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Sample records for vocal habits fluid

  1. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Problems in separating species with similar habits and vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Stallcup, R.W.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities for species misidentification based on vocalization or habitat association are high. However, the magnitude of the errors actually perpetrated is generally within an acceptable range in most types of bird survey work. Examples of problems discussed are: congeners that are similar in appearance or in song (such as Chimney and Vaux's Swifts, Chaetura pelagica, C. vauxi; Hammond's, Dusky and Gray Flycatchers, Empidonax hammondii, E. oberholseri, E. wrightii; Willow and Alder Flycatchers, E. traillii, E. alnorum; Common and Fish Crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, C. ossifragus); birds that are misidentified because they are not expected by the observer (House Finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, invading new areas of eastern U.S.); birds that imitate other species (especially Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, and Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos); birds in mixed flocks; birds with geographic differences in vocalizations (Solitary Vireo, Vireo solitarius); woodpeckers that are only heard drumming; and nests or eggs that are misidentified. Equally serious problems are the errors resulting from undetected species and from careless recording or failure to check manuscripts against original data. The quality of published count work can be improved considerably by (1) recognizing the problems that exist, (2) standardizing techniques for dealing with situations where not all birds can be identified, and (3) routinely applying all appropriate safeguards such as verification by mist netting and measuring, photography, tape recording or playback, additional observations, and careful verification of all entries in the final manuscript.

  3. Hábitos vocais em dois grupos de idosos Vocal habits in two groups of aged

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    Elisângela Barros Soares

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar as diferenças quanto à presença dos hábitos inadequados, as formas de prevenção e os sintomas vocais, mais freqüentes, em dois grupos da terceira idade. MÉTODOS: foi aplicado um questionário com questões do tipo fechada, previamente elaboradas em 45 idosos de ambos os sexos, sendo que apenas um grupo recebeu orientações vocais durante o ano anterior à pesquisa por um profissional fonoaudiólogo. É um estudo descritivo, observacional, transversal. RESULTADOS: de acordo com os resultados, o grupo 2 que recebeu orientação vocal, possui menor freqüência de hábitos inadequados quando comparado ao grupo 1. Quanto às formas de prevenção de distúrbios da voz, a maioria do grupo 1, não possui nenhum cuidado. No grupo 2, já se constata, entre outras formas de prevenção, a referência de realização de treinamento vocal. Com relação à presença de sintomas, o grupo 1 apresentou maior freqüência quanto a cansaço ao falar (50%, dor na garganta (50%, sensação de corpo estranho (67%, do que o grupo 2. CONCLUSÃO: observa-se que houve diferenças quanto hábitos inadequados, formas de prevenção e sintomas nos dois grupos, sendo que o grupo 2 (que recebeu orientação quanto aos cuidados com a voz possui índices menores quanto aos hábitos inadequados e sintomas vocais, ou seja, de acordo com os resultados, orientações sobre saúde vocal em grupos de terceira idade é eficaz.PURPOSE: to compare the differences as for the presence of inadequate habits, forms of prevention and vocal symptoms, more frequent, in two groups of the third age. METHODS: a questionnaire was applied with questions of the closed type, previously elaborated in the 45 aged of both genders, being that only one group received vocal orientation during the previous year the research by a speech therapist professional. It is a study of the descriptive, observational, transversal. RESULTS: of accordance with the results, group 2 that

  4. Simulation of Vocal Folds: A Fluid-Induced Self-Oscillating Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingshi; Zhang, Lucy

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the process of voice production by simulating the motion and deformation of human vocal folds. The vocal folds are oscillated by a constant lung pressure driven airflow in the throat. The system is modeled in 2-D using the immersed finite element method to simulate and study the fluid-structure interaction mechanism. From our numerical results, the glottal jets are identified. Several parameters such as the Reynolds number, Strouhal number, vocal folds stiffness, density ratio between the fluid and the structure are addressed and compared with experimental results. The frequency of the vocal folds vibration, fluid flow rate and pressure distribution are also investigated. In addition, the energy transfer between the fluid domain and the solid domain are analyzed to assist in explaining the underlying physical mechanism for this fluid-induced self-oscillating vocal folds.

  5. Disfonia infantil: hábitos prejudiciais à voz dos pais interferem na saúde vocal de seus filhos? Children dysphonia: do harmful vocal habits by parents interfere in their children vocal health?

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    Carla Lucélia Bessani Paixão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar hábitos prejudiciais à voz referidos por crianças disfônicas e por seus respectivos pais e mães e compará-los com dados obtidos de um grupo controle, constituído por crianças sem alterações vocais e seus respectivos pais e mães. MÉTODO: investigou-se 28 crianças disfônicas, com idade entre 6 e 12 anos e seus pais (Grupo de Estudo - GE e 22 crianças sem alterações vocais, com a mesma faixa etária, e seus respectivos pais (Grupo Controle - GC. As vozes foram classificadas em "alteradas" e "não alteradas" por meio de análise perceptivo-auditiva com amostra da fala espontânea.Todos responderam a um questionário sobre fatores prejudiciais à voz. Para análise dos resultados foram aplicados os testes de comparação de duas proporções (pPURPOSE: to investigate harmful vocal habits referred by dysphonic children and their parents and compare them with data gathered from a control group made up by children with no vocal alterations and their parents. METHOD: twenty-eight dysphonic children, with ages between 6 and 12 year old and their parents, (Study Group - SG along with 22 children with no vocal alterations, from the same age group, and their parents (Control Group - CG were investigated. The voices were classified as "healthy" and "unhealthy", depending on the result obtained from the percentage analysis of a spontaneous speech sample. Subjects answered a questionnaire about harmful vocal habits. Tests for comparing two proportions (p <0.05 were used in order to analyze the results. RESULTS: SG children showed a significantly higher number of habits such as speaking with effort, speaking without resting and imitating voices. SG fathers showed a significantly higher number of habits such as clearing the throat, shouting, speaking at the same time as others, in addition to living in smokers' environment. SG mothers significantly showed more habits such as speaking with effort, speaking in noisy environments

  6. Articulatory Speech Synthesis from the Fluid Dynamics of the Vocal Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, Stephen; Slimon, Scott; Juang, BH

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of articulatory speech synthesis based on computed vocal tract geometries and the basic physics of sound production in it. Unlike conventional methods based on analysis/synthesis using the well-known source filter model, which assumes the independence of the excitation and filter, we treat the entire vocal apparatus as one mechanical system that produces sound by means of fluid dynamics. The vocal apparatus is represented as a three-dimensional time-varying mechanism and the sound propagation inside it is due to the non-planar propagation of acoustic waves throu

  7. Habits of fluid and electrolytes intake in elite athletes

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    Arzija Pašalić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dehydration develops when the body fluid losses exceed fluid intake. It may occur during exercise, heat stress, restricted fluid intake, or any combination of these. Marginal dehydration (loss of > 2% body weight can compromise aerobic exercise performance, particularly in hot weather conditions, and may disturb fluid and electrolyte balance. The aim of the study was to determine the quantity, type and dynamic of fluid intake during athletic performance in endurance sports (football and basketball in two age categories: juniors (under the age of 18 and seniors (over the age of 18.Methods: Research included 100 athletes playing in Premier League in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We formed groups by sport type (football and basketball and age (<18 and ≥18 years. Questionnaire with questions about the fluid intake habits was used for data collection.    Results: There were 53 football players and 47 basketball players. All the participants were male. Average age of the participants was 19.3 ± 4.58. Habit of weighing before and after training was present in less than 44% of players among all the groups. Seniors were more frequently measuring their weight compared to junior players (p=0.01. Basketball players and players younger than 18 years were most frequently taking more than 2L of water per day. Most of the players, regardless of sport type or age group were not taking at least ½ L of isotonic fluid before the training. Signs of dehydration were more frequently observed in players under 18 years old, with most frequent sign being dry throat and sudden fatigue.Conclusion: Water and electrolytes intake before, during and after training of the athletes were inadequate regardless of type of sports and the age of athletes.

  8. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  9. Condições de produção vocal de vendedores de móveis e eletrodomésticos: correlação entre questões de saúde, hábitos e sintomas vocais Vocal production conditions for furniture and household appliance salespeople: correlation between health issues and vocal symptoms and habits

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    Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    own work environment, to answer a questionnaire composed of 16 questions concerning personal information, issues on general health, vocal habits and symptoms. Data were digitized and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0. RESULTS: the sample was composed of 66 men and 34 women, with an average age of 24 years of age, working in this occupation for an mean time of 8.5 years. The subjects mostly reported general health disorders, related to emotional (31%, sleep (27%, and digestive (25% issues; in auditory disorders, such as ear-itch (36%, intolerance to loud sounds (29%, and hearing difficulty (20%. As far as vocal habits, the aspects mentioned were excessive talking (83%, fluid intake in cold temperatures (73% and drinking coffee (68%. The symptoms that were most reported were dry throat and mouth (30%, vocal fatigue (22% and phlegm (18%. The possible causes associated to these symptoms by the participants in the study were intense vocal usage (49%, presence of dust (27% and air-conditioning (23% in work environment. Only four subjects reported having a voice disorder. CONCLUSION: the salespeople at issue note the occurrence of vocal symptoms, but not those related to voice disorders. They are also unaware of vocal care habits. Therefore, they need health promotion and vocal disorder prevention actions, aiming at making them aware on these health issues.

  10. Condições de produção vocal de teleoperadores: correlação entre questões de saúde, hábitos e sintomas vocais Vocal production condition of telemarketing operators: correlation between health issues and vocal habits and symptoms

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    Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar as condições de produção vocal em teleoperadores e correlacioná-las ao fato deles estarem ou não satisfeitos com a sua voz. MÉTODOS: Participaram 100 teleoperadores, atuantes em empresas de diferentes segmentos, os quais responderam a um questionário que levantou dados pessoais, saúde geral, hábitos e sintomas vocais. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente, correlacionando os grupos que disseram estar ou não satisfeitos com a voz (Mann-Whitney - p PURPOSE: To analyze the vocal production conditions of telemarketing operators, and to correlate these findings to whether they are satisfied or unsatisfied with their own voice. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 100 operators from companies in different segments, who answered a questionnaire composed of questions addressing personal information, general health issues, vocal habits and symptoms. The data were statistically analyzed, correlating the groups that referred being satisfied or unsatisfied with their own voice (Mann-Whitney - p< 5%. RESULTS: From all the participants, 80% declared to be satisfied with their voices. Regarding vocal habits, the ones more frequently reported were: excessive talking (69%, eating chocolate (65%, and drinking coffee (60%. Amongst the reported vocal complaints were issues such as: dry throat (53%, phlegm (33%, and vocal fatigue (31%. When asked about the possible causes for these symptoms, the subjects mentioned: intense vocal usage (51%, air-conditioning (57%, and excessively hot/cold environment (40%. In the comparison between vocally satisfied and unsatisfied subjects, the following proved significant, favoring the unsatisfied: greater weekly work load (p=0.032; presence of upper airway disorders such as rhinitis (p=0.009 and sinus infections (p=0.014; the habit of speaking excessively (p=0.024; vocal fatigue (p=0.010, sore throat (p=0.044, vocal failure (p=0.002; poor work-related relationships (p=0.041 and work

  11. Irregular vocal fold dynamics incited by asymmetric fluid loading in a model of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis

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    Sommer, David; Erath, Byron D.; Zanartu, Matias; Peterson, Sean D.

    2011-11-01

    Voiced speech is produced by dynamic fluid-structure interactions in the larynx. Traditionally, reduced order models of speech have relied upon simplified inviscid flow solvers to prescribe the fluid loadings that drive vocal fold motion, neglecting viscous flow effects that occur naturally in voiced speech. Viscous phenomena, such as skewing of the intraglottal jet, have the most pronounced effect on voiced speech in cases of vocal fold paralysis where one vocal fold loses some, or all, muscular control. The impact of asymmetric intraglottal flow in pathological speech is captured in a reduced order two-mass model of speech by coupling a boundary-layer estimation of the asymmetric pressures with asymmetric tissue parameters that are representative of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Nonlinear analysis identifies the emergence of irregular and chaotic vocal fold dynamics at values representative of pathological speech conditions.

  12. Comparação de hábitos de bem estar vocal entre cantores líricos e populares A comparison between vocal habits of lyric and popular singers

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    Ana Paula Dassie-Leite

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar hábitos de bem estar vocal entre cantores líricos e populares. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um trabalho exploratório descritivo, com a participação de 30 cantores líricos e 30 populares, estudantes da Universidade Livre de Música. Todos responderam um questionário com 13 questões objetivas sobre hábitos vocais e utilização profissional da voz. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente RESULTADOS: cantores líricos e populares têm hábitos semelhantes de alimentação, tabagismo, etilismo e uso de drogas recreacionais. Cantores populares têm menos horas de sono/repouso ao dia, sendo esta uma diferença estatisticamente significante. Este grupo também se diferenciou dos cantores líricos por terem, em sua maioria, outro trabalho com a utilização profissional da voz falada. Também foi estatisticamente significante a maior carga horária no uso da voz cantada em líricos, bem como o maior uso de recursos considerados mitos para melhorar a voz. Cantores populares conhecem menos o trabalho fonoaudiológico junto aos profissionais da voz. Os cantores líricos aquecem a voz com maior frequência em relação aos populares, embora este segundo grupo, tenha demonstrado que este hábito tem sido adquirido. Tanto cantores líricos quanto populares não desaquecem a voz sistematicamente, depois da atividade profissional. CONCLUSÃO: Cantores líricos e populares com formação musical específica têm, em geral, hábitos de bem estar vocal semelhantes e diferenciam-se principalmente em relação à carga horária de trabalho semanal, à utilização de mitos na tentativa de melhorar a voz, ao conhecimento sobre o trabalho fonoaudiológico e à prática de aquecimento e desaquecimento vocal.PURPOSE: to compare vocal welfare habits of lyric and popular singers. METHODS: it is a descriptive exploratory work, with the participation of 30 lyrical singers and 30 popular singers. All answered a questionnaire with 13

  13. Examination of the Vocal Fold Paralysis on the Fluid Dynamics of the Glottis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Erica; Krane, Michael; Zhang, Lucy; Wei, Timothy

    2011-11-01

    This talk is coupled to the symmetric vocal fold oscillation study presented in Halvorson, et al. In this study, one of the two symmetric vocal fold models was allowed to remain rigid while the other model was driven through a normal oscillation cycle. Again, a range of reduced frequencies were studied corresponding to physiological frequencies from 100--200 Hz. Flow measurements showing jet velocity and orientation, vortex shedding as a function of time through an oscillation cycle will be presented. Experimental data has been phase averaged to highlight characteristic differences between male and female voices. Additionally, volumetric flow rate and glottal behavior will be presented to show recurring features in phonation during an oscillation cycle. An example of differences between the paralysis case and the symmetrically oscillating vocal fold case is that the Coanda effect develops much more quickly and predictably for the paralysis case. Additional comparisons between diseased and healthy conditions will be presented and discussed. Supported by the NIH.

  14. Os hábitos posturais e o comportamento vocal de profissionais de educação física na modalidade de hidroginástica Postural habits and vocal behavior of physical education professionals in the hydro-gymnastics modality

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    Patrícia Girarde Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar os hábitos posturais e o comportamento vocal de profissionais de Educação Física na modalidade de Hidroginástica; descrever o ambiente de trabalho e sua interferência na postura e na voz; e relacionar a postura e a voz desses profissionais. MÉTODOS: esta pesquisa caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa qualitativa-quantitativa e descritiva. A amostra foi constituída por 17 profissionais de Educação Física que atuavam em academias ou clubes, na modalidade de Hidroginástica. Constituiu-se de três etapas: a primeira, uma entrevista com os responsáveis, na segunda etapa foram observadas algumas aulas de Hidroginástica. A terceira etapa constituiu-se da coleta de dados, em que foi aplicado um questionário relacionado à qualidade de vida e à ocupação, foi realizado um teste para avaliar o comportamento vocal e, por fim, fez-se uma avaliação postural. RESULTADOS: Participaram da pesquisa 14 (82,35% mulheres e três (17,65% homens, com tempo de atuação variando de 1 a 10 anos e a jornada de trabalho de 10 a 40 horas semanais. Homens e mulheres não apresentaram diferença significativa nas alterações posturais em todos parâmetros avaliados. Os homens beberam menos água em relação às mulheres (p= 0,0417. O ambiente de trabalho ruidoso e precisar falar em forte intensidade (voz forte foram aspectos significativos. CONCLUSÃO: os profissionais do grupo estudado, além de apresentarem alterações posturais que comprometem a respiração e, consequentemente a produção vocal, trabalham num ambiente em que as próprias condições e a falta de recursos disponíveis são os principais motivos por terem sido classificados em "Campeões de abuso vocal".PURPOSE: to check the posture habits and vocal behavior of physical education professionals in the hydro-gymnastics modality, and describe the work environment and its impact on posture and the voice of professionals in the city of Santa Maria / RS. As well as

  15. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

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    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  16. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  17. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  18. Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

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    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  20. Habitable Trinity

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    James M. Dohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N, an ocean (H and O, and a landmass (supplier of nutrients accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  1. Habitable Trinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. Dohm; Shigenori Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients) accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  2. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  3. Diamond growth from C-H-N-O recycled fluids in the lithosphere: Evidence from CH4 micro-inclusions and δ13C-δ15N-N content in Marange mixed-habit diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Karen V.; Shirey, Steven B.; Stern, Richard A.; Steele, Andrew; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-11-01

    Mixed-habit (octahedral+ cuboid) diamonds from the Marange alluvial deposits in the eastern Zimbabwe craton have high nitrogen and hydrogen contents that provide an opportunity to evaluate diamond growth mechanisms and C-N-H-O bearing fluids in the lithospheric keel. Light grey cuboid sectors with hydrogen-containing defects trap abundant dispersed CH4 inclusions (Raman peaks at 2917 cm-1) associated with graphite (Raman peaks at 1580 cm-1). Clear octahedral sectors are richer in nitrogen and free of any such inclusions. Core to rim co-variations of δ13C-δ15N and N content can be explained by a mixing trend between earlier fluids that are CH4-rich and later fluids that are more CO3- or CO2-rich. Marange diamonds have limited overall δ13C variation, but do show fractionation during growth towards higher δ13C values. This trend can be explained by diamond precipitation from mixed CH4 and CO2 fluids, where isotopic fractionation occurs as the amount of fluid wanes. Calculated δ15N values for diamond source fluids evolving in this manner are between + 2.3 and + 6.4‰. These N isotopic compositions require CH4-rich and CO3-/CO2-rich 'end-member' fluids to have a recycled metasedimentary component perhaps introduced with subduction of eclogite.

  4. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  5. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  6. Treatment outcome of vocal cord leukoplakia by transoral laser microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Liang-Che; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chen, Tai-An; Luo, Cheng-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome and analyze the associated factors of postoperative recurrence in patients who received transoral laser microsurgery for vocal cord leukoplakia. The demographic, histopathological data were retrospectively reviewed and the factors associated with recurrence of vocal leukoplakia after surgery were analyzed statistically. A total of 44 patients, including 36 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 50.4 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled. All the patients received excision of the vocal leukoplakia by carbon dioxide laser (2-4 Watt, ultrapulse mode) under general anesthesia. No patients had malignant transformation after surgery. Postoperative recurrence occurred in 10 patients (22.7 %). Univariate analysis showed that patients who had the habit of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease tended to recur. Among these risk factors, presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (odds ratio 8.43) was the independent prognostic factor for recurrence using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Carbon dioxide laser excision is effective for treating vocal leukoplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with acceptable morbidity. This study suggests that the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is the prognostic indicator for postoperative recurrence of vocal leukoplakia. Aggressive treatment of reflux disease for those who have received surgical excision for vocal leukoplakia is indicated.

  7. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  9. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  10. Exoplanet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet’s surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  11. Relationship between vocal symptoms in college students and their possible causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies to understand the vocal profile of a population are important to plan collective health measures. The prevalence of vocal symptoms can be indicative of vocal disorder and must be investigated to support measures to prevent vocal diseases. Aim: To characterize vocal symptoms in college students and their possible causes, and to analyze the association between hoarseness, vocal fatigue, phlegm, and burning in the throat with the possible causes mentioned. Method: Prospective study of 517 students who answered a questionnaire about their general heath and vocal symptoms and causes. We used the study of proportions, measures of central tendency, and a chi-square test to associate the presence of symptoms and possible causes. Results: Symptoms most often mentioned: dry mouth (21%, dry throat (18.2%, phlegm (17.9%. Causes most often cited: high respiratory disease (39%, intense voice use (24%, smoking (24%. Hoarseness was associated with heavy use of voice and high respiratory disease; vocal fatigue with intense voice use, stress, and digestive problems; burning in the throat with intensive voice use, high respiratory disease, and pollution; phlegm with smoking, and upper respiratory and digestive problems. Conclusion: Not only do aspects of health and the voice interfere with its production, the external environment and habits influence the vocal symptoms of this population as well.

  12. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... of the vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent...

  13. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  14. Experimental evidence of vocal recognition in young and adult black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulard, Hervé; Aubin, T.; White, J.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2008-01-01

    Individual recognition is required in most social interactions, and its presence has been confirmed in many species. In birds, vocal cues appear to be a major component of recognition. Curiously, vocal recognition seems absent or limited in some highly social species such as the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla. Using playback experiments, we found that kittiwake chicks recognized their parents vocally, this capacity being detectable as early as 20 days after hatching, the youngest age tested. Mates also recognized each other's long calls. Some birds reacted to their partner's voice when only a part of the long call was played back. Nevertheless, only about a third of the tested birds reacted to their mate's or parents' call and we were unable to detect recognition among neighbours. We discuss the low reactivity of kittiwakes in relation to their cliff-nesting habit and compare our results with evidence of vocal recognition in other larids. ?? 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  15. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  16. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  17. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  18. Psychology of Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Rünger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors.

  19. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  20. A biphasic theory for the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria in stress relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Czerwonka, Lukasz; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a biphasic theory is applied to investigate the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria during stress relaxation. The vocal fold lamina propria tissue is described as a biphasic material composed of a solid phase and an interstitial fluid phase. The biphasic theory reveals the interaction between the solid and the fluid. For the one-dimensional case, the analytical solutions of solid displacement, fluid velocity, and stress are derived. The biphasic theory predicts the stress relaxation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The quasilinear viscoelastic model as well as its higher-order elastic parameters can be derived from this biphasic theory. Furthermore, the fluid is found to support the majority of the stress at the early stage of stress relaxation; however, when the time becomes sufficiently large, the solid eventually bears all the stress. The early fluid stress support is much higher than the eventual solid support and may be important for understanding the effects of dehydration on tissue damage. By considering the solid-fluid structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, the biphasic theory allows for a more physical theory of tissue viscoelasticity than a single phase solid description and may provide a valuable physical mechanism for the observed vocal fold rheologic behaviors.

  1. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  2. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Vainio, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The human vocal folds are known to interact with the vocal tract acoustics during voiced speech production; namely a nonlinear source-filter coupling has been observed both by using models and in \\emph{in vivo} phonation. These phenomena are approached from two directions in this article. We first present a computational dynamical model of the speech apparatus that contains an explicit filter-source feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics back to the vocal folds oscillations. The model was used to simulate vocal pitch glideswhere the trajectory was forced to cross the lowest vocal tract resonance, i.e., the lowest formant $F_1$. Similar patterns produced by human participants were then studied. Both the simulations and the experimental results reveal an effect when the glides cross the first formant (as may happen in \\textipa{[i]}). Conversely, this effect is not observed if there is no formant within the glide range (as is the case in \\textipa{[\\textscripta]}). The experiments show smaller effect c...

  3. Aging and the perception of emotion: processing vocal expressions alone and with faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Melissa; Murray, Janice; Ruffman, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the difficulties older adults experience when recognizing specific emotions from facial expressions also occur with vocal expressions of emotion presented in isolation or in combination with facial expressions. When matching vocal expressions of six emotions to emotion labels, older adults showed worse performance on sadness and anger. When matching vocal expressions to facial expressions, older adults showed worse performance on sadness, anger, happiness, and fear. Older adults' poorer performance when matching faces to voices was independent of declines in fluid ability. Results are interpreted with reference to the neuropsychology of emotion recognition and the aging brain.

  4. Vocal Improvisation for Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith P.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the three-phase process of musical creativity (exploratory, invention, organizational), identifying activities in each of the creative phases. Included are vocal impression, picture sounds, chord tones, and name improvisation. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  5. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pdysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pdysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  6. Sintomas vocais e perfil de professores em um programa de saúde vocal Vocal symptoms and profile of teachers in a vocal health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Choi-Cardim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar sintomas vocais de dois grupos de professores que foram avaliados em momentos distintos de um programa de saúde vocal. MÉTODOS: correlacionar condições de trabalho e hábitos com o número de sintomas vocais apresentados por 411 professores, agrupados em G1 (256 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e G2 (155 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e de tratamento. RESULTADOS: em ambos os grupos observou-se predomínio de mulheres (p = 0,550, entre 31 e 40 anos (p = 0,557, lecionando para mais de um grau de ensino (p = 0,345 com até 30 alunos/sala (p = 0,521, com presença de ruído no trabalho (p = 0,660, que relataram cuidados vocais (p = 0,231 e utilizavam voz extra-profissionalmente (p = 0,713, não tabagistas (p = 0,010 nem alcoolistas (p = 0,029. Em contrapartida, no G1 observou-se carga horária diária de trabalho de até 5 horas, enquanto a maior parte do G2 trabalhava de 6 a 10 horas (p 4 os grupos; sendo a média de 3,5 (57% para G1 e 5,8 (98,05% para G2 - (p PURPOSE: to analyze vocal symptoms from two groups of teachers assessed during two different instances of a vocal health program. METHODS: correlate work conditions and habits with the number of vocal symptoms submitted by 411 teachers divided into G1 (256 subjects to be submitted to a prevention program and G2 (155 subjects to be submitted to a prevention and treatment program. RESULTS: it was observed that in both groups there was a larger number of women (p=0.550, aged 31 to 40 years (p=0.557, teaching for more than one grade (p=0.345 and with up to 30 students per class (p=0.521; they related presence of noise in their work environment (p=0.660, used to take care of their voices (p=0.231, were non-smokers (p=0.010, used their voices in extra-professional activities and did not have the habit of drinking. On the other hand, both groups were different upon relating daily work hours; in G1 most teachers worked up to 5 hours a day

  7. Widen the Belt of Habitability!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, D.

    2012-06-01

    Among the key-parameters to characterize habitability are presence or availability of liquid water, an appropriate temperature range, and the time scale of reference. These criteria for habitability are discussed and described from the point of view of water- and ice-physics, and it is shown that liquid water may exist in the sub-surfaces of planetary bodies like Mars, and possibly of inner asteroids and internally heated ice-moons. Water can remain fluid there also at temperatures far below the "canonical" 0 °C. This behaviour is made possible as a consequence of the freezing point depression due to salty solutes in water or "brines", as they can be expected to exist in nature more frequently than pure liquid water. On the other hand, low temperatures cause a slowing down of chemical processes, as can be described by Arrhenius's relation. The resulting smaller reaction rates probably will have the consequence to complicate the detection of low-temperature life processes, if they exist. Furthermore, the adaptation potential of life is to be mentioned in this context as a yet partially unknown process. Resulting recommendations are given to improve the use of criteria to characterize habitable conditions.

  8. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    OpenAIRE

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type...

  9. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  10. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  11. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    , which is the mode that is most limited in pitch range, was tested at its pitch limit C5 (523 Hz) under normal conditions and when the singer has inhaled Helium. When inhaling Helium the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is reduced in magnitude and the resonances are scaled upwards in frequency due...... to different density and speed of sound in Helium. The electroglottograph shows a change in waveform when the singer inhales helium. The percentage of the glottal cycle when the vocal cords are open, the so-called open quotient, increases from 40 to 55%. When inhaling helium the male singer was able reach Eb5...

  12. Risk of vocal chord dysplasia in relation to smoking, alcohol intake and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasl, M C; Neuwirth-Riedl, K; Vutuc, C; Horak, F; Vorbeck, F; Banyai, M

    1990-03-01

    The significance of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and occupation as risk factors for the development of vocal chord dysplasia was evaluated in a case-control study. Twenty-seven male patients with dysplasia of the vocal chords were chosen from the I. ENT-University Clinic in Vienna (1985-1988) and compared with 54 controls. The main results are: The relative risk (RR) of a smoker compared to that of a non-smoker for vocal chord dysplasia is 7.27 (6.81-7.73); the RR adjusted for occupation is 3.58 (2.31-4.84). The most important risk factor, however, is occupational exposure. The relative risk of a blue collar worker compared to that of a white collar worker is 11.04 (10.61-11.46), which is reduced only to 10.02 (10.61-11.46) after stratification according to smoking habits.

  13. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  14. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Cardenas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  15. Teenagers Media Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This study attempted to determine what media most effectively communicated to teenagers, how the media habits of Florida teenagers compared with those in other states, and how the media habits of journalism students compared with those not in journalism. A total of 430 students from Florida high schools and 457 from high schools in other states…

  16. Cetacean vocal learning and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Vincent M

    2014-10-01

    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies.

  17. Perfil da saúde vocal de cantores amadores de igreja evangélica Vocal health profile of amateur singers from an evangelical church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaise Marcela Mota Barreto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o perfil de saúde vocal de cantores amadores de louvores evangélicos com relação a queixas, hábitos e dificuldades vocais vivenciados durante a prática do canto em indivíduos dos gêneros masculino e feminino. MÉTODOS: Participaram 55 sujeitos, com idade entre 18 e 50 anos, os quais responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável sobre identificação de hábitos vocais e possíveis queixas de voz falada e cantada. RESULTADOS: Os cantores religiosos evangélicos amadores relataram queixas relacionadas à voz, tais como rouquidão constante (43,6%, pigarro constante (43,6%, falhas na voz (34,5%, perda de voz (18,1%, garganta seca (18,1%, voz fraca (14,5% e dor no pescoço e na nuca (12,7%. Durante a atividade de canto, as queixas mais reportadas foram as de dificuldades de alcançar notas agudas (45,4%, rouquidão (30,9% e falhas na voz (29%. Os hábitos vocais expostos pelos cantores foram os relativos a falar muito (63,6%, ingerir gelado habitualmente em excesso (43,6%, falar alto (40% e gritar com frequência (20%. Com relação à variável gênero, foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos, relacionadas às variáveis falhas na voz, consumo de gelados e falar alto. CONCLUSÃO: Os cantores religiosos amadores, de ambos os gêneros, apresentam percentual expressivo de queixas e hábitos vocais que podem estar associados à falta de informações sobre os hábitos saudáveis de produção vocal e que podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de alterações laríngeas e disfonia.PURPOSE: To investigate the vocal health profile of male and female gospel amateur singers regarding vocal complaints, habits and difficulties during singing practice. METHODS: Participants were 55 subjects with ages between 18 and 50 years, who answered a self-assessment questionnaire regarding the identification of vocal habits and possible complaints of spoken and sung voice. RESULTS: Amateur gospel singers reported vocal

  18. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.

  19. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  20. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  1. Decomposition of vocal cycle length perturbations into vocal jitter and vocal microtremor, and comparison of their size in normophonic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoentgen, J

    2003-06-01

    A statistical method that enables raw vocal cycle length perturbations to be decomposed into perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and vocal tremor is presented, together with a comparison of the size of jitter and tremor. The method is based on a time series model that splits the vocal cycle length perturbations into uncorrelated cycle-to-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and supra-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal tremor. The corpus was composed of 114 vocal cycle length time series for sustained vowels [a], [i], and [u] produced by 22 male and 16 female normophonic speakers. The results were the following. First, 100 out of 114 time series were decomposed successfully by means of the time series model. Second, vocal perturbations ascribed to tremor were significantly larger than perturbations ascribed to jitter. Third, the correlation between vocal jitter and vocal tremor was moderate, but statistically significant. Fourth, small but statistically significant differences were observed among the three vowel timbres in the relative jitter and the arithmetic difference of jitter and tremor. Fifth, the differences between male and female speakers were not statistically significant in the relative raw perturbations, the relative jitter, or the modulation level owing to tremor.

  2. Human acoustics: From vocal chords to inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Michael Drew

    2005-11-01

    Part I covers the vocal chords, more accurately known as the vocal folds (VF). Modeling efforts are split into two areas: the VF tissue and the airflow. There are multiple existing models of the VF, with varying ranges of complexity for both the tissue and the airflow. In our model, the tissue is based on a recent two-mass model of Bogaert's [5], while the airflow is quasi-one-dimensional and is derived from the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our model is more accurate than Bernoulli's law (quasi-steady approximation), yet less complex than the full Navier-Stokes system. The model is shown to reproduce important transient behaviour intrinsic in vocal fold motion, such as pressure peaks before and after vocal fold closure. Part II concerns the inner ear, or cochlea. Again the modeling effort is split into two areas: the cochlear tissue and the cochlear fluid. We model the cochlear fluid with the well known two-dimensional box model of the cochlea, derived from the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The cochlear tissue structure is where the complexity takes place. We start with Neely and Kim's [25] linear active model for the cochlear structure and modify their active gain parameter into a nonlinear nonlocal functional. The nonlinearity forces us to work in the time domain, which is prone to dispersive instabilities if one uses a frequency domain middle ear model. The middle ear's role as a transient absorber is discussed and its time domain formulation is shown to reduce the dispersive instability. We perform simulations on the full system and show that the model recovers many important nonlinear phenomena, such as suppression and difference tones. A spectrogram based on the cochlear response is created and compared with the spectrogram of the input waveform. In both Part I and Part II, the emphasis is on time dependent modeling and numerical implementation.

  3. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as before falling to sleep or quietly listening to music. Some habits may be leftovers from ... THIS TOPIC First Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can ...

  4. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  5. Damaging oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  6. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  7. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  8. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  9. High on habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R. F Hilário

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in learning and executing goal-directed actions, which are governed by action-outcome contingencies and sensitive to changes in the expected value of the outcome, have been shown to be different from those mediating habits, which are less dependent on action-outcome relations and changes in outcome value. Extended training, different reinforcement schedules, and substances of abuse have been shown to induce a shift from goal-directed performance to habitual performance. This shift can be beneficial in everyday life, but can also lead to loss of voluntary control and compulsive behavior, namely during drug seeking in addiction. Although the brain circuits underlying habit formation are becoming clearer, the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation are still not understood. Here, we review a recent study where Hilario et al. established behavioral procedures to investigate habit formation in mice in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation. Using those procedures, and a combination of genetic and pharmacological tools, the authors showed that endocannabinoid signaling is critical for habit formation.

  10. Some aspects of vocal fold bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Hirano, M; Chijiwa, K

    1994-05-01

    Bowing of the vocal fold frequently occurs in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP), those with sulcus vocalis, and those who have had laser surgery. Additionally, there are vocal folds that present bowing with no noticeable organic lesion. For the purpose of investigating the causes and mechanisms of vocal fold bowing, consecutive fiberscopic videorecordings of 127 patients with VFP, 33 with sulcus vocalis, 33 with laser surgery, and 33 with dysphonia having no clinically noticeable organic lesion were reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the paralyzed vocal folds had bowing, and the occurrence of bowing was significantly related to the activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle as measured by electromyography. The cricothyroid activity had no significant relationship to vocal fold bowing. All vocal folds with sulcus presented with bowing. Thirty-five percent of the vocal folds that had had laser surgery had bowing. The extent of tissue removal was closely related to the occurrence of bowing. Twelve cases with no organic lesion had vocal fold bowing. Of these 12 patients, 8 were male and 9 were older than 60 years. Some aging process in the mucosa was presumed to be the cause of the bowing in this age group of patients without clinically noticeable organic lesions. Causes of vocal fold bowing in the younger group of patients without organic lesions were not determined in this study.

  11. Teacher's voice: vocal tract discomfort symptoms, vocal intensity and noise in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Amanda Louize Félix; Lucena, Brunna Thaís Luckwu de; De Araújo, Aline Menezes Guedes Dias; Melo, Luciana Pimentel Fernandes de; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Silva, Maria Fabiana Bonfim de Lima

    2016-04-01

    To identify a possible correlation between teachers vocal intensity and the noise in the classroom, as well as between vocal intensity and the symptoms of vocal tract discomfort before and after classes. 27 Elementary School I teachers participated in the study. We used the questionnaires "Vocal Production Condition of the Teacher" and "Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale - VTD" which were applied before and after the class. A properly calibrated noise meter was used for measuring noise in the classroom and the teachers' vocal intensity. There was a moderate positive correlation between vocal intensity and noise and also a significant difference between the VTD scale and the teachers with and without vocal complaint before and after classes. When compared separately on both occasions, there was an increase in the group's scores for both groups and with and without complaints. We found association of the vocal tract symptoms before and after classes, frequency of burning, itching, sore throat and sensitive throat were observed. The intensity of symptoms was significant for sore throat, itching and feeling of lump in the throat. We observed significant values of vocal intensity and frequency and intensity of symptoms for sensitive throat and lump in the throat before the class, and sore throat and lump in the throat after the. The increase in teacher's vocal intensity correlates to high noise levels in the classroom. The evidence suggests correlation between vocal intensity and discomfort of the vocal tract, with most of the symptoms reported in greater frequency and intensity after the class.

  12. VOCALS-UK: An overview of UK VOCALS science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Vocals-Uk Science Team

    2010-12-01

    This paper will highlight a variety of process studies, observationally led studies and modelling studies, both completed and in progress, conducted by groups in the United Kingdom, working in collaboration with international partners on the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The VOCALS field experiment was conducted out of Arica, Chile, between October and November, 2008. The study aims to better understand the nature and variability of interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and steep topography, as well as local and long-range transport of pollutants and aerosol, in the context of their role in controlling the climate of the South East Pacific - an important region in terms of the global energy budget and which is currently poorly characterised in global climate models. Specific highlights will include a statistical representation of the SEP marine boundary layer during VOCALS-Rex to inform future modelling; an analysis of the synoptic and large-scale dynamical influences on cloud in the SEP; results from improved Met Office Unified Model forecast runs which examine aerosol-cloud interactions with a comparison to results from WRF-CHEM; and large eddy modelling of simulated gravity waves and their potential to induce open cellular convection (create pockets of open cells). In addition, early results from a number of further studies will be presented.

  13. Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley C.; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2012-11-01

    The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. A recent in-vitro investigation of a model polyp in a driven vocal fold apparatus demonstrated that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior and that this flow field adjustment was a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients. Understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, and their subsequent impact on the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold dynamic, is a critical component in advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp. Unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  14. Vocal nodules and edema may be due to vibration-induced rises in capillary pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Lukasz; Jiang, Jack J; Tao, Chao

    2008-04-01

    Vocal fold vibration may physically raise intravascular pressure to levels high enough to damage capillaries and result in leakage of erythrocytes. This type of injury is commonly seen in benign vocal fold lesions and is not well explained. Theoretical, retrospective. The relationship of intravascular pressure to vibration frequency and amplitude is derived and confirmed with a physical blood vessel model, then applied to published human measurements to estimate human intravascular pressures. Vocal fold intravascular pressure is predicted to have a quadratic dependence on both frequency and amplitude. During speaking, the pressure may rise to over 20 cmH2O, and may reach levels far higher for screaming and singing. Such pressure magnitudes are known to trigger inflammatory cascades and can lead to fluid leakage. They also have the potential for pharmacologic control with beta-agonists. Intravascular pressure likely rises significantly during vocal fold vibration and may lead to the type of injury seen in benign vocal fold lesions. The results support voice therapy aimed at reducing vibratory amplitude. More vibratory amplitude measurements need to be performed in a wider range of subjects before the full range of human vocal fold vascular pressures can be estimated.

  15. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  16. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  17. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  18. Universal vocal signals of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F.; Ekman, P.; Scott, S.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional signals allow for the sharing of important information with conspecifics, for example to warn them of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. Although much is known about facial expressions of emotion, less research has focused on affect in the voice. We compare British listeners to individuals from remote Namibian villages who have had no exposure to Western culture, and examine recognition ...

  19. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, A; MOZZANICA, F.; Ginocchio, D.; MARUZZI, P.; Atac, M.; OTTAVIANI, F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. Th...

  20. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  1. Natural and forced asymmetries in flow through a vocal fold model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Bethany; Lambert, Lori; Krane, Michael; Wei, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Much of the complexity and richness of voice production stems from asymmetries in flow through the vocal folds. There are naturally occurring asymmetries, such as the Coanda effect (i . e . deviation of the glottal jet from the centerline as air passes through the nominally symmetric vocal folds). There are also asymmetries which arise from disease or dysfunction of the vocal folds. This study uses DPIV measurements in a dynamically scaled-up human vocal fold model to compare the flow characteristics between symmetric versus asymmetric oscillations. For this study, asymmetries were introduced by running one vocal fold out of phase with the other. Three phase lags, 0 18 and 36, were examined over a range of frequencies corresponding to the physiological frequencies of 50-200 Hz. Control volume analysis was applied and time traces of terms from the conservation of linear momentum equation were generated. This allowed analysis of how differences in the glottal jet flow manifest themselves in the fluid pressure field. In addition, further examination of the Coanda effect in the context of fluid pressure will be discussed. Supported by NIH.

  2. Aesthetic and Culture Origin of Vocal Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延春

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most commonly and widely adopted art forms, vocal art has been closely related with national culture and the aesthetics trend. Traditional Chinese vocal art rooted from China' s long history and distinctive culture. On the contrary, Italian bel canto stems from the prospect of Italian Opera Art during the Renaissance period. This essay discusses the differences between East and West vocal art, from its aesthetic and culture origin.

  3. Age aspects of habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  4. Eating attitudes anda habits on adolescents in the Pilsen region

    OpenAIRE

    CÍROVÁ, Vanda

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the eating habits of pupils at elementary schools and of the third-year students of high school. The theoretical part deals with the definition of teenagers and adolescents eating habits and attitudes, the principles of a healthy diet, fluid intake, the most common eating disorders, metabolic disorders and obesity. The practical part contains the research carried out at selected elementary and secondary schools. Results are compared by gender, education level a...

  5. Audio-vocal responses of vocal fundamental frequency and formant during sustained vowel vocalizations in different noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Guo-She

    2015-06-01

    Sustained vocalizations of vowels [a], [i], and syllable [mə] were collected in twenty normal-hearing individuals. On vocalizations, five conditions of different audio-vocal feedback were introduced separately to the speakers including no masking, wearing supra-aural headphones only, speech-noise masking, high-pass noise masking, and broad-band-noise masking. Power spectral analysis of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) was used to evaluate the modulations of F0 and linear-predictive-coding was used to acquire first two formants. The results showed that while the formant frequencies were not significantly shifted, low-frequency modulations (production, the motor speech controls on F0 may depend on a feedback mechanism while articulation should rely more on a feedforward mechanism. Power spectral analysis of F0 might be applied to evaluate audio-vocal control for various hearing and neurological disorders in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects they may have on your sleep. Find ways to manage stress. Learn about relaxation techniques, such as guided imagery, listening to music, or practicing yoga or meditation. Listen to your body when it tells you to slow down or take a break. Change Your Bedtime Habits Your bed is for sleeping. ...

  7. FIRST HABITABLE PLANET DISCOVEREO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    20 light years away from our solar system, there is a planet called "Gliese 581d" which has conditions that could support Earth-like life, including possible oceans and rainfall. On May. 19, 20l 1, the planet has been the first to be officially declared habitable by French scientists.

  8. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  9. First Communion: The Emergence of Vocal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that vocal communion between infant and caregiver supports infants' language acquisition and connectedness with caregivers. Recommends research to determine whether social behaviors such as joint attention and vocal imitation are functionally related to language learning or are only symptomatic of a survival-centered caregiving…

  10. Pulmonary mucormycosis presenting with vocal cord paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H. J.; Mohan Rao, K.N.; K M Prathima; Moideen, Riyaz

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively uncommon infection. It can present in various forms. Very few cases of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis have been described in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient.

  11. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lautenbacher

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion:. Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific and comprehensive phonetic analyses will surely help to provide an even more precise characterization of vocalizations because of pain.

  12. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer,Valquíria; Cielo,Carla Aparecida; Ferreira,Fernanda Mariotto

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas...

  13. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  14. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000733.htm Healthy habits for weight loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... to think about it. People who succeed at weight loss, turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy ...

  15. Impact of yoga in a case of vocal cord dysfunction with dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwania, Rozina

    2017-01-01

    A 23-year-old female with a past medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with shortness of breath induced by exercise and certain odors. She reported the symptoms of autonomic dysfunction including fatigue, chest pain, lightheadedness, headaches, numbness/tingling in the arms and legs, and exercise intolerance. Vital signs were significant for orthostatic intolerance. Volume flow loop in the pulmonary function tests showed a flattening of the inspiratory portion characteristic of vocal cord dysfunction. Laryngoscopy showed dyskinesia of the left vocal cord, especially after exercise. Multifactorial approach was used including increased fluid intake and breathing exercises. After 6 weeks of breathing and isometric exercises, the patient reported improvement in dyspnea after exercise. This case report demonstrates the therapeutic role of breathing and isometric exercises in the management of vocal cord and autonomic dysfunction. PMID:28149069

  16. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Time-resolved transglottal pressure measurements in a scaled up vocal fold model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringenberg, Hunter; Krane, Michael; Rogers, Dylan; Misfeldt, Mitchel; Wei, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    Experimental measurements of flow through a scaled up dynamic human vocal fold model are presented. The simplified 10x scale vocal fold model from Krane, et al. (2007) was used to examine fundamental features of vocal fold oscillatory motion. Of particular interest was the temporal variation of transglottal pressure multiplied by the volume flow rate through the glottis throughout an oscillation cycle. Experiments were dynamically scaled to examine a range of frequencies, 100 - 200 Hz, corresponding to the male and female voice. By using water as the working fluid, very high resolution, both spatial and temporal resolution, was achieved. Time resolved movies of flow through symmetrically oscillating vocal folds will be presented. Both individual realizations as well as phase-averaged data will be shown. Key features, such as randomness and development time of the Coanda effect, vortex shedding, and volume flow rate data have been presented in previous APS-DFD meetings. This talk will focus more on the relation between the flow and aeroacoustics associated with vocal fold oscillations. Supported by the NIH.

  18. Performance of a reduced-order FSI model for flow-induced vocal fold vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Siyuan; Luo, Haoxiang; Luo's lab Team

    2016-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration during speech production involves a three-dimensional unsteady glottal jet flow and three-dimensional nonlinear tissue mechanics. A full 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is computationally expensive even though it provides most accurate information about the system. On the other hand, an efficient reduced-order FSI model is useful for fast simulation and analysis of the vocal fold dynamics, which is often needed in procedures such as optimization and parameter estimation. In this work, we study the performance of a reduced-order model as compared with the corresponding full 3D model in terms of its accuracy in predicting the vibration frequency and deformation mode. In the reduced-order model, we use a 1D flow model coupled with a 3D tissue model. Two different hyperelastic tissue behaviors are assumed. In addition, the vocal fold thickness and subglottal pressure are varied for systematic comparison. The result shows that the reduced-order model provides consistent predictions as the full 3D model across different tissue material assumptions and subglottal pressures. However, the vocal fold thickness has most effect on the model accuracy, especially when the vocal fold is thin. Supported by the NSF.

  19. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  20. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  1. Pathways Towards Habitable Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Campanella, Giammarco; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    The search for life outside of the Solar System should not be restricted to exclusively planetary bodies; large moons of extrasolar planets may also be common habitable environments throughout the Galaxy. Extrasolar moons, or exomoons, may be detected through transit timing effects induced onto the host planet as a result of mutual gravitational interaction. In particular, transit timing variations (TTV) and transit duration variations (TDV) are predicted to produce a unique exomoon signature, which is not only easily distinguished from other gravitational perturbations, but also provides both the period and mass of an exomoon. Using these timing effects, photometry greater or equal to that of the Kepler Mission is readily able to detect habitable-zone exomoons down to 0.2 Earth masses and could survey up to 25,000 stars for 1 Earth-mass satellites. We discuss future possibilities for spectral retrieval of such bodies and show that transmission spectroscopy with JWST should be able to detect molecular species...

  2. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  3. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  5. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx.

  7. Vocal cord paralysis in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Stephen; Brennan, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We present in this case report the return to flying duty of a pilot with vocal cord paralysis secondary to removal of a thymoma. We discuss the importance of glottic function as it pertains to the unique aviation environment. We also discuss the anatomy and physiology of the glottis, the evaluation for vocal cord paralysis, and surgical approaches for paralyzed vocal cords. Although the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis is low in the military aviation community, it is important to recognize that its sequelae can be managed so that the aviator may return to flight duties.

  8. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Miller-Sims

    Full Text Available Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  9. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  10. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pascal Belin; Shirley Fecteau; Ian Charest; Nicholas Nicastro; Marc D Hauser; Jorge L Armony

    2008-01-01

    .... Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys...

  11. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  12. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  13. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  14. The evolution of coordinated vocalizations before language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. briefly point out the potential significance of coordinated vocal behavior in the dual pathway model of acoustic communication. Rhythmically entrained and articulated pre-linguistic vocal activity in early hominins might have set the evolutionary stage for later refinements that manifest in modern humans as language-based conversational turn-taking, joint music-making, and other behaviors associated with prosociality.

  15. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    begun. Diazepam , chlordiazepoxide , morphine, or naloxone was administered I.P. prior to placing the rat in the tailshock apparatus. Four different...by chlordiazepoxide and diazepam . Drug Dev. Res., 5, 185-193 (1985). Gardner, C.R., and Budhram, P. Effects of agents which interact with central... diazepam , and chlorpromazine, attenuate these vocalizations. Recent work by Kaltwasser (1990) examined the occurrence of vocalizations in response to

  16. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear mode...

  17. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  18. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  19. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  20. Circumbinary Habitability Niches

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Paul A; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A; Clark, Joni M

    2014-01-01

    Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the galaxy. Though counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favor of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM), that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operate...

  1. Habitable planet finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.

    2012-09-01

    A notional space telescope configuration is presented that addresses issues of angular resolution, spectral bandwidth and rejection of host star glare by means of a double dispersion architecture. The telescope resolves angle by wavelength. In an earlier embodiment for surveys, a primary objective grating telescope architecture was shown to acquire millions of objects in one observation cycle, one wave length at a time. The proposed HPF can detect exquisite spectral signatures out of millions of wavelengths in albedos - one exoplanetary system at a time. Like its predecessor, the new HPF telescope has a ribbon-shaped flat gossamer membrane primary objective that lends itself to space deployment, but the preferred embodiment uses a holographic optical element rather than a plane grating. The HOE provides an improvement in efficiency at select wavelength bands. The considerable length of the membrane can be in the 100 meter class providing angular resolution sufficient to resolve planets in the habitable zone and also spectral resolution sufficient to earmark habitability. A novel interferometric secondary spectrograph rejects host star glare. However, the architecture cannot disambiguate multiple stellar sources and may require unprecedented focal lengths in the primary objective to isolate one system at a time.

  2. Voice analysis before and after vocal rehabilitation in patients following open surgery on vocal cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunijevac Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major role of larynx in speech, respiration and swallowing makes carcinomas of this region and their treatment very influential for patients’ life quality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of voice therapy in patients after open surgery on vocal cords. Methods. This study included 21 male patients and the control group of 19 subjects. The vowel (A was recorded and analyzed for each examinee. All the patients were recorded twice: firstly, when they contacted the clinic and secondly, after a three-month vocal therapy, which was held twice per week on an outpatient basis. The voice analysis was carried out in the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT Clinic, Clinical Hospital Center “Zvezdara” in Belgrade. Results. The values of the acoustic parameters in the patients submitted to open surgery on the vocal cords before vocal rehabilitation and the control group subjects were significantly different in all specified parameters. These results suggest that the voice of the patients was damaged before vocal rehabilitation. The results of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A before and after vocal rehabilitation of the patients with open surgery on vocal cords were statistically significantly different. Among the parameters - Jitter (%, Shimmer (% - the observed difference was highly statistically significant (p 0.05 . Conclusion. There was a significant improvement of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A in the study subjects three months following vocal therapy. Only one out of five representative parameters showed no significant improvement.

  3. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  4. Correlation between vocal functions and glottal measurements in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagi, K; Khidr, A A; Ford, C N; Bless, D M; Heisey, D M

    1997-06-01

    Observations and analysis of glottal characteristics are critical in choosing the best modality for surgery in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP). This study suggests that multiple glottal characteristics influence the vocal product in patients with UVP. In addition to the horizontal position of the paralyzed vocal fold (deviation from the midline), the glottal area, degree of bowing of the paralyzed and contralateral vocal folds, maximum separation between vocal folds, compensatory glottal maneuvers, and the vertical glottic closure plane significantly influenced the quality of the voice. Clinicians should be aware of these observations to facilitate treatment planning and assessment of the results of surgical procedures used to improve voice quality in cases of UVP.

  5. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    Although research into contextual influences on food/beverage choices is increasing, limited knowledge exists about the relative impact context variables and to which degree these factors interact with each other. Habit is also acknowledged as being important in shaping food/beverage choices......, but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... among the context factors studied. For instance hot beverages were more likely to be consumed at breakfast, while alcoholic beverages were strongly related to dinner meals. Beer/wine was considerably more likely to be consumed outside home or in on-premise locations in the presence of friends or family...

  6. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  7. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  8. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  9. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  10. The evolution of galaxy habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Gobat, R

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, as well as its evolution with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone ("habitability") depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expe...

  11. Vocal responses of austral forest frogs to amplitude and degradation patterns of advertisement calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Mario; Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N; Muñoz, Matías I; Cisternas, Javiera

    2017-07-01

    Degradation phenomena affecting animal acoustic signals may provide cues to assess the distance of emitters. Recognition of degraded signals has been extensively demonstrated in birds, and recently studies have also reported detection of degraded patterns in anurans that call at or above ground level. In the current study we explore the vocal responses of the syntopic burrowing male frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus from the South American temperate forest to synthetic conspecific calls differing in amplitude and emulating degraded and non-degraded signal patterns. The results show a strong dependence of vocal responses on signal amplitude, and a general lack of differential responses to signals with different pulse amplitude modulation depths in E. emiliopugini and no effect of relative amplitude of harmonics in E. calcaratus. Such limited discrimination of signal degradation patterns from non-degraded signals is likely related to the burrowing habits of these species. Shelters amplify outgoing and incoming conspecific vocalizations, but do not counteract signal degradation to an extent comparable to calling strategies used by other frogs. The limited detection abilities and resultant response permissiveness to degraded calls in these syntopic burrowing species would be advantageous for animals communicating in circumstances in which signal alteration prevails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Astrophysical Conditions for Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Guedel, M; Erkaev, N; Kasting, J; Khodachenko, M; Lammer, H; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Rauer, H; Ribas, I; Wood, B E

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets and a potentially huge number of Earth-like planets waiting to be discovered, the conditions for their habitability have become a focal point in exoplanetary research. The classical picture of habitable zones primarily relies on the stellar flux allowing liquid water to exist on the surface of an Earth-like planet with a suitable atmosphere. However, numerous further stellar and planetary properties constrain habitability. Apart from "geophysical" processes depending on the internal structure and composition of a planet, a complex array of astrophysical factors additionally determine habitability. Among these, variable stellar UV, EUV, and X-ray radiation, stellar and interplanetary magnetic fields, ionized winds, and energetic particles control the constitution of upper planetary atmospheres and their physical and chemical evolution. Short- and long-term stellar variability necessitates full time-dependent studies to understand planetary habitability at any point ...

  13. Health Habit: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra S; Weglicki, Linda S; Gropper, Sareen S

    2017-05-25

    The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Offering a clear definition and conceptual model of health habit provide the foundation to identify/develop appropriate measures of the concept and guide further investigation of understanding the development and sustainability of healthy habits. Additional research is needed to test the conceptual relationships between health habits and outcome variables as they apply to different groups across the age continuum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Portfolio Optimization under Habit Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Naryshkin, Roman

    2008-01-01

    The "standard" Merton formulation of optimal investment and consumption involves optimizing the integrated lifetime utility of consumption, suitably discounted, together with the discounted future bequest. In this formulation the utility of consumption at any given time depends only on the amount consumed at that time. However, it is both theoretically and empirically reasonable that an individuals utility of consumption would depend on past consumption history. Economists term this "Habit Formation". We introduce a new formulation of habit formation which allows non-addictive consumption patterns for a wide variety of utility specification. In this paper we construct a simple mathematical description of this habit formation and present numerical solutions. We compare the results with the standard ones and draw insights obtained from the habit formation. The consumption path tends to increase with time and be less sensitive to the market fluctuations, which perfectly reflects the existence of habit persistenc...

  15. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet's semi-major axis to the location of its host star's "habitable zone," the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an "eccentricity-albedo degeneracy" for the habitability of transiti...

  16. Sintomas vocais e fatores relativos ao estilo de vida em professores Vocal symptoms and factors related to teachers' lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carollina Caporossi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os hábitos vocais autorreferidos por professores, e associar os mesmos a presença de rouquidão, cansaço ao falar, garganta seca e alteração de voz, também autorreferidos. MÉTODOS: 88 professores de duas escolas de ensino fundamental e médio da rede pública do Município de Sorocaba responderam o questionário CPV-P composto de 84 questões, e parte dessas foi analisada (dados pessoais; situação funcional; aspectos vocais e hábitos. Na análise estatística, as variáveis dependentes foram a autorreferencia a alteração de voz, rouquidão, cansaço ao falar, e garganta seca, e as independentes sexo, idade, situação funcional e hábitos. A análise estatística, realizada no programa STATA 8.0 por meio do teste de associação (qui-quadrado considerou nível de p PURPOSE: to identify the self-reported vocal habits of elementary and high-school teachers, and their correlation to the self-reported presence of hoarseness, strain when speaking, dry throat and presence of vocal disorders. METHODS: 88 teachers from two public elementary and high schools of the city of Sorocaba answered the CPV-P questionnaire (Ferreira et al. 2007, made up of 84 questions. Data selected from this document to be used in this study were: functional situation, vocal aspects and lifestyle (habits factors. For the statistical analysis the dependant variables were: reports of voice disorders, hoarseness, strain when speaking and dry throat. The independent variables were gender, age, functional situation, and habits related to vocal use. The statistical analysis was performed using STATA 8.0 software, employing the association test (chi-squared with p < 0.05. RESULTS: 64.77% of the subjects self-reported vocal disorder, 54.55% strain when speaking, 53.41% dry throat, and 44.32% reported hoarseness. As far as vocal habits, 86.52% reported speaking excessively, 59.55% speak in open spaces, 50.56% reported yelling, 28.41% smoking, 28

  17. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  18. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  19. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  20. Impact of Vocal Tract Resonance on the Perception of Voice Quality Changes Caused by Varying Vocal Fold Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Rosario; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Gerratt, Bruce; Kreiman, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Summary Experiments using animal and human larynx models are often conducted without a vocal tract. While it is often assumed that the absence of a vocal tract has only small effects on vocal fold vibration, it is not actually known how sound production and quality are affected. In this study, the validity of using data obtained in the absence of a vocal tract for voice perception studies was investigated. Using a two-layer self-oscillating physical model, three series of voice stimuli were created: one produced with conditions of left-right symmetric vocal fold stiffness, and two with left-right asymmetries in vocal fold body stiffness. Each series included a set of stimuli created with a physical vocal tract, and a second set created without a physical vocal tract. Stimuli were re-synthesized to equalize the mean F0 for each series and normalized for amplitude. Listeners were asked to evaluate the three series in a sort-and-rate task. Multidimensional scaling analysis was applied to examine the perceptual interaction between the voice source and the vocal tract resonances. The results showed that the presence or absence of a vocal tract can significantly affect perception of voice quality changes due to parametric changes in vocal fold properties, except when the parametric changes in vocal fold properties produced an abrupt shift in vocal fold vibratory pattern resulting in a salient quality change. PMID:27134616

  1. VOCAL: Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language. Technical Report No. 291.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Michael; And Others

    VOCAL (Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language) is designed to facilitate the authoring of computer assisted curricula which incorporate highly interactive audio and text presentations. Lessons written in VOCAL are intended to be patterned after the style of informal classroom lectures. VOCAL contains features that allow the author to specify…

  2. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  3. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  4. Gestures, vocalizations and memory in language origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possible homologies between the human language networks and comparable auditory projection systems in the macaque brain, in an attempt to conciliate two existing views on language evolution: one that makes emphasis on hand control and gestures, and the other that makes emphasis on auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced into the non-human primate brain. In its core, this circuit makes up an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a ventral pathway connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a dorsal pathway connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homologue to the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-ventrolateral prefrontal network for hand and gestural action selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of this dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to have marked a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  5. THE HABIT OF CURIOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA CESARE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is commonly referred to as a way of being, or an object of curiosity. How curiosity is part of our daily lives, how we engage with curiosity intellectually has a long and interesting history. Since the sixteenth century it has been manifest in cabinets of curiosity, museums and curio cabinets; exercises in collecting, self-reflection and discovery. However, the end of the twentieth-century has altered our sense of the world, through the speed and accessibility of information leaving a changed relationship with wonder. This paper discusses the role of curiosity in research as a “habit of curiosity”, (Benedict 2001, 2 a method for discovery. It reviews its historical manifestations and concerns, locating it through objects and actions, and questions what new meanings the twenty-first century brings with it. Is curiosity at risk? Is it still risky? The relationship between the individual and their interior and exterior socio-cultural landscape continually creates new meanings for knowledge and how we achieve it. This shadowy landscape of our curiosity has not lost meaning intellectually, but it in our shrinking, globalized world how we engage with it requires a new investigation.

  6. [Oral habits. Etiology and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanou-Kouvelas, K; Kouvelas, N

    1988-01-01

    Oral habits have been described by psychologists and psychyatrists as psychodynamic phenomena. Dentists are concerned with oral habits because of the detrimental consequences they have in the oral facial system. The dentist who is in a position to confront a child with an oral habit in order to treat his dentinofacial problems is required to be aware of the psychological background of his patient as well as of the conditions under which the children do the habit in order to overcome emotional difficulties. The dentist should also search into the child's family to find out what the causes of the child's oral habit maybe. For the treatment of an oral habit the dentist should ensure both the child's and the family's cooperation and he should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of every available method for treatment. Methods of treatment are: Use of orthodontic appliances: This method has the disadvantage that disturbs the child's psychological need for the habit, it can be interpreted as a punishment, it is visible and it causes speaking difficulties. It should be applied only in cooperation with the child. Behavioristic technique: This method aims to reinforce the child's positive behavior according to the Skinnerian principle: stimulus-response-reward. It has fast results but it is a conditioned treatment. Psychoanalytic method: It could solve the problem of the child's primary need for the oral habit in a radical manner. However it is practically impossible to be applied in Dentistry. Behavior modification according to ego psychology. With this method we attempt to analyse and understand the psychological cause of an oral habit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  8. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  9. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture......-validated training and test setup. The database is divided in two different ways: with/without artist overlap between training and test sets, so as to study the so called ‘artist effect’. The performance and results are analyzed in depth: from error rates to sample-to-sample error correlation. A voting scheme...

  10. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  11. Study Habits on English Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China gradual y focuses on the development of local English education in order to expand its influence to the world. The essay wil analyze the situation of English education in China and explain the importance of study habits to English education. Meanwhile, some advices for Chinese education changes wil be given. According to the essay, it can be found that study habit is essential for further English education. China cannot be stick to its English education strategy al the time because Chinese students rely too much on the teaching strategies instead of their own study habits.

  12. Tidal Constraints on Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N; Heller, Rene

    2009-01-01

    We review how tides may impact the habitability of terrestrial-like planets. If such planets form around low-mass stars, then planets in the circumstellar habitable zone will be close enough to their host stars to experience strong tidal forces. We discuss 1) decay of semi-major axis, 2) circularization of eccentric orbits, 3) evolution toward zero obliquity, 4) fixed rotation rates (not necessarily synchronous), and 5) internal heating. We briefly describe these effects using the example of a 0.25 solar mass star with a 10 Earth-mass companion. We suggest that the concept of a habitable zone should be modified to include the effects of tides.

  13. Effect of subglottic stenosis on the flow-induced vibration of a self-oscillating computational vocal fold model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2010-11-01

    The subglottis plays an important role in voice production; however, in general the role of subglottal geometry in phonation is not well understood. This research focuses on studying how subglottic stenosis, or a narrowing of the airway below the vocal folds, affects the response of a self-oscillating computational vocal fold model. Methods are described for computational model development, including stenotic geometry definition from CT scan images, incorporation of the stenosis into a finite element fluid-structure interaction model, and parametric variation of the degree of stenosis severity. Results are presented for a normal (no stenosis) case and five cases of varying degrees of stenosis severity. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of vocal fold vibratory motion and of flow behavior for the six cases are made, including characterization of flow patterns in the subglottis, glottal width and flow rate time histories, vibration frequency, and airway resistance.

  14. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  15. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  16. El dispositivo habitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Roche, P. M.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the main concepts supporting the project "Habitar el Dispositivo" which was awarded a prize in the International Competition "25 Bioclimatical Houses" promoted by the "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables of Tenerife " and organized by the "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" and sponsored by the "International Union of Architects". As opposed to bioclimatical houses which are the result of adding bioclimatical devices to an architectural project, the integration of bioclimatical and architectural concepts in a livable device is proposed. A digital model of the project was built to analyze sunlight and shadow behavior and computer simulations permitted to determine thermal performance. Average thermal satisfaction was 89.75 % during typical summer and winter 24 hour periods.

    Se presentan los conceptos fundamentales que respaldan la propuesta "Habitar el Dispositivo", premiada en el Concurso Internacional "25 Viviendas Bioclimáticas" promovido por el "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables del Cabildo de Tenerife", organizado por el "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" y homologado por la "Unión Internacional de Arquitectos". Al contrario de la solución de añadir dispositivos a un proyecto de arquitectura, la propuesta integra conceptos bioclimáticos y arquitectónicos en un dispositivo habitable. Un modelo digital de la edificación permitió estudiar su volumetría y soleamiento en diferentes períodos del año, mientras que su comportamiento térmico se analizó con un programa de simulación en régimen dinámico. El promedio de personas satisfechas en días típicos de verano e invierno fue del 89,75 %.

  17. Galactic Habitable Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

  18. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  19. 8 HABITS OF INFLUENTIAL PEOPLE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Travis Bradberry

    2017-01-01

    .... It's a labour of love that influential people pursue behind the scenes, every single day. And while what people are influenced by changes with the season, the unique habits of influential people remain constant...

  20. Characterizing Habitable Exo-Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of screening the atmosphere of exomoons for habitability. We concentrate on Earth-like satellites of extrasolar giant planets (EGP) which orbit in the Habitable Zone of their host stars. The detectability of exomoons for EGP in the Habitable Zone has recently been shown to be feasible with the Kepler Mission or equivalent photometry using transit duration observations. Using the Earth itself as a proxy we show the potential and limits of spectroscopy to detect biomarkers on an Earth-like exomoon and discuss effects of tidal locking for such potential habitats. Transmission spectroscopy of exomoons is a unique potential tool to screen them for habitability in the near future.

  1. Growth habit of polar crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using coordination polyhedron rule, growth habit of polar crystals such as ZnO, ZnS and SiO2 is investigated. It shows that the growth rates in the positive and negative polar axis directions are different. The theoretical growth habit of ZnO crystal is hexagonal prism and the growth rates of its various faces are:V{0001}>V{0111}-->V{0110}->V{0111}->V{0001}-. The growth habit of ZnS crystal is tetrahedron and its growth rates of different crystal faces are: V{111}>V{001}>V{001} =V{100} =. The growth rate relationship between positive and negative polar axis directions of SiO2 crystal V[1120]-->V[1120]-.is These results are in agreement with the growth habits observed under hydrothermal conditions. The different growth rates between positive and negative polar axis directions cannot be explained by PBC theory.

  2. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F; Ginocchio, D; Maruzzi, P; Atac, M; Ottaviani, F

    2012-10-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. The aim of this study was to analyze voice changes in a group of dysphonic patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions, evaluated with a multidimensional protocol before and after voice therapy. Sixteen consecutive patients, 12 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 49.7 years were enrolled. Each subject had 10 voice therapy sessions with an experienced speech/language pathologist for a period of 1-2 months, and was evaluated before and at the end of voice therapy with a multidimensional protocol that included self-assessment measures and videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic and acoustic ratings. Videostroboscopic examination did not reveal resolution of the initial pathology in any case. No improvement was observed in aerodynamic and perceptual ratings. A clear and significant improvement was visible on Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the mean values of Jitt%, Noise to Harmonic Ratio (NHR) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores. Even if it is possible that, for benign vocal fold lesions, only a minor improvement of voice quality can be achieved after voice therapy, rehabilitation treatment still seems useful as demonstrated by improvement in self-assessment measures. If voice therapy is provided as an initial treatment to the patients with benign vocal fold lesions, this may lead to an improvement in the perceived voice quality, making surgical intervention unnecessary. This is one of the first reports on the efficacy of voice therapy in the management of benign vocal fold

  3. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  4. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  5. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

  6. [Etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of vocal fold paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R; Hoffmann, T K; Rotter, N; Pickhard, A; Scheithauer, M O; Brosch, S

    2014-03-01

    Etiology of vocal fold paralysis is broad: e. g. iatrogenic/traumatic, associated with neoplasms or with systemic diseases. The cause of idiopathic paralysis is unknown. The main symptom of unilateral vocal fold paralysis is hoarseness because of a remaining glottic gap during phonation. Patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis typically have no impairment of the voice but dyspnea. Examination of patients with an idopathic vocal fold paralysis is a CT of the vagal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve from skull base to neck and mediastinum. Serological tests are not obligatory. Differential diagnosis of vocal fold immobility is vocal fold paralysis/neurological causes and arthrogene causes such as arytenoid subluxation, interarytenoid adhesion and vocal fold fixation in laryngeal carcinomas. Voice therapy is a promising approach for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, but not all patients benefit sufficiently. Temporary vocal fold augmentation by injection medialization results in satisfactory voice quality that is comparable with a thyroplasty. Patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility show typically dyspnea requiring immediate therapy such as temporary tracheotomy or reversible laterofixation of the paralyzed vocal chord. If the paralysis persists a definitive enlargement of the glottic airway by eg. arytenoidectomy needs to be performed.

  7. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  8. Cosmological aspects of planetary habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Shchekinov, Yu A; Murthy, J

    2014-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is defined as the region around a star where a planet can support liquid water on its surface, which, together with an oxygen atmosphere, is presumed to be necessary (and sufficient) to develop and sustain life on the planet. Currently, about twenty potentially habitable planets are listed. The most intriguing question driving all these studies is whether planets within habitable zones host extraterrestrial life. It is implicitly assumed that a planet in the habitable zone bears biota. However along with the two usual indicators of habitability, an oxygen atmosphere and liquid water on the surface, an additional one -- the age --- has to be taken into account when the question of the existence of life (or even a simple biota) on a planet is addressed. The importance of planetary age for the existence of life as we know it follows from the fact that the primary process, the photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones. Therefore on...

  9. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  10. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath's linguistic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustison, Morgan L; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-05-10

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath's law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath's law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath's law reflects compression-the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language.

  11. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  12. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  13. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  14. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  15. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  16. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  17. Audiovisual vocal outburst classification in noisy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate an audiovisual approach for classification of vocal outbursts (non-linguistic vocalisations) in noisy conditions using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Fusion of geometric shape features and acoustic low-level descript

  18. Vocal cord dysfunction in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, Stephen A

    2003-11-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. The resultant symptoms can include dyspnea, chest tightness, cough, throat tightness, wheezing, or voice change. Most patients with VCD are female, and among adolescents and children, VCD tends to be triggered by exercise and is typically confused with exercise-induced asthma. Both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychiatric illness have been reported as having strong associations with VCD, although, to date, there is no evidence that either causes VCD. VCD often coexists with asthma, and should be suspected in any patient in whom asthma treatment fails. Confirming the diagnosis involves direct visualization of abnormal vocal cord motion, and this usually only occurs during symptoms. Adolescent athletes often require free running exercise challenge to reproduce their symptoms and confirm abnormal vocal cord motion laryngoscopically. The primary treatment for VCD involves a combination of patient education and speech therapy, and, in most cases, patients may resume their activities without significant limitation.

  19. VOCALIZATIONS AND BREEDING BEHAVIOUR OF PTYCHADENA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also produced resuIarly and its production is dependent on the prCSCDCe of two or more individuals. ... analyser) within the frequency range 80 Hz-8 kHz using a wide band filter (300 Hz). ..... The evoked vocal response of the bullfrog. Res.

  20. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology that arise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. This type also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, is the more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usually in subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngeal hemangioma in adults is a very rare condition and main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties. Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locations such as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids and false and true vocal cords. They are more often of cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this report we present an adult patient with hemangioma of the left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnostic investigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extended from the anterior comissure to the posterior part of true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventricule and extending to supraglottic region. Direct laryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excised because of its widespread extension in the larynx. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(3: 323-326.

  1. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumorsin the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomasare benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology thatarise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. Thistype also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, isthe more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usuallyin subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngealhemangioma in adults is a very rare conditionand main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties.Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locationssuch as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoidsand false and true vocal cords. They are more oftenof cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this reportwe present an adult patient with hemangioma ofthe left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnosticinvestigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extendedfrom the anterior comissure to the posterior partof true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventriculeand extending to supraglottic region. Directlaryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excisedbecause of its widespread extension in the larynx. JClin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 91-94

  2. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars).

  3. Quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyps, glottal gap and their relation to vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Kaseta, Marius; Pribuisiene, Rūta; Saferis, Viktoras; Jokūzis, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Adas; Bacauskiene, Marija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the size of vocal fold polyps and to investigate the relationship between the glottal gap and parameters of acoustic voice analysis and phonetography. Eighty-one microlaryngoscopic images and digital recordings of voices (acoustic analysis and phonetogram) acquired from the patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs) were employed in this study. Vocal fold (VF) images were collected during routine direct microlaryngoscopy using Moller-Wedel Universa 300 surgical microscope, 3-CCD Elmo 768 x 576-pixel color video camera and a 300 W Xenon light source. Acoustic voice analysis and phonetography were established using Dr. Speech (Tiger Electronics Inc.) software. Microlaryngoscopic images were processed by original software created by ELINTA and displayed on a monitor. The relative lengths and widths of vocal fold polyps as well as percentage area of VFP were calculated. The Pearson's correlation was applied to reveal the correlation between VFP dimensions and acoustic voice parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the dimensions of left and right vocal folds and VFPs. Statistically significant slight to mild correlations between measured dimensions of VFP acoustic and phonetogram parameters were revealed, with HNR and phonetogram area showing the strongest correlation to the size of VFPs. The results of our study confirm that quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyp and glottal gap dimensions may be a useful tool for objective assessment of glottic incompetence and voice impairment.

  4. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  5. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants.

  6. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  7. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  8. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  9. Contribution of oral habits to dental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, J; Hochman, N; Yaffe, A

    1992-04-01

    Oral habits or parafunction may contribute to dental, periodontal, or neuromuscular damage. Such habits, of which the patient is often unaware, may cause considerable damage. Habits may be occlusal or non-occlusal, and may affect the dentition and/or the oral soft tissues. Drawing a patient's attention to the damage caused by some habits of which he or she is unaware often leads to cessation, whereas with certain conscious habits, such as nail or finger biting, success is much more limited.

  10. Multidimensional Analysis on the Effect of Vocal Function Exercises on Aged Vocal Fold Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mami; Hirano, Shigeru; Tateya, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ito, Juichi

    2015-09-01

    Age-related voice change is characterized as weak, harsh, and breathy. These changes are caused by histologic alteration of the lamina propria of the vocal fold mucosa as well as atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle. Several therapeutic strategies involving laryngeal framework surgery and injection laryngoplasty have been tried, but effects have been limited. Vocal function exercises (VFE) have been used to treat age-related vocal fold atrophy although the effectiveness has been shown with limited analysis. The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of VFE for the treatment of aged atrophy using multidimensional analysis. This is a retrospective study. Sixteen patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-81 years underwent voice therapy using VFE. Six patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-85 years were involved as a historical control group. The grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS) scale, stroboscopic examinations, aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) were performed before and after VFE. Normalized mucosal wave amplitude (NMWA), normalized glottal gap (NGG), and bowing index (BI) were measured by image analysis during stroboscopic examinations. After VFE, significant improvements were shown in GRBAS, maximum phonation time, jitter, NMWA, NGG, and VHI-10 although BI has not changed significantly. There were no significant improvements in the historical control. The data suggest that VFE produces significant improvement in subjective, objective, and patient self-evaluation and deserves further attention as a treatment for aged atrophy of the vocal fold. It was also suggested that VFE does not improve the vocal fold bowing but may improve muscular function during voicing. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  12. Improvement of vocal pathologies diagnosis using high-speed videolaryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  13. Endoscopic laterofixation in bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Zawadzka-Glos; Magdalena, Frackiewicz; Mieczyslaw, Chmielik

    2010-06-01

    Vocal cords paralysis is the second most frequent cause of laryngeal stridor in children. Symptoms of congenital vocal cords paralysis can occur shortly after birth or later. Vocal cords paralysis can be unilateral or bilateral. Symptoms of unilateral paralysis include hoarse weeping or stridor during a deep inhalation. In children unilateral vocal cords paralysis often retreats spontaneously or can be completely compensated. Children with bilateral vocal cords paralysis present mainly breathing disorders while phonation is normal. Symptoms are different, starting from complete occlusion of respiratory tracts and ending on small symptoms connected with the lack of effort tolerance. When symptoms are severe, patients from this group require a tracheotomy. The lack of restoration of normal function of vocal cords or lack of complete compensation and maintenance of symptoms are an indication for surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to present results of the treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children using the endoscopic method of laterofixation of vocal cords. In the Pediatric ENT Department between 1998 and 2009 sixty four children with dyspnoea and/or phonation disorders caused by vocal cords paralysis were treated. In ten cases laterofixation of vocal cords was performed, in most cases with good result. In this article the authors present the method of endoscopic laterofixation and achieved results. Endoscopic laterofixation of vocal cords in children is a safe and an easy method of surgical treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis. This method can be used as a first and often as a one stage treatment of vocal cords paralysis. In some cases this procedure is insufficient and has to be completed with other methods. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Allain-Thibeault; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-06-05

    Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations in different contexts throughout development and in adulthood. These vocal signals are now currently used as proxies for modeling the genetic bases of vocal communication deficits. Characterizing the vocal behavior of mouse models carrying mutations in genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders will help to understand the mechanisms leading to social communication deficits. We provide here protocols to reliably elicit ultrasonic vocalizations in pups and in adult mice. This standardization will help reduce inter-study variability due to the experimental settings. Pup isolation calls are recorded throughout development from individual pups isolated from dam and littermates. In adulthood, vocalizations are recorded during same-sex interactions (without a sexual component) by exposing socially motivated males or females to an unknown same-sex conspecific. We also provide a protocol to record vocalizations from adult males exposed to an estrus female. In this context, there is a sexual component in the interaction. These protocols are established to elicit a large amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory mice. However, we point out the important inter-individual variability in the vocal behavior of mice, which should be taken into account by recording a minimal number of individuals (at least 12 in each condition). These recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations are used to evaluate the call rate, the vocal repertoire and the acoustic structure of the calls. Data are combined with the analysis of synchronous video recordings to provide a more complete view on social communication in mice. These protocols are used to characterize the vocal communication deficits in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders. More ultrasonic vocalizations recordings can also be found on the mouseTube database, developed to favor the exchange of such data.

  15. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  16. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations: Simulations in time domain

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that during voiced speech, the human vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting source-filter coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that, in particular, contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [a, i] in the fundamental frequency (f_0) interval [180 Hz, 360 Hz]. The interval contains the first formant F1 of [i] as well as the subformants F1/4 and F1/3 of [a]. The simulations reveal a locking pattern of the f_0-trajectory at F1 of [i] in falling and rising glides. The subformants of [a] produce perturbations in the waveforms of glottal signals but no locki...

  17. If horses entrain, don’t entirely reject vocal learning: An experience-based vocal learning hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adena Schachner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bregman and colleagues describe methods for testing whether horses entrain their actions to an auditory beat. If horses can entrain, does this necessarily imply that there is no causal relationship between vocal learning and entrainment? I propose an alternative way in which vocal learning may relate to entrainment — one that is consistent with entrainment in some vocal non-learning species. Due to engaging in the developmental process of vocal learning, there may be early experiences common to vocal learners, but rare in vocal non-learning species. It is possible that it is these experiences that are critical for entrainment — not vocal learning itself, nor related genes. These experiences may result in critical changes in neural development, leading to the development of cognitive mechanisms necessary for both vocal learning and entrainment. This hypothesis changes the causal story from one of genetic change to one of changes in experience, and from a focus on evolution to a focus on individual ontogeny. Thus, if horses can entrain, we should not immediately reject the idea of a relationship between vocal learning and entrainment: First, we should consider whether some unusual aspect of the horses' experience effectively replicates the unusual experiences of vocal learning animals.

  18. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Brauer, Alexander F.L.; Ciucci, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as “LSVT/LOUD®”, does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  19. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  20. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head......This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... with an artificial head (corresponding to the mouth-ears path) placed at the talker position while simulating the classrooms. Time histories of the vocal fold vibration readings, with the trend of the fundamental frequency and an estimation of the sound pressure level, sampled every 50 ms, were obtained. From...

  1. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  2. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  3. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa......” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline...... (no-stimulation). The phonetic parameters extracted were pitch (mean F0), phonatory fluctuations (range F0) and loudness (acoustic energy level). Results: Only for the vowels “u” and “schwa,” which might be considered best approximations to moaning and groaning, did pitch and loudness increase during...

  4. Vocalization-correlated respiratory movements in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, U

    2000-10-01

    Respiratory abdominal movements associated with vocalization were recorded in awake squirrel monkeys. Several call types, such as peeping, trilling, cackling, and err-chucks, were accompanied by large vocalization-correlated respiratory movements (VCRM) that started before vocalization. During purring, in contrast, only small VCRM were recorded that started later after vocal onset. VCRM during trill calls, a vocalization type with repetitive frequency modulation, showed a modulation in the rhythm of the frequency changes. A correlation with amplitude modulation was also present, but more variable. As high frequencies need a higher lung pressure for production than low frequencies, the modulation of VCRM seems to serve to optimize the lung pressure in relation to the vocalization frequency. The modulation, furthermore, may act as a mechanism to produce different trill variants. During err-chucks and staccato peeps, which show a large amplitude modulation, a nonmodulated VCRM occurred. This indicates the existence of a laryngeal amplitude-controlling mechanism that is independent from respiration.

  5. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders.

  6. Computational model for vocal tract dynamics in a suboscine bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaneo, M. F.; Trevisan, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    In a recent work, active use of the vocal tract has been reported for singing oscines. The reconfiguration of the vocal tract during song serves to match its resonances to the syringeal fundamental frequency, demonstrating a precise coordination of the two main pieces of the avian vocal system for songbirds characterized by tonal songs. In this work we investigated the Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulfuratus), a suboscine bird whose calls display a rich harmonic content. Using a recently developed mathematical model for the syrinx and a mobile vocal tract, we set up a computational model that provides a plausible reconstruction of the vocal tract movement using a few spectral features taken from the utterances. Moreover, synthetic calls were generated using the articulated vocal tract that accounts for all the acoustical features observed experimentally.

  7. Diffraction method of vocal chord oscillation sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1996-04-01

    A method of small-amplitude biovibrations detection is presented in the paper. The method uses a dependence of properties of speckle-structures formed by focused coherent light field diffraction from rough surfaces on the statistics and movement parameters of the surface. With the help of computer modeling the different components of skin surface vibration were analyzed and their influence on speckles dynamics was studied. Human vocal chord oscillations spectrum was monitored using the developed technique.

  8. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated...... and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals....

  9. Treatment of aging vocal folds: surgical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yutomo; Allen, Jacqui E

    2014-12-01

    Aging may affect the voice through either physiological or pathological changes. Globally society is aging and the working lifetime is extending. Increasing numbers of elderly will present with voice issues. This review examines current thinking regarding surgical treatment of the aging voice. The mainstay of surgical treatment remains injection laryngoplasty and medialization thyroplasty. In-office injection laryngoplasty is increasingly common. Data suggest that patients with vocal fold atrophy do not achieve as much benefit from augmentation treatments as other causes of glottal incompetence. In addition the timing of injection laryngoplasty may influence the rate of subsequent medialization thyroplasty. Disease-specific treatments can provide some benefit to voice, such as deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Novel treatments including growth factor therapy are entering clinical practice and will provide new options for the clinician in future. Voice disorders affect approximately 20% of the elderly population. Causes include neurologic, malignant, iatrogenic and benign vocal fold disorders. These should be ruled out before accepting dysphonia is age-related in nature. Treatment should be specific to recognized vocal disorders but may also address physiologic changes in the glottis. Injection laryngoplasty and thyroplasty remain effective options for treating glottal incompetence but novel therapies are showing promising results.

  10. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  11. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  12. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  13. Singers' Vocal Function Knowledge Levels, Sensorimotor Self-awareness of Vocal Tract, and Impact of Functional Voice Rehabilitation on the Vocal Function Knowledge and Self-awareness of Vocal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vocal function knowledge and vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness and the impact of functional voice rehabilitation on vocal function knowledge and self-awareness. This is a prospective, randomized study. Twenty singers (study group [SG]) completed a questionnaire before and after functional voice rehabilitation. Twenty additional singers, representing the control group, also completed the questionnaire without functional voice rehabilitation at a 3-month interval. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part evaluated the singers' attitude to the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the vocal tract and their self-esteem of the knowledge level. The second part assessed the theoretical knowledge of the singers' vocal tract physiology. The third part of the questionnaire assessed singers' sensorimotor self-awareness of the vocal tract. The results showed that most singers indicated that knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology is useful (59% SG, 67% control group). However, 75% of all participants defined their knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology as weak or inadequate. In the SG, vocal function knowledge at the first assessment was 45%. After rehabilitation, the level increased to 67.7%. Vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness initially was 38.9% in SG but rose to 66.7%. Findings of the study suggest that classical singers lack knowledge about the physiology of the vocal mechanism, especially the breathing patterns. In addition, they have low sensorimotor self-awareness of their vocal tract. The results suggest that singers would benefit from receiving services from phoniatrists and speech-language pathologists during their voice training. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon dioxide laser enucleation of polypoid vocal cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, A; Dedo, H H

    1984-06-01

    Polypoid vocal cords have routinely been treated by endoscopic vocal cord stripping, often-times resulting in prolonged hoarseness postoperatively. Submucosal CO2 laser enucleation of the polypoid tissue, with preservation of a mucosal flap on the medial edge of the cord, has proved to be a valuable improvement. The surgical procedure is described and results are presented which suggest that voice quality is better earlier than is the case after vocal cord stripping.

  15. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    OpenAIRE

    STARNBERGER, IRIS; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The divers...

  16. The Value of Vocal Extent Measure (VEM) Assessing Phonomicrosurgical Outcomes in Vocal Fold Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Tatjana; Ermakova, Tatiana; Möller, Andreas; Seipelt, Matthias; Weikert, Sebastian; Rummich, Julius; Gross, Manfred; Nawka, Tadeus; Caffier, Philipp P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to present vocal extent measure (VEM), demonstrate its changes with phonomicrosurgical treatment in patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs), and to compare its performance to that of established vocal parameters. This is an individual cohort study. Microlaryngoscopic ablation was executed in 61 patients with manifestation of VFP (28 male, 33 female; 45 ± 13 years [mean ± SD]). Analysis of treatment outcome was based on pre- and postoperative voice function diagnostics and videolaryngostroboscopy. Examination instruments were: auditory-perceptual voice assessment (roughness, breathiness, and overall hoarseness [RBH]-status), voice range profile (VRP), acoustic-aerodynamic analysis, and patients' self-assessment of voice using the voice handicap index. The VEM, a parameter not yet commonly established in phoniatric diagnostics, was calculated from area and shape of the VRP to be compared with the dysphonia severity index (DSI) concerning diagnostic suitability. All polyps were completely excised. Three months postoperatively, mucosal wave propagation had recovered. All subjective and most objective acoustic and aerodynamic parameters showed highly significant improvement. The VHI-9i-score decreased from 15 ± 8 to 6 ± 7 points. The average total vocal range extended by 4 ± 5 semitones, the mean speaking pitch decreased by 1 ± 2 semitones. The DSI increased on average from 2.6 ± 2.1 to 4.0 ± 2.2, VEM from 83 ± 28 to 107 ± 21 (P VRP evaluation. This positive measure of vocal function seems to be a compelling diagnostic addition for objective quantification of vocal performance. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Idiopathic ulcerative laryngitis causing midmembranous vocal fold granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Catherine F; Sulica, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    Idiopathic ulcerative laryngitis (IUL) is characterized by bilateral midmembranous vocal fold ulceration, which follows upper respiratory infection with cough. In contrast, granuloma of the membranous vocal fold can occur rarely following microlaryngoscopy, presumably secondary to surgical violation of deep tissue planes. We report a novel case of noniatrogenic membranous vocal fold granulation developing in a patient with IUL. Although the presence of granulation implied injury to the entire microstructure of the vibratory portion of the vocal fold, the lesion resolved with conservative management without adverse sequelae.

  18. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  19. Continuous Vocalization during Kendo Exercises Suppresses Expiration of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, H; Terada, T; Takahashi, T; Kizaki, K; Imai, H; Era, S

    2015-06-01

    One distinctive trait of kendo, the Japanese martial art of fencing, is the execution of sustained, high-effort vocalizations during actions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of these vocalizations on respiratory functions. First, the intensity of 3 kendo exercises was quantified by measuring oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and comparing it with V̇O2max measured during treadmill tests of 8 university kendo athletes. Respiratory variables of these 8 athletes were then analyzed using a portable breath gas analyzer during the most intensive kendo exercise, kakari-keiko, with and without vocalization. Breathing frequency (fB) increased regardless of vocalization, but in trials with vocalization, fB and ventilation were significantly lower, and expiration time was significantly longer. Components of expired gases were also affected by vocalization. Although there was no significant difference in oxygen uptake, vocalization yielded a reduction in carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2) and an increase in fraction of end-tidal carbon dioxide (FetCO2). We thus conclude that these vocalizations greatly affect expiration breathing patterns in kendo. Moreover, repetition of kakari-keiko caused a reduction in V̇CO2 and an increase in FetCO2 and CO2 storage. We consider the possibility that the sustained high-effort vocalizations of kendo also increase cerebral blood flow.

  20. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  1. Perceptual and acoustic parameters of vocal nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramuglia, Andréa Cristina Joia; Tavares, Elaine L M; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Martins, Regina H G

    2014-02-01

    Vocal nodules constitute the major cause of dysphonia during childhood. Auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses have been used to differentiate vocal nodules from normal voice in children. To study the value of auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses in assessments of children with nodules. Diagnostic test study. A comparative study was carried out including 100 children with videolaryngoscopic diagnosis of vocal nodules (nodule group-NG); and 100 children without vocal symptoms and with normal videolaryngoscopic exams (control group-CG). The age range of both groups was between 4 and 11 years. All children underwent auditory-perceptual vocal analyses (GRBASI scale); maximum phonation time and s/z ratio were calculated, and acoustic vocal analysis (MDVP software) were carried out. There was no difference in the values of maximum phonation time and s/z ratio between groups. Auditory-perceptual analysis indicated greater compromising of voice parameters for NG, compared to CG: G (79 versus 24), R (53 versus 3), B (67 versus 23) and S (35 versus 1). The values of acoustic parameters jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI were higher for NG for CG. The parameter f0 did not differ between groups. Compromising of auditory-perceptual (G, R, B and S) and acoustic vocal parameters (jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI) was greater for children with nodules than for those of the control group, which makes them important methods for assessing child dysphonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency and significance of vocalizations in Sydenham's chorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Teixeira, Antonio Lúcio; Cardoso, Francisco; Maia, Débora P; Sacramento, Daniel R; Mota, Cleonice de Carvalho Coelho; Meira, Zilda Maria Alves; Lees, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a complication of Streptococcus infection characterized by a combination of motor and non-motor features. We have investigated the presence of vocalizations in 89 consecutive patients with SC evaluated during a one-year period in the UFMG Movement Disorders Clinic. Seven (4/3 M/F) of the 89 patients (29/60 M/F) presented with simple vocalizations not preceded by premonitory sensations but in association with facial chorea in five patients. These findings suggest that vocalizations are not a common feature in SC and their phenomenology is quite distinct from the characteristics of vocal tics in tic disorders.

  3. [Potentialities of conservative therapy of vocal disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtsig, E Yu; Bogomilsky, M R

    2007-01-01

    The article concerns problems of classification and treatment of various vocal problems in children, presents treatment outcomes in patients with functional and organic dysphonia using complex homeopathic drugs.

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis.

  5. Study of non-linear deformation of vocal folds in simulations of human phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation is performed on a two-dimensional compressible, viscous fluid interacting with a non-linear, viscoelastic solid as a model for the generation of the human voice. The vocal fold (VF) tissues are modeled as multi-layered with varying stiffness in each layer and using a finite-strain Standard Linear Solid (SLS) constitutive model implemented in a quadratic finite element code and coupled to a high-order compressible Navier-Stokes solver through a boundary-fitted fluid-solid interface. The large non-linear mesh deformation is handled using an elliptic/poisson smoothening technique. Supra-glottal flow shows asymmetry in the flow, which in turn has a coupling effect on the motion of the VF. The fully compressible simulations gives direct insight into the sound produced as pressure distributions and the vocal fold deformation helps study the unsteady vortical flow resulting from the fluid-structure interaction along the full phonation cycle. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award Number 1150439).

  6. Habitability in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Long term habitability on the surface of planets has as a prerequisite a minimum availability of elements to build rocky planets, their atmospheres, and for life sustaining water. They must be within the habitable zone and avoid circumstances that cause them to lose their atmospheres and water. However, many astrophysical sources are hazardous to life on the surfaces of planets. Planets in harsh environments may require strong magnetic fields to protect their biospheres from high energy particles from the host star(s). Planets in harsh environments may additionally require a strong astrosphere to be sufficiently able to deflect galactic cosmic-rays. Supernovae (SNe) play a central role in the habitability of planets in the disks of star forming galaxies. Currently, the SNe rate maintains a relativistic galactic wind shielding planets in the disk from extragalactic cosmic rays. However, if the density of SNe in the disk of the galaxy were significantly higher, as it was 6-8 GYA, the frequency of nearby catastrophic events and often prolonged harsh environment may have strongly constrained life in the early history of the Milky Way. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) may remain quiescent for hundreds of millions of years only to activate for some time due extraordinary accretion episode due to for instance a galactic merger. The starburst galaxy M82 is currently undergoing a merger, probably strongly compromising habitability within that galaxy. The giant elliptical M87 resides in the center of the Virgo supercluster and has probably consumed many such spiral galaxies. We show that super-Eddington accretion onto the supermassive black hole in M87, even for a short while, could compromise the habitability for a large portion of the central supercluster. We discuss environments where these effects may be mitigated.

  7. Vocal intensity in lecturers: Results of measurements conducted during lecture sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mikulski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational voice users (inter alia: lecturers speak with different levels of vocal intensity. Speakers adjust this intensity knowingly (e.g. to underline the importance of fragments of the speech or unknowingly. The unknown adjustment of voice intensity occurs e.g. in the presence of high acoustic background noise (so-called Lombard effect, but it also results from many other factors: hearing loss, construction of the vocal tract, habits and others. The aim of the article is to confirm the thesis that in similar conditions of acoustic properties of the room different lecturers speak with different levels of vocal intensity. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a group of 10 lecturers in the same conference room. A-weighted sound pressure level determined at 1 m from the lecturer's mouth was adopted as a parameter defining the intensity of the lecturer's voice. The levels of all lecturers' voice intensity were compared and evaluated according to the criteria defined in EN ISO 9921. Results: Nine in ten lecturers were speaking with normal voice intensity (60-65 dB and only one full-time university lecturer was speaking with raised voice (66-71 dB. Conclusions: It was found that in the room of the same acoustic conditions the lecturers spoke with different intensities of voice. Some lecturers occasionally, and one all the time spoke with the voice intensity specified by PN-EN ISO 9921 as a raised voice. The results of the preliminary study warrant further studies in a larger group of teachers. Med Pr 2013;64(6:797–804

  8. Microbial Habitability and Pleistocene Aridification of the Asian Interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiuyi; Lowenstein, Tim K; Fang, Xiaomin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped in ancient halite can contain a community of halophilic prokaryotes and eukaryotes that inhabited the surface brines from which the halite formed. Long-term survival of bacteria and archaea and preservation of DNA have been reported from halite, but little is known about the distribution of microbes in buried evaporites. Here we report the discovery of prokaryotes and single-celled algae in fluid inclusions in Pleistocene halite, up to 2.26 Ma in age, from the Qaidam Basin, China. We show that water activity (aw), a measure of water availability and an environmental control on biological habitability in surface brines, is also related to microbe entrapment in fluid inclusions. The aw of Qaidam Basin brines progressively decreased over the last ∼1 million years, driven by aridification of the Asian interior, which led to decreased precipitation and water inflow and heightened evaporation rates. These changes in water balance produced highly concentrated brines, which reduced the habitability of surface lakes and decreased the number of microbes trapped in halite. By 0.13 Ma, the aw of surface brines approached the limits tolerated by halophilic prokaryotes and algae. These results show the response of microbial ecosystems to climate change in an extreme environment, which will guide future studies exploring deep life on Earth and elsewhere in the Solar System. Halite fluid inclusions-Ancient microbes-Water activity-Qaidam Basin-Pleistocene aridification. Astrobiology 16, 379-388.

  9. The rules of coherence and other habits

    CERN Document Server

    Solis, M R C

    2003-01-01

    Physics and mathematics are difficult enough without the aditional burden of bad habits. In this article, we examine some helpful habits that tend to be underemphasized by many physics teachers (mainly because they seem so obvious!).

  10. Interior Structure and Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.; Cammarano, F.; Panning, M. P.; Stähler, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's habitability depends critically on its interior structure and dynamics. Global redox cycles rely on Earth's mantle for continued flux of reduced materials (e.g., Hayes and Waldbauer 2006). Similarly, the habitability of ocean worlds must be understood in terms of their interior structure and evolution (Zolotov and Shock 2004, Hand et al. 2009, Nimmo and Pappalardo 2016, Vance et al. 2016). Combined seismology, gravity, and magnetic investigations may be able to distinguish between a hot active interior and a cold dead one. To evaluate such investigations, we are developing detailed models of interior density, elastic and anelastic structure, and associated seismic sources and signatures, building on prior work (Cammarano et al. 2006). We will present self-consistent 1-D structural models for ocean world interiors that use available thermodynamic data for fluids, ices, and rocks. Cammarano, F., V. Lekic, M. Manga, M. Panning, and B. Romanowicz (2006). Long-period seismology on Europa: 1. Physically consistent interior models. Journal of Geophysical Research, E12009:doi:10.1029/2006JE002710. Hand, K. P., C. Chyba, J. Priscu, R. Carlson, and K. Nealson (2009). Astrobiology and the Potential for Life on Europa, page 589. Arizona University Press. Hayes, J. M. and J. R. Waldbauer (2006). The carbon cycle and associated redox processes through time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1470):931-950. Nimmo, F. and R. T. Pappalardo (2016). Ocean Worlds in the Outer Solar System. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1002/2016JE005081 Vance, S. D., K. P. Hand, and R. T. Pappalardo (2016). Geophysical controls of chemical disequilibria in Europa. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2016GL068547. Zolotov, M. Y. and E. L. Shock (2004). A model for low-temperature biogeochemistry of sulfur, carbon, and iron on Europa. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 109(E6):E06003.

  11. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis.Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies.Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8% and aspiration (37.8% in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%, tumors (31.11%, surgery (28.89%, trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%.Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  12. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Reji Abraham; Geetha Kamath; Jasmeet Singh Sodhi; Sonia Sodhi; Chandki Rita; Sai Kalyan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle ret...

  14. Bowel habits after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoczna, Natascha; Harfmann, Susanne; Steffen, Rudolf; Briggs, Ruth; Bieri, Norman; Horber, Fritz F

    2008-10-01

    Disordered bowel habits might influence quality of life after bariatric surgery. Different types of bariatric operations-gastric banding (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)-might alter bowel habits as a consequence of the surgical procedure used. Whether change in bowel habits affects quality of life after AGB, RYGB, or BPD differently is unknown. The study group contained 290 severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery between August 1996 and September 2004 [BPD: n = 103, 64.1% women, age 43 +/- 1 years (mean +/- SEM), BMI 53.9 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2), weight 153.4 +/- 2.9 kg; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: n = 126, 73.0% women, age 43 +/- 1 years, BMI 44.2 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2), weight 123.8 +/- 1.5 kg; adjustable gastric banding (AGB): n = 61, 57.4% women, age 44 +/- 1 years, BMI 49.9 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2), weight 146.1 +/- 2.0 kg). Changes in bowel habits, flatulence, flatus odor, and effects on social life were estimated at least 4 months after surgery using a self-administered questionnaire. Fecal consistency changed significantly after surgery. Loose stools and diarrhea were more frequent after BPD and RYGB (P flatus affecting social life was more frequent after BPD than after either RYGB or AGB (P flatus frequency increased after BPD and RYGB, and patients were more bothered by their malodorous flatus than after AGB (all P Flatus severity score was highest in BPD, intermediate in RYGB, and lowest in AGB patients (all P < 0.001), a difference that was not influenced by frequency of metabolic syndrome before and after surgery. Moreover, observation period after surgery had no influence on overall results of bowel habits. Subsore quality of life bariatric analysis and reporting outcome system (BAROS) scores were largely similar between all three groups. However, flatulence severity score correlated inversely with quality of life estimated by BAROS in BPD and RYGB, but not in AGB patients. The type of bariatric surgery affects bowel

  15. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of…

  16. Vocal Patterns in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Canonical Babbling Status and Vocalization Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or "volubility" has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with…

  17. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Gabriel E; Peterson, Sean D; Erath, Byron D; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E; Zañartu, Matías

    2017-09-18

    Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is proposed. Normal voice is altered by introducing various prephonatory configurations. Potential compensatory mechanisms (increased subglottal pressure, muscle activation, and supraglottal constriction) are adjusted to restore an acoustic target output through a control loop that mimics a simplified version of auditory feedback. The degree of incomplete glottal closure in both the membranous and posterior portions of the folds consistently leads to a reduction in sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, harmonic richness, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The compensatory mechanisms lead to significantly increased vocal-fold collision forces, maximum flow-declination rate, and amplitude of unsteady flow, without significantly altering the acoustic output. Modeling provided potentially important insights into the pathophysiology of phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction by demonstrating that compensatory mechanisms can counteract deterioration in the voice acoustic signal due to incomplete glottal closure, but this also leads to high vocal-fold collision forces (reflected in aerodynamic measures), which significantly increases the risk of developing phonotrauma.

  18. The relationship between pitch discrimination and vocal production: comparison of vocal and instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2009-01-01

    Auditory pitch discrimination and vocal pitch accuracy are fundamental abilities and essential skills of a professional singer; yet, the relationship between these abilities, particularly in trained vocal musicians, has not been the subject of much research. Difference limens for frequency (DLFs) and pitch production accuracy (PPA) were examined among 20 vocalists, 21 instrumentalists, and 21 nonmusicians. All were right-handed young adult females with normal hearing. Stimuli were harmonic tone complexes simulating piano tones and represented the mid-frequency of the untrained female vocal range, F0=261.63-392 Hz (C4-G4). DLFs were obtained by an adaptive psychophysical paradigm. Vocal pitch recordings were analyzed to determine PPA. Musicians demonstrated superior pitch discrimination and production accuracy compared to nonmusicians. These abilities did not distinguish instrumentalists and vocalists. DLF and PPA were significantly correlated with each other only for musicians with instrumental training; however, PPA was most consistent with minimal variance for vocalists. It would appear that a relationship between DLF and PPA develops with musical training, and these abilities can be differentially influenced by the type of specialty training.

  19. Effects of smoking on the elderly people's vocal cords dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos, Sandrelli Virginio de

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is highly aggressive and the vocal tract is one of the main risk factors for cancer of the larynx. The tobacco may lead to irritation of the vocal tract, edema in the vocal cords, hoarseness, coughing, increased secretion and infections. Objective: To evaluate the dimensions of the vocal cords in elderly smokers and male non-smokers. Method: We studied 15 male corpses, aged from 60 to 90 years, 8 of whom were non-smokers and 7 smokers. For data collection, four sequential steps were followed: 1st Clinical history of the corpse; 2nd Removal of the larynx, 3rd Dissection of the larynx and 4th Morphometry of the vocal cords dimensions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference as for the morphology of the vocal cords dimensions between elderly smokers and nonsmokers, and the length (p = 0.58, width (p = 0.72 and thickness (p = 0.65 were equivalent between both groups. Conclusion: We confirmed it's macroscopically impossible to find differences caused by smoking in the three dimensions of the vocal cords, however, in the histology, smokers are proved to be more susceptible to findings regarding dysplasia and neoplasms in the vocal cords tissue with problems in voice quality.

  20. What's the Difference Between Vocal Cord Dysfunction and Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T C Li, M.D., Ph.D. Both asthma and vocal cord dysfunction can make breathing difficult. Signs and symptoms of either condition can include coughing, wheezing, throat tightness and hoarseness, but they're two separate ... motion. Like asthma, vocal cord dysfunction can be triggered by breathing ...

  1. An Analysis of Vocal Stereotypy and Therapist Fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Pipkin, Claire St. Peter

    2008-01-01

    A functional analysis for a boy with Down syndrome and autism suggested that vocal stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The analysis also showed that instructions and noncontingent attention suppressed vocal stereotypy. A treatment package consisting of noncontingent attention, contingent demands, and response cost effectively…

  2. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  3. Noncry Vocal Production in Infancy: A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele

    This bibliographic review aims to present a single comprehensive source of references to facilitate clinical application of data obtained on the vocal activity of normal infants and to facilitate continued research on prelinguistic vocal output. The bibliography cites the published observational, empirical, and theoretical reports that examine the…

  4. Vocal Nonverbal Communication Skill and Deliberate Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A.

    An experiment tested the hypothesis that the outcome of a vocal nonverbal persuasion attempt can be affected by the participants' skills in nonverbal communication. Subjects' vocal sending or decoding abilities were pretested. Senders and decoders (N=54) were agents and recipients of social influence, respectively, in a field experiment in which…

  5. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  6. Quantifying the Effects of Propagation on Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    of Cetacean Vocalizations Paul C. Hines Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 5269 Morris St. Morray Building, Room 200 PO Box...of cetacean species in diverse ocean environments. OBJECTIVES In previous work as part of ONR grant N000141210139 a unique automatic classifier...successfully classify anthropogenic transients, and vocalizations from five cetacean species. Although this is a significant achievement, successful

  7. Effects of Music on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal).…

  8. Arousal dynamics drive vocal production in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjon, Jeremy I; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Cervantes, Diego C; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-08-01

    Vocal production is the result of interacting cognitive and autonomic processes. Despite claims that changes in one interoceptive state (arousal) govern primate vocalizations, we know very little about how it influences their likelihood and timing. In this study we investigated the role of arousal during naturally occurring vocal production in marmoset monkeys. Throughout each session, naturally occurring contact calls are produced more quickly, and with greater probability, during higher levels of arousal, as measured by heart rate. On average, we observed a steady increase in heart rate 23 s before the production of a call. Following call production, there is a sharp and steep cardiac deceleration lasting ∼8 s. The dynamics of cardiac fluctuations around a vocalization cannot be completely predicted by the animal's respiration or movement. Moreover, the timing of vocal production was tightly correlated to the phase of a 0.1-Hz autonomic nervous system rhythm known as the Mayer wave. Finally, a compilation of the state space of arousal dynamics during vocalization illustrated that perturbations to the resting state space increase the likelihood of a call occurring. Together, these data suggest that arousal dynamics are critical for spontaneous primate vocal production, not only as a robust predictor of the likelihood of vocal onset but also as scaffolding on which behavior can unfold.

  9. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  10. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  11. Vocal matching by orange-fronted conures (Aratinga canicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Bradbury, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    The functions of vocal matching have been clarified in territorial songbirds, compositionally stable groups of birds and mammals, and species with multiple alarm or assembly signals. The functions of vocal matching are less well understood in fission/fusion species that are non-territorial, live...

  12. Facial and vocal expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel

    2003-01-01

    A flurry of theoretical and empirical work concerning the production of and response to facial and vocal expressions has occurred in the past decade. That emotional expressions express emotions is a tautology but may not be a fact. Debates have centered on universality, the nature of emotion, and the link between emotions and expressions. Modern evolutionary theory is informing more models, emphasizing that expressions are directed at a receiver, that the interests of sender and receiver can conflict, that there are many determinants of sending an expression in addition to emotion, that expressions influence the receiver in a variety of ways, and that the receiver's response is more than simply decoding a message.

  13. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  14. A child with ictal vocalizations and generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Mary; Heritier Barras, Anne-Chantal; Korff, Christian M

    2015-03-01

    Ictal vocalizations in the form of both articulate speech and non-speech vocalizations have been described in focal epilepsies, with seizures originating mainly from the frontal and temporal lobe, however, this phenomenon has not been described in generalized epilepsies. We report the case of an adolescent boy with juvenile-onset generalized epilepsy who presented with ictal "ovine vocalizations" (resembling the bleating of sheep). The ictal EEG revealed a clear correlate of vocalizations with time-locked generalized spikes and polyspike discharges. The 3T cerebral MRI ruled out any focal lesion. The boy is currently seizure-free under valproic acid, after twelve months of follow-up. We conclude that ictal non-speech vocalizations may be observed not only in focal or structural epilepsies, but also in generalized epilepsies; the exact underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be further delineated. [Published with video sequence].

  15. Dynamical origin of spectrally rich vocalizations in birdsong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, J. D.; Amador, A.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2008-07-01

    Birdsong is a model system for learned vocal behavior with remarkable parallels to human vocal development and sound production mechanisms. Upper vocal tract filtering plays an important role in human speech, and its importance has recently also been recognized in birdsong. However, the mechanisms of how the avian sound source might contribute to spectral richness are largely unknown. Here we show in the most widely studied songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), that the broad range of upper harmonic content in different low-frequency song elements is the fingerprint of the dynamics displayed by its vocal apparatus, which can be captured by a two-dimensional dynamical model. As in human speech and singing, the varying harmonic content of birdsong is not only the result of vocal tract filtering but of a varying degree of tonality emerging from the sound source. The spectral content carries a strong signature of the intrinsic dynamics of the sound source.

  16. Do habits always override intentions? Pitting unhealthy snacking habits against snack-avoidance intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Benjamin; Corbridge, Sharon; McGowan, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Habit is defined as a process whereby an impulse towards behaviour is automatically initiated upon encountering a setting in which the behaviour has been performed in the past. A central tenet of habit theory is that habit overrides intentional tendencies in directing behaviour, such that as habit strength increases, intention becomes less predictive of behaviour. Yet, evidence of this effect has been methodologically limited by modelling the impact of positively-correlated habits ...

  17. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative gene expression analysis among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and non-learners (quail and ring dove reveals variable cadherin expressions in the vocal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eMatsunaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and a non-learner (quail and ring dove. The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. 

  19. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) - producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R

    2008-01-01

    .... If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species...

  20. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  1. Generalized perceptual features for animal vocalization classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.

    2001-05-01

    Two sets of generalized, perceptual-based features are investigated for use in classifying animal vocalizations. Since many species, especially mammals, share similar physical sound perception mechanisms which vary in size, two features sets commonly used in human speech processing, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) analysis, are modified for use in other species. One modification made to the feature extraction process is incorporating the frequency range of hearing and length of the basilar membrane of the animal in order to correctly determine the width and location of the critical band filters used for signal processing. Experimentally determined critical bands (equivalent rectangular bandwidth) and equal loudness curves (audiograms) can also be incorporated directly into the feature extraction process. Experiments are performed on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations using a hidden Markov model (HMM) based classifier showing increased classification accuracy when using features sets based on the specific animals perceptual abilities compared to the original human perception-based feature sets.

  2. Microbial Habitability and Pleistocene Aridification of the Asian Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiuyi; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Fang, Xiaomin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped in ancient halite can contain a community of halophilic prokaryotes and eukaryotes that inhabited the surface brines from which the halite formed. Long-term survival of bacteria and archaea and preservation of DNA have been reported from halite, but little is known about the distribution of microbes in buried evaporites. Here we report the discovery of prokaryotes and single-celled algae in fluid inclusions in Pleistocene halite, up to 2.26 Ma in age, from the Qaidam Basin, China. We show that water activity (aw), a measure of water availability and an environmental control on biological habitability in surface brines, is also related to microbe entrapment in fluid inclusions. The aw of Qaidam Basin brines progressively decreased over the last ˜1 million years, driven by aridification of the Asian interior, which led to decreased precipitation and water inflow and heightened evaporation rates. These changes in water balance produced highly concentrated brines, which reduced the habitability of surface lakes and decreased the number of microbes trapped in halite. By 0.13 Ma, the aw of surface brines approached the limits tolerated by halophilic prokaryotes and algae. These results show the response of microbial ecosystems to climate change in an extreme environment, which will guide future studies exploring deep life on Earth and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  3. Numerical quantification of habitability in serpentinizing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S.; Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The likely presence of liquid water in contact with olivine-bearing rocks on Mars, the detection of serpentine minerals and of methane emissions possibly consistent with serpentinization, and the observation of serpentine-associated methane-cycling communities on Earth have all led to excitement over the potential of such systems to host life on Mars, even into the present day. However, the habitability of subsurface serpentinizing systems on Mars does not necessarily follow from these qualitative observations. In particular, while the production of H2 during serpentinization could provide methanogens with a needed substrate, the alkaline conditions and corresponding potential for carbon limitation that arise in concert are negatives against which H2 supply must be balanced. We considered this balance via a coupled geochemical-bioenergetic model that weighs the outputs of serpentinization against the metabolic requirements of methanogenesis, in an energetic frame of reference. Serpentinization is modeled using the "Geochemist's Workbench" (GWB) whereby ultramafic harzburgite rocks are reacted with oxygen and sulfate depleted seawater. Reaction kinetics are not explicitly considered, but comparable effects of partial reaction are approximated by assuming post-reaction dilution of equilibrated fluids. The output of GWB serves as the input to the bioenergetic model, which calculates methanogenic energy yields based on spherically-symmetrical diffusion of substrates to a cell followed by reaction at the diffusion-limited rate. Membrane selectivity for substrate transport is explicitly considered. Results will be report updates for two scenarios: (i) High temperature serpentinization followed by cooling and transport of equilibrated fluid to a lower temperature regime accessible to biology; (ii) Serpentinization within the biologically-tolerated range of temperatures. Such coupled models demonstrate that environmental variability with respect to both water-rock reaction

  4. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  5. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dorian Cazau; Olivier Adam; Thierry Aubin; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities ...

  6. THE VOCALIZATION MECHANISM OF THE FLORIDA MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Grossman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which Florida manatees produce vocalizations is unknown. Anatomically, the laryngeal region in manatees lacks clearly defined vocal folds. Initially we developed a method to visualize the entire manatee upper respiratory system. We then forced air through fresh necropsied manatee larynxes and generated artificial vocalizations which closely duplicated the normal vocalizations produced by live manatees, both in fundamental frequency and structure of harmonics. Here we report that sound is generated in the larynx when air vibrates bilateral strips of tissue embedded in the lateral laryngeal walls which are in close approximation anteriorly but which diverge posteriorly. We propose that these strips of tissue are the modified vocal folds containing ligaments and we support this through histological stained sections and because they are connected anteriorly to the posterior side of the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly with the arytenoidal cartilages. We also suggest that these vocalizations are then modified within the resonance cavities in the frontal area of the head and the air used to generate these vocalizations also causes a transient deformation of this region before being conserved and returned to the lungs.

  7. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  8. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  9. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  10. Vocal cord palsy: An uncommon presenting feature of myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Prahlad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord palsy can have myriad causes. Unilateral vocal cord palsy is common and frequently asymptomatic. Trauma, head, neck and mediastinal tumors as well as cerebrovascular accidents have been implicated in causing unilateral vocal cord palsy. Viral neuronitis accounts for most idiopathic cases. Bilateral vocal cord palsy, on the other hand, is much less common and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies targeting the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor, has been infrequently implicated in its causation. We report here a case of bilateral vocal cord palsy developing in a 68-year-old man with no prior history of myasthenia gravis 2 months after he was operated on for diverticulitis of the large intestine. Delay in considering the diagnosis led to endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation with attendant complications. Our case adds to the existing literature implicating myasthenia gravis as an infrequent cause of bilateral vocal cord palsy. Our case is unusual as, in our patient, acute-onset respiratory distress and stridor due to bilateral vocal cord palsy was the first manifestation of a myasthenic syndrome.

  11. Motor planning for vocal production in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Eliades, Steven J; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2009-11-01

    The vocal motor plan is one of the most fundamental and poorly understood elements of primate vocal production. Here we tested whether a single vocal motor plan comprises the full length of a vocalization. We hypothesized that if a single motor plan was determined at vocal onset, the acoustic features early in the call should be predictive of the subsequent call structure. Analyses were performed on two classes of features in marmoset phee calls: continuous and discrete. We first generated correlation matrices of all the continuous features of phee calls. Results showed that the start frequency of a phee's first pulse significantly correlated with all subsequent spectral features. Moreover, significant correlations were evident within the spectral features as well as within the temporal features, but there was little relationship between these measures. Using a discrete feature, 'the number of pulses in the phee call', a discriminant function was able to correctly classify the number of pulses in the calls well above chance based solely on the acoustic structure of the call's first pulse. Together, these data suggest that a vocal motor plan for the complete call structure is established at call onset. These findings provide a key insight into the mechanisms underlying vocal production in nonhuman primates.

  12. A comparative neurological approach to emotional expressions in primate vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Grandjean, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches from different research domains have crystallized debate over primate emotional processing and vocalizations in recent decades. On one side, researchers disagree about whether emotional states or processes in animals truly compare to those in humans. On the other, a long-held assumption is that primate vocalizations are innate communicative signals over which nonhuman primates have limited control and a mirror of the emotional state of the individuals producing them, despite growing evidence of intentional production for some vocalizations. Our goal is to connect both sides of the discussion in deciphering how the emotional content of primate calls compares with emotional vocal signals in humans. We focus particularly on neural bases of primate emotions and vocalizations to identify cerebral structures underlying emotion, vocal production, and comprehension in primates, and discuss whether particular structures or neuronal networks solely evolved for specific functions in the human brain. Finally, we propose a model to classify emotional vocalizations in primates according to four dimensions (learning, control, emotional, meaning) to allow comparing calls across species.

  13. A new instrument for intraoperative assessment of individual vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, James T; Kobler, James B; Hillman, Robert E; Zeitels, Steven M

    2005-07-01

    Intraoperative assessment of vocal fold vibration during phonomicrosurgery performed under general anesthesia may enhance surgical decision-making. We therefore developed and bench-tested a new device we refer to as the aerodynamic vocal fold driver (AVFD). The AVFD comprises a hand-held probe that uses airflow to drive individual vocal folds into phonatory-like vibration. This permits stroboscopic visualization of mucosal waves with simultaneous control of subglottal air pressure. In initial experiments to validate the technique, AVFD driven phonation and conventional whole-larynx phonation were compared using excised canine larynges (n = 14). Single vocal fold phonation using the AVFD and whole larynx phonation yielded similar, positive correlations between subglottal pressure and both amplitude and frequency of vibration. Experiments simulating vocal fold scar-related mucosal stiffening by subepithelial injection of fixative showed the expected elevation of phonation threshold pressures as measured with the AVFD. Likewise, unilateral tissue compression injury disrupted vocal fold vibration, and the AVFD was useful for quantifying improvement in the damaged vocal fold after repair with injection of cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel. These results show that this new instrument has the potential to provide novel and useful information for laryngeal experimentation and to improve phonosurgery.

  14. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  15. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  16. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar (Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  17. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Effect of hydration and vocal rest on the vocal fatigue in amateur karaoke singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Chan, Rainy M M

    2003-06-01

    Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is not uncommon to find participants singing continuously for four to five hours each time. As most of the karaoke singers have no formal training in singing, these amateur singers are more vulnerable to developing voice problems under these intensive singing activities. This study reports the performance of 20 young amateur singers (10 males and 10 females, aged between 20-25 years) on a series of phonatory function tasks carried out during continuous karaoke singing. Half of the singers were given water to drink and short duration of vocal rests at regular intervals during singing and the other half sang continuously without taking any water or rest. The subjects who were given hydration and vocal rests sang significantly longer than those who did not take any water or rest. The voice quality, as measured by perceptual and acoustic measures, and vocal function, as measured by phonetogram, did not show any significant changes during singing in the subjects who were given water and rest during the singing. However, subjects who sang continuously without drinking water and taking rests showed significant changes in the jitter measure and the highest pitch they could produce during singing. These results suggest that hydration and vocal rests are useful strategies to preserve voice function and quality during karaoke singing. This information is useful educational information for karaoke singers.

  19. Modeling of the transient responses of the vocal fold lamina propria

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W.

    2009-01-01

    The human voice is produced by flow-induced self-sustained oscillation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues are important for understanding phonation, including the time-dependent and transient changes in fundamental frequency (F0). Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on a group of specimens of the vocal fold lamina propria, including the superficial layer (vocal fold cover) (5 male, 5 female) and the deeper layers (vocal ligament) (6 male...

  20. A singing voices synthesis system to characterize vocal registers using ARX-LF model

    OpenAIRE

    Motoda, Hiroki; Akagi, Masato

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a singing voices synthesis system to synthesize singing voices having characteristics of vocal registers, such as vocal fly, modal and falsetto. Human can sing songs naturally in wide range of frequency by training how to use vocal fold vibrations to represent vocal registers. However, even state-of-the-art singing voices synthesis systems cannot produce vocal registers appropriately. Naturalness of the synthesized singing voices using these systems is reduced in low and h...

  1. Auditory-motor entrainment in vocal mimicking species: Additional ontogenetic and phylogenetic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schachner, Adena

    2010-01-01

    We have recently found robust evidence of motor entrainment to auditory stimuli in multiple species of non-human animal, all of which were capable of vocal mimicry. In contrast, the ability remained markedly absent in many closely related species incapable of vocal mimicry. This suggests that vocal mimicry may be a necessary precondition for entrainment. However, within the vocal mimicking species, entrainment appeared non-randomly, suggesting that other components besides vocal mimicry play ...

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Vocal Tremor: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen L; Choudhri, Omar; Sung, C Kwang; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-03-01

    Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS).

  3. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  4. Especializaciones cognitivas: El caso del procesamiento de consonantes y vocales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Toro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las consonantes y la vocales parecen tener funciones diferentes. Mientras las consonantes están más directamente implicadas en el procesamiento léxico, las vocales tienden a marcar rasgos sintácticos. Estudios recientes con lenguajes artificiales confirman esta hipótesis. Los resultados muestran que las palabras se reconocen más fácilmente sobre las consonantes, mientras que se extraen y generalizan reglas más fácilmente sobre las vocales

  5. Personality traits inventory in patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Alexia; Revis, Joana; Giovanni, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze temperament and character in females with vocal nodules (VN) compared to a vocally healthy control population. 61 females were examined over a 17-month period for dysphonia with VN (mean age 46 years, duration of vocal complaints from 2 months to 6 years). 71 control females were recruited in their environment (mean age 34 years). The validated French Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used. Patients with VN had significantly (p personality-specific maladaptive behaviors. A possible personalized approach to voice therapy could be organized on the basis of the TCI findings.

  6. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-11-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  7. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    CERN Document Server

    Cockell, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in studies of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided) and planets with life, where the concentration of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pi...

  8. Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer.

  9. Tidal Limits to Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N

    2009-01-01

    The habitable zones of main sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurface the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO_2 may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with th...

  10. Voz e posição de prega vocal em homens com paralisia unilateral de prega vocal Voice and vocal fold position in men with unilateral vocal fold paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O posicionamento da prega vocal paralisada e o grau de disfonia são fatores importantes para decidir as opções de tratamento na paralisia de prega vocal unilateral (PPVU. OBJETIVO: Verificar as características perceptivo-auditivas da voz e a posição da prega vocal paralisada, em homens, com PPVU. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, coorte histórica, com corte transversal, com dados de 24 homens com PPVU, com média de 60,7 anos, submetidos à avaliação vocal perceptivo-auditiva da voz, por três juízas fonoaudiólogas e perceptivo-visual das imagens laríngeas, com a classificação da posição da prega vocal paralisada, por três juízes otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: A prega vocal paralisada em posição paramediana ocorreu em 45,83% dos casos; a intermediária, em 25%; a lateral, em 20,83%, e a mediana, em 4,16%; a disfonia resultante da PPVU foi caracterizada pela rouquidão, aspereza e tensão, de grau moderado; soprosidade (maior frequência do grau grave; astenia e instabilidade (maior frequência do grau leve; a posição da prega vocal paralisada influenciou significativamente o grau geral de desvio vocal. CONCLUSÃO: O grau geral de disfonia está relacionado com a posição da prega vocal paralisada; a disfonia é caracterizada pela presença de rouquidão, soprosidade, aspereza e tensão de grau moderado a grave.The paralyzed vocal fold positioning and the degree of dysphonia are important inputs when one is deciding upon treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP. OBJECTIVE: To check voice characteristics and paralyzed vocal fold position in men with UVFP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective historical cross-sectional cohort study, with data from 24 men with UVFP with mean age of 60.7 years, submitted to voice assessment by three speech therapists and three ENT physicians used laryngeal images to classify the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. RESULTS: The paralyzed vocal fold

  11. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  12. Self-Organization of Early Vocal Development in Infants and Machines: The Role of Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eMoulin-Frier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We bridge the gap between two issues in infant development: vocal development and intrinsic motivation. We propose and experimentally test the hypothesis that general mechanisms of intrinsically motivated spontaneous exploration, also called curiosity-driven learning, can self-organize developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivated vocal exploration, which allows the learner to autonomously structure its own vocal experiments, and thus its own learning schedule, through a drive to maximize competence progress. This model relies on a physical model of the vocal tract, the auditory system and the agent's motor control as well as vocalizations of social peers. We present computational experiments that show how such a mechanism can explain the adaptive transition from vocal self-exploration with little influence from the speech environment, to a later stage where vocal exploration becomes influenced by vocalizations of peers. Within the initial self-exploration phase, we show that a sequence of vocal production stages self-organizes, and shares properties with data from infant developmental psychology: the vocal learner first discovers how to control phonation, then focuses on vocal variations of unarticulated sounds, and finally automatically discovers and focuses on babbling with articulated proto-syllables. As the vocal learner becomes more proficient at producing complex sounds, imitating vocalizations of peers starts to provide high learning progress explaining an automatic shift from self-exploration to vocal imitation.

  13. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head......-worn microphone, convolved in real time with the impulse response of the chosen classroom, and reproduced through 29 loudspeakers placed around the subject. In particular, two different primary school classrooms were selected, with very low and very high reverberation time and, for each of them, two speaker...

  14. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma.

  15. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-04-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.

  16. BREATH OF USE AND VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran ACAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breathable, who escorted us in every aspect of our lives and our survival is our primary activity, allowing for quality of life in a healthy way. quality of breaths taken the right technique, you need both health professional sense should perhaps take advantage of individuals who want to achieve success in life is the primary rule. When the diaphragm is born with assisted breathing lungs of every person's life starts to grow to keep up with the flurry lose this special and important skills. First and foremost, which is important for our body health, including every aspect of proper breathing, especially correct use of the voice carries particular importance. In this article, breathing subject discussed, correct breathing and our lives have tried to give us information about the benefits of both vocal training.

  17. When internal communication becomes multi-vocal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    The aim of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory case study of communication on internal social media within the Danish bank, Jyske Bank. The study involved an analysis of staff interaction on internal social media over three months, as well as interviews with 17 of the bank’s...... employees. The study not only answers questions about who participates in internal social media and the content of their communication, it also shows that when organizational culture and management support coworker communication, internal social media becomes a multi-vocal rhetorical arena where coworkers...... are likely to converse about how to solve product and customer-related challenges, and to discuss working conditions. In addition, this study shows that coworkers co-construct organizational identity when they discuss questions such as: Who are we as an organization? Which products should we provide...

  18. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  19. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  20. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA, designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  1. Using Vocal and Silent Reading Approaches for the Enhancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    of teaching reading skills in English Language through the use of vocal and silent reading ... Performance, English Language, Effective Teaching and Learning. Introduction. Language ..... Reflections on Nigeria's literacy culture. The. Guardian ...

  2. Vocal acrobatics in a Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Albert; Narins, Peter; Xu, Chun-He

    2002-06-01

    Although amphibians are highly vocal, they generally emit only a limited number of acoustic communication signals. We report here the extraordinarily rich vocal repertoire of Amolops tormotus, a ranid species in China. These frogs produce countless vocalizations, some of which share features of birdsong or primate calls, e.g., ultrasonic frequency components, multiple upward and downward FM sweeps, and sudden onset and offset of selective harmonic components within a call note. Frame-by-frame video analysis of the frog's calling behavior suggests the presence of two pairs of vocal sacs that may contribute to the remarkable call-note complexity in this species. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0335-x.

  3. Corrigendum: Cultural Relativity in Perceiving Emotion From Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).

  4. Semiotic aspects of human nonverbal vocalizations: a functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Alter, Kai; Ischebeck, Anja; Ackermann, Hermann

    2007-12-03

    Humans produce a variety of distinct nonverbal vocalizations. Whereas affective bursts, for example, laughter, have an intrinsic communicative role bound to social behavior, vegetative sounds, for example, snoring, just signal autonomic-physiological states. However, the latter events, for example, belching, may also be used as intentional communicative actions (vocal gestures), characterized by an arbitrary culture-dependent sound-to-meaning (semiotic) relationship, comparable to verbal utterances. Using a decision task, hemodynamic responses to affective bursts, vegetative sounds, and vocal gestures were measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Affective bursts elicited activation of anterior left superior temporal gyrus. In contrast, arbitrary vocal gestures yielded hemodynamic reactions of the left temporo-parietal junction. Conceivably, a listener's interpretation of nonverbal utterances as intentional events depends upon a left-hemisphere temporo-parietal 'auditory-to-meaning interface' related to our mechanisms of speech processing.

  5. A HMM-Based Method for Vocal Fold Pathology Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majidnezhad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic analysis is a proper method in vocal fold pathology diagnosis so that it can complement and in some cases replace the other invasive, based on direct vocal fold observations methods. There are different approaches for vocal fold pathology diagnosis. This paper presents a method based on hidden markov model which classifies speeches into two classes: the normal and the pathological. Two hidden markov models are trained based on these two classes of speech and then the trained models are used to classify the dataset. The proposed method is able to classify the speeches with an accuracy of 93.75%. The results of this algorithm provide insights that can help biologists and computer scientists design high-performance system for detection of vocal fold pathology diagnosis.

  6. [Management of T1a vocal fold carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S; Smith, E; Pickhard, A

    2013-12-01

    About 2/3 of the larynx carcinomas affect the vocal chords. The main risk factor is smoking. Carcinomas in this localisation often arise from leukoplakias with dysplasia. A typical symptom is dysphonia. Arrest of vibration in microlaryngostroboscopy is a hint that a carcinoma could be present. Transoral laser cordectomy or radiotherapy show equivalent oncological results and results in quality of voice in the treatment of vocal fold carcinoma (T1a). As lymph node and distant metastasis are very rare, follow-up can concentrate on microlaryngoscopy. In case of a suspicious area on the vocal fold, biopsy of the affected tissue is needed to plan correct treatment. The prognosis of the T1 vocal chord carcinoma is quite good with a 5-year survival rate of almost 100%.

  7. Vocal tract filtering and sound radiation in a songbird

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Brian S; Beckers, Gabriël J L; Suthers, Roderick A

    2005-01-01

    .... Several studies have described the dynamics with which birds actively vary beak gape while singing and it has been hypothesized that birds vary beak gape as a mechanism for varying vocal tract resonances...

  8. Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: Habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity and rendering the planet sterile to life. However, for planets orbiting low-mass stars, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf ($T_{eff}=2670 K$) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for ...

  9. Dynamic expression of cadherins regulates vocal development in a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Matsunaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since, similarly to humans, songbirds learn their vocalization through imitation during their juvenile stage, they have often been used as model animals to study the mechanisms of human verbal learning. Numerous anatomical and physiological studies have suggested that songbirds have a neural network called 'song system' specialized for vocal learning and production in their brain. However, it still remains unknown what molecular mechanisms regulate their vocal development. It has been suggested that type-II cadherins are involved in synapse formation and function. Previously, we found that type-II cadherin expressions are switched in the robust nucleus of arcopallium from cadherin-7-positive to cadherin-6B-positive during the phase from sensory to sensorimotor learning stage in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. Furthermore, in vitro analysis using cultured rat hippocampal neurons revealed that cadherin-6B enhanced and cadherin-7 suppressed the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents via regulating dendritic spine morphology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore the role of cadherins in vocal development, we performed an in vivo behavioral analysis of cadherin function with lentiviral vectors. Overexpression of cadherin-7 in the juvenile and the adult stages resulted in severe defects in vocal production. In both cases, harmonic sounds typically seen in the adult Bengalese finch songs were particularly affected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that cadherins control vocal production, particularly harmonic sounds, probably by modulating neuronal morphology of the RA nucleus. It appears that the switching of cadherin expressions from sensory to sensorimotor learning stage enhances vocal production ability to make various types of vocalization that is essential for sensorimotor learning in a trial and error manner.

  10. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  11. Anatomical Study Of Minor Alterations In Neonate Vocal Folds.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Rezende Silva; Almiro José Machado Júnior; Agrício Nubiato Crespo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the existe...

  12. Vocal accuracy and neural plasticity following micromelody-discrimination training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mary Zarate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control. To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production.

  13. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in

  14. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in ab

  15. Spectroscopic constraints on growth of Siberian mixed-habit diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuzovatov, Sergei Yu.; Zedgenizov, Dmitry A.; Rakevich, Alexander L.

    2017-06-01

    Notable within-crystal variability of mineralogical and geochemical properties of single natural diamonds are commonly attributed to changing chemistry of parental fluids, sources of carbon and redox conditions of diamond precipitation. A distinct type of compositional heterogeneity (mixed-habit structure) is well-known to occur in diamonds as well as in many other minerals due to purely "structural" reasons that are unequal crystal chemistry of crystallographically different faces and selective absorption and fractionation of impurities between adjacent growth pyramids. Based on the combined cathodoluminescence, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, study of nine diamond crystals with different growth histories and external morphology, but all showing mixed-habit patterns at different growth stages, we show that mixed-diamonds may grow in closed system conditions or with a slowly decreasing growth rate from a media with a much lower impurity content than previously thought. Intracrystal nitrogen distribution seems to be a function of growth rate even in the cases of unusual impurity partitioning between growth sectors. Generally poor with IR-active hydrogen at moderate nitrogen aggregation parameters, studied diamonds likely resemble the low hydrogen content from the growth medium that, for cubic diamonds, was typically suggested hydrogen-rich and a crucial factor for growth of cubic and mixed-habit diamonds. We also show that mixed-habit diamond growth may occur not only in peridotitic suite but also in an extended field of geochemical affinities from high-Ni to low-Ni or maybe even Ni-free environments, such as pyroxenitic or eclogitic.

  16. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  17. Exoplanets Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John W

    2008-01-01

    This edited, multi-author volume will be an invaluable introduction and reference to all key aspects in the field of exoplanet research. The reviews cover: Detection methods and properties of known exoplanets, Detection of extrasolar planets by gravitational microlensing. The formation and evolution of terrestrial planets in protoplanetary and debris disks. The brown dwarf-exoplanet connection. Formation, migration mechanisms and properties of hot Jupiters. Dynamics of multiple exoplanet systems. Doppler exoplanet surveys. Searching for exoplanets in the stellar graveyard. Formation and habitability of extra solar planets in multiple star systems. Exoplanet habitats and the possibilities for life. Moons of exoplanets: habitats for life. Contributing authors: •Rory Barnes •David P. Bennett •Jian Ge •Nader Haghighipour •Patrick Irwin •Hugh Jones •Victoria Meadows •Stanimir Metchev •I. Neill Reid •George Rieke •Caleb Scharf •Steinn Sigurdsson

  18. Habitability Properties of Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that several habitability conditions (in fact, at least seven such conditions) appear to be fulfilled automatically by circumbinary planets of main-sequence stars (CBP-MS), whereas on Earth, these conditions are fulfilled only by chance. Therefore, it looks natural that most of the production of replicating biopolymers in the Galaxy is concentrated on particular classes of CBP-MS, and life on Earth is an outlier, in this sense. In this scenario, Lathe’s mechanism for the tidal “chain reaction” abiogenesis on Earth is favored as generic for CBP-MS, due to photo-tidal synchronization inherent to them. Problems with this scenario are discussed in detail.

  19. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  20. The Feeding Habits of Mesosauridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rivaldo R.; Ferigolo, Jorge; Bajdek, Piotr; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2017-03-01

    Mesosauridae comprises the oldest known aquatic amniotes which lived in Gondwana during the Early Permian. Previous work in the Uruguayan mesosaur-bearing Mangrullo Formation suggested that mesosaurids lived in an inland water body, inferred as moderately hypersaline, with exceptional preservational conditions that justified describing these strata as a Fossil-Lagerstätte. Exquisitely preserved articulated mesosaur skeletons, including gastric content and associated coprolites, from the Brazilian Iratí Formation in the State of Goiás (central-western Brazil) indicate excellent conditions of preservation, extending the Konservat-Lagerstätte designation to both units in the Paraná Basin. The near-absence of more resistant fossil remains, like actinopterygian and temnospondyl bones, demonstrates the faunistic poverty of the mesosaur-bearing “salty sea”. Our studies of the alimentary habits of mesosaurids through the use of stereoscopic microscopy, light and electronic microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry suggest that the diet of mesosaurids was predominantly composed of pygocephalomorph crustaceans (possibly not exceeding 20 mm in length). However, the presence of bones and bone fragments of small mesosaurs in the gastric content, cololites, coprolites, and possible regurgitalites may also indicate cannibalistic and/or scavenging habits. Cannibalism is relatively common among vertebrates, particularly during conditions of environmental stress, like food shortage. Likewise, the apparent abundance of pygocephalomorph crustacean fossils in the Iratí and Mangrullo Formations, outside and within the studied gastric, cololite, and coprolite contents, might have to do with environmental stress possibly caused by volcanic activity, in particular ash spread into the basin during the Early Permian. In this context, casual necrophagy on the dead bodies of small mesosaurs and large pygocephalomorphs might have been an alternative alimentary behavior adopted for survival

  1. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury.

  2. Modulation frequency and modulation level owing to vocal microtremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoentgen, Jean

    2002-08-01

    Vocal microtremor designates a normal slow modulation of the vocal cycle lengths of speakers who do not suffer from pathological tremor of the limbs and whose voices are not perceived as tremulous. Vocal microtremor is therefore distinct from pathological vocal tremor. The objective is to report data about the modulation frequency and modulation level owing to vocal microtremor. The modulation data have been obtained for vowels [a], [i], and [u] sustained by normophonic and mildly dysphonic male and female speakers. The results are the following. First, modulation frequencies and relative modulation levels do not differ significantly for male and female speakers, normophonic and mildly dysphonic speakers, as well as for vowel timbres [a], [i], and [u]. Second, the typical interquartile intervals of the modulation frequency and modulation level are equal to 2.0-4.7 Hz and 0.4%-1.3%, respectively. Third, dissimilarities between data reported by different studies are due to different cutoff frequencies below which spectral peaks are considered not to contribute to vocal microtremor.

  3. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  4. Vocal interaction between children with Down syndrome and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S; Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; 4 children in each group were ages 9-11 months, and 5 were between 25 and 54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor measured the richness of the child's language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger versus older children with DS and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors, with no differences noted between the younger versus older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months, suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches.

  5. Emancipation of the voice: Vocal complexity as a fitness indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L

    2017-02-01

    Although language is generally spoken, most evolutionary proposals say little about any changes that may have induced vocal control. Here I suggest that the interaction of two changes in our species-one in sociality, the other in life history-liberated the voice from its affective moorings, enabling it to serve as a fitness cue or signal. The modification of life history increased the helplessness of infants, thus their competition for care, pressuring them to emit, and parents (and others) to evaluate, new vocal cues in bids for attention. This change elaborated and formalized the care communication system that was used in infancy and, because of parental adoption of social criteria, extended it into childhood, supporting the extrafamilial relationships that intensify in those stages. The remodeling of life history, in conjunction with intensified sociality, also enhanced vocal signaling in adolescence-a second stage that is unique to humans-and adulthood. Building on the new vocal skills and fitness criteria that emerged earlier, I claim that males with ornamented speech enjoyed advantages in their pursuit of dominance and reproductive opportunities in evolutionary history, as they do today. There are implications of this scenario for the mechanistic level of vocal diversification. Today, intentionality plays a role both in the instrumental crying of infants and the modulated vocalizations of adults. In evolutionary history, I claim that in both cases, spontaneously emitted behavioral cues elicited perceptible responses, giving rise to strategic signals that were sent, and processed, under a new and fundamentally different neural regime.

  6. Phonology and vocal behavior in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Elizabeth; Paul, Rhea; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the phonological and other vocal productions of children, 18-36 months, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare these productions to those of age-matched and language-matched controls. Speech samples were obtained from 30 toddlers with ASD, 11 age-matched toddlers and 23 language-matched toddlers during either parent-child or clinician-child play sessions. Samples were coded for a variety of speech-like and nonspeech vocalization productions. Toddlers with ASD produced speech-like vocalizations similar to those of language-matched peers, but produced significantly more atypical nonspeech vocalizations when compared to both control groups. Toddlers with ASD show speech-like sound production that is linked to their language level, in a manner similar to that seen in typical development. The main area of difference in vocal development in this population is in the production of atypical vocalizations. Findings suggest that toddlers with ASDs do not tune into the language model of their environment. Failure to attend to the ambient language environment negatively impacts the ability to acquire spoken language. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness modulates prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Latinus, Marianne; Bruckert, Laetitia; Rouger, Julien; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Social interactions involve more than "just" language. As important is a more primitive nonlinguistic mode of communication acting in parallel with linguistic processes and driving our decisions to a much higher degree than is generally suspected. Amongst the "honest signals" that influence our behavior is perceived vocal attractiveness. Not only does vocal attractiveness reflect important biological characteristics of the speaker, it also influences our social perceptions according to the "what sounds beautiful is good" phenomenon. Despite the widespread influence of vocal attractiveness on social interactions revealed by behavioral studies, its neural underpinnings are yet unknown. We measured brain activity while participants listened to a series of vocal sounds ("ah") and performed an unrelated task. We found that voice-sensitive auditory and inferior frontal regions were strongly correlated with implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness. While the involvement of auditory areas reflected the processing of acoustic contributors to vocal attractiveness ("distance to mean" and spectrotemporal regularity), activity in inferior prefrontal regions (traditionally involved in speech processes) reflected the overall perceived attractiveness of the voices despite their lack of linguistic content. These results suggest the strong influence of hidden nonlinguistic aspects of communication signals on cerebral activity and provide an objective measure of this influence.

  8. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  9. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player's lips, andor the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments.

  10. Vocal Interaction between Children with Down syndrome and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared to typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Method Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; four children in each group were ages 9–11 months and five were between 25–54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processer measured the richness of the child’s language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Results Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger vs. older children with DS, and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors; with no differences noted between the younger vs. older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Conclusions Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches. PMID:24686777

  11. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  12. Ontogeny of swift fox Vulpes velox vocalizations: production, usage and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Three processes, production, usage, and response, can be used to describe vocal ontogeny. They may develop independently of each other for a given vocalization and a given species as a result of the different selective pressures associated with each process. We have investigated vocal ontogeny...... in the swift fox Vulpes velox, using recordings and observations of captive foxes from the time of natal den emergence (age 3-4 weeks) to the time of natal dispersal in the wild (age 4-5 months). We first classified adult vocalizations used during the mating and pup rearing seasons into vocal types (19 types....... Two of the 3 adult vocalizations not observed in juveniles appear to be associated with mating and possibly territoriality and the third is a high intensity alarm vocalization. Apart from 3 vocal types (1 alarm and 2 non-agonistic), once vocalizations had appeared in the juvenile repertoire, they did...

  13. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning.

  14. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  15. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  16. The 5 Habits of Effective PLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Lois Brown

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the knowledge and skills that professional learning community members need to create a habit out of their desire. Habits serve educators as signposts of progress toward achieving their desires. They are interim indicators of a professional learning community's success. Ultimately, of course, professional learning communities…

  17. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  18. The Leisure Reading Habits of Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rodge, Pradnya

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between leisure reading and school achievement, but the leisure reading habits of urban adolescents have rarely been studied. From their investigation of the leisure reading habits of 584 urban minority middle school students, the authors identify these key findings: (1) More than two-thirds…

  19. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a st...

  20. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Phillippa; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-08-01

    Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development of behavioural automaticity; and selecting effective cues to support repeated behaviour. Results showed that behaviour change was initially experienced as cognitively effortful but as automaticity increased, enactment became easier. Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts. Weekends and vacations temporarily disrupted performance due to absence of associated cues, but habits were reinstated on return to work. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  1. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  2. Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting multibody systems, such as double stars, however, planetary orbits are forcibly becoming non circular with time. Especially in binary star systems even relatively small changes in a planet's orbit can have a large impact on habitability. Hence, we argue that a minimum model for calculating Habitable Zones in binary star systems has to include dynamical interactions.

  3. Envelhecimento vocal em idosos instucionalizados Vocal aging of institutionalized elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Neiva de Menezes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar de forma perceptivo-auditiva as características vocais de idosos institucionalizados, identificar se essas características interferem no processo de comunicação e correlacioná-las com a avaliação das estruturas do sistema estomatognático e do padrão de fala. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico do tipo transversal, no qual foram realizadas anamneses e avaliações fonoaudiológicas em uma amostra aleatória de 48 indivíduos idosos, residentes na Casa do Ancião Francisco Azevedo - Belo Horizonte/MG, que não apresentavam nenhum tipo de alteração neurológica, uma vez que, buscou-se traçar as manifestações fonoaudiológicas de idosos em processo de envelhecimento sadio. Utilizou-se protocolos específicos, desenvolvidos pelas autoras, de acordo com os aspectos pertinentes aos objetivos do presente estudo. RESULTADOS: na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva da qualidade vocal, constatou-se predominantemente qualidade vocal rouca (70,8%, em grau moderado (33,3%, loudness reduzida (56,2%, pitch grave (62,5% e tempos máximos de fonação reduzidos (81,2%. Dos 48 participantes, 85,4% relataram que a voz não interfere no processo de comunicação. Em relação aos padrões de fala, predominaram inteligibilidade preservada (83,3%, articulação preservada (72,9% e precisão articulatória preservada (83,3%. CONCLUSÕES: existem alterações nos parâmetros referentes à voz decorrentes da idade, sendo que elas não interferem na comunicação e mantêm relação diversa com outras mudanças nas estruturas do sistema estomatognático. Este estudo veio complementar as pesquisas na área de voz envolvendo indivíduos da terceira idade, sob processo de envelhecimento sadio e residentes em instituições de longa permanência.PURPOSES: to investigate vocal aspects related to healthy aging in the institutionalized elderly people, and to identify if these aspects interfer with communication and correlate vocal changes with motor oral system

  4. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  5. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  6. An Unusual Case of Neuralgic Amyotrophy Presenting with Bilateral Phrenic Nerve and Vocal Cord Paresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Holtbernd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuralgic amyotrophy (brachial plexus neuropathy, brachial plexus neuritis, or Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an uncommon inflammatory condition typically characterized by acute and severe shoulder pain followed by paresis with muscle weakness and atrophy of the upper limb or shoulder girdle. We report an unusual clinical manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy, namely bilateral phrenic nerve palsy with concomitant laryngeal paresis. Case Report: A 55-year-old male presented with orthopnea and aphonia after an episode of bilateral shoulder pain preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Spirometry, chest X-ray and videolaryngoscopy revealed bilateral and simultaneous paresis of the diaphragm and the vocal cords. Clinical examination at admission and at the 2-month follow-up did not show upper limb weakness or atrophy, except for a mild atrophy of the right supraspinatus muscle. An electromyography of the upper limb muscles and nerve conduction studies did not reveal signs of denervation. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and an MRI of the neuraxis were unremarkable. After treatment with prednisolone, vocal cord function markedly improved within 8 weeks, whereas paresis of the diaphragm persisted. Conclusion: Shoulder pain followed by diaphragmatic paralysis with dyspnea and hoarseness may be a manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy even if upper limb or shoulder girdle palsies are absent.

  7. Effects of the false vocal folds on sound generation by an unsteady glottal jet through rigid wall model of the larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Hideyuki; Funada, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of the false vocal folds (FVFs) on sound generation induced by an unsteady glottal jet through a two-dimensional rigid wall model of the larynx are investigated by conducting numerical experiments. The glottal jets are simulated by solving the basic equations for a compressible viscous fluid based on the larynx model with and without the FVFs. The existence of the FVFs increases the amplitude of noise-like pressure fluctuation at the glottis and faraway from ...

  8. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  9. Acoustic, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic effects of vocal training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana Paula De Brito Garcia

    The longitudinal effects of vocal training on the respiratory, phonatory and articulatory systems were investigated in this study. During four semesters, fourteen voice major students were recorded while speaking and singing. Acoustic, temporal, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic parameters were measured to determine changes in the three systems as a function of vocal training. Acoustic measures of the speaking voice included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), percent jitter and shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included duration of sentences, diphthongs and the closure durations of stop consonants. Acoustic measures of the singing voice included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of the phonational range, vibrato pulses per second, vibrato amplitude variation and the presence of the singer's formant. Analysis of the data revealed that vocal training had a significant effect on the singing voice. Fundamental frequency and SPL of the 90% level and 90--10% of the phonational range increased significantly during four semesters of vocal training. Physiological data was collected from four subjects during three semesters of vocal training. Respiratory kinematic measures included lung volume, rib cage and abdominal excursions extracted from spoken sung samples. Descriptive statistics revealed that rib cage and abdominal excursions increased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and decrease from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Electromyographic measures of the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and external obliques muscles revealed that burst duration means decreased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and increased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester. Peak amplitude means increased from the 1st to the 2nd and decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Chest wall excursions and muscle force generation of the three muscles increased as the demanding level and the length of the phonatory

  10. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    In 5 squirrel monkeys the anatomical projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area were studied by the autoradiographic tracing technique. The 'cingular' vocalization area lies around the sulcus cinguli at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum; its electrical stimulation yields purring and cackling calls. The following efferent connections were found: corticocortical fibers could be traced into the orbital cortex (areas 10 and 11), dorsomedial frontal cortex (areas 9, 8 and 6), limbic cortex (areas 25, 24 and 23), Broca's area (area 44), frontal operculum (area 50), insula (areas 13 and 14), and auditory association cortex (area 22). Subcortical terminal fields within the telencephalon were found in the nucleus caudatus, putamen, claustrum, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, preoptic region and nucleus centralis and basolateralis amygdalae. Fibers reached most of these structures along different trajectories. In the diencephalon terminal fields lay in the dorsal hypothalamus, the subthalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, and the following thalamic nuclei: nucleus reticularis, ventralis anterior, centralis medialis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, submedius, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum. In the midbrain, the periaqueductal gray was the only projection area, extending into the parabrachial nuclei at the pontomesencephalic transition. The most caudal terminal field was found in the medial pontine gray. No terminals were detected in the nucleus ambiguus, nucleus n. hypoglossi or in any other cranial motor nucleus involved in phonation processes. A comparison of this projection system with the whole of structures producing vocalization when electrically stimulated yielded only partial overlap. Not all vocalization areas lie within the 'cingular' projection system, and inversely, not the whole projection system yielded vocalization. Overlap took place in the anterior limbic cortex, preoptic region, central amygdaloid nucleus

  11. Measurement of Young's modulus of vocal folds by indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Neubauer, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of the indentation method for stiffness measurements and to estimate the Young's modulus of the vocal fold using this technique. Basic science. Indentation tests were performed using a range of indenter diameters and indentation depths on single- and double-layer silicone rubber models with various cover-layer thicknesses with known geometry and Young's moduli. Measurements were repeated on intact vocal folds and isolated muscle and cover-layer samples from three cadaveric human larynges. Indentation on single-layer rubber models yielded Young's moduli with acceptable accuracy when the indentation depth was equal to or smaller than the indenter diameter, and both were smaller than the physical dimensions of the material sample. On two-layer models, the stiffness estimation was similarly influenced by indenter diameter and indentation depth, and acceptable accuracy was reached when indentation depth was much smaller than the height of the top cover layer. Measurements on midmembranous vocal fold tissue revealed location-dependent Young's moduli (in kPa) as follows: intact hemilarynx, 8.6 (range=5.3-13.1); isolated inferior medial surface cover, 7.5 (range=7-7.9); isolated medial surface cover, 4.8 (range=3.9-5.7); isolated superior surface cover, 2.9 (range=2.7-3.2); and isolated thyroarytenoid muscle, 2.0 (range=1.3-2.7). Indenter diameter, indentation depth, and material thickness are important parameters in the measurement of vocal fold stiffness using the indentation technique. Measurements on human larynges showed location-dependent differences in stiffness. The stiffness of the vocal folds was also found to be higher when the vocal fold structure was still attached to the laryngeal framework compared with that when the vocal fold was separated from the framework. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vampola T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two 3D finite element (FE models were constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:] before and after phonation into a tube. Acoustic analysis was performed by exciting the models with acoustic flow velocity at the vocal folds. The generated acoustic pressure of the response was computed in front of the mouth and inside the vocal tract for both FE models. Average amplitudes of the pressure oscillations inside the vocal tract and in front of the mouth were compared to display the cost-efficiency of sound energy transfer at different formant frequencies. The formants F1–F3 correspond to classical vibration modes also solvable by 1D vocal tract model. However, for higher formants, there occur more complicated transversal modes which require 3D modelling. A special attention is given to the higher frequency range (above 3.5 Hz where transversal modes exist between piriform sinuses and valleculae. Comparison of the pressure oscillation inside and outside the vocal tract showed that formants differ in their efficiency, F4 (at about 3.5 kHz, i.e. at the speaker’s or singer’s formant region being the most effective. The higher formants created a clear formant cluster around 4 kHz after the vocal exercise with the tube. Since the human ear is most sensitive to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz concentration of sound energy in this frequency region (F4–F5 is effective for communication. The results suggest that exercising using phonation into tubes help in improving the vocal economy.

  13. SMART IRRIGATION TECHNIQUE USING VOCAL COMMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Divya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this wireless communication era, mobile phones have become a necessity in the common man’s life. Besides being capable of making calls and sending messages, the latest advancements in mobile phones facilitate them to connect to the internet also. With these capabilities, there has been an unprecedented use of mobile phones in many areas of automation. One such area where mobile phone can help with the automation is irrigation process. The main aim of the work is to simplify the method of irrigation using vocal commands through the mobile phone. The Farmer just needs to call a fixed number and utter the control commands through his phone. The control system at the field involves a PIC microcontroller interfaced with GSM modem to receive the command from the farmer and a voice recognition unit which decodes it. The motor is turned on/off according to the decoded commands by the controller. In addition, the system also sends back a message to the farmer’s mobile about the action that has taken place. The power detection and battery backup unit helps in detecting the power availability in the field and inform the farmer about the same, even if the there is no supply at the field. The moisture sensor attached to the system helps in collecting the moisture content of the soil and switch off the motor after it reaches the required value.

  14. [Vocal care: question of prevention and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro; Viana, Maria Aparecida do Divino Espírito Santo Reis; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Paiva, Maria Luiza de Faria; Tavares, João Antonio Gomes; Camargo, Leandro Azevedo de

    2010-09-01

    Planned by Brazilian doctors, the National Week of the Voice (Semana Nacional da Voz) conquered the world due to the huge reached success. This study has the objective to demonstrate the results reached during the 9th National Week of the Voice (9ª Semana Nacional da Voz) that took place in the Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Goiás. During the event, 125 patients had been selected by the phonoaudiology team and manually filled a questionnaire elaborated for the campaign in the validity of possible pharyngolaryngeal alterations. The patients had been examined by the otorhinolaryngologist using indirect laryngoscopy and, when necessary, submitted to videolaryngoscopy. After medical evaluation, it was observed that 52 people (41.6%) had presented alterations in the speech organs or in proximal regions, in one patient paralysis of left vocal fold was detected and one patient presented tumoral injury. Considering all the patients attended, only one presented malignant neoplasm (squamous cell carcinoma), confirmed later by biopsy.

  15. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  16. Facial biases on vocal perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-06-01

    Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of habit in compulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Wingen, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Compulsivity has been recently characterized as a manifestation of an imbalance between the brain׳s goal-directed and habit-learning systems. Habits are perhaps the most fundamental building block of animal learning, and it is therefore unsurprising that there are multiple ways in which the development and execution of habits can be promoted/discouraged. Delineating these neurocognitive routes may be critical to understanding if and how habits contribute to the many faces of compulsivity observed across a range of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we distinguish the contribution of excessive stimulus-response habit learning from that of deficient goal-directed control over action and response inhibition, and discuss the role of stress and anxiety as likely contributors to the transition from goal-directed action to habit. To this end, behavioural, pharmacological, neurobiological and clinical evidence are synthesised and a hypothesis is formulated to capture how habits fit into a model of compulsivity as a trans-diagnostic psychiatric trait.

  19. Diapering habits: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaman, Lauren A; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2014-11-01

    There are tremendous variations in diapering practices, reflecting varying cultural practices and regional difference. Around the world, more than 134 million babies are born each year, a rate of 255 births per minute or 4.3 births each second. While global population growth has been steadily declining from its peak in 1963, several regions, including the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, continue to maintain high birth rates. Though the essential needs of infants are largely similar, family habits and practices during early years of life vary dramatically. This article surveys data documenting variations in diaper frequency, types, and duration of use internationally, including age of toilet training. These factors may influence diaper rash and skin health of infants and young children. Much of this data was collected as part of analysis of the international commercial diaper market, evaluated and organized as part of an international initiative on Global Infant Skin Care, and presented to a panel of experts for critique and commentary in a symposium held in December, 2013. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Habitability from a microbial point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s μm to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s μm - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

  1. Linear Classifier with Reject Option for the Detection of Vocal Fold Paralysis and Vocal Fold Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotropoulos, Constantine; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2009-12-01

    Two distinct two-class pattern recognition problems are studied, namely, the detection of male subjects who are diagnosed with vocal fold paralysis against male subjects who are diagnosed as normal and the detection of female subjects who are suffering from vocal fold edema against female subjects who do not suffer from any voice pathology. To do so, utterances of the sustained vowel "ah" are employed from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary database of disordered speech. Linear prediction coefficients extracted from the aforementioned utterances are used as features. The receiver operating characteristic curve of the linear classifier, that stems from the Bayes classifier when Gaussian class conditional probability density functions with equal covariance matrices are assumed, is derived. The optimal operating point of the linear classifier is specified with and without reject option. First results using utterances of the "rainbow passage" are also reported for completeness. The reject option is shown to yield statistically significant improvements in the accuracy of detecting the voice pathologies under study.

  2. Laser bonding with ICG-infused chitosan patches: preliminary experiences in suine dura mater and vocal folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Pini, Roberto; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Giannoni, Luca; Fortuna, Damiano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Corbara, Sylwia; Dallari, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Laser bonding is a promising minimally invasive approach, emerging as a valid alternative to conventional suturing techniques. It shows widely demonstrated advantages in wound treatment: immediate closuring effect, minimal inflammatory response and scar formation, reduced healing time. This laser based technique can overcome the difficulties in working through narrow surgical corridors (e.g. the modern "key-hole" surgery as well as the endoscopy setting) or in thin tissues that are impossible to treat with staples and/or stitches. We recently proposed the use of chitosan matrices, stained with conventional chromophores, to be used in laser bonding of vascular tissue. In this work we propose the same procedure to perform laser bonding of vocal folds and dura mater repair. Laser bonding of vocal folds is proposed to avoid the development of adhesions (synechiae), after conventional or CO2 laser surgery. Laser bonding application in neurosurgery is proposed for the treatment of dural defects being the Cerebro Spinal Fluid leaks still a major issue. Vocal folds and dura mater were harvested from 9-months old porks and used in the experimental sessions within 4 hours after sacrifice. In vocal folds treatment, an IdocyanineGreen-infused chitosan patch was applied onto the anterior commissure, while the dura mater was previously incised and then bonded. A diode laser emitting at 810 nm, equipped with a 600 μm diameter optical fiber was used to weld the patch onto the tissue, by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result is an immediate adhesion of the patch to the tissue. Standard histology was performed, in order to study the induced photothermal effect at the bonding sites. This preliminary experimental activity shows the advantages of the proposed technique in respect to standard surgery: simplification of the procedure; decreased foreign-body reaction; reduced inflammatory response; reduced operating times and better handling in

  3. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  4. Effect of Vocal Fry on Voice and on Velopharyngeal Sphincter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias, Vanessa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is known that the basal sound promotes shortening and adduction of the vocal folds and leaves the mucosa looser. However there are few studies that address the supralaryngeal physiological findings obtained using the technique. Objective To check the effectiveness of using vocal fry on the voice and velopharingeal port closure of five adult subjects, whose cleft palate has been corrected with surgery. Methods Case study with five subjects who underwent otolaryngology examination by means of nasopharyngoscopy for imaging and measurement of the region of velopharyngeal port closure before and after using the vocal fry technique for three minutes. During the exam, the subjects sustained the isolated vowel /a:/ in their usual pitch and loudness. The emission of the vowel /a:/ was also used for perceptual analysis and spectrographic evaluation of their voices. Results Four subjects had an improvement in the region of velopharyngeal port closure; the results of the spectrographic evaluation were indicative of decreased hypernasality, and the results of the auditory-perceptual analysis suggested improved overall vocal quality, adequacy of loudness, decreased hypernasality, improvement of type of voice and decreased hoarseness. Conclusion This study showed a positive effect of vocal fry on voice and greater velopharyngeal port closure.

  5. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  6. Superfast vocal muscles control song production in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen P H Elemans

    Full Text Available Birdsong is a widely used model for vocal learning and human speech, which exhibits high temporal and acoustic diversity. Rapid acoustic modulations are thought to arise from the vocal organ, the syrinx, by passive interactions between the two independent sound generators or intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of sound generating structures. Additionally, direct neuromuscular control could produce such rapid and precisely timed acoustic features if syringeal muscles exhibit rare superfast muscle contractile kinetics. However, no direct evidence exists that avian vocal muscles can produce modulations at such high rates. Here, we show that 1 syringeal muscles are active in phase with sound modulations during song over 200 Hz, 2 direct stimulation of the muscles in situ produces sound modulations at the frequency observed during singing, and that 3 syringeal muscles produce mechanical work at the required frequencies and up to 250 Hz in vitro. The twitch kinematics of these so-called superfast muscles are the fastest measured in any vertebrate muscle. Superfast vocal muscles enable birds to directly control the generation of many observed rapid acoustic changes and to actuate the millisecond precision of neural activity into precise temporal vocal control. Furthermore, birds now join the list of vertebrate classes in which superfast muscle kinetics evolved independently for acoustic communication.

  7. Vocal tract dimensional characteristics of professional male and female singers with different types of singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nan; Ng, Manwa L; Man, Mok Ka; To, Tsz Hin

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined the possible relationship between classification of professional singing voices and their vocal tract parameters including vocal tract length and volume, and vowel formant frequencies. Acoustic reflection technology (ART) was used to measure vocal tract length and volume of 107 professional singers: 32 tenors, 25 baritones, 27 sopranos, and 23 mezzo-sopranos. The first three formant frequencies (F1-F3) of the English vowels /a, æ, i/ produced by the professional singers were also obtained. Results indicated significantly shorter oral and vocal tract length, and smaller oral and vocal tract volume associated with sopranos when compared with mezzo-sopranos. Acoustically, sopranos had higher F1, F2, and F3 values than mezzo-sopranos. The present findings suggest that, in addition to vocal tract length, vocal tract volume may also affect formant frequencies, implying the possibility that classifying professional singing voices is based on both vocal tract length and volume information.

  8. The vocal repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls...

  9. Viscous flow features in scaled-up physical models of normal and pathological vocal phonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, Byron D., E-mail: berath@purdue.ed [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, Suite 739, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results when the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the vocal folds becomes damaged. The loss of muscle and tension control to the damaged vocal fold renders it ineffectual. The mucosal wave disappears during phonation, and the vocal fold becomes largely immobile. The influence of unilateral vocal fold paralysis on the viscous flow development, which impacts speech quality within the glottis during phonation was investigated. Driven, scaled-up vocal fold models were employed to replicate both normal and pathological patterns of vocal fold motion. Spatial and temporal velocity fields were captured using particle image velocimetry, and laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow parameters were scaled to match the physiological values associated with human speech. Loss of motion in one vocal fold resulted in a suppression of typical glottal flow fields, including decreased spatial variability in the location of the flow separation point throughout the phonatory cycle, as well as a decrease in the vorticity magnitude.

  10. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N2–CO2–H2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N2–CO2–H2O–H2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H2 warming is reduced in dense H2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  11. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  12. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  13. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  14. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary A Lester; Story, Brad H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulati...

  15. On the Habitability of Our Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We consider the habitability of the Universe throughout cosmic history, and conservatively restrict our attention to the context of "life as we know it" and the standard cosmological model, LCDM. The habitable cosmic epoch started shortly after the first stars formed, about 30 Myr after the Big Bang, and will end about 10 Tyr from now, when all stars will die. We review the formation history of habitable planets and find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near 0.1 solar mass stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  16. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  17. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  18. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

  19. Habitability of Planets Orbiting Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Heller, Rene; Jackson, Brian; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Tanner, Angelle; Gomez-Perez, Natalia; Ruedas, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial planets are more likely to be detected if they orbit M dwarfs due to the favorable planet/star size and mass ratios. However, M dwarf habitable zones are significantly closer to the star than the one around our Sun, which leads to different requirements for planetary habitability and its detection. We review 1) the current limits to detection, 2) the role of M dwarf spectral energy distributions on atmospheric chemistry, 3) tidal effects, stressing that tidal locking is not synonymous with synchronous rotation, 4) the role of atmospheric mass loss and propose that some habitable worlds may be the volatile-rich, evaporated cores of giant planets, and 5) the role of planetary rotation and magnetic field generation, emphasizing that slow rotation does not preclude strong magnetic fields and their shielding of the surface from stellar activity. Finally we present preliminary findings of the NASA Astrobiology Institute's workshop "Revisiting the Habitable Zone." We assess the recently-announced planet ...

  20. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  1. The basic principles of habit formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Everything you ever achieve in life is up to yon. The only limits you actually have are those placed by your own imagination. Therefore, take complete control of your life by consciously choosing the habits you develop.

  2. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. PMID:25370028

  3. Canvasback Food Habits in Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Food habits analyses were conducted on the gullet and gizzards of 153 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at night from eight major wintering areas in...

  4. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common ... your hair. Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care ...

  5. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a qualidade vocal, por meio de análise computadorizada e perceptivo-auditiva, de pacientes com hipertireoidismo (grupo A e hipotireoidismo (grupo B. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres não fumantes, com idades entre 18 e 55 anos, atendidas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia da instituição, foram avaliadas após o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de hipertireoidismo ou hipotireoidismo. Os parâmetros investigados foram: tempo da doença, presença de queixa vocal, tempos máximos de fonação /a/, /s/ e /z/, freqüência fundamental (F0, ruído glótico (GNE. Os aspectos avaliados na análise perceptivo-auditiva, foram: coordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória (coordenada ou incoordenada, pitch, loudness, ataque vocal, ressonância, velocidade de fala e qualidade vocal, que poderia ter até duas das seguintes classificações: neutra, rouca, soprosa, áspera ou tensa, e grau: leve, moderado ou severo. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente através do programa EPI-INFO 6.04b, método qualitativo Fisher, com nível de significância menor do que 0.05. RESULTADOS: A análise perceptivo-auditiva mostrou que sete pacientes hipotireoideos e nove pacientes hipertireoideos apresentaram alteração na qualidade vocal. Oito pacientes em ambos os grupos apresentaram incoordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória. Oito pacientes do grupo A e seis pacientes do grupo B referiam queixas vocais como rouquidão e voz grossa, respectivamente. Na análise acústica, nove pacientes apresentaram o ruído glótico alterado. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados evidenciaram grande incidência de alteração vocal nos grupos estudados (grupos dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo e com hipotireoidismo, o que demonstra a relação entre disfonia e disfunções tireoideanas.PURPOSE: To characterize the vocal quality of subjects with hyperthyroidism (group A, and hypothyroidism (group B through a computer-aided and auditory-perceptive analysis. METHODS

  6. A Canonical Biomechanical Vocal Fold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Siegmund, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The present article aimed at constructing a canonical geometry of the human vocal fold (VF) from subject-specific image slice data. A computer-aided design approach automated the model construction. A subject-specific geometry available in literature, three abstractions (which successively diminished in geometric detail) derived from it, and a widely used quasi two-dimensional VF model geometry were used to create computational models. The first three natural frequencies of the models were used to characterize their mechanical response. These frequencies were determined for a representative range of tissue biomechanical properties, accounting for underlying VF histology. Compared with the subject-specific geometry model (baseline), a higher degree of abstraction was found to always correspond to a larger deviation in model frequency (up to 50% in the relevant range of tissue biomechanical properties). The model we deemed canonical was optimally abstracted, in that it significantly simplified the VF geometry compared with the baseline geometry but can be recalibrated in a consistent manner to match the baseline response. Models providing only a marginally higher degree of abstraction were found to have significant deviation in predicted frequency response. The quasi two-dimensional model presented an extreme situation: it could not be recalibrated for its frequency response to match the subject-specific model. This deficiency was attributed to complex support conditions at anterior-posterior extremities of the VFs, accentuated by further issues introduced through the tissue biomechanical properties. In creating canonical models by leveraging advances in clinical imaging techniques, the automated design procedure makes VF modeling based on subject-specific geometry more realizable. PMID:22209063

  7. Exploring snacking habits of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Jihane W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that adolescents have the highest prevalence of unsatisfactory nutritional status and unstructured eating patterns. They also recognized the importance of snacks in the eating habits of this population group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the snacking habits of undergraduate college students, and their correlations with the populationâ s general eating practices and response to nutrition education Two hundred eighty four students taking a nutr...

  8. Exploring snacking habits of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Jihane W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that adolescents have the highest prevalence of unsatisfactory nutritional status and unstructured eating patterns. They also recognized the importance of snacks in the eating habits of this population group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the snacking habits of undergraduate college students, and their correlations with the populationâ s general eating practices and response to nutrition education Two hundred eighty four students taking a nutr...

  9. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per...

  10. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  11. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  12. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  13. Vocal Cord Dysfunction Masquerading as Astma Like Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ozturk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. VCD is a relatively rare condition that may mimic asthma or upper airway obstruction. VCD often coexists with asthma, and should be suspected in any patient in whom asthma treatment fails. Confirming the diagnosis involves direct visualization of abnormal vocal cord motion, and this usually only occurs during symptoms. In this report, we describe a 65-years-old male patient who has psychological problems due to a relative loss, and a military collage student who experiencing respiratory problems during vigorous exercises. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 148-150

  14. Vocal changes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for glottic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Harrison, L.B.; Solomon, B.; Sessions, R.B. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A prospective evaluation of vocal changes in patients receiving radiation therapy for T1 and T2 (AJC) glottic carcinoma was undertaken in January 1987. Vocal analysis was performed prior to radiotherapy and at specific intervals throughout the radiation treatment program. The voicing ratio was extrapolated from a sustained vowel phonation using the Visipitch interfaced with the IBM-PC. Preliminary observations suggested three distinct patterns of vocal behavior: 1. reduced voicing ratio with precipitous improvement within the course of treatment, 2. high initial voicing ratio with reduction secondary to radiation induced edema, with rapid improvement in the voicing component after the edema subsided, and 3. fluctuating voicing ratio during and following treatment. Enrollment of new patients and a 2-year follow-up of current patients was undertaken.

  15. Non-Linguistic Vocal Event Detection Using Online Random

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection of non-linguistic vocal events in social signals can have a great impact on the applicability of speech enabled interactive systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of random forest for vocal event detection. Random forest technique has been successfully employed in many...... areas such as object detection, face recognition, and audio event detection. This paper proposes to use online random forest technique for detecting laughter and filler and for analyzing the importance of various features for non-linguistic vocal event classification through permutation. The results...... show that according to the Area Under Curve measure the online random forest achieved 88.1% compared to 82.9% obtained by the baseline support vector machines for laughter classification and 86.8% to 83.6% for filler classification....

  16. Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts during a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Method: Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults…

  17. Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Single Vocal Cord Irradiation in Early Glottic Cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.O.S. Osman (Sarah)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe larynx anatomy is graphically presented in figure 1.1 . The vocal cords in the center of the larynx are muscular bands covered by thin mucosa layers. Together, the right and left vocal cords have a V-shape, when viewed from cranial. The vocal cords play key roles in the control of th

  18. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  19. Neural Networks Involved in Voluntary and Involuntary Vocal Pitch Regulation in Experienced Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Wood, Sean; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In an fMRI experiment, we tested experienced singers with singing tasks to investigate neural correlates of voluntary and involuntary vocal pitch regulation. We shifted the pitch of auditory feedback (plus or minus 25 or 200 cents), and singers either: (1) ignored the shift and maintained their vocal pitch or (2) changed their vocal pitch to…

  20. Impact of Visual, Vocal, and Lexical Cues on Judgments of Counselor Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Carole; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1976-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=130) rated Carl Rogers via visual, lexical, vocal, or vocal-lexical communication channels. Lexical cues were more important in creating favorable impressions among females. Subsequent exposure to combined visual-vocal-lexical cues resulted in warmer and less distant ratings, but not on a consistent basis. (Author)

  1. Peripheral Mechanisms for Vocal Production in Birds--Differences and Similarities to Human Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is a model system for studying learned vocal behavior. As in humans, bird phonation involves three main motor systems (respiration, vocal organ and vocal tract). The avian respiratory mechanism uses pressure regulation in air sacs to ventilate a rigid lung. In songbirds sound is generated with two independently…

  2. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. The Relationship between Perception of Vocal Effort and Relative Fundamental Frequency during Voicing Offset and Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.; Sawin, Devon E.; Eadie, Tanya L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine the relationship between relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and listener perception of vocal effort in individuals with varying degrees of vocal hyperfunction. Method: Thirty women diagnosed with voice disorders commonly associated with vocal hyperfunction and 10 healthy women provided…

  4. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  5. Effects of Three Types of Noncontingent Auditory Stimulation on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Sharyn; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Fetherston, Anne; Progar, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3 types of noncontingent auditory stimulation (music, white noise, recordings of vocal stereotypy) on 2 children with autism who engaged in high rates of vocal stereotypy. For both participants, the music condition was the most effective in decreasing vocal stereotypy to near-zero levels, resulted in the highest parent…

  6. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.

  7. Clinical classification and treatment of leukokeratosis of the vocal cords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li-jing; WANG Jun; XIAO Yang; YE Jing-ying; XU Wen; YANG Qing-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Leukokeretosis of the vocal cords is a clinical descriptive diagnosis,which includes a group of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the vocal cord mucosa.We investigated the clinical classification and treatment efficacy of leukokeratosis of the vocal cords.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical history,laryngoscopic examinations,morphological features under a surgical microscope,and pathology results of 360 cases of leukokeratosis of the vocal cords to examine correlations among treatment modalities,therapeutic effects,and clinical features.Results All cases were divided into four types based on symptoms,examination results,and treatment efficacies as follows:21 patients had type Ⅰ inflammatory leukoplakia and their vocal cord morphology and voice quality recovered after conservative therapies; 76 patients had type Ⅱ frictional polyps and received CO2 laser submucosal cordectomy;68 patients had type Ⅲ sulcus vocalis and received mucosal slicing with dredging; and 195 cases had type Ⅳ simple leukokeratosis and received partial subligamental cordectomy with CO2 lasers or transmuscular cordectomy.Our treatment achieved a surgical cure rate of 90.9% (308/339),with a recurrence rate of 9.1% (31/339) and malignant transformation rate of 6.5% (22/339).All cancerous transformations occurred in type Ⅳ patients.Conclusion Choosing conservative or CO2 laser surgery based on the morphological characteristics of squamous epithelial lesions of keratinized vocal cord mucosa can maximally protect voice quality,reduce complications,and improve the cure rate.

  8. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  9. Differential expression of glutamate receptors in avian neural pathways for learned vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kazuhiro; Sakaguchi, Hironobu; Jarvis, Erich D; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2004-08-01

    Learned vocalization, the substrate for human language, is a rare trait. It is found in three distantly related groups of birds-parrots, hummingbirds, and songbirds. These three groups contain cerebral vocal nuclei for learned vocalization not found in their more closely related vocal nonlearning relatives. Here, we cloned 21 receptor subunits/subtypes of all four glutamate receptor families (AMPA, kainate, NMDA, and metabotropic) and examined their expression in vocal nuclei of songbirds. We also examined expression of a subset of these receptors in vocal nuclei of hummingbirds and parrots, as well as in the brains of dove species as examples of close vocal nonlearning relatives. Among the 21 subunits/subtypes, 19 showed higher and/or lower prominent differential expression in songbird vocal nuclei relative to the surrounding brain subdivisions in which the vocal nuclei are located. This included relatively lower levels of all four AMPA subunits in lMAN, strikingly higher levels of the kainite subunit GluR5 in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), higher and lower levels respectively of the NMDA subunits NR2A and NR2B in most vocal nuclei and lower levels of the metabotropic group I subtypes (mGluR1 and -5) in most vocal nuclei and the group II subtype (mGluR2), showing a unique expression pattern of very low levels in RA and very high levels in HVC. The splice variants of AMPA subunits showed further differential expression in vocal nuclei. Some of the receptor subunits/subtypes also showed differential expression in hummingbird and parrot vocal nuclei. The magnitude of differential expression in vocal nuclei of all three vocal learners was unique compared with the smaller magnitude of differences found for nonvocal areas of vocal learners and vocal nonlearners. Our results suggest that evolution of vocal learning was accompanied by differential expression of a conserved gene family for synaptic transmission and plasticity in vocal nuclei. They also suggest

  10. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  11. Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Pereira, Danillo R.; Papa, João P.; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84) using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available. PMID:27654941

  12. MAUD : Un prototype de machine à dicter vocale

    OpenAIRE

    Fohr, Dominique; Haton, Jean-Paul; Mari, Jean-François; Smaïli, Kamel; Zitouni, Imed

    2000-01-01

    Contribution à un ouvrage.; La saisie vocale de textes et de données est un important champ d'application des systèmes de reconnaissance automatique de la parole, ainsi que l'un des bancs de test favoris de ces systèmes. l'équipe RFIA/Syco du CRIN/CNRS-INRIA Lorraine développe actuellement une nouvelle version de son système de dictée vocale indépendant du locuteur pour grands vocabulaires, MAUD (Machine AUtomatique à Dicter), fondé essentiellement sur une approche stochastique. Le système MA...

  13. Influence of glycosaminoglycan identity on vocal fold fibroblast behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea Carolina; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J; Becerra-Bayona, Silvia; Wang, Bo; Iacob, Alexandra; Hahn, Mariah S

    2011-11-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels have recently begun to be studied for the treatment of scarred vocal fold lamina propria due, in part, to their tunable mechanical properties, resistance to fibroblast-mediated contraction, and ability to be polymerized in situ. However, pure PEG gels lack intrinsic biochemical signals to guide cell behavior and generally fail to mimic the frequency-dependent viscoelastic response critical to normal superficial lamina propria function. Recent results suggest that incorporation of viscoelastic bioactive substances, such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), into PEG networks may allow these gels to more closely approach the mechanical responses of normal vocal fold lamina propria while also stimulating desired vocal fold fibroblast behaviors. Although a number of vocal fold studies have examined the influence of hyaluronan (HA) on implant mechanics and vocal fold fibroblast responses, the effects of other GAG types have been relatively unexplored. This is significant, since recent studies have suggested that chondroitin sulfate C (CSC) and heparan sulfate (HS) are substantially altered in scarred lamina propria. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the effects of CSC and HS incorporation on the mechanical response of PEG gels and vocal fold fibroblast behavior relative to HA. As with PEG-HA, the viscoelasticity of PEG-CSC and PEG-HS gels more closely approached that of the normal vocal fold lamina propria than pure PEG hydrogels. In addition, collagen I deposition and fibronectin production were significantly higher in CSC than in HA gels, and levels of the myofibroblast marker smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin) were greater in CSC and HS gels than in HA gels. Since collagen I, fibronectin, and SM α-actin are generally elevated in scarred lamina propria these results suggest that CSC and HS may be undesirable for vocal fold implants relative to HA. Investigation of various signaling intermediates indicated that

  14. Vocales y consonantes nasales en la lengua íbera

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús

    2000-01-01

    Se aporta evidencia para una reevaluación del valor fonémico de los signos m´ y m del sistema de escritura íbero levantino. En el caso de m´ se refuerza mi propuesta de que es una vocal nasal o nasalizada. Para el signo m, establecida la imposibilidad de que tenga un valor de /m/, se sugiere que, probablemente, su uso marginal simplemente indica la asimilación regresiva de nasalidad de la vocal precedente. De esta forma ambos signos se empleaban para el mismo proceso fonético. Evidence is ...

  15. Advances in non-invasive measures of vocal acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Steckol, K F; Cooper, M H

    1991-10-01

    Objective assessment of vocal pitch, loudness, and quality is a crucial adjunct to endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of vocal pathology. Historically, this assessment was made through subjective, perceptual measures that were questionable in terms of validity and reliability. Recent advances in electronic technology now permit objective analysis of the acoustic characteristics of voice. Kay Elemetric's Visi-Pitch, DSP 5500 Digital Spectrograph, and Nasometer are representative of these new instruments and are used as illustrations in the discussion of the assessment of speech acoustics.

  16. Model for vocalization by a bird with distensible vocal cavity and open beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H; Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2006-02-01

    Some birds make use of a distensible oral cavity to produce nearly pure-tone song. Songbirds such as the Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) have a muscularly distended oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity between the top of the trachea and the open beak. The present paper analyzes the acoustics of this vocal system. It is shown that the resonance of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity, vented through the beak, introduces a dominant peak in the radiation efficiency, the frequency of which can be adjusted by varying the volume of the cavity, the beak gape, and perhaps the position of the tongue in the mouth. To produce nearly pure-tone song, the bird adjusts the frequency of this peak to coincide with the fundamental of the syringeal oscillation. The present paper provides the acoustical analysis underlying this behavior.

  17. Processos educativos em saúde vocal do professor: análise da literatura da Fonoaudiologia brasileira Educative processes in the vocal health of teachers: a literature review of Brazilian studies in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Zanella Penteado

    2011-06-01

    teachers discussed in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology literature produced in Brazil. Our corpus consisted of 63 studies on collective intervention published between 1994 and 2008. The analysis emphasizes the distribution of publications over time; the characterization of the type of educative process (unilateral or dialogic, democratic, participatory and problem-based; the themes/content addressed; the form of development (precise or procedural; and the organization of actions (individually centered or expanded towards working issues. It was observed that 74% of the actions were developed in processes, such as courses, workshops or voice training. The average length of each meeting ranged from 20 minutes to four hours. Seventy nine percent of the educative strategies employed were characterized as unilateral and inconsistent with proposals based on healthcare promotion. The most common themes and topics were: vocal habits/behaviors and vocal hygiene/health (71%; warming up and cooling down, vocal exercises and techniques (50%; anatomy and physiology of vocal production and oral sensorimotor system (44%; vocal parameters (23%; work environment (22%, and use of voice, communication and expression (20%. The focus of the educative process is the individual (100% and it is generally conducted without considering work conditions, health and quality of life. Work environment aspects were contemplated in only 17% of the publications, teachers' work organization, in 6%, and school community, in 1%. It was identified the need for organization and revision of forms of development, dynamics, strategies, themes and contents, type and focus of the educative process of public healthcare actions aiming at teachers' vocal health, according to the perspective of health promotion.

  18. Amateur and professional football player to investigate of nutritional habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Saygın

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the nutritional habits level of footballers, considering the different league categories. From Turkey Super League, 2. League category A, 2.League category B, 3.League, 1.Amateur League, 2.Amateur League teams 360 active football players participated in the survey. To determine their the survey form developed by the researcher, benefiting previous scientific studies, consisting of 13 personal information questions, 20 nutritional habits questions; in all 33 questions was applied during the resting time of the athletes after giving explanation by the pollster.In statistical calculations SPSS (version 14.0 was applied. Data frequency and the percent values were calculated and chi-square test was applied to find out the differences among the teams in different categories. When P value was lower than 0.05, differences among the groups were accepted as significant.When the questions were asked about their educational background, levels of income, experts preparing their nutrition programs, the relations between nutrition and achievment, CHO loading, meal-skip, smoking and drinking alcohol, fluid intake before the match, the food consumed before the match, taking supplements regularly, the food containing carbohydrate, last meal preferences before the match; among the groups there were siginificant differences at level of p

  19. Make the High School Library a "Habit" for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    How long does it take to form a habit? Recent research done at the University College London by Phillippa Lally and colleagues suggest it takes an average of sixty-six days to form a new habit. Other research indicates that rewards make habits easier to form, but it takes repetition to form a habit. A literature review conducted for Pearson…

  20. Developing Good Habits of Learning English from Senior One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益琴

    2009-01-01

    Senior one is the most important period of the whole senior stage, it h necessary for students to form good habits of learning at the beginning. Based on the discussion of necessity of forming good habits, this paper talks about the methods of cultivating students' good habits of learning and concludes that good habits can benefit them a lot.

  1. The vocal repertoire of adult and neonate giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A S Mumm

    Full Text Available Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structure may vary in the degree of relatedness of the group members. Individuals engage in shared group activities and different social roles and thus, the social organization of giant otters provides a basis for complex and long-term individual relationships. We recorded and analysed the vocalizations of adult and neonate giant otters from wild and captive groups. We classified the adult vocalizations according to their acoustic structure, and described their main behavioural context. Additionally, we present the first description of vocalizations uttered in babbling bouts of new born giant otters. We expected to find 1 a sophisticated vocal repertoire that would reflect the species' complex social organisation, 2 that giant otter vocalizations have a clear relationship between signal structure and function, and 3 that the vocal repertoire of new born giant otters would comprise age-specific vocalizations as well as precursors of the adult repertoire. We found a vocal repertoire with 22 distinct vocalization types produced by adults and 11 vocalization types within the babbling bouts of the neonates. A comparison within the otter subfamily suggests a relation between vocal and social complexity, with the giant otters being the socially and vocally most complex species.

  2. Auditory feedback control of vocal pitch during sustained vocalization: a cross-sectional study of adult aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory feedback has been demonstrated to play an important role in the control of voice fundamental frequency (F(0, but the mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback remain poorly understood. It has been well documented that young adults can use auditory feedback to stabilize their voice F(0 by making compensatory responses to perturbations they hear in their vocal pitch feedback. However, little is known about the effects of aging on the processing of audio-vocal feedback during vocalization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we recruited adults who were between 19 and 75 years of age and divided them into five age groups. Using a pitch-shift paradigm, the pitch of their vocal feedback was unexpectedly shifted ±50 or ±100 cents during sustained vocalization of the vowel sound/u/. Compensatory vocal F(0 response magnitudes and latencies to pitch feedback perturbations were examined. A significant effect of age was found such that response magnitudes increased with increasing age until maximal values were reached for adults 51-60 years of age and then decreased for adults 61-75 years of age. Adults 51-60 years of age were also more sensitive to the direction and magnitude of the pitch feedback perturbations compared to younger adults. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the pitch-shift reflex systematically changes across the adult lifespan. Understanding aging-related changes to the role of auditory feedback is critically important for our theoretical understanding of speech production and the clinical applications of that knowledge.

  3. Análise do trato vocal em pacientes com nódulos, fendas e cisto de prega vocal Vocal tract analysis in patients with vocal fold nodules, clefts and cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Buzelin Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O plano supraglótico representa uma importante dimensão na produção vocal, sendo de grande relevância sua caracterização na avaliação e conduta terapêutica de indivíduos disfônicos. OBJETIVO: Verificar se determinadas configurações glóticas se relacionam com ajustes específicos de trato vocal. Avaliar por meio da nasofibrolaringoscopia a freqüência dos ajustes do trato vocal supraglótico em mulheres disfônicas com nódulos, fendas e cistos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 31 mulheres disfônicas, faixa etária entre 18 e 45 anos, com alteração vocal e diagnóstico de nódulos, fenda médioposterior e cisto e realizada avaliação resumida do sistema sensório-motor e oral e exames de videolaringoestroboscopia e nasofibrolaringoscopia. Três grupos distintos foram selecionados: pacientes com nódulos bilaterais, com fenda e com cisto, com configurações glóticas semelhantes. Foi realizada, por fonoaudiólogas e otorrinolaringologistas, a análise visual do trato vocal dos exames de nasofibrolaringoscopia, verificando os parâmetros de: constrição supraglótica, mobilidade vertical da laringe, constrição faríngea e mobilidade de língua. Os dados foram descritos e tratados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Na análise visual não foi encontrada diferença estatística significante que separasse os grupos das alterações glóticas. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve correlação dos ajustes do trato supraglótico com determinado tipo de alteração glótica. São comportamentos individuais que geram os ajustes e justificam as diferentes qualidades vocais em pacientes com mesmo tipo de alteração laríngea.The supraglottic plan represents an important dimension in vocal production, and its characterization is very important in the evaluation and treatment approach of dysphonic individuals. AIM: to check if certain glottic configurations are related to specific adjustments in the vocal tract. To use nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy to assess

  4. Influence of Asymmetric Stiffness on the Structural and Aerodynamic Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, B.A.; Thomson, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of asymmetric vocal fold stiffness on voice production was evaluated using life-sized, self-oscillating vocal fold models with an idealized geometry based on the human vocal folds. The models were fabricated using flexible, materially-linear silicone compounds with Young’s modulus values comparable to that of vocal fold tissue. The models included a two-layer design to simulate the vocal fold layered structure. The respective Young’s moduli of elasticity of the “left” and “right...

  5. The power of habits: Unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; De Ridder, D.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snackin

  6. A New Look at Habits and the Habit-Goal Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Neal, David T.

    2007-01-01

    The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals. Habits emerge from the gradual learning of associations between responses and the features of performance contexts that have historically covaried with them (e.g., physical settings, preceding actions). Once a…

  7. Modeling of the transient responses of the vocal fold lamina propria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    The human voice is produced by flow-induced self-sustained oscillation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues are important for understanding phonation, including the time-dependent and transient changes in fundamental frequency (F0). Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on a group of specimens of the vocal fold lamina propria, including the superficial layer (vocal fold cover) (5 male, 5 female) and the deeper layers (vocal ligament) (6 male, 6 female). Results showed that the vocal fold lamina propria, like many other soft tissues, exhibits both elastic and viscous behavior. Specifically, the transient mechanical responses of cyclic stress relaxation and creep were observed. A three-network constitutive model composed of a hyperelastic equilibrium network in parallel with two viscoplastic time-dependent networks proves effective in characterizing the cyclic stress relaxation and creep behavior. For male vocal folds at a stretch of 1.4, significantly higher peak stress was found in the vocal ligament than in the vocal fold cover. Also, the male vocal ligament was significantly stiffer than the female vocal ligament. Our findings may help explain the mechanisms of some widely observed transient phenomena in F0 regulation during phonation, such as the global declination in F0 during the production of declarative sentences, and local F0 changes such as overshoot and undershoot. PMID:19122858

  8. A note on acoustic analysis of dairy calves’ vocalizations at 1 day after separation from dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Hwan Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vocalizations of animals are very useful in assessing an emotional state and welfare because they involve information about various emotions. Hence, the findings of the acoustic features of vocalization can be used to improve the productivity and welfare of animals. This study was conducted to analyse the vocalizations of dairy calves separated from the dam. At 6 days after birth, 12 dairy calves were moved into an individual calf pen (3.0m×2.0m bedded with sawdust and straw. One and a half litres of whole milk were fed twice daily and free access to water was allowed. The calves’ vocalizations were divided into humming vocalizations (HVs: low continuous calls without tone changed, semi-humming vocalizations (SHVs: low continuous calls with tone changed, and general vocalizations (GVs. These vocalizations were classified, based on the shapes of waveforms and spectrograms. Differences in the duration, fundamental frequency, intensity, and formants among the classified vocalizations were found (P<0.0001. Acoustic parameters except intensity and 3rd formant were not different between HVs and SHVs. These results suggest that vocalization analysis could be a useful tool in assessing the emotions of calves. Acoustic parameters are also useful in classifying vocalizations. Also, intensity and 3rd formant are advantageous in distinguishing HVs and SHVs.

  9. Habitable Climates: The Influence of Eccentricity

    CERN Document Server

    Dressing, Courtney D; Scharf, Caleb A; Raymond, Sean N

    2010-01-01

    Radiative equilibrium studies that place Earth-like exoplanets on different circular orbits from the parent star do not fully sample the range of plausible habitability conditions in planetary systems. In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen "snowball" state poses a threat to the habitability. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. Since, for constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1-e^2)^(-1/2), one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis to scale as (1-e^2)^(-1/4). We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity...

  10. Primary treatment of the anterior vocal commissure squamous carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradley, Patrick J.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Suarez, Carlos; Shaha, Ashok R.; Leemans, C. Rene; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ferlito, Alfio

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma may involve the anterior commissure (AC) area of the laryngeal glottis, and can be grouped morphologically into four groups; (1) tumor confined to the AC, (2) tumor involving one cord and the AC, (3) tumor involving the AC and a portion of both vocal cords, and (4) tumor invo

  11. Neural correlates of infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Missana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Responding to others’ emotional expressions is an essential and early developing social skill among humans. Much research has focused on how infants process facial expressions, while much less is known about infants’ processing of vocal expressions. We examined 8-month-old infants’ processing of other infants’ vocalizations by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs to positive (infant laughter, negative (infant cries, and neutral (adult hummed speech vocalizations. Our ERP results revealed that hearing another infant cry elicited an enhanced negativity (N200 at temporal electrodes around 200 ms, whereas listening to another infant laugh resulted in an enhanced positivity (P300 at central electrodes around 300 ms. This indexes that infants’ brains rapidly respond to a crying peer during early auditory processing stages, but also selectively respond to a laughing peer during later stages associated with familiarity detection processes. These findings provide evidence for infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of peers and shed new light on the neural processes underpinning emotion processing in infants.

  12. The clinical utility of vocal dosimetry for assessing voice rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Stephanie; Banks, Kathryn; Gaillard, Philippe; Goding, George S; Yueh, Bevan

    2015-01-01

    Voice rest is frequently recommended following surgical disruption of vocal fold epithelium, but patients report variable adherence to voice rest recommendations. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical utility of an ambulatory vocal dosimeter for measuring adherence to voice rest recommendations. Outcomes research. Part 1: To determine the utility of the dosimeter in nonclinical use, the relationship between self-reported voice use and dosimeter measurements was examined in normal subjects (n = 11) who prospectively logged voice use while wearing the dosimeter. Part 2: To determine clinical utility of the dosimeter, patients undergoing vocal fold surgery for which postoperative voice rest was recommended (n = 11) wore a dosimeter for 2 days prior to and 2 days after surgery. Phonation percent and sound level were compared at baseline and during voice rest. The dosimeter performed as hypothesized with both normal subjects and patients. A moderate correlation (r = 0.62) was noted between self-reported voice use and dosimeter measurements in normal subjects. In patients on voice rest, a statistically and clinically significant decrease was observed in measured voice use, both in phonation time (P = .002) and intensity of phonation (P = .004). Ambulatory vocal dosimetry may have clinical utility for assessing adherence to voice rest recommendations. This information will be useful for the design of future studies on voice rest. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  14. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  15. Predicting Phonetic Transcription Agreement: Insights from Research in Infant Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide new perspectives on correlates of phonetic transcription agreement. Our research focuses on phonetic transcription and coding of infant vocalizations. The findings are presumed to be broadly applicable to other difficult cases of transcription, such as found in severe disorders of speech, which similarly…

  16. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  17. American Voice Types: Towards a Vocal Typology for American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Individual voices are not uniformly similar to others, even when factoring out speaker characteristics such as sex, age, dialect, and so on. Some speakers share common features and can cohere into groups based on gross vocal similarity but, to date, no attempt has been made to describe these features systematically or to generate a taxonomy based…

  18. Vocal Features of Conversational Sarcasm: A Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated vocal cues that differentiate sarcastic utterances from non-sarcastic utterances. Utterances were drawn from videotapes of participant interviews and arranged on a master tape for analysis. Utterances that were identified as sarcastic by speakers and recognized as sarcastic by listeners were randomly arranged with…

  19. Judgments of Vocal Affect by Language-Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Sybil

    1983-01-01

    The judgment of vocal affect was studied in 19 language delayed children and 19 children with normal language. The children identified utterances spoken in an angry, happy, or sad tone of voice. The language delayed children made significantly fewer correct judgments. (Author/SEW)

  20. Religiosity in young adolescents with auditory vocal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jenner, Jack A.; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Nauta, Maaike H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the associations between auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and delusions and religiosity in young adolescents. 337 children from a population-based case-control study with and without AVH, were assessed after five years at age 12 and 13, on the presence and a

  1. Breeding bird density does not drive vocal individuality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel T.BLUMSTEIN; Douglas R.MCCLAIN; Carrie DE JESUS; Gustavo ALARC(O)N-NIETO

    2012-01-01

    Many species produce individually specific vocalizations and sociality is a hypothesized driver of such individuality.Previous studies of how social variation influenced individuality focused on colonial or non-colonial avian species,and how social group size influenced individuality in sciurid rodents.Since sociality is an important driver of individuality,we expected that bird species that defend nesting territories in higher density neighborhoods should have more individually-distinctive calls than those that defend nesting territories in lower-density neighborhoods.We used Beecher's information statistic to quantify individuality,and we examined the relationship between bird density (calculated with point-counts) and vocal individuality on seven species of passerines.We found non-significant relationships between breeding bird density and vocal individuality whether regressions were fitted on species values,or on phylogenetically-independent contrast values.From these results,we infer that while individuality may be explained by social factors,breeding bird density is unlikely to be generally important in driving the evolution of individually-specific vocalizations.

  2. Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Evaluation of Vocal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnick, Joel; Darrow, Alice Ann; Kovacs, Jolan; Dalrymple, Lucinda

    1997-01-01

    Studies whether physical attractiveness of singers affects judges' ratings of their vocal performances. Reveals that physical attractiveness does impact evaluation, that male raters were more severe than female raters, and that the rating of undergraduate majors versus graduate students and professors combined were not differently affected by…

  3. A new generation videokymography for routine clinical vocal fold examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Qingjun; Schutte, Harm K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to introduce a new-generation videokymographic system, which provides simultaneous laryngoscopic and kymographic image, for routine clinical vocal fold examination. Study Design: The authors explored a new imaging method for diagnosis and evaluation of voice disorders. Met

  4. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado Jr, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. An automated technique for monitoring nocturnal avian vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Johnson; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt; Richard N. Conner

    2002-01-01

    We used audio recording dataloggers known as Frogloggers to collect nocturnal bird vocalizations at eight different sites within the Davy Crockett National Forest and the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest in eastern Texas from 9 May 2000 to 31 June 2001. We programmed the dataloggers to record for one-minute intervals at the beginning of each hour starting at 2100...

  6. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  8. Vocal Tract Representation in the Recognition of Cerebral Palsied Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzicz, Frank; Hirst, Graeme; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored articulatory information as a means of improving the recognition of dysarthric speech by machine. Method: Data were derived chiefly from the TORGO database of dysarthric articulation (Rudzicz, Namasivayam, & Wolff, 2011) in which motions of various points in the vocal tract are measured during speech.…

  9. Dynamic 3-D visualization of vocal tract shaping during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinghua; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Proctor, Michael I; Narayanan, Shrikanth S; Nayak, Krishna S

    2013-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging is widely used in speech research as a means to investigate the shaping and dynamics of the vocal tract during speech production. 3-D dynamic MRI would be a major advance, as it would provide 3-D dynamic visualization of the entire vocal tract. We present a novel method for the creation of 3-D dynamic movies of vocal tract shaping based on the acquisition of 2-D dynamic data from parallel slices and temporal alignment of the image sequences using audio information. Multiple sagittal 2-D real-time movies with synchronized audio recordings are acquired for English vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli /ala/, /a.ιa/, /asa/, and /a∫a/. Audio data are aligned using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) extracted from windowed intervals of the speech signal. Sagittal image sequences acquired from all slices are then aligned using dynamic time warping (DTW). The aligned image sequences enable dynamic 3-D visualization by creating synthesized movies of the moving airway in the coronal planes, visualizing desired tissue surfaces and tube-shaped vocal tract airway after manual segmentation of targeted articulators and smoothing. The resulting volumes allow for dynamic 3-D visualization of salient aspects of lingual articulation, including the formation of tongue grooves and sublingual cavities, with a temporal resolution of 78 ms.

  10. Vocal performance reflects individual quality in a nonpasserine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicke, T.; Hahn, S.M.; Ritz, M.S.; Peter, H.-U.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on mate-quality recognition in passerines showed that females use subtle differences in sound production to assess males. We analysed long calls of brown skuas, Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi, to test whether vocal performance could serve as an indicator of individual quality in a

  11. Biomechanical control of vocal plasticity in an echolocating bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinhong; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Many animal species adjust the spectral composition of their acoustic signals to variable environments. However, the physiological foundation of such spectral plasticity is often unclear. The source-filter theory of sound production, initially established for human speech, applies to vocalizations in birds and mammals. According to this theory, adjusting the spectral structure of vocalizations could be achieved by modifying either the laryngeal/syringeal source signal or the vocal tract, which filters the source signal. Here, we show that in pale spear-nosed bats, spectral plasticity induced by moderate level background noise is dominated by the vocal tract rather than the laryngeal source signal. Specifically, we found that with increasing background noise levels, bats consistently decreased the spectral centroid of their echolocation calls up to 3.2 kHz, together with other spectral parameters. In contrast, noise-induced changes in fundamental frequency were small (maximally 0.1 kHz) and were inconsistent across individuals. Changes in spectral centroid did not correlate with changes in fundamental frequency, whereas they correlated negatively with changes in call amplitude. Furthermore, while bats consistently increased call amplitude with increasing noise levels (the Lombard effect), increases in call amplitude typically did not lead to increases in fundamental frequency. In summary, our results suggest that at least to a certain degree echolocating bats are capable of adjusting call amplitude, fundamental frequency and spectral parameters independently. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. The Role of Vocal Practice in Constructing Phonological Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Vihman, Marilyn M.; DePaolis, Rory A.; Whitaker, Chris J.; Williams, Nicola M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors looked for effects of vocal practice on phonological working memory. Method: A longitudinal design was used, combining both naturalistic observations and a nonword repetition test. Fifteen 26-month-olds (12 of whom were followed from age 11 months) were administered a nonword test including real words,…

  13. Aging Affects Identification of Vocal Emotions in Semantically Neutral Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors determined the accuracy of younger and older adults in identifying vocal emotions using the Toronto Emotional Speech Set (TESS; Dupuis & Pichora-Fuller, 2010a) and investigated the possible contributions of auditory acuity and suprathreshold processing to emotion identification accuracy. Method: In 2 experiments, younger…

  14. Endoscopic CO2-Laser Surgery for Vocal Cord Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czigner

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study is reported on endoscopic CO2-laser microsurgery in 69 patients with histologically verified early vocal cord cancer. A flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscope (STORZ Co was used for preoperative assessment and occasionally for postoperative follow-up.

  15. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  16. Identification of Vocal Communication of Emotions Across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Ernst G.; Zautra, Alexander

    The experiment discussed in this report investigates cross cultural ability to decode emotive meaning in extra-verbal vocal expressions of mood. The principal expectation of the study is that primitive mood expressions are understood in much the same way in all the countries tested. The moods depicted in the study--angry, sad, happy, flirtatious,…

  17. Personality Processes Reflected in Client Vocal Style and Rorschach Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Laura North; Gaylin, Ned L.

    1973-01-01

    Vocal style was proposed as a useful variable with which to classify groups of clients in order to study the differential effects of various therapeutic maneuvers. Relationships between voice quality ratings in early psychotherapy interviews and pretherapy Rorschach and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores were investigated in order…

  18. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  19. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    were inspired by research directed at discriminating the timbre of different musical instruments – a passive classification problem – which suggests...the method should be able to classify marine mammal vocalizations since these calls possess many of the acoustic attributes of music . APPROACH

  20. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life.

  1. Vocal area-related expression of the androgen receptor in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2008-05-01

    The androgen receptor is a steroid hormone receptor widely expressed in the vocal control nuclei in songbirds. Here, we analysed androgen receptor expression in the brains of juvenile and adult budgerigars. With a species-specific probe for budgerigar androgen receptor mRNA, we found that the androgen receptor was expressed in the vocal areas, such as the central nucleus of the lateral nidopallium, the anterior arcopallium, the oval nucleus of the mesopallium, the oval nucleus of the anterior nidopallium and the tracheosyringeal hypoglossal nucleus. With the present data, together with previous reports, it turned out that the androgen receptor expression in telencephalic vocal control areas is similar amongst three groups of vocal learners--songbirds, hummingbirds and parrots, suggesting the possibility that the androgen receptor might play a role in vocal development and that the molecular mechanism regulating the androgen receptor expression in the vocal areas might be important in the evolution of vocal learning.

  2. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  3. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  4. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemuk, Sarah A; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J; Titze, Ingo R

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  5. Classification of laryngeal disorders based on shape and vascular defects of vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irem Turkmen, H; Elif Karsligil, M; Kocak, Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Vocal fold disorders such as laryngitis, vocal nodules, and vocal polyps may cause hoarseness, breathing and swallowing difficulties due to vocal fold malfunction. Despite the fact that state of the art medical imaging techniques help physicians to obtain more detailed information, difficulty in differentiating minor anomalies of vocal folds encourages physicians to research new strategies and technologies to aid the diagnostic process. Recent studies on vocal fold disorders note the potential role of the vascular structure of vocal folds in differential diagnosis of anomalies. However, standards of clinical usage of the blood vessels have not been well established yet due to the lack of objective and comprehensive evaluation of the vascular structure. In this paper, we present a novel approach that categorizes vocal folds into healthy, nodule, polyp, sulcus vocalis, and laryngitis classes exploiting visible blood vessels on the superior surface of vocal folds and shapes of vocal fold edges by using image processing techniques and machine learning methods. We first detected the vocal folds on videolaryngostroboscopy images by using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) descriptors. Then we examined the shape of vocal fold edges in order to provide features such as size and splay portion of mass lesions. We developed a new vessel centerline extraction procedure that is specialized to the vascular structure of vocal folds. Extracted vessel centerlines were evaluated in order to get vascular features of vocal folds, such as the amount of vessels in the longitudinal and transverse form. During the last step, categorization of vocal folds was performed by a novel binary decision tree architecture, which evaluates features of the vocal fold edge shape and vascular structure. The performance of the proposed system was evaluated by using laryngeal images of 70 patients. Sensitivity of 86%, 94%, 80%, 73%, and 76% were obtained for healthy, polyp, nodule, laryngitis, and

  6. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  7. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Miyata

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1 whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2 whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition. The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  8. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  9. On how the brain decodes vocal cues about speaker confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2015-05-01

    In speech communication, listeners must accurately decode vocal cues that refer to the speaker's mental state, such as their confidence or 'feeling of knowing'. However, the time course and neural mechanisms associated with online inferences about speaker confidence are unclear. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal neural dynamics underlying a listener's ability to infer speaker confidence from vocal cues during speech processing. We recorded listeners' real-time brain responses while they evaluated statements wherein the speaker's tone of voice conveyed one of three levels of confidence (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident) or were spoken in a neutral manner. Neural responses time-locked to event onset show that the perceived level of speaker confidence could be differentiated at distinct time points during speech processing: unconfident expressions elicited a weaker P2 than all other expressions of confidence (or neutral-intending utterances), whereas close-to-confident expressions elicited a reduced negative response in the 330-500 msec and 550-740 msec time window. Neutral-intending expressions, which were also perceived as relatively confident, elicited a more delayed, larger sustained positivity than all other expressions in the 980-1270 msec window for this task. These findings provide the first piece of evidence of how quickly the brain responds to vocal cues signifying the extent of a speaker's confidence during online speech comprehension; first, a rough dissociation between unconfident and confident voices occurs as early as 200 msec after speech onset. At a later stage, further differentiation of the exact level of speaker confidence (i.e., close-to-confident, very confident) is evaluated via an inferential system to determine the speaker's meaning under current task settings. These findings extend three-stage models of how vocal emotion cues are processed in speech comprehension (e.g., Schirmer & Kotz, 2006) by

  10. Restructuring the vocal fold lamina propria with endoscopic microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S; Hoffman, Henry T; Dailey, Seth H; Bock, Jonathan M; Klemuk, Sarah A; Askeland, Ryan W; Ahlrichs-Hanson, Jan S; Heaford, Andrew C; Thibeault, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    The purposes of this preclinical study were to investigate histologic and rheologic outcomes of Microendoscopy of Reinke's space (MERS)-guided minithyrotomy and to assess its instrumentation. Human cadaveric and in vivo animal study. Three human cadaveric larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of Radiesse VoiceGel and immediately evaluated histologically for biomaterial location. In the second part of this investigation, two scarred porcine larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of HyStem-VF and rheologically evaluated 6 weeks later. Student t tests determined differences in viscoelastic properties of treated/untreated vocal folds. Sialendoscopes and microendoscopes were subjectively compared for their visualization capacity. MERS imaged the subepithelial area and vocal ligament, guiding both tissue dissection and biomaterial positioning. Sialendoscopes provided adequate visualization and feature incorporated working channels. Enhanced image clarity was created in a gas-filled rather than saline-filled environment, per rater judgment. Histological analysis revealed desirable biomaterial positioning with MERS. Per rheological analysis, viscoelastic properties of the MERS-treated porcine vocal folds compared to uninjured vocal folds 6 weeks following treatment did not statistically differ. MERS-guided laryngoplasty using sialendoscopes yielded satisfactory biomaterial positioning in the short-term and normalized rheologic tissue properties in the long-term, contributing to proof of concept for MERS in the treatment of scarring. Strengths of MERS include direct, real-time visualization of Reinke's space and an ability to manipulate surgical instruments parallel to the vocal fold edge while maintaining an intact epithelium. Future work will explore the clinical utility of MERS for addressing scarring, sulcus vocalis, and other intracordal processes. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Causes of Acquired Vocal Cord Palsy in Indian Scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Sebastian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord paresis or paralysis occurs due to lesion in the vagus nerve. Vocal cord paralysis can lead to dysphonia as well as dysphagia which lead the patient to frustration and emotional problems. The literature available on the etiology and the problems faced by them in Indian population is very scanty. Hence a prospective study was done on 41 Patients with vocal cord palsy who were referred to the Department of ENT for voice assessment and management from March 1st 2012 till 1st August 2012. The medical and surgical reports were examined. They were evaluated by an otorhinolaryngologist, and a Speech Language Pathologist. Diagnosis was made based on video stroboscopic findings. We also examined voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL outcomes in these patients. In this study, endo-tracheal intubation (15/41; 36.5% was the major cause of vocal cord palsy. The second major cause for vocal cord palsy in our study was surgical trauma (iatrogenic which constituted 26.8% (11/41, out of which thyroidectomy contributed to 81.81% (9/11 and cardiac surgery (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG contributed to 18.18% (2/11. Neurological problems caused 14.63% (6/41 of the total cases. Non-surgical trauma constituted 9.75% (4/41 of the total patients. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis was found as a complication of heart disease in 7.3%(3/41. Tuberculosis of lungs and cancer of lungs accounted to be the rarest causes. Hoarseness of voice was the most common symptom with associated dysphagia in a few. The voice related quality of life of these patients was found to be poor. They were found to have problems in the social-emotional domain and physical functioning domain.

  12. Deciphering spectral fingerprints of habitable exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Frank; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lammer, Helmut; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    We discuss how to read a planet's spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have advanced to a level where we now have the capability to find planets of less than 10 Earth masses (M(Earth)) (so-called "super Earths"), which may be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess whether they are habitable? This new field of exoplanet search has shown an extraordinary capacity to combine research in astrophysics, chemistry, biology, and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understanding our place in the Universe. The results of a first-generation mission will most likely generate an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution, and our planet into an overall context.

  13. Deciphering Spectral Fingerprints of Habitable Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L; Fridlund, M; Lammer, H; Beichman, Ch; Danchi, W; Eiroa, C; Henning, T; Herbst, T; Léger, A; Liseau, R; Lunine, J; Paresce, F; Penny, A; Quirrenbach, A; Roettgering, H; Schneider, J; Stam, D; Tinetti, G; White, G J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how we can read a planets spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 MEarth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? The new field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. The results of a first generation mission will most likely result in an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution as well as our planet in an overall context.

  14. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  15. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  16. Medición de la discapacidad vocal en los pacientes con nódulos vocales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Elhendi Halawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar el grado de discapacidad que suponen los nódulos vocales para los pacientes,presentamos los resultados de la valoración subjetiva (el índice de discapacidad vocal (V.H.I.-30adaptado al español y valoración de la sintomatología asociada a la disfonía en 97 pacientesdiagnosticados de nódulos vocales, encontrando un grado importante de discapacidad reflejado por unosvalores elevados del V.H.I.-30 (61,18, por sus tres subescalas (orgánica -26,48, funcional -21,75 yemocional -12,94 y por un importante grado de afectación por los síntomas asociados. Se comparannuestros resultados con los del grupo control de nuestro entorno y se estratifican los resultados según laprofesión de los pacientes. Concluimos que la presencia de nódulos vocales supone una discapacidadimportante a nivel de las actividades sociales y laborales del paciente y un impacto emocionalconsiderable.

  17. Effect on long-term average spectrum of pop singers' vocal warm-up with vocal function exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Angulo, Mabel; Muñoz, Daniel; Mayerhoff, Ross

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This case-control study aimed to investigate if there is any change on the spectral slope declination immediately after vocal function exercises (VFE) vs traditional vocal warm-up exercises in normal singers. Thirty-eight pop singers with perceptually normal voices were divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 18). One single session with VFE for the experimental group and traditional singing warm-up exercises for the control group was applied. Voice was recorded before and after the exercises. The recorded tasks were to read a phonetically balanced text and to sing a song. Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis included alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio, and singing power ratio (SPR). Acoustic parameters of voice samples pre- and post-training were compared. Comparison between VFE and control group was also performed. Significant changes after treatment included the alpha ratio and singing power ratio in speaking voice, and SPR in the singing voice for VFE group. The traditional vocal warm-up of the control group also showed pre-post changes. Significant differences between VFE group and control group for alpha ratio and SPR were found in speaking voice samples. This study demonstrates that VFE have an immediate effect on the spectrum of the voice, specifically a decrease on the spectral slope declination. The results of this study provide support for the advantageous effect of VFE as vocal warm-up on voice quality.

  18. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  19. Stishovite: Thermal Dependence of the Crystal Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, C B; Carrison, L C; Cocks, G G

    1964-05-15

    The crystal habit of stishovite changes with the temperature of crystallization at a pressure of about 120 kb. Below 600 degrees C it is bipyramidal; between 600 degrees and 900 degrees C it is granular; and above 900 degrees C it is acicular. This temperature dependence of the crystal habit of stishovite may constitute a highpressure geological thermometer which could indicate limiting values for the peak temperatures that prevailed at craters of meteoritic origin in highly siliceous rocks. It suggests that natural acicular stishovite from the rim sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona, crystallized at temperatures above 900 degrees C.

  20. The Five Habits of the Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph H. Pherson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Often analysts will observe that they do not have enough time to use Structured Analytic Techniques. When presented with this challenge by analysts in the UK Cabinet Office, the author came up with the following response: Develop these five habits when you have time so that when time is short you have developed a capacity to use them instinctively. This article describes the Five Habits of the Master Thinker in detail, reviews how they were selected, and explores how they can most easily be inculcated into how an analyst processes information.

  1. New electronic habit reminder for the management of thumb-sucking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for intervention of nonnutritive sucking habits include counseling, positive reinforcement, calendar with rewards, adhesive bandage, bitter nail polish, long sleeves, and appliance therapy. All these methods have been reported in the literature with variable success rates. We present a case of an 8-year-old child with thumb-sucking habit successfully managed in a short period of 5 months by a new electronic habit reminder, an extraoral appliance which was designed to overcome the disadvantages associated with intraoral appliances.

  2. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-01-01

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs. PMID:27721476

  3. Convergent evolution of vocal cooperation without convergent evolution of brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjon, Jeremy I; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2014-01-01

    One pragmatic underlying successful vocal communication is the ability to take turns. Taking turns - a form of cooperation - facilitates the transmission of signals by reducing the amount of their overlap. This allows vocalizations to be better heard. Until recently, non-human primates were not thought of as particularly cooperative, especially in the vocal domain. We recently demonstrated that common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate species, take turns when they exchange vocalizations with both related and unrelated conspecifics. As the common marmoset is distantly related to humans (and there is no documented evidence that Old World primates exhibit vocal turn taking), we argue that this ability arose as an instance of convergent evolution, and is part of a suite of prosocial behavioral tendencies. Such behaviors seem to be, at least in part, the outcome of the cooperative breeding strategy adopted by both humans and marmosets. Importantly, this suite of shared behaviors occurs without correspondence in encephalization. Marmoset vocal turn taking demonstrates that a large brain size and complex cognitive machinery is not needed for vocal cooperation to occur. Consistent with this idea, the temporal structure of marmoset vocal exchanges can be described in terms of coupled oscillator dynamics, similar to quantitative descriptions of human conversations. We propose a simple neural circuit mechanism that may account for these dynamics and, at its core, involves vocalization-induced reductions of arousal. Such a mechanism may underlie the evolution of vocal turn taking in both marmoset monkeys and humans. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  5. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-10-01

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.

  6. Dual-Energy Subtraction Imaging for Diagnosing Vocal Cord Paralysis with Flat Panel Detector Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yoda, Keiko; Arai, Yasuko [Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    To investigate the clinical feasibility of dual energy subtraction (DES) imaging to improve the delineation of the vocal cord and diagnostic accuracy of vocal cord paralysis as compared with the anterior-posterior view of flat panel detector (FPD) neck radiography. For 122 consecutive patients who underwent both a flexible laryngoscopy and conventional/DES FPD radiography, three blinded readers retrospectively graded the radiographs during phonation and inspiration on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) for the delineation of the vocal cord, and in consensus, reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of vocal cord paralysis employing the laryngoscopy as the reference. We compared vocal cord delineation scores and accuracy of vocal cord paralysis diagnosis by both conventional and DES techniques using ({kappa}statistics and assessing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Vocal cord delineation scores by DES (mean, 4.2 {+-} 0.4) were significantly higher than those by conventional imaging (mean, 3.3 {+-} 0.5) (p < 0.0001). Sensitivity for diagnosing vocal cord paralysis by the conventional technique was 25%, whereas the specificity was 94%. Sensitivity by DES was 75%, whereas the specificity was 96%. The diagnostic accuracy by DES was significantly superior (({kappa}= 0.60, AUC = 0.909) to that by conventional technique ({kappa}= 0.18, AUC = 0.852) (p = 0.038). Dual energy subtraction is a superior method compared to the conventional FPD radiography for delineating the vocal cord and accurately diagnosing vocal cord paralysis.

  7. Exploring the anatomical encoding of voice with a mathematical model of the vocal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaneo, M Florencia; Sitt, Jacobo; Varoquaux, Gael; Sigman, Mariano; Cohen, Laurent; Trevisan, Marcos A

    2016-11-01

    The faculty of language depends on the interplay between the production and perception of speech sounds. A relevant open question is whether the dimensions that organize voice perception in the brain are acoustical or depend on properties of the vocal system that produced it. One of the main empirical difficulties in answering this question is to generate sounds that vary along a continuum according to the anatomical properties the vocal apparatus that produced them. Here we use a mathematical model that offers the unique possibility of synthesizing vocal sounds by controlling a small set of anatomically based parameters. In a first stage the quality of the synthetic voice was evaluated. Using specific time traces for sub-glottal pressure and tension of the vocal folds, the synthetic voices generated perceptual responses, which are indistinguishable from those of real speech. The synthesizer was then used to investigate how the auditory cortex responds to the perception of voice depending on the anatomy of the vocal apparatus. Our fMRI results show that sounds are perceived as human vocalizations when produced by a vocal system that follows a simple relationship between the size of the vocal folds and the vocal tract. We found that these anatomical parameters encode the perceptual vocal identity (male, female, child) and show that the brain areas that respond to human speech also encode vocal identity. On the basis of these results, we propose that this low-dimensional model of the vocal system is capable of generating realistic voices and represents a novel tool to explore the voice perception with a precise control of the anatomical variables that generate speech. Furthermore, the model provides an explanation of how auditory cortices encode voices in terms of the anatomical parameters of the vocal system.

  8. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Louzada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax. The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP and jitter of period (JittP average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63% compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%. Conclusion: Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and

  9. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  10. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  11. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  12. Reading Habit Promotion in ASEAN Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkaeo, Somsong

    This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…

  13. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  14. Newspaper Readership Habits in the Black Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, R. Arnold

    This is a report of a survey conducted to determine newspaper readership habits of persons living within the circulation of the "Amsterdam News," a black weekly published in New York City. The survey was conducted with the purpose of increasing advertising revenues and assisting the management of the "Amsterdam News" with…

  15. Listening Habits of iPod Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…

  16. Habitable planets around the star Gl 581?

    CERN Document Server

    Selsis, Franck; Levrard, B; Paillet, J; Ribas, I; Delfosse, X

    2007-01-01

    Radial velocity surveys are now able to detect terrestrial planets at habitable distance from M-type stars. Recently, two planets with minimum masses below 10 Earth masses were reported in a triple system around the M-type star Gliese 581. Using results from atmospheric models and constraints from the evolution of Venus and Mars, we assess the habitability of planets Gl 581c and Gl 581d and we discuss the uncertainties affecting the habitable zone (HZ) boundaries determination. We provide simplified formulae to estimate the HZ limits that may be used to evaluate the astrobiological potential of terrestrial exoplanets that will hopefully be discovered in the near future. Planets Gl 581c and 'd' are near, but outside, what can be considered as the conservative HZ. Planet 'c' receives 30% more energy from its star than Venus from the Sun, with an increased radiative forcing caused by the spectral energy distribution of Gl 581. Its habitability cannot however be positively ruled out by theoretical models due to u...

  17. [Smoking habit among workers in Campania region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, U; Napolano, F; Boggia, B; Esposito, A; Lettieri, M; Nigro, E; Visciglio, L; Farinaro, E

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is still now the main avoidable cause of disease, disability and mortality in industrialized countries. This habit is still very common in workplaces, where anti-smoke efforts seem to be less incisive than among general populations. The study analyzed the diffusion of smoke habit in 8111 male workers in Campania region, employed in different work activities (white collars, blue collars, drivers, cleaning civil servants, porters), so as to evaluate work related features, affecting its assumption and maintenance. Among all workers, smokers prevalence (42.7%) was higher than national male population. Percentages of smokers were highest among drivers (60.7%) and civil servants (52.5%), slightly lower among industry workers (47.3%) and lower among white collars (36.4%). The highest prevalence were found in 41-50 years age group (46.8%), but only among white collars aging was associated with higher smokers prevalence. Lower education degrees and two working variables, shifts and handwork, have been related with significantly smoking habit assumption. Results emphasized that health promotional programs are necessary to reduce smoke habit among workers, particularly among professionally and culturally unqualified subgroups.

  18. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product...

  19. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  20. On the radius of habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Alibert, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The conditions that a planet must fulfill to be habitable are not precisely known. However, it is comparatively easier to define conditions under which a planet is very likely not habitable. Finding such conditions is important as it can help select, in an ensemble of potentially observable planets, which ones should be observed in greater detail for characterization studies. Assuming, as in the Earth, that the presence of a C-cycle is a necessary condition for long-term habitability, we derive, as a function of the planetary mass, a radius above which a planet is likely not habitable. We compute the maximum radius a planet can have to fulfill two constraints: surface conditions compatible with the existence of liquid water, and no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met. We compute internal structure models of planets, using a five-layer model (core, inner mantle, outer mantle, ocean, and atmosphere), for different mas...