heart rate (HR, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE. Eleven recreationally active women completed 7 exercise sessions. Session 1 included measurements of height, weight, estimated VO2max, and 13 repetition maximum (RM testing of the weight exercises. Sessions 2-4 were held on non-consecutive days for familiarization with traditional circuit weight training (TRAD, aerobic circuit weight training (ACWT, and combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT protocols. In sessions 5-7, TRAD, ACWT, and CWIT were performed in a randomized order > 72 hr apart for measures of BLA, HR, and RPE at pre-exercise and following each of three mini-circuit weight training stations. Repeated-measures ANOVAs yielded significant interactions (p < 0.05 in BLA, HR, and RPE. Combined circuit weight- interval training (CWIT produced higher BLA (7.31 ± 0.37 vs. TRAD: 3.99 ± 0.26, ACWT: 4.54 ± 0.31 mmol.L-1, HR (83.51 ± 1.18 vs. TRAD: 70.42 ± 1.67, ACWT: 74.13 ± 1.43 beats.min-1 and RPE (8.14 ± 0.41 vs. TRAD: 5.06 ± 0.43, ACWT: 6.15 ± 0.42 at all measures. Aerobic circuit weight training (ACWT elicited greater RPE than traditional circuit weight training (TRAD at all measures. Including combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT workouts into exercise programming may enhance fitness benefits and maximize time-efficiency more so than traditional circuit

  3. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U; Rogers, Ryan A; Volek, Jeff S; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

    2006-11-01

    Anecdotal and research evidence is that vertical jump performance declines over the competitive volleyball season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short period of ballistic resistance training would attenuate this loss. Fourteen collegiate women volleyball players were trained for 11 weeks with periodized traditional and ballistic resistance training. There was a 5.4% decrease (p ballistic training period (midseason to end of season), but values were not different from start to end of season. These changes in overall jump performance were reflective of changes in underlying neuromuscular performance variables: in particular, power output and peak velocity during loaded jump squats, countermovement jumps, and drop jumps. During the first 7 weeks of traditional heavy resistance training, it appears that the neuromuscular system is depressed, perhaps by the combination of training, game play, and skills practice precluding adequate recovery. Introduction of a novel training stimulus in the form of ballistic jump squats and reduction of heavy resistance training of the leg extensors stimulated a rebound in performance, in some cases to exceed the athlete's ability at the start of the season. Periodization of in-season training programs similar to that used in this study may provide volleyball players with good vertical jump performance for the crucial end-of-season games.

  4. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipoprotein profile, glycemic control and physical fitness after strength and aerobic training in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, Christos E; Christos, Zois E; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Volaklis, Konstantinos A; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Touvra, Anna-Maria; Douda, Eleni; Yovos, Ioannis G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the effects on blood lipids and physical fitness after a training program that combined strength and aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Ten patients (55.0 +/- 5.2 years) followed four exercise sessions per week, two strength and two aerobic, and ten (59.4 +/- 3.2 years) served as a control group. Lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), HOMA2 index, exercise stress and muscular testing were assessed at the beginning and after 16 weeks of training program. Exercise training increased significantly HDL-C (17.2%; P exercise time (17.8%) and muscular strength increased significantly (P post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

  6. VOCAL: Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language. Technical Report No. 291.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Michael; And Others

    VOCAL (Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language) is designed to facilitate the authoring of computer assisted curricula which incorporate highly interactive audio and text presentations. Lessons written in VOCAL are intended to be patterned after the style of informal classroom lectures. VOCAL contains features that allow the author to specify…

  7. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  8. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  9. Influence of Nordic Walking Training on Muscle Strength and the Electromyographic Activity of the Lower Body in Women With Low Bone Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossowski Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are related to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contribute to a decreased level of muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Nordic walking training on muscle strength and the electromyographic (EMG activity of the lower body in women with low bone mass. Material and methods. The participants of the study were 27 women with low bone mass. The sample was randomly divided into two groups: a control group and an experimental group. Women from the experimental group participated in 12 weeks of regular Nordic walking training. Functional strength was assessed with a 30-second chair stand test. The EMG activities of the gluteus maximus (GMax, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, soleus (SOL, and lumbar (LB muscles were measured using a surface electromyogram. Results. Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in the functional strength (p = 0.006 of the lower body and activity of GMax (p = 0.013 and a decrease in body mass (p = 0.006 in women with reduced bone mass. There was no statistically significant increase in the EMG activities of the RF, BF, SOL, or LB muscles. The study did not indicate any significant changes in functional muscle strength, the EMG activity of the lower body, or anthropometry in women from the control group. Conclusions. Nordic walking training induces positive changes in lower body strength and the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus as well as a decrease in body mass in women with low bone mass.

  10. Gestures, vocalizations and memory in language origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possible homologies between the human language networks and comparable auditory projection systems in the macaque brain, in an attempt to conciliate two existing views on language evolution: one that makes emphasis on hand control and gestures, and the other that makes emphasis on auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced into the non-human primate brain. In its core, this circuit makes up an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a ventral pathway connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a dorsal pathway connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homologue to the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-ventrolateral prefrontal network for hand and gestural action selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of this dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to have marked a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  11. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Kazemi, Farideh; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Jalali, Mozhgan; Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Ali; Rafiei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women’s fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75) or group "B" (Control group, n = 75). Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software. Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7) (p = 0.007). Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%). But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%). Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required. PMID:28101112

  12. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women’s fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth.Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75 or group "B" (Control group, n = 75. Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software.Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7 (p = 0.007. Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%. But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%.Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required.

  13. On the role of emerging voluntary control of vocalization in language evolution. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudé, Gino

    2016-03-01

    This comment will be focused on the role of monkey vocal control in the evolution of language. I will essentially reiterate the observations expressed in a commentary [1] about the book "How the brain got language: the mirror system hypothesis", written by Arbib [2]. I will hopefully clarify our suggestion that non-human primates vocal communication, in conjunction with gestures, could have had an active role in the emergence of the first voluntary forms of utterances that will later shape protospeech. This suggestion is mainly rooted in neurophysiological data about vocal control in monkey. I will very briefly summarize how neurophysiological data allowed us to suggest a possible role for monkey vocalization in language evolution. We conducted a study [3] in which we recorded from ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of macaques trained to emit vocalizations (i.e. coo-calls). The results showed that the rostro-lateral part of PMv contains neurons that fire during conditioned vocalization. The involvement of PMv in vocalization production was further supported by electrical microstimulation of the cortical sector where some of the vocalization neurons were found. Microstimulation elicited in some cases a combination of jaw, tongue and larynx movements. To us, the evolutionary implications of those results were obvious: a partial voluntary vocal control was already taking place in the primate PMv cortex some 25 million years ago.

  14. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  15. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  16. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    separated by 25 s of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 min rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT-training in wk-1 was 152±4 m and increased (P....87±0.97 to 18.44±1.06 s) and RST by 4.3% post-intervention in the HIT-group only. Baseline RST fatigue index (FI) was 7.0±2.9 and 6.2±5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (PYo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance...

  17. Long-Term Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Cognition and Brain Volume in Older Women: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Liang Hsu, Chun; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31-.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women.

  18. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiestad, Hege; Rustaden, Anne Mette; Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene A H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), mean age 39.9 ± 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45-60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ± 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A-C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ± 19.8, B = 47.6 ± 15.4, C = 48.4 ± 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ± 18.2) (p training contributed to higher scores in important variables related to exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training.

  19. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  20. Glottal open quotient in singing: Measurements and correlation with laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Christophe; Doval, Boris; Castellengo, Michèle

    2005-03-01

    This article presents the results of glottal open-quotient measurements in the case of singing voice production. It explores the relationship between open quotient and laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency. The audio and electroglottographic signals of 18 classically trained male and female singers were recorded and analyzed with regard to vocal intensity, fundamental frequency, and open quotient. Fundamental frequency and open quotient are derived from the differentiated electroglottographic signal, using the DECOM (DEgg Correlation-based Open quotient Measurement) method. As male and female phonation may differ in respect to vocal-fold vibratory properties, a distinction is made between two different glottal configurations, which are called laryngeal mechanisms: mechanism 1 (related to chest, modal, and male head register) and mechanism 2 (related to falsetto for male and head register for female). The results show that open quotient depends on the laryngeal mechanisms. It ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 in mechanism 1 and from 0.5 to 0.95 in mechanism 2. The open quotient is strongly related to vocal intensity in mechanism 1 and to fundamental frequency in mechanism 2. .

  1. Data-driven automated acoustic analysis of human infant vocalizations using neural network tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Dale, Rick; Kozma, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of infant vocalizations has typically employed traditional acoustic measures drawn from adult speech acoustics, such as f0, duration, formant frequencies, amplitude, and pitch perturbation. Here an alternative and complementary method is proposed in which data-derived spectrographic features are central. 1-s-long spectrograms of vocalizations produced by six infants recorded longitudinally between ages 3 and 11 months are analyzed using a neural network consisting of a self-organizing map and a single-layer perceptron. The self-organizing map acquires a set of holistic, data-derived spectrographic receptive fields. The single-layer perceptron receives self-organizing map activations as input and is trained to classify utterances into prelinguistic phonatory categories (squeal, vocant, or growl), identify the ages at which they were produced, and identify the individuals who produced them. Classification performance was significantly better than chance for all three classification tasks. Performance is compared to another popular architecture, the fully supervised multilayer perceptron. In addition, the network’s weights and patterns of activation are explored from several angles, for example, through traditional acoustic measurements of the network’s receptive fields. Results support the use of this and related tools for deriving holistic acoustic features directly from infant vocalization data and for the automatic classification of infant vocalizations. PMID:20370038

  2. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  3. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F; Ginocchio, D; Maruzzi, P; Atac, M; Ottaviani, F

    2012-10-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. The aim of this study was to analyze voice changes in a group of dysphonic patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions, evaluated with a multidimensional protocol before and after voice therapy. Sixteen consecutive patients, 12 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 49.7 years were enrolled. Each subject had 10 voice therapy sessions with an experienced speech/language pathologist for a period of 1-2 months, and was evaluated before and at the end of voice therapy with a multidimensional protocol that included self-assessment measures and videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic and acoustic ratings. Videostroboscopic examination did not reveal resolution of the initial pathology in any case. No improvement was observed in aerodynamic and perceptual ratings. A clear and significant improvement was visible on Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the mean values of Jitt%, Noise to Harmonic Ratio (NHR) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores. Even if it is possible that, for benign vocal fold lesions, only a minor improvement of voice quality can be achieved after voice therapy, rehabilitation treatment still seems useful as demonstrated by improvement in self-assessment measures. If voice therapy is provided as an initial treatment to the patients with benign vocal fold lesions, this may lead to an improvement in the perceived voice quality, making surgical intervention unnecessary. This is one of the first reports on the efficacy of voice therapy in the management of benign vocal fold

  4. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  5. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Differentiated and Undifferentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Cycle and Treadmill Exercise in Recreationally Active and Trained Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, Melinda R.; Baker, Carol E.; Goss, Fredric. L.; Nagle, Elizabeth; Robertson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3) x intensity (3)) ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3)) within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during cycling and

  6. Among the physical fitness workouts, the efficiency of the weight training and zumba exercises on the body composition in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the physical fitness workouts; whereas the weight training is one of the most prevalent physical activities used for men, the zumba dance workouts has become popular for women in the last decade, as an entertaining alternative approach. In this research, the effects of the weight training on the body composition in men and the zumba dance workouts in women have been studied. 90 sedentary individuals (44 men, average age: 30.70 ± 6.44; 46 women, average age: 29.13 ± 5.80 attending a fitness center had received weight training and zumba classes (during 2 months, 3 days each week, each session 45/60 minutes. The exercise intensity that had been kept low at the beginning was increased in the following weeks for both programs. The body composition analysis have been carried out at the start and then monthly, through bioelectrical impedence method. During the process; the medical histories of the participants as well as their levels of readiness for and participation to the physical activities have been monitored. Both sex have been evaluated separately. The descriptive statistics techniques and repeated measures ANOVA have been used to analyze the data. At the end of the study, the positive effects of both exercise programs on the body compositions of the sedentary men and women have been observed. As a conclusion, it has been recorded with the present study once again that the weight training is still an efficient and valid method for men and also, the zumba workouts are efficient for women as a popular method.

  7. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsitt